The outlook report 2011-2019

The outlook report 2011-2019
the outlook
mistra future fashion final program report
The outlook report 2011-2019
                                                                 directors’ view............................................4
                                                                 our partners .............................................6
                                                                 this is mistra future fashion.........................8
                                                                 design for circularity..................................10
                                                                 textile fiber impact....................................12
                                                                 production impact.....................................14
                                                                 user........................................................ 16
                                                                 alternative business models....................... 18
                                                                 policy instruments.................................... 20
                                                                 end of life................................................ 22
                                                                 joint effort............................................... 24
                                                                 value to others......................................... 26
                                                                 publications............................................ 28
                                                                 program organization............................... 33
                                                                 testimonial chairman of the board.............. 34

the outlook report 2011-2019
mistra future fashion final program report
production and layout: Malin Viola Wennberg, Åsa Östlund
recommendation cards illustrations: Cina Rosén (cinarosenarts)

RISE Research Institute of Sweden AB
September 2019

Mistra Future Fashion report 2019:25
ISBN 978-91-89049-41-3

front cover image: mesh fabric, Unsplash

                                                                         mistra future fashion the outlook report 2011-2019        3
The outlook report 2011-2019
- directors’ view -                                                                                     - directors’ view -

    eight years of research
In your hands right now is an overview        the call text for our research program.      The program’s role has gradually grown         circula                    textile
and packaged recommendations                  Within the topics of our four research      and impact has been made globally,
stemming from 8 years of research             themes (design, supply chain, user          as can be viewed in this outlook.
aiming at a systemic change in
fashion. The Mistra Future Fashion
                                              and recycling) one can notice that the
                                              research areas have both evolved and
                                                                                          When we now leave this ‘child’, we see
                                                                                          a ‘teenager’ exploring various new                                        impact
Research Program has been delivering          become more defined, and that the           possibilities. And we do have high hopes
substantial amounts of research in the        industry has taken initiatives to reform    for this ‘teenager’, contributing strongly
written form of reports, conference           and change.                                 to the systemic change needed within
                                                                                                                                                                                                             Dr. Åsa Östlund
contributions, academic publications,                                                     the whole fashion industry and the
                                                                                                                                                                                                            Program Director
and doctoral theses, all available at our     There are similarities with program         fashion user.
website for reading. Additionally, the        coordination of vast cross disciplinary                                                       prod
team of researchers have contributed          research programs and raising a child,      Although the Mistra Future Fashion                     uctio
in, and arranged, conferences,                in the sense of watching something          Research Program as such is closed,
                                                                                                                                             impa      n
meetings, workshops, exhibitions as
well as participation in expert groups
                                              mature and grow. Imagine that we
                                              started the research program path
                                                                                          its researchers still continue to develop
                                                                                          new knowledge and insights for
and panels in various initiatives.            when receiving the research grant           future sustainable fashion. Maybe
Furthermore, we have developed new            from MISTRA in 2011, as a rather young      more importantly, we now also see
materials, tools and prototypes, and          ‘child’. (Not to be confused with the       an industry that has started to act
implemented new concepts together             maturity or capability of the individual    widely. Mistra Future Fashion research
with industry partners.                       researchers within the program, who         has shown that 80% of the climate
                                              on the other hand are very skilled and      impact from the average Swede’s use
                                              knowledgeable within their area of          of clothes comes from the production
‘to make our research
                                              expertise.) The “research program           line. To us, this gives many prospects
even more available                           toddler” learned how to speak, listen       for improvement such as; the                                                                                      Prof. Susann Sweet
                                                                                                                                                                                                            Research Manager
we have packaged the                          and to respect each other over research     direct increase of fossil-free energy
main conclusions into 8                       disciplines.                                solutions in the production line, but
                                                                                          also improved design for circularity,
recommendations cards’
                                              A few years later the program knew          new business models for extended
                                              how to create cross-disciplinary            lifetime of garments (i.e. borrowing
                                              research projects, and around 2015          and leasing), new accounting systems
In order to make all of our research          when phase 2 of the program started,        to increased traceability, and better
more visible and available we have            similarities with a school child could      policy instruments for supporting the
packaged the main conclusions                 be seen. The research program showed        development of a second-hand market.
into recommendations on how one               a new level of maturity, it could speak     To incorporate actions related to above,
can contribute towards a systemic             across disciplines, interact with various   we believe that the systemic change
change in fashion. These are posted as        stakeholders outside of the program,        is en route and that we together can
recommendations cards from different          and act more comfortably within the         improve the sustainability profile of

angles: design for circularity; textile       broader context of society and the wider    fashion lifestyle in the future.
fiber impact; production impact; user;        world.                                                                                                                                                       Malin Viola Wennberg

                                                                                                                                                                                                         Communications Manager
alternative business models; policy
                                                                                          Mistra Future Fashion
instruments; end of life; and joint effort.                                               Management Team
This is also the structure of this report.    ‘the program’s role has
                                              gradually grown and                         September 2019
So, how has the research matured and          impact has been made
did we achieve our vision ’towards a
systemic change in fashion’? The scope
of Sustainable Fashion has grown
rapidly since 2010 when Mistra defined
4                                                                                                                                                   mistra future fashion the outlook report 2011-2019                            5
The outlook report 2011-2019
- the consortium -                                                                                                          - the consortium -

                our partners                                                                                                                                 a consortium with partners who share the program vision and
                                                                                                                                                                                 actively contribute to the program goals

    research partners              involved in theme           researchers                output                     industry partnerships:

    BOKU                           Recycling                   Doris Ribitsch             Chemical engineering                                                                                                  Mistra Future Fashion was a consortium
                                                                                          Textile fibre recycling
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        based program built by partners
    Chalmers University of         Design                      Greg Peters                LCA                                                                                                                        who shared the vision and actively
    Technology                     Supply                      Anna Palme                 Chemistry                                                                                                               contributed to achieving the program
                                   Recycling                   Bahareh Zamani             Fiber prototypes

    Copenhagen Business            Design                      Wencke Gwodz               Consumer behaviour
    School                         Supply                      Esben R G Pedersen         Business models
                                                               Kirsti Reitan Andersen     Local production
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    The program covered a broad range
                                                               Kristian S Nielsen                                                                                                                                     of expertise and involved the most
                                                               Tina Joanes
    IVL, Swedish Environmental     User                                                                                                                                                                             established experts and progressive
                                                               Maria Elander              Policies
    Research Institute             Recycling                   Hanna Ljungkvist                                                                                                                                 leaders within their respective research
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      fields. The research was organized
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        around four themes and involved
    KTH, Royal Institute of        Recycling                   Per-Olof Syrén             Chemical engineering
    Technology                                                                            Textile fibre recycling                                                                                                     researcher partners from Sweden,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Denmark, Austria and the United
                                   Supply                      Björn Källman              Viscose pilot production
    More Research
                                   Recycling                   Hanna Rammsy

                                                                                                                                                                                                                   The industry partners involved were a
                                   Supply                      David Watson               Policies
    PlanMiljø                                                                             Business models                                                                                                       mix of relevant stakeholders from across
                                   User                        Anja Charlotte Gylling
                                                               Bjørn Bauer                                                                                                                                            the value chain such as producers,
                                   Recycling                   Christofer Lindgren        Chemical engineering                                                                                                      designers, retailers, waste managers
    re:newcell                                                 Henrik Norlin              Textile fibre recycling
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               and NGOs.
                                   Design                      Hanna de la Motte          Nonwoven biobased
    RISE                                                                                  materials
                                   Supply                      Gustav Sandin Albertsson                                                                                                                                The consortium had two levels of
                                   User                        Helena Wedin               Process analysis
                                   Recycling                   Finn Englund               Consumer perception                                                                                                         industry partnership; Stakeholder
                                                               Åsa Östlund                Cellulose                                                                                                                  partners, and Advisory Stakeholder
                                                               Hjalmar Granberg           Chemistry
                                                               Tatjana Karpenja           Fiber prototypes                                                                                                                                     partners.
                                                               Siv Lindberg               Recycling feasability
                                                               Sandra Roos                Auto sorting
                                                               Björn Spak                 Fiber benchmark
                                                                                          Microplastics                                                                                                          Stakeholder partners include in-depth
                                                               Zengwei Guo
                                                               Anna Rúna Kristinsdottir                                                                                                                              involvement in research tasks with
                                                               Christina Jönsson                                                                                                                                  inputs such as expertise, information-
                                                               Anne-Charlotte Hanning
                                                               Desiré Rex                                                                                                                                            sharing, resources, equipment and

    Stockholm School of            User                        Susanne Sweet              Market
    Economics                                                  Tina Sendlhofer            Supply chain strategy                                                                                                  Advisory Stakeholder partners actively
                                                                                          Business models                                                                                                          follow research progress and provide
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          input on shaping the agenda.
    Stockholm University           User                        Claudia Rademaker          Consumer behaviour
                                                                                          Business models

                                                                                                                     international network partnerships:
    International Institute for    User                        Naoko Tojo                 Policies
    Industrial Environmental       Supply                      Åke Thidell                Recommendations
    Economics at Lund University   Recycling

    The Swedish School of          Design                      Ellinor Niit               Design
    Textiles                       Recycling                                              Textile Technology
                                                               Kate Goldsworthy
    Centre for Circular Design     Design                      Rebecca Earley             Strategic design
                                                               Kay Politowicz             Prototypes
    at University of the Arts      Recycling
                                                               Clara Vuletich             Design Guidelines

6                                                                                                                                                          mistra future fashion the outlook report 2011-2019                                           7
The outlook report 2011-2019
- this is mistra future fashion -                                                                                                  - this is mistra future fashion -

research for sustainable                                                                                                         why
                                                                                                                                 The global fashion industry faces
                                                                                                                                 multiple challenges when meeting
                                                                                                                                                                             The issue is also about providing the
                                                                                                                                                                             high volumes required. A challenge that
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   New sustainable fibers in old production
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   processes challenges the output as

                                                                                                                                 modern requirements for sustainability,     will get worse with the continued global              sustainable products. The overarching
                                                                                                                                 traceability and transparency.              population growth. An annual volume                   issue that needs to be addressed is
                                                                                                                                 Today’s fashion industry means              of 100 million metric tons is estimated               the imbalance in efforts needed for
                                                                                                                                 severe environmental impacts from           to be needed by 2020 (Eichinger, 2012),               production vs usage. In general there is
                                                                                                                                 production, hazardous substances in         and very few nascent sustainable                      high environmental impact required
                                                                                                                                 garments, mass consumption and              alternatives can meet those demands.                  for a short user phase. Furthermore,
             a research program with a vision of enabling systemic change leading to a sustainable                               generation of large volumes of textile      However, new alternative fibers sources               modern consumption habits generate
                                         fashion industry and society                                                            waste. The majority of today’s fiber        is not enough since 80% of a garments                 massive textile overload in the market
                                                                                                                                 production is unsustainable, either         climate impact stems from the                         and ultimately also problems with
                                                                                                                                 as conventional cotton that requires        total production phase, such as fiber                 waste. This is result of the linear
                                                                                                                                 high amounts of pesticides and water        production, yarn production, weaving,                 economy model, where ‘take, make,
                                                                                                                                 in places where water is scarce, or         dyeing, finishing, sewing, surface                    waste’ represents a broken design right
                                                                                                                                 synthetic fibers such as polyester which    treatments, etc, due to its energy, water             from start.
                                                                                                                                 is made of our planet’s fossil resources.   and chemical usage.

                                                                                                                                                      vision: enabling a systemic
sustainable fashion                       consortium based                            platform for sustainable
The program focused on environmental      The program research rests on               fashion
and climate effects caused by global      engagement with its consortium:             The initiator and the primary funding

                                                                                                                                                   change of the fashion industry
fashion sector and the changes required   research institutes, universities,          organization was MISTRA, the
for future sustainable operations. The    government agencies, non-                   Swedish Foundation for Strategic
research applied the principles of        governmental organizations as well          Environmental Research, which

                                                                                                                                                                      and society
circular economy and was structured       as companies within the textile value       provided a SEK 80 million grant. An
around four themes – Design, Supply       chain; from forestry, pulping and textile   additional SEK 30 million is co-financed
Chain, User and Recycling.                manufacturing to fashion retail and         by in-kind contributions from industry
                                          recycling. The partners set the research    partners. The program had two four
                                          scope, participate in the research with     year phases with a total program period
unique system perspective
                                          intelligence, resources and materials,      of eight years, 2011-2019.
The program held a holistic system
                                          and agitate for implementation.
approach for the fashion value chain,
from fiber to recycling, and how it
needs to change in order to become        results leading to global
                                                                                                                                 A new model is required in order            We need textile fibers with lower                     We hope to see a future with recycled
more circular. The research was cross-    competitiveness                                          delivered results are         to utilize the resources in the most        environmental impact, but comparable                  fibers from textile waste, new
disciplinary, allowing comprehensive      Delivered results are scientific
                                                                                           scientific knowledge, novel           efficient and sustainable way, and to       in quality and price to existing, non-                sustainable production techniques
analyses and insights. New knowledge      knowledge and novel solutions that
                                                                                               solutions and concrete            minimize (hopefully eliminate) waste.       sustainable fibers. A circular model                  and new consumption habits leading
was verified in a holistic context,       enable positive change in the fashion
                                                                                                     recommendations             Policies are required that prompt           will involve more advanced design                     towards new services such as leasing,
ensuring sustainability also from a       sector in terms of its environmental
                                                                                                                                 the development of new market and           processes incorporating sustainability                re-design and borrowing, which will
system perspective.                       performance and its global
                                                                                                                                 business models allowing consumer           impact procedures right from the                      encourage flourishing new business
                                                                                                                                 behavior to be changed. With the aid of     design phase – procedures that are                    in re-use, collection, sorting and
                                                                                                                                 information flow and digital technology     based on intended usage and duration                  recycling. This will mean available
                                                                                                                                 developments, new consumer habits           of use, which ensure optimum usage                    alternatives and enable more
                                                                                                                                 and demands may appear, along with          via re-use and which enable separation                sustainable actions.
                                                                                                                                 advances in sustainable production          and the regeneration of new fibers at
                                                                                                                                 processes and techniques, which also        the point of disposal.
                                                                                                                                 assume less geographical dependence.

8                                                                                                                                                                             mistra future fashion the outlook report 2011-2019                                           9
The outlook report 2011-2019
- review of results-

                                                                                                                                                                                            circula or

                         design for
                                                                                              ’Eternal Trench Coat’ by
                                                                                              Filippa K
                                                                                                                                        Fast Forward Fashion ’Pulp-It’ by
                                                                                                                                     Kay Politowicz, Kate Goldsworthy &
                                                                                                                                                           Hjalmar Granberg

                         Consider that the decisions       various use cycles, moving        the fashion market with the         We may intend our clothes to                                                        read more:
                         made at the drawing board will    between owners in rental and      development of a new bio-           be ‘slow’ but for many reasons
                                                                                                                                                                                          Peters G et al. (2018) LCA on fast and
                         affect the entire lifecycle of    sharing contexts. The shirt       based nonwoven material.            they end up being ‘fast’, and
                                                                                                                                                                                       slow garment prototypes. Mistra Future
                         the garment. Always design for    becomes the lining of a jacket    Compared to a woven or knitted      vice versa. The prototypes                                                 Fashion report series
                         intended use and beyond.          and then it is crafted into       fabric, nonwoven material can       created in the project Circular
                                                           fashion accessories, before       eliminate costly processes and      Design Speeds, in collaboration                          Karpenja T et al. (2019) Paper-based
                         Calculating for all Swedish       being chemically regenerated in   impacts through a reduced           with Filippa K, is an example                           nonwoven textiles; material recycling
                                                                                                                                                                                            and industrial composting. Mistra
                         clothing consumption,             the year 2068.                    production phase. Whereas           of this paradox. The ’Eternal
                                                                                                                                                                                                  Future Fashion Report series
                         prolonging the active lifetime                                      the environmental impact of         Trench Coat’ was designed to
                         of a garment, the product         Another path explores how to      conventional clothes are mainly     be durable and for efficient                                 Roos S et al. (2019) Guidance for
                         longevity, by two will decrease   reduce production impacts         related to the number of uses,      recyclable at its eventual                                   fashion companies on design for
                         its climate impact by half.       and retaining the value of the    the impact of short-life clothes    end. The polyester used is                            recycling. Mistra Future Fashion Report
                         Therefore, we must consider       material after use. In other      made with textile-like paper        often associated with fast-                                                             series

                         different ways to enhance its     words, material longevity.        depends to a greater extent on      fashion but can be considered
                                                                                                                                                                                        Granberg H et al. (2018) Crimping and
                         value at the point when users     One possibility is to develop     the weight of the material.         slow due to its long lifetime.                           welding of textile-like papers. Mistra
                         may think of discarding it.       materials with lower impacts                                          Through effective recycling                                     Future Fashion Report series.
                                                           during production, and avoid      Although not ready for full-scale   this material can be fast in its
                         The ‘Service Shirt’ concept       the barriers to recycling faced   production yet, in the future       recovery. The result is a durable                        Goldsworthy K et al. (2019) Circular
                                                                                                                                                                                         Design Speeds. Mistra Future Fashion
                         was developed by R. Earley in     by conventional garments.         we might make clothing for          product with an easy route to
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Report series
                         2018. The garment is designed                                       paper recycling or composting.      new material after a long life.
                         as a deliberate extreme to        The ‘Fast Forward Fashion’        Different finishing treatments      This product made it to full                             Earley R et al. (2019) Circular Design
                         have a total life length of 50    concept, developed by K.          is a key factor improving           commercialisation as well as                          Researchers in Residence. Mistra Future
‘the service shirt’ by   years. The garment lifecycle      Goldsworthy, K. Politowicz        performance, user acceptance        the permanent collection of the                                           Fashion Report series
Rebecca Earley           includes inhouse and external     and H. Granberg, explore how      and even ease of recycling and      V&A museum in London.
                         re-manufacturing processes,       to tackle the faster end of       industrial composting.

10                                                                                                                                mistra future fashion the outlook report 2011-2019                                           11
The outlook report 2011-2019
- review of results-

                                                                                                                                                                                                       wool (12)
                                                                                                           30                                                                                          cotton (51)                  fiber
                                                                                                                                                                                                       viscose (13)               impact
                                                                                                                                                                                                       lyocell (3)

                                                                              climate change (kg CO2-eq)
                                                                                                            10                                                                                         PET
                                                                                                                                                                                                       granulate (10)
                                                                                                            0                                                                                          fibre (5)
                                                                                                                                                                                                       PET granulate
                                                                                                                                                                                                       biobased (3)
                                                                                                           -10                                                                                         PET granulate
                                                                                                                                                                                                       recycled (6)

     textile fiber
                                                                                                           -20                                                                                         granulate (4)
                                                                                                                                                                                                       granulate (1)

                                                                                                             figure 1, climate impact comparison of fiber types and the standard deviation between
                                                                                                             different textile fiber producers

     The common separation into         the resources used during the                                            Consider that textile fiber                   or partly of cotton, water                                                             read more:
     “good” and “bad” fibers, based     entire life cycle. If the factories                                      production also relies on energy              consumed in the irrigation
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Sandin G et al. (2019) Environmental
     on generic classifications of      completing the spinning,                                                 and materials, other than                     of cotton cultivation is a
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                assessment of Swedish clothing
     fiber types, is too simplified.    weaving, color and sewing part                                           the raw material. Secondary                   clear hotspot with room for                              consumption: Six garments – sustainable
     A much more nuanced view is        is run on fossil fuel the impact                                         flows, including production                   improvement. The dominance                                  futures. Mistra Future Fashion report
     needed in which the separation     from these processes is larger                                           of heat, electricity, fertilizers,            of water consumed in cotton                                                                 series
     rather is done between             than the impact from the textile                                         pesticides, chemicals, catalysts,             cultivation is striking, totaling
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Sandin G et al.(2019) Environmental
     producers with or without          fiber alone.                                                             and others often have a higher                about 87% of the impact.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                         impact of textile fibres – what we know
     appropriate environmental                                                                                   impact on a mass basis than                   Therefore, reducing the use of                           and what we don’t know. The fiber bible
     management, and poor or            The differences between site                                             the raw materials used as fiber               cotton fiber in textile products                           part two. Mistra Future Fashion report
     better uses of the fiber. This     specific suppliers of textile                                            feedstock. In a future scenario,              is one possible solution, either                                                             series
     measurement must account for       fibers are often greater than                                            the care label in our clothes                 by mixing it with other cellulose
     the environmental performance      differences between fiber types.                                         will specify energy use, water                fibers (eg produced from forest,                           Rex D et al. (2019) Possible sustainable
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        fibers on the market and their technical
     throughout the entire life cycle   For example, the difference in                                           scarcity and toxicity in addition             such as lyocell, modal and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             properties. The fiber bible part one.
     of the final textile product.      climate impact between the                                               to fiber content to give a                    viscose) or replacement with                                   Mistra Future Fashion report series
                                        best and worse cotton fiber                                              complete picture.                             polyester fiber.
     In other words, a t-shirt made     is greater than the average                                                                                                                                                              Roos S et al. (2019) Supply chain
     from organic cotton or recycled    difference in climate impact                                             At present, cotton is the most                In choosing the textile fiber,                            guidelines: vision and ecodesign action
                                                                                                                                                                                                                         list. Mistra Future Fashion report series
     material does not automatically    between cotton and viscose,                                              commonly used fiber in Sweden.                set the fibers’ life cycle
     become a more sustainable          see figure 1. Implementing best                                          However, cotton is also one                   performance at center stage,
     t-shirt compared to a fossil       use practices throughout the                                             of the most damaging textile                  including their fit-for-purpose
     based textile product. Organic     production chain is right now a                                          fibers in terms of water scarcity             and effects on subsequent
     farming is a good start, but       more pressing issue than fiber                                           and environmental impact.                     production, user behavior and
     one must also calculate for        content.                                                                 For garments consisting fully                 end-of-life options.

12                                                                                                                                                              mistra future fashion the outlook report 2011-2019                                              13
The outlook report 2011-2019
- review of results-

                                                                                                                  2.9% 2.8%
                                                                                                     use phase laundry end of life
                                                                                                    10.8%                                                                                    impac
                                                                                       use phase transport                                                                                          t
                                                                                                 3.1%                                               16.3%
                                                                               distribution and retail                                              fiber

                                                                            transport in production                                                              10.4%
                                                                                                               cut & sew

                                                                                                                             wet treatment

                                                                                       figure 2, climate impact per phase in entire life cycle, calculated for all Swedish clothing consumption

     At present, 80% of a garment’s    One way to reduce the impact              The risk of microplastics                    instead of regular scissors when                                                     read more:
     climate impact stems from         of wet treatments is to                   shedding from garments                       cutting the fabric reduces the
                                                                                                                                                                                        Sandin G et al. (2019) Environmental
     the production phase, see         completely avoid wet dyeing by            during production and use                    shedding with about 50%.
                                                                                                                                                                                             assessment of Swedish clothing
     figure 2. Furthermore, 92%        adding color pigments already             is minimized if: brushing is                                                                        consumption: Six garments – sustainable
     of the toxicity impact stems      when the fiber is manufactured,           reduced, ultrasound cutting is               Consider the fact that 7 kg                               futures. Mistra Future Fashion report
     from the production phase.        so called dope dyeing, spin               applied in the cut & sew process             petrol is needed to produce one                                                           series
     In other words, most of the       dyeing or solution dyeing.                and microparticles on fabrics                kg cotton t-shirts. This means
                                                                                                                                                                                            Roos S et al. (2017) Microplastics
     impact happens before             All fibers that are extruded              are removed already at the                   that replacing fossil energy in
                                                                                                                                                                                      shedding from polyester fabrics. Mistra
     the garment hit the store.        (ie man-made fibers such as               production stage.                            the production chain is seven                                      Future Fashion report series
     Therefore, implementing best      polyester, nylon, viscose, etc.)                                                       times more important than
     possible practice is crucial in   can be manufactured this way.             There is no support for the                  replacing fossil textile fibers.                               Roos S et al. (2019) Supply chain
     the production chain, and the     Such dry dyeing technique is              assumption that fabrics made                 From a science perspective,                             guidelines: vision and ecodesign action
     garments already produced         already available on the market,          from recycled polymers shed                  it seems irrational to worry                                   list. Mistra Future Fashion report

     must stay in use longer.          which means that a reduction              more than fabrics made of                    about 100g fossil content in
                                                                                                                                                                                           Roos S (2016) Advancing life cycle
                                       in climate impact is a possibility        virgin polymers. It might instead            a polyester t-shirt, but not                                    assessment of textile products
     Out of all steps during           by choice.                                be assumed that the concern                  consider the 1000g fossil fuels                                   to include textile chemicals.
     production the wet treatment                                                of fleece material from recycled             needed to produce a cotton                                  Inventory data and toxicity impact
     processes have the largest        A reduction of water usage in             polyester, thought of as a main              t-shirt                                                           assessment. Doctoral thesis.
                                                                                                                                                                                           Chalmers University of Technology
     climate impact, see figure        the textile preparation phase             cause to the microplastics
     2. This is due to the large       has several positive effects:             problem, is explained by the                 Most positive impact within the
     amount of energy required to      reduction in energy use, water            fact that fleece is a material               production line can be done by
     heat the process water, which     use and reduced amounts of                traditionally made from                      switching to renewable energy,
     often stems from fossil energy    contaminated wastewater from              recycled polyester bottles. Using            for both electricity and heat in
     sources.                          the process.                              an ultrasonic cutting machine                the production process.

14                                                                                                                              mistra future fashion the outlook report 2011-2019                                           15
The outlook report 2011-2019
- review of results-

                                                                           individual goal setting,
                                                                          feedback, commitment

                                                                              group goal setting,
                                                                          feedback, commitment

                                                                                 information only

                                                                                    control group                8%

                                                                                       figure 3, positive response towards more sustainable consumer behavior in regards of textile

     The carbon footprint of Swedish   to be used only once or a               terms of behavior. Comparing                   Consider that user transport to                                                         read more:
     clothing consumption is about     few times, such as special-             towards a group of users being                 and from the store accounts for
                                                                                                                                                                                               Gwozdz W, Nielsen KS (2017) Field
     330 kg CO2 eq. per person.        occasion wear. Calculate for            exposed to only information                    11% of a garment’s total climate
                                                                                                                                                                                              report - Consumer Survey. A Mistra
     Although this is only 3% of the   intended numbers of use before          about the impact of their                      impact. Today, walking or taking                                            Future Fashion Report.
     total carbon footprint of an      purchasing newly produced.              consumer behavior, which                       the bike to a local second-hand
     average Swede, the climate        Always consider how to discard          gave 10% positive response,                    store or to a clothing library is                                 Joanes T, Gwozdz W (2019) Think
     impact of clothing needs to be    of the product once it has              the combination of presented                   the least harmful choice when                                    Twice – a social marketing toolbox
                                                                                                                                                                                                for reduced consumption. Mistra
     reduced to basically zero in a    served its purpose.                     actions gave 60% positive                      updating your wardrobe.
                                                                                                                                                                                                     Future Fashion Report series
     sustainable future.                                                       response, see figure 3.
                                       At present, there is a
                                                                                                                                                                                                  Joanes T et al. (2019) Fostering
     The easiest way to reduce         discrepancy between attitude            Even though setting group goals
                                                                                                                                                                                                   sustainable clothing via social
     impact from clothing              and action. A majority of users         shows more potential than                                                                                           marketing tools. Mistra Future
     consumption is to extend the      express an intent to act and            merely information, focusing                                                                                                Fashion Report series
     active lifetime of a garment      consume in a more sustainable           on the individual gives a greater
     and thereby offsetting new        manner, but this intention is           response. For example, a tool                                                                                   Sandin, et al. 2019. Environmental
     production. Hence, the most       not reflected in their actual           used to measure impact must                                                                                       assessment of Swedish clothing
     sustainable garment of today is   behavior.                               be able to calculate for the                                                                                         consumption: Six garments –
                                                                                                                                                                                              sustainable futures. Mistra Future
     already in our wardrobes.                                                 individuals’ impact as oppose
                                                                                                                                                                                                             Fashion report series
                                       In order to change user behavior        to for example the impact
     Consider buying second hand,      a combination of information,           from all citizen of a country.                                                                             Nielsen KS, Gwozdz W (2018) Report on
     renting or borrowing when         individual goal setting,                Furthermore, this tool should be                                                                            geographic differences in acceptance
     updating your wardrobe. To        feedback and commitment                 able to suggest improvements                                                                                of alternative business models. Mistra
     rent or borrow is particularly    has the greatest potential to           tailored to the individual in                                                                                         Future Fashion report series.

     important for clothing expected   reach a positive change in              question.

16                                                                                                                             mistra future fashion the outlook report 2011-2019                                               17
- review of results-

                                                                                                                                                                                                    busine e
                                                                               60                                                    -42%
                                                                                                   -49%                                                                 -48%


     alternative                                                               20

                                                                                         climate impact
                                                                                         Climate impact                     energyuse
                                                                                                                           Energy  use               waterscarcity
                                                                                                                                                     Water scarcityimpact

                                                                                     current scenario               long-life scenario (each garment used twice as long)
                                                                                     Current scenario           Long-life scenario (each garment used twice as long)

     models                                                                     figure 4, impact reduction from long life scenario

     Twice as many uses per garment       Instead, there is opportunity to             to generate higher turnover.                    Collective use through renting,                                                     read more:
     life-cycle eliminated almost         derive value from incorporating              However, such business                          leasing and clothing swaps
                                                                                                                                                                                                 Sandin G, et al. 2019. Environmental
     50% of impact, regardless of         aspects of extending active life             models requires qualified                       has the ability to reach several
                                                                                                                                                                                                     assessment of Swedish clothing
     impact category, see figure 4.       of apparel in business models,               sorting to generate a desirable                 user segments, both the more                          consumption: Six garments – sustainable
     In order to make this a reality      either through the same or                   assortment, which makes this                    trend sensitive and the more                             futures. Mistra Future Fashion report
     we need business deriving            consecutive users.                           model demanding with regards                    style oriented consumers who                                                             series
     value from already produced                                                       to human capital.                               favor longevity. Since there is
                                                                                                                                                                                                      Zamani B et al. (2017) Life cycle
     garments, for example pre-           On an average, females and                                                                   no strong correlation between
                                                                                                                                                                                                 assessment of clothing libraries: can
     owned/second-hand apparel.           younger consumers are more                   Collective use, for example                     fashion, materialism and                                collaborative consumption reduce the
     New alternative business             likely to report having both used            through rental, is another                      subjective-wellbeing user does                          environmental impact of fast fashion?
     models within reuse, resale, rent    and intend to use alternative                business model with potential                   not need to own garments                              Journal of Cleaner Production, 162: 1368-
     and repair is urgently needed.       business models when acquiring               to prolong the active lifetime                  in order to feel the rush of                                                               1375.
                                          new clothing. At preent,                     of clothing. Nonetheless, from                  acquiring new. This means that
                                                                                                                                                                                                    Sweet S et al. (2019). The Swedish
     Previously, collection and           reselling clothes online and                 a climate impact perspective,                   the user could follow the latest
                                                                                                                                                                                                market for pre-owned apparel and its
     sales of pre-owned/second-           traditional repair services are              it is important to consider the                 trends, be ‘fashionable’, by                               role in moving the fashion industry
     hand apparel and textiles            the most popular businesses                  logistics to avoid merely shifting              using clothing libraries and still                        towards more sustainable practices.
     in Sweden has mainly been            used to prolong the active                   the impact origin. Increased                    experience subjective-wellbeing                             Mistra Future Fashion report series
     voluntarily conducted by charity     lifetime of clothes. Furthermore,            customer transportation can
                                                                                                                                                                                                      Watson D et al. (2019). Policies
     organizations due to expected        selling pre-owned/second-                    offset the benefits gained from                 To further accelerate the
                                                                                                                                                                                                 supporting reuse, collective use and
     lack of profit. However, recent      hand clothes using a ’first buy              reduced production. Therefore,                  change, users and companies                              prolonged life-time of textiles. Mistra
     research states that resale of       experience’ setting is a business            the location of clothing libraries              need to act as co-producers,                                      Future Fashion report series
     garments does not necessarily        model with growth potential.                 is crucial, and collaborative                   both need to contribute in
     equal a reduced profit or            By replicating traditional selling           consumption may not be                          changing the market.                                          Gwozdz W, Nielsen KS (2017) The
     turnover for the textile industry.   models, actors have managed                  suitable for all kinds of clothing.                                                                    relationship between fashion and style
                                                                                                                                                                                                   orientation and well-being. Mistra
                                                                                                                                                                                                         Future Fashion Report series

18                                                                                                                                      mistra future fashion the outlook report 2011-2019                                           19
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                                                                                                    10%               mixed waste for
                                                                                      ‘cream’ for resuse              incineration/landfill
                                                                                               in Europe                             3%
                                                                                                                                     paper, plastic for recycling                           policy
                                                                                                                                                        for mechanical

                                                                                                                                                             for industrial
                                                                                              next best quality
                                                                                           for reuse in Europe,
                                                                                            Africa, Middle East

     policy                                                                                                                                        15%
                                                                                                                                                   lowest quality for
                                                                                                                                                   reuse in Asia

     instruments                                                              figure 5. typical composition of collected textiles in Sweden, measured by weight.

     A low level of utilization of        On an EU-level, the Circular        for second hand textiles                       money. Brands claim that                                                            read more:
     textiles and ineffective handling    Economy Package was                 are changing due to higher                     recycled content fabrics
     of textile wastes accentuates        adopted in 2018 stating that        quality requirements and                       currently cost around 5-15                                     Elander M et al. (2017) Impact
     the depletion of resources in the    all member states must collect      increasing competition with                    percent more than the                                 assessment of policies promoting fiber-
                                                                                                                                                                                       to-fiber recycling of textiles. Mistra
     value chain. Policy tools, such      textiles separately by 2025.        low-price new garments. The                    equivalent fabric from virgin
                                                                                                                                                                                               Future Fashion report series
     as labeling, wage subsidies, tax     In addition, member states          ideal scenario would be that                   fibers, dependent on the fiber
     breaks, start-up funding and         must consider by 2024 whether       the increasing share of non-                   type. Thus, the modulated EPR                         Ljungkvist H et al. (2018) Developments
     knowledge hubs are needed to         specific targets should be          reusable textile begins to raise               fee would need to be larger                            in global markets for used textiles and
     enable the change to a circular      introduced in regard to reuse       real income for the collection                 than this in order to provide an                         implications for reuse and recycling.
                                                                                                                                                                                        Mistra Future Fashion report series
     system where textile is classified   and recycling. The Swedish          and processing industry and not                incentive and have an impact
     as a highly valuable resource.       Environmental Protection            be the economic dead-weight                    on the market share of products                          Ljungqvist H et al. (2019) Key Aspects
                                          Agency has suggested that by        it is today. This requires both                with recycled content.                                   for Introducing an Extended Producer
     At present, the most common          2025, the volume of textiles in     technological advancements                                                                               Responsibility for Textiles in Sweden.
     waste management treatment           the household waste shall be        and development in new sorting                 A immediate need for collectors                             Mistra Future Fashion Report series
     for used textiles in Sweden          reduced by 65% compared to          and recycling technologies and                 and sorters is regulatory actions
                                                                                                                                                                                   Roos S et al. (2019) Guidance for fashion
     is incineration with energy          2015.                               increased demand for recycled                  to reduce the administrative
                                                                                                                                                                                         companies on design for recycling.
     recovery. It is proved that a                                            fibers from the fashion industry               burdens related to collection,                             Mistra Future Fashion Report series
     mandatory Extended Producer          The global quality of collected     in particular.                                 storage and shipment of textile
     Responsibility (EPR) and a           used textiles is reported to                                                       waste. Today, countries and                                     Watson D et al. (2019) Policies
     Refunded Virgin Payments             be decreasing and could be          However, for use of recycled                   regions have very different                               supporting reuse, collective use and
                                                                                                                                                                                      prolonged life-time of textiles. Mistra
     system, i.e. a charge on virgin      further affected by increasing      materials, while the Global                    requirements and regulations,
                                                                                                                                                                                               Future Fashion report series
     material, could have large           collection rates with lower         Recycle Standard fees are                      which is challenging for
     positive impacts on fiber            shares of high value materials,     relatively low, switching to                   all industry actors. Hence,
     recycling as well as overall reuse   so called ‘cream’ (see figure 5).   recycled content fabrics will                  synchronization is needed, both
     and recycling of textiles.           In addition, current markets        generally cost the producer                    across Europe and globally.

20                                                                                                                            mistra future fashion the outlook report 2011-2019                                           21
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                                                                                                                                                                                       end of





     end of life                                                                                                                                  figure 6, EU waste hierarchy

     Consider that recycling, both       Use mono-materials to ease         Greater transparency is needed        end-of-life option; including
                                                                                                                                                                                                         read more:
     chemical and mechanical,            the chemical recycling process.    in a circular textile value chain,    both repair, reuse, resale and
     should be the last step after the   Currently, textile recycling       where tagging could be a              recycling.                                                            Sandin G, Peters G (2018)
     point when reuse, repair and        processes must handle a            solution. Universally accepted                                                                  Environmental impact of textile reuse
     resale are no longer feasible.      plethora of different fibers       tags could be of great value          To establish circular and                                    and recycling – A review. Journal of
                                                                                                                                                                                           Cleaner Production 184
     The five-step waste hierarchy,      and chemicals, such as dyes,       not only in the end of life           resource efficient material
     see figure 6, introduced by         additives, finishing etc., as      stage, but throughout the             streams, an interdisciplinary                             Englund F et al. (2017). Textile tagging
     the European Union (Directive       well as degraded fiber qualities   entire life cycle. Apart from         joint effort is needed.                                       to enable automated sorting and
     2008/98/EC), clarifies waste        caused by the use phase. In        accessible information about          Coordinated tools to overcome                              beyond. Mistra Future Fashion report
     prevention, as the preferred        chemical recycling, it is likely   the exact fiber composition,          the current “chicken-or-egg”                                                                 series
     option, followed by reuse,          that fiber blends must be          needed in a sorting line, it could    situation, with the difficulty
                                                                                                                                                                              Peters G et al. (2019) Environmental
     recycling, recovery (including      separated to recycle and restore   also contain data about the           of sequencing actions where
                                                                                                                                                                           Prospects for Mixed Textile Recycling in
     energy recovery) and safe           each fiber type into valuable      designer, care-instructions and       each seems to depend on others                            Sweden, ACS Sustainable Chemistry &
     disposal as a last option.          recycled fibers.                   previous owners for added value       being done first, is needed. An                                  Engineering 7 (13), 11682-11690
                                                                            in future resale.                     example is the lack of pure and
     When recycling is motivated,        To minimize the costs of                                                 large waste streams to motivate                               de la Motte H, Palme A (2018) The
                                                                                                                                                                               development of the Blend Re:wind
     it is crucial to avoid pitfalls     recycling processes, both          Large-scale automated sorting         upscaling of specific recycling
                                                                                                                                                                             process. Mistra Future Fashion report
     like ineffective logistics or       environmental and economical,      of textiles, using a mixture of       processes, and the simultaneous                                                            series
     processes. It is important that     it is important to implement       different analyzing methods           lack of large scale recycling
     the environmental load from         end-of-life knowledge already      such as tagging (RFID),               processes that motivates                                Roos S et al. (2019) Guidance for fashion
     the recycled product is less than   at the design stage. Decide        spectroscopic sorting (NIR)           improved sorting facilities. A                                companies on design for recycling.
                                                                            and ocular manual sorting,            systemic view is crucial.                                     Mistra Future Fashion report series
     for the virgin product that is      from the start how the product
     replaced. Recycled materials        should be used, for how long       will likely be essential to sort
     should not simply be added to       it should be used and how it       streams accurately into the
     a growing market but replace        should be recycled when time       most suitable and sustainable
     virgin materials.                   comes.

22                                                                                                                 mistra future fashion the outlook report 2011-2019                                              23
- review of results-

                                                                                                                 3 500 000

                                                                                                                 3 000 000

                                                                                                                 2 500 000                                                                                                          joint

                                                                              carbon footprint (tonnes CO2 eq)
                                                                                                                 2 000 000

                                                                                                                 1 500 000

                                                                                                                 1 000 000

                                                                                                                  500 000                                                                              -78%


     joint effort
                                                                                                                                current            2X life time         2X life time +              2X life time +
                                                                                                                               situation                               solar-powered              solar-powered +
                                                                                                                                                                                                   biking to store
                                                                                                                             figure 7, climate impact reduction from combining efforts

     In order to reach a systemic       its entire life, is one way of                                           arising from the production,                     more sustainable fashion                                                           read more:
     change in fashion, both in         concertizing garment impact.                                             transportation and laundering                    system will happen. Within
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Roos S et al. (2019) Guidance for fashion
     terms of industry and society,     A Life Cycle Assessment relies                                           of clothes.                                      the Mistra Future Fashion                                  companies on design for recycling.
     a joint effort is needed.          on data from all stakeholders                                                                                             program researchers from                                   Mistra Future Fashion report series
     Bringing experts from different    throughout the complete life-                                            Lowering the carbon                              several different disciplines have
     disciplines together takes a lot   cycle, from crop cultivation,                                            footprint of Swedish clothing                    worked together to measure,                                   Roos S et al. (2019) Supply chain
     of effort from all participants,   production, user behavior                                                consumption is possible by                       concertizes and improve. In                           guidelines: vision and ecodesign action
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        list. Mistra Future Fashion report series
     but gives back the more            and disposal, this is why                                                combining effort from both user                  addition, the results have
     complete picture. Nevertheless,    collaboration between research                                           and producers, globally. If we                   been implemented and tested                             Sandin G et al. (2019) Environmental
     between academics, scientists      disciplines and society is crucial.                                      can prolong the active lifetime                  together with industry partners                              assessment of Swedish clothing
     and industry stakeholders co-                                                                               of a garment by 2, make sure                     and societal actors. It is not an                    consumption: Six garments – sustainable
     creation can be possible and       The total climate impact of                                              the garment is created in a                      easy task, but the reward of                            futures. Mistra Future Fashion report
     highly beneficial after building   Swedish clothing consumption                                                                                                                                                                                      series
                                                                                                                 production chain running on                      doing so is great.
     trust, shared goals and deeper     is about 3.3 million tonnes of                                           solar-power and make sure the                                                                             Goldsworthy K et al. (2019) Circular
     understanding, along with          CO2 eq. per year, which is 327                                           user walk or take the bike when                                                                          Design Speeds. Mistra Future Fashion
     common tools.                      kg CO2 eq. per capita or about                                           acquiring new clothes, the total                 A systemic change is                                                            Report series
                                        3% of the consumption-based                                              decrees in climate impact will
                                                                                                                                                                  needed. It is possible, but                              Earley R et al. (2019) Circular Design
     In order to know where to start    carbon footprint of an average                                           be 78%. See figure 7.
     the work, one must measure the     Swede. This might seem low, but
                                                                                                                                                                  it will take collaboration                            Researchers in Residence. Mistra Future

     present state of the industry.     as the 2-degree goal stipulates                                          No single actor can change                       and a coordinated joint                                                   Fashion Report series

     Measuring ‘sustainability’ is      that climate impact must be                                              the industry and society alone.                  effort to make it happen.
     a complex task. Life Cycle         close to zero by mid-century,                                            However, by implementing
     Assessments, the total impact      there will be little or no room for                                      research results and improve
     of a garment throughout            any greenhouse gas emissions                                             collaboration a better and

24                                                                                                                                                                mistra future fashion the outlook report 2011-2019                                           25
- review of program -                                                                                                                             - review of program -

                           value to others
moving research forward
Enabling new knowledge to be leveraged and utilized has been the key focus of the Mistra Future Fashion program, i.e. bringing ‘Value
to Others’. It is about making sure the research conducted also gets implemented, whenever and wherever relevant.

international networks                        Higg Materials                                 TEDx talks                                           “As the leader of a foundation focused on making fashion a force for good, I have been
Engaging in international networks aims       Sustainability Index                           In July 2018 Leslie Johnston, Executive            both informed and inspired by the thoughtful reports produced by Mistra Future Fashion.
to enable further use of the research         Developed by the Sustainable Apparel           Director at C&A Foundation gave a                        They have brought data, insights, and clarity to the many, diverse actors working to
results. In March 2017 Mistra Future          Coalition, the Higg Index is a suite of        TEDx talk titled “Why recycling our             positively transform the fashion system. Thank you, Mistra Future Fashion, for your valuable
Fashion was Affiliate Partner during the      tools that enables brands, retailers,          clothes won’t save the world” where                                                                              contributions to this field.”
birth of the innovation hub ‘Fashion          and facilities of all sizes to accurately      she used the MFF report ‘Developments
for Good’ in Amsterdam. In May 2017,          measure and score a company or                 in global markets for used textiles and                                                                                                 - Leslie Johnston
Mistra Future Fashion became Affiliated       product’s sustainability performance. In       implications for reuse and recycling’                                                                                                  Executive Director
Partner and a research science partner        2020, toxicity data from MFF researcher        in highlighting what actually happens                                                                                                    C&A Foundation
to Ellen MacArthur Foundation’s textile       Dr. Sandra Roos is planned to be               to the clothes we no longer use. At
initiative ‘Circular Fibres Initiative’,      implemented into the Higg Materials            present, most clothes will not be reused
where several researchers contributed         Sustainability Index (Higg MSI) to             or recycled, therefore we are in need of
with data and knowledge input for the         calculate a quantitative chemical              harmonized global actions in reducing
report ‘A textile Economy - Redesigning       toxicity score for each material used in       textile waste and making sure we
Fashion’s future’.                            clothing production.                           actually can recycle what is collected.
                                                                                             Furthermore, in May 2019 Mistra Future
                                                                                             Fashions’ Communications Manager,
exhibition ‘Fashioned                         the UNFCCC Fashion                             Malin Viola Wennberg, gave a TEDx talk
from Nature’                                  Industry Charter                               titeled “A future sustainable fashion
Fashioned from Nature is an exhibition        for Climate Action                             system” based on 8 years of research
that explores the relationship between        In early 2018 the first global discussion
                                                                                             from within the program.
fashion and nature from 17th to 21st          on climate action within the fashion
century. On display is a prototype top        sector was held at the UN Climate
and samples of papper-like textile            Change secretariat (UNFCCC) in                 Blend Re:wind
developed by researchers at University        Bonn. Mistra Future Fashions program           After six years of research within
of The Arts London and RISE within            director 2015-2018 Sigrid Barnekow             textile recycling MFF revealed unique                                                       “Chemistry is one of the impacts the Higg Product Tools measure, but currently the tools only
the MFF program. The exhibition has           was invited to act as moderator of the         results in November of 2017. New                                                            offer a qualitative approach based on management practices to assess potential chemical
so far been shown at Victoria and             discussions next to Patricia Espinosa,         viscose filaments from cotton was                                                           impacts in products. The Sustainable Apparel Coalition has wanted to add a quantitative
Albert Museum in London and at the            UNFCCC Executive Secretary and Niclas          demonstrated, produced by a successful                                                      method as soon as a reliable approach became available. SAC is now happy to be working
Natural History Museum of Denmark in          Svenningsen, Manager for Strategy              chemical recycling process of polyester/                                                    with RISE IVF to implement the Mistra Future Fashion method, which has been accepted by
Copenhagen.                                   & Relationship unit at UNFCCC.                 cotton fiber blends. These results                                                          SAC members as a promising method for quantitative chemistry assessment. The purpose of
                                              During the 2018 Textile Sustainability         are an important milestone towards                                                          the project is to complete chemical datasets in the Higg Product Tools by adding chemical
                                              Conference in Milan, the UNFCCC                the future of global textile recycling                                                      recipe and USEtox factors to generate a quantitative impact assessment in order to show
feeding in to Textile and                     ‘Fashion Industry Charter for Climate          systems necessary to enable circularity                                                     the comparative significance of textile chemicals and to make the Higg Product Module
Fashion 2030                                  Action’ was presented. The charter             for fashion and textiles. The process is                                                    compatible with other LCA-based initiatives. This will further enhance the Higg Index, making
After eight years of research Mistra
                                              is designed to align with the Paris            called Blend Re:wind – and it generates                                                     it more reliable for companies seeking to understand the impacts of their products and
Future Fashion is a rich source of results
                                              Agreement and includes greenhouse gas          three circular outgoing product streams.                                                    identify where they can make sustainability improvements.”
on how to create a more sustainable
                                              emission reduction as well as a decrease       Cotton is turned into new high quality
fashion system. Therefore it is great
                                              in coal-driven power generators. The           viscose filaments and polyester into two                                                    - Julie M.H. Brown
to be able to feed in to the Swedish
                                              complete ‘Fashion Industry Charter for         pure new monomers.                                                                           Director, Higg Index
national platform called Textile and
                                              Climate Action’, which contains the                                                                                                         Sustainable Apparel Coalition
Fashion 2030.
                                              vision to achieve net-zero emissions
                                              by 2050, was launched at COP24 in
                                              Katowice, Poland, in December 2018.

26                                                                                                                                      27    mistra future fashion annual report 2016          mistra future fashion the outlook report 2011-2019                                   27
academic publications                                               Guo Z, Lindqvist KW, de la Motte H (2018) An efficient recycling
                                                                        process of glycolysis of PET in the presence of a sustainable
                                                                                                                                        Pedersen E, Andersen K (2015) Sustainability innovators and
                                                                                                                                            anchor draggers: a global expert study on sustainable
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Sandin G, Clancy G, Heimersson S, Peters G, Svanström M,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            ten Hoeve M (2014). Making the most of LCA in technical
                                                                        nanocatalyst. Journal of Applied Polymer Science 135, 462-          fashion. Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management 19                         inter-organisational R&D projects. Journal of Cleaner
Andersen K, Earley R (2014) Design Thinking for Sustainability;         485                                                                 (3), 315-327                                                                    Production 70, 97-104
   A Case Study of a Research Project between H&M and               Gwozdz W, Nielsen KS, Müller T (2017) An Environmental              Pedersen E, Earley R, Andersen K (2019) From singular to                        Sandin G, Peters GM, Svanström M (2013) Moving down the
   the Textiles Environment Design Project. 20th annual                Perspective on Clothing Consumption: Consumer Segments               plural: exploring organisational complexities and circular                      cause-effect chain of water and land use impacts: an LCA
   international sustainable development research conference           and Their Behavioral Patterns. Sustainability. 9 (5), 762.           business model design. Journal of Fashion Marketing and                         case study of textile fibres. Resources, Conservation and
   Norwegian university of science and technology,                  Hall P, Peters G, Löfgren K (2016) Greening street-level                Management 23 (3), 308-326                                                      Recycling 73, 104-113
   Trondheim, Norway, June 18-20, 2014                                   procurement practice in highly decentralised systems: the      Pedersen E, Gardeti M (2015) Introduction for Special Issue on                  Sandin G, Peters GM, Svanström M (2015) Using the planetary
Bellon-Maurel V, Short MD, Roux P, Schulz M, Peters GM                   case of Sweden. Journal of Consumer Policy 39(4), 467-483          New Business Models for Sustainable Fashion. Journal of                         boundaries framework for setting impact-reduction
     (2015) Streamlining life cycle inventory data generation       Holmquist H, Schellenberger S, van der Veen I, Peters GM,               Corporate Citizenship 57 (6), 5-10                                              targets in LCA contexts. International Journal of Life Cycle
     in agriculture using traceability data and information             Leonards PEG, Cousins IT (2016) Properties, performance         Pedersen E, Gwozdz W (2014) From Resistance to Opportunity                          Assessment 20(12), 1684-1700.
     and communication technologies – part I: concepts and              and associated hazards of state-of-the-art durable                  Seeking: Strategic Responses to Institutional Pressures                     Sandin G, Røyne F, Berlin J, Peters G, Svanström M (2015)
     technical basis. Journal of Cleaner Production 69, 60-66.         water repellent (DWR) chemistry for textile finishing.               for Corporate Social Responsibility in the Nordic Fashion                       Allocation in LCAs of biorefinery products: implications
Bellon-Maurel V, Peters GM, Clermidy S., Frizarin G, Sinfort C,        Environment International 91, 251-264                                Industry. Journal of Business Ethics 119 (2), 245–264                           for results and decision-making. Journal of Cleaner
     Ojeda H, Roux P, Short MD (2014) Streamlining life cycle       Holmquist H, Schellenberger S, van der Veen I, Peters GM,           Pedersen E, Lauesen L, Kourula A (2017) Back to basics:                             Production 93, 213-221
     inventory data generation in agriculture using traceability        Leonards PEG, Cousins IT (2016) Properties, performance             exploring perceptions of stakeholders within the Swedish                    Sandin G, Peters GM (2018) Environmental impact of textile
     data and information and communication technologies                and associated hazards of state-of-the-art durable                  fashion industry. Social Responsibility Journal 13 (2) 266-                     reuse and recycling – A review. Journal of Cleaner
     - Part II: Application to viticulture. Journal of Cleaner          water repellent (DWR) chemistry for textile finishing.              278                                                                             Production 184, 353-365Sendlhofer T, Lernborg C (2018)
     Production Journal of Cleaner Production 87, 119-129               Environment International 91, 251-264                                                                                                               Labour rights training 2.0: The digitalisation of knowledge
                                                                                                                                        Pedersen E, Netter S (2015) Collaborative consumption: business
Biundo A, Subagia R, Maurer M, Ribitsch D, Syrén PO, Guebitz        Hvass K (2014) Post-retail responsibility of garments – a fashion       model opportunities and barriers for fashion libraries.                         for workers in global supply chains. Journal of Cleaner
    G (2019) Switched reaction specificity in polyesterases             industry perspective. Journal of Fashion Marketing and              Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management 19(3), 258-                         Production 179, 616-630
    towards amide bond hydrolysis by enzyme engineering.                Management ISSN: 1361-2026                                          273                                                                         von Busch O (Editor) Twigger Holroyd A, Keyte J, Choi Yin S,
    2019, submitted to RSC Advances.                                                                                                                                                                                        Ginsburg H, Earley R, Ballie J, Hansson H (2014) In the
                                                                    Hvass K (2015) Business Model Innovation through Second Hand        Politowicz K, Earley R (2013) We Shape Our Tools, Then They
Bly S, Gwozdz W, Reisch L (2015) Exit from High Street – A study        Retailing: A Fashion Industry Case. Journal of Corporate             Shape Us, in: Praxis and Poetics: Research Through Design,                     Making: The ‘Power to the People’ Workshop Track at
     of sustainable fashion pioneers strategies’ for ethical            Citizenship 57, 11-32                                                Conference Proceedings. pp.176–179                                             Crafting the Future, The Design Journal, 17:3, 379-401.
     fashion consumption Journal of Consumer Studies 39 (2)                                                                                                                                                             Wedin H, Niit E, Mansoor Z, Kristinsdottir AR, de la Motte H,
                                                                    Hvass K (2019) Toward circular economy of fashion -                 Politowicz K, Goldsworthy K, Earley R (2016 ) Circular Speeds:
Clancy G, Fröling M, Peters G (2015) Eco labels as drivers              Experiences from a brands’s product take-back initiative.            towards a new understanding of designing for fashion                          Jönsson C, Östlund Å, Lindgren C (2018) Preparation of
    of clothing design. Journal of Cleaner Production 99                Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management 23 (3),                  textile rhythms. In: Circular Transitions Proceedings: Paper                  Viscose Fibres Stripped of Reactive Dyes and Wrinkle-Free
    (345-353Earley R (2016) Whole Circles: Models for Academic          345-365                                                              presented at Circular Transitions – A Mistra Future Fashion                   Crosslinked Cotton Textile Finish Journal of Polymers and
    Textile Design Research in the Circular Economy, In:                                                                                     Conference on Textile Design and the Circular Economy,                        the Environment. 26 (9), 3603–3612
    Circular Transitions Proceedings: Paper presented at            Joanes, T. (2019). Personal norms in a globalized world: Norm-
                                                                        activation processes and reduced clothing consumption.               November 23-24, London, UK, pp. 391-399                                    Zamani B, Sandin G, Peters G (2017) Life cycle assessment of
    Circular Transitions – A Mistra Future Fashion Conference on                                                                                                                                                           clothing libraries: can collaborative consumption reduce
    Textile Design and the Circular Economy, November 23-24,            Journal of cleaner production 212, 941-949.                     Ribul M, de la Motte H (2016) The material affinity of design
                                                                                                                                            and science for a circular economy. In: Circular Transitions                   the environmental impact of fast fashion? Journal of
    London, UK                                                      Jönsson C, Arturin O, Hanning AC, Landin R, Holmström E,
                                                                                                                                            Proceedings: Paper presented at Circular Transitions – A                       Cleaner Production 162, 1368-1375
Earley R (2017) Circular Design Futures. The Design Journal 20          Roos S (2018) Microplastics Shedding from Textiles—
                                                                        Developing Analytical Method for Measurement of Shed                Mistra Future Fashion Conference on Textile Design and                      Zamani B, Sandin G, Svanström M, Peters GM (2018) Hotspot
     (4), 421-434                                                                                                                           the Circular Economy, November 23-24, London, UK, pp.                          identification in the clothing industry using social life
                                                                        Material Representing Release during Domestic Washing.
Earley R (2017) Designing Fast & Slow. Exploring fashion textile        Sustainability 10 (7), 2457                                         236-248                                                                        cycle assessment – opportunities and challenges of input-
     product lifecycle speeds with industry designers, The Design                                                                       Roos S, Holmquist H, Jönsson C, Arvidsson R (2017) USEtox                          output modelling. The International Journal of Life Cycle
     Journal, 20:sup1, S2645-S2656                                  Kounina A, Margni M, Bayart J-B, Boulay A-M, Berger M, Bulle
                                                                                                                                            characterization factors for textile chemicals based                           Assessment 23 (3), 536-546
                                                                        C, Frischknecht R, Koehler A, Milà i Canals L, Motoshita
Goldsworthy K (2017) The Speedcycle: a design-led framework             M, Núñez M, Peters G, Pfister S, Ridoutt B, van Zelm R,             on a transparent data source selection strategy. The                        Zamani B, Svanström M, Peters G, Rydberg T (2014). A carbon
    for fast and slow circular fashion lifecycles. The Design           Verones F, Humbert S (2013) Review of methods addressing            International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment 23 (4), 890-                    footprint of textile recycling: Case Study – Sweden. Journal
    Journal, 20:sup1, S1960-S1970.                                      freshwater use in life cycle inventory and impact                   903                                                                            of Industrial Ecology 19 (4)
Goldsworthy K, Earley R (2018) Circular Transitions: Textile            assessment. International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment      Roos S, Peters GM (2015) Three methods for strategic product
    design and the circular economy. Journal of Textile Design          18, 707–721.                                                        toxicity assessment - the case of the cotton t-shirt.
    Research and Practice 6 (1), 1-4
Goldsworthy K, Earley R, Politowicz K (2018) Circular Speeds: A
                                                                    Palme A, Idström A, Nordstierna, L & Brelid, H (2014) Chemical
                                                                        and ultrastructural changes in cotton cellulose induced by
                                                                                                                                            International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment 20, 903-912.
                                                                                                                                        Roos S, Posner S, Jönsson C., Peters G (2015) Is Unbleached
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        book chapters
    Review of Fast & Slow Sustainable Design Approaches for             laundering and textile use. Cellulose 21 (6), 4681-4691             Cotton Better Than Bleached? Exploring the Limits of Life-
    Fashion & Textile Applications. Journal of Textile Design                                                                               Cycle Assessment in the Textile Sector. Clothing and Textiles               Earley R, Vuletich C (2015) Holistic Fashion Design. In: Vaidya
                                                                    Palme A, Peterson A, de la Motte H, Theliander H, Brelid H
    Research and Practice 6 (1), 42-65                                                                                                      Research Journal 33 (4), 231-247                                                 K (ed) Fashion Design for the Curious: Why Study Fashion
                                                                        (2017). Development of an efficient route for combined
Goldsworthy K, Roos S, Peters G, Sandin G (2016) Towards a                                                                                                                                                                   Design. Curious Academic Publishing reports, Canberra,
                                                                        recycling of PET and cotton from mixed fabrics. Textiles        Roos S, Zamani B, Sandin G, Peters GM, Svanström M (2016) A
    Quantified Design Process: Bridging Design and Life Cycle                                                                                                                                                                Australia.
                                                                        and Clothing Sustainability 3 (4)                                   life cycle assessment (LCA)-based approach to guiding
    Assessment. In: Circular Transitions Proceedings: Paper                                                                                 an industry sector towards sustainability: the case of the                  Earley R, Harvey B. (2015) Elastic Learning Tools, in Cultures
                                                                    Palme A, Theliander H, Brelid H (2016) Acid hydrolysis of
    presented at Circular Transitions – A Mistra Future Fashion                                                                             Swedish apparel sector. Journal of Cleaner Production 133,                       of Resilience by Manzini E. and Till J. (eds). Hato Press:
                                                                        cellulosic fibres: Comparison of bleached kraft pulp,
    Conference on Textile Design and the Circular Economy,                                                                                  691–700.                                                                         London
                                                                        dissolving pulps and cotton textile cellulose. Carbohydrate
    November 23-24, London, UK, pp. 208-221                             Polymers 136, 1281–1287                                         Rowley HV, Peters GM, Lundie S, Moore SJ (2012) Aggregating                     Earley R, Goldsworthy K (2018) Circular Textile Design: Old
                                                                                                                                           sustainability indicators: Beyond the weighted sum. Journal                       Myths and New Models. In: Designing for the Circular
                                                                                                                                           of Environmental Management 111, 24-33                                            Economy (Ed) Martin Charter. Routledge: London

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