GLOBAL HUMAN BODY MODELS CONSORTIUM - John Combest, Nissan - TASS International

 
GLOBAL HUMAN BODY MODELS CONSORTIUM - John Combest, Nissan - TASS International
GLOBAL HUMAN BODY MODELS
CONSORTIUM

John Combest, Nissan
GLOBAL HUMAN BODY MODELS CONSORTIUM - John Combest, Nissan - TASS International
MADYMO Models

                2
GLOBAL HUMAN BODY MODELS CONSORTIUM - John Combest, Nissan - TASS International
MADYMO ATD Models

              https://www.tassinternational.com/madymo-dummy-models
Results in minutes
Through its combined multibody and FE techniques, MADYMO provides dummy models
that meet the most stringent demands for accuracy, robustness and computation speed.
Typical stand-alone MADYMO occupant safety simulations can run within 5-10 minutes.

                     Benefits
                     • speed and accuracy
                     • quality assurance via detailed reports
                     • easy access to all models
                     • Works in combination with all crash
                       codes
                     • user support
                                                                                       3
GLOBAL HUMAN BODY MODELS CONSORTIUM - John Combest, Nissan - TASS International
MADYMO Human Body Models

               https://www.tassinternational.com/madymo-human-models
Our human model database has been validated on segment as well as on full body level,
against an extensive set of volunteer- and PMHS (Post Mortem Human Surrogates) tests.
All models have demonstrated capability to predict kinematics and accelerations and display
realistic thorax compliance.

                      Benefits
                      • More biofidelic than crash dummy models
                      • Validated for multidirectional load/impact
                      • Passive and active muscle models
                      • Scalable to different body sizes
                      • Predicts post-failure response (e.g. leg fracture)

                                                                                         4
GLOBAL HUMAN BODY MODELS CONSORTIUM - John Combest, Nissan - TASS International
Gordon Moore’s Law

                     5
GLOBAL HUMAN BODY MODELS CONSORTIUM - John Combest, Nissan - TASS International
GHBMC – Stress in Ribcage

                            6
GLOBAL HUMAN BODY MODELS CONSORTIUM - John Combest, Nissan - TASS International
MADYMO – BrIC Evaluation

OOI scenario - THOR dummy is modeled with BrIC output.
Pulses can be modified and effect on BrIC can be studied.
Motion prescribed using MOTION.JOINT_ACC input was
derived from crash test video analysis.

 For questions/discussion on modelling of this OOI scenario contact Paul Slaats
                         slaatsp@nrd.Nissan-usa.com
                                                                              7
GLOBAL HUMAN BODY MODELS CONSORTIUM - John Combest, Nissan - TASS International
GHBMC – Deployment Decision

                                             8

        SINCAP User Evaluation – PAM Crash
GLOBAL HUMAN BODY MODELS CONSORTIUM - John Combest, Nissan - TASS International
GHBMC – Deployment Decision

                                             9

        SINCAP User Evaluation – PAM Crash
GLOBAL HUMAN BODY MODELS CONSORTIUM - John Combest, Nissan - TASS International
Use of GHBMC Human Body Model

Parametric Study for Far Side Occupant Protection **

      PT + CC + L-PT + CAB

             The HBM showed reductions of lateral excursion due to additional protections.

               ** M. Katagiri et al., “Parametric Study for Far Side Occupant Protection using GHBMC Human Body Model”, 2016, SAE GI

                                                                                                                                       10
Introduction of GHBMC

   • Founded in 2006, GHBMC is an international consortium of automakers &
     suppliers working with research institutes and government agencies to
     advance human body modeling technologies for crash simulations.
                                    MEMBERS

• OBJECTIVE: To                                            • MISSION: To
  consolidate world-                                         develop and
  wide HBM R&D                                               maintain high
  effort into a single                                       fidelity FE human
  global effort                                              body models for
                                                             crash simulations

     SPONSOR                                                   PARTICIPANTS

                                                                              11
GHBMC Centers of Expertise

                        Head Model COE                              Full Body Model COE
                        PI: Dr. Liying Zhang
                                                                    Co-PIs: Dr. Scott Gayzik
                                                                            Dr. Joel Stitzel
 Neck Model COE                        Thorax Model COE
 PI: Dr. Duane Cronin
                                        PI: Dr. Matt Panzer

                                                                    Responsibilities:
                                        Abdomen Model COE                 FBM COE
                                         PI: Dr. Philippe Beillas     • CAD and mesh
   Pelvis & Lower
 Extremities Model                                                    • Full Body Validation
         COE
                                                                           BRM COEs
  PI: Dr. Matt Panzer
                                                                      • Regional validation
                                                                      • Suggest model design
                                                                        modifications
                                                                      • Updates

                                                                                          12
GHBMC Development Status

  •     13 models to be developed by 2017 (Detailed Pedestrian pending)
  •     Versions are noted with most mature model being M50-O
  •     Phase II focus was on F05-O and current model enhancement
  •     Not shown, detailed pedestrians (M50-P, F05-P, and M95-P)

F05-O    M50-O       M95-O F05-OS M50-OS            M95-OS 6YO-PS F05-PS M50-PS         M95-PS

          Detailed                     Simplified

v 2.1    v. 4.5      v. 1.1   v. 1.2   v. 1.8.4     v. 1.2   v. 1.3   v. 1.3   v. 1.4   v. 1.3

                                                                                           13
GHBMC M50-O v4.4

                   Upload, Aug. 2015
                   • Added tibia & fibula cross-
                     section output
                   • Improved head
                     accelerometer local output
                   • Addressed transform
                     issue due to conflicting
                     IDs

                                            14
M50-O Example 1, Lateral Plate Impact – 12 m/s

                                                 15
GHBMC M50-OS V1.8.4

Latest release: GHBMC M50-OS v1.8.4 on October, 2015
Joint positioning capability (ATD-like)
Currently in progress:
• Addition of femur compliant element to improve the
    lower leg kinematics.
• Certification tests for M50-OS

                                                      Pendulum - Impact force
                                              6   5.9 KN
                                                  5.1 KN
                                              5
                                              4
                                 Force (KN)

                                                                                63.5 mm
                                              3

                                                                                          72.6 mm
                                              2
                                              1
                                              0
                                         -1 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80
                                                            Displacement (mm)
F05-OS & M95-OS: Morphing and preliminary results

• Radial basis function – thin plate spline method for morphing M50-OS to F05 and
  M95 habitus
• Other than node locations, all details in M50-OS preserved in morphed models
• Morphed models – tested using the suite of rigid impact simulations

  F05-OS v1.2   M50-OS v1.8.4   M95-OS v1.2     Preliminary results: Thorax – Chest Impact

                                                                  • Impactor: 23.4 Kg and 152 cm
                                                                    diameter, 6.7 m/s
                                                                  • Plots against Lebarbe corridors
                                                                  • Note: F05-OS v1-2 and M95-OS
                                                                    v1-2: Raw Data, Not scaled

    53.1 Kg       77.1 Kg       103.07 Kg
                                                                                               17
Modular Use Example: M50-OS + Brain

                                       M50-O v4.4                   M50-OS v1.8+Brain

                                                Frontal Sled Impact Simulation Runtime
                                               40
                                               35
                                               30
                                               25

                                       Hours
                                               20
                                               15
                                               10
                                                5
M50-O v4.4    M50-OS v1.8+Brain                 0
                                                    M50-OS    M50 OS      M50-O
                                                               Brain

                                                                                         18
GHBMC Large Male (M95-O): v1.1, Aug. 2015

     Same parts, materials, and element formulations as M50 model

        Vavalle, Nicholas "Application of radial basis function methods in the development of   19
        a 95th percentile male seated FEA model." Stapp Car Crash Journal 58 (2014): 361.
M95-O: IRCOBI 2015

  1. Evaluate effects of body habitus
  2. Evaluate the application of mass-normalization to the M95

                                                                 20
GHBMC – Sled Test Validation

                               21
GHBMC – Sled Test NCAP - Frontal

                                   22
GHBMC – Full Vehicle NCAP - Side

                                   23
24
Development and Validation of Pedestrian FE Model

Component Validation: Knee lateral bending

 Full Body Validation: Car-to-pedestrian impact

                               Head CG Trajectory     Sacrum Trajectory
                                                                          25
GHBMC pedestrian models accepted by EuroNCAP Pedestrian
Testing Protocol v8.2, Nov. 2015

  0 ms                          36 ms

  90 ms                         152 ms

                                                          26
GHBMC CAD Deliveries in Phase II

                                                                                                                           Note: Not to scale

  M50: 4/30/2014                                F05 Ped: 7/30/2014                                                    F05 Occ: 7/30/2014
             Davis, M. L., Allen, B. C., Geer, C. P., Stitzel, J. D., & Gayzik, F. S. (2014). A Multi‐Modality Image Set
                                                                                                                                                27
             for the Development of a 5th Percentile Female Finite Element Model. In IRCOBI Conference
             Proceedings.
Pedestrian CAD

• Based on data from the same
  subjects used for the occupant
  model development
• Confirmed bone locations with
  external anthropometry landmarks
  and external surface data
• Soft tissues developed from medical
  images in the standing posture                        Organ and Muscle
• Posture was adjusted in model for
  EuroNCAP pedestrian protocol
• Delivery
      • CAD, April 2014
      • Simplified pedestrian
          model v. 1.0, July 2014

                                                        MRI with pelvis and
                                        M50 Standing   hip bone outline (red)
                                                                        28
Small Female Detailed Occupant (F05-O v2.1)

964 Parts                   F05-O Model Overview
2.5 million elements
1.4 million nodes
Mass = 51.4 kg

                                                   29
F05-O CAD Dataset

316 Individual CAD
Components
• 161 Bones
• 35 Organs
• 90 Muscles
• 30 Ligaments,
  Tendons, and
  Cartilage

            Davis, M. L., Allen, B. C., Geer, C. P., Stitzel, J. D., & Gayzik, F. S. (2014). A Multi‐Modality Image   30
            Set for the Development of a 5th Percentile Female Finite Element Model. In IRCOBI Conference
Comparison of M50 to F05

     Alpha mesh delivered to GHMBC and BRM COEs on January, 2015
            F05-O v2.1 released to the GHMBC on Oct 31, 2015
           Currently entering 4th quarter of model development

                      Comparison of M50 to F05
                                                                   31
Multi-Modality Image Dataset

            In total, over 14,000 medical images were collected

       CT                          Supine MRI                     Upright MRI

     Supine                                                        Seated
                                     Supine
   Quasi-Seated                                                   Standing

                                                                                32
Organ Volumes

• 14 scans from WFU database
• Organs germane to crash induced injuries
 Kidneys
 Liver
 Spleen
 Lungs
 Heart
 Pancreas

                                             33
F05-O Head and Neck Regions

• 22 parts representing the brain
• Brain is a structured hex mesh connected node-to-node with the cranium
• 52 explicit muscles of the neck

                                                                           34
F05-O Thoracoabdominal Region

273 thoracoabdominal parts included to characterize relevant crash induced injuries

                                                                               35
F05-O Thoracoabdominal Region

                                36
F05-O Lower Extremity

 • Muscle was developed by using CAD and element assignment techniques
 • Origin and insertion sites explicitly mesh and connected to bone
 • Cruciate and collateral ligaments modeled using 3D hex elements

                                                       Cross-section
                                                      showing muscle
                                                    element assignment

                                                                         37
F05-O Latest Iterations

         F05 v2.0         F05 v2.1 Modified
   Thickness = 0.75 mm    Thickness Variable
                                               38
Cortical Thickness

                     39
F05-O v2.1 Full Body Validation

All data shown scaled using the Equal Stress Equal Velocity using an Effective Mass Ratio
                         CORA Summary Results for Small Female Beta Validation
                                     Phase        Magnitude       Slope        Corridor   Total
  Hardy Impact Force CORA Results      1.0           0.76          0.99            -      0.90
 Bouquet Impact Force CORA Results     1.0           0.48          0.97            -      0.79
  Viano Impact Force CORA Results     0.98           0.92          0.99            -      0.96
 Cavanaugh Torso Impact Force CORA
                                      0.99           0.85          0.94          0.48     0.70
              Results
 Cavanaugh Pelvis Impact Force CORA
                                         1.0          0.65          0.98        0.58      0.72
              Results
  Kemper Impact Force CORA Results       1.0          0.71          0.94          -       0.87

                            Preliminary Data: Force Only                                          40
AF05-O User Acceptance Testing

                                        Average of top 10% most severe frontal NCAP
Severe pulse                      Frontal NCAP set-up                   Rear seat set-up

 simulations
 test model
 robustness

 NHTSA Near-Side Oblique Driver      NHTSA Far-Side Oblique Passenger       Lateral sled (7 m/s)

                                                                                                   41
Stability – 100 sec run

                          Use Model          FBM_v3_BCs_Stability100_revA             End Time        100.00
                                       Use Post Soft                        Visual-Viewer Ver.7.0.0
                                                   File Type          Entities              Ordinates
                               Graph                   Glstat       Global Data           Refer to Graph

                                                                                                      42
Free Academic Licenses to Institutions of Higher Education
               – GHBMC Model Users as of June 30, 2016

North America:                          Europe:                                Asia & Australia:
1. U. of Toronto (Canada)               1. Graz U. of Technology (Austria)     1. Beijing University (China)
2. U. of Waterloo (Canada)              2. CEESAR (France)                     2. XiangYa Medicine School, Central
3. California State U. – L.A.           3. IFSTTAR (France)                       South U. (China)
4. Carnegie Mellon University           4. INRIA (France)                      3. U. of Melbourne (Australia)
5. Duke U.                              5. T. U. Berlin (Germany)              4. U. of Western Australia (Australia)
6. George Mason U.                      6. U. of Munich (Germany)              5. Hongik U. (Korea)
7. Johns Hopkins Med. School            7. U. of Stuttgart (Germany)           6. University of Electronic Science &
                                                                                  Technology of China (China)
8. Medical College of Wisconsin         8. Cork Institute of Tech. (Ireland)
                                                                               7. Sogang U. (Korea)
9. Ohio State U.                        9. TESSA-U. of Zaragoza (Spain)
                                                                               8. King Mongkut's U. of Technology
10. Stanford U.                         10. Chalmers( Sweden)                     (Thailand)
11. Temple U.                           11. KTH - (Sweden)                     1. Tokyo Institute of Technology
12. U. of California Berkeley           1. Technical University of Munich         (Japan)
13. U. of Michigan                      2. I.T.M.U. Stuttgart (Germany)        2. Nagoya University (Japan)
14. U. of Oklahoma                      3. T.H. Ingolstadt (Germany)           3. Tongji University (China)
15. U. of Virginia                      4. U. of Florence (Italy)              4. CCU of Taiwan (China)
16. Virginia Tech                       5. University of Portsmouth (UK)       6. U. of Southern Cal.
17. Wake Forest U.                      6. University of Mostaganem            7. U. of Colorado
18. Wayne State U.                         (Algeria)
                                                                               8. Colorado State U.
1. Penn State U. 4. Cooper Union        7. Warsaw U. (Poland)
                                                                               9. U. of B.C. (Canada)
2. Kettering U.      5. Sherbrooke U.   8. Paris Tech U. (France)
                                                                               10. U. of Delaware
3. CHOP              Agreement Sent     9. University Claude Bernard Lyon
                                                                               11. U. of South Florida

                                                                                                                        43
Full Body Model COE Team & Collaborators

F Scott Gayzik         Joel D. Stitzel       Costin Untaroiu          Craig Hamilton        Hyung Yun Choi         Ashley Weaver
  WFU CIB                 WFU CIB                VT CIB                 WFU BME            Hong Ik University        WFU CIB
         Full Body Models Co-PIs           Pedestrian Validation         Imaging           Model Conversion          FBM COE

      Doron Schwartz    Berkan Guleyup   William Decker    Jeremy Schap       Bharath Koya     Nick Williams     Wansoo Pak
        WFU CIB            WFU CBI         WFU CIB           WFU CIB            WFU CIB          WFU CIB          VT CIB
      Simplified M50         M50         Simplified M50    Technical Staff   Technical Staff   Technical Staff   Pedestrian

                                                                                                                          CIB

                                                                                                                              44
GHBMC Contact Info

• Membership & General Inquires
 - GHBMC Steering Committee Chairman – Mr. John Combest
   (john.combest@nissan-usa.com)

 - GHBMC Technical Committee Chairman – Dr. Jenne-Tai (J.T.) Wang
   (jenne-tai.wang@gm.com)

 - GHBMC Technical Committee Assistant Chairman – Dr. Eric Song
   (eric.song@lab-france.com)

• Model Licenses & User Support
 - Elemance, LLC – Dr. Joel Stitzel (joel.stitzel@elemance.com)

 - or   Dr. F. Scott Gayzik (scott.gayzik@elemance.com)

                                                                    45
2nd Annual GHBMC Users Workshop

This first Users Workshop was held April 11th, 2016 one day prior to the start of
the Society of Automotive Engineers World Congress and Exposition.
The second Workshop will be held June, 2017 in conjunction with the 25th ESV

It is being held at the Inn at St. John's, in Plymouth, Michigan, a 25 minute drive
from downtown Detroit and easily accessible from various points of interest in
the greater Detroit Metro Area.
                                sales@elemance.com

                                                                                  46
47
Questions?

             48
APPENDIX

           49
6th International Symposium on “Human Modeling and Simulation in
Automotive Engineering”
                  The 6th International Symposium on “Human Modeling and Simulation in
                  Automotive Engineering” will be held October 20-21, 2016 in Heidelberg, Germany.
                  The symposium intends to continue and further advance the dialog between
                  researchers, software developers and industrial users of human models.
                  It is again organized in cooperation with Wayne State University‘s renowned
                  Bioengineering Centre, which has been a pioneer and leading institution in
                  biomechanics research for automotive safety for 75 years.
                  If you wish to contribute to the Symposium please send information on the
                  author(s) (name, academic title, job title, organization), the presentation title and
                  an abstract (max. 250 words) to dirk.ulrich@carhs.de before March 31, 2016.
                  If you are younger than 30 years you qualify for the new Young Scientist Award
                  contest. If you want to participate in the contest make a note in your presentation
                  proposal.
                  Presentations for the 6th “Human Modeling Symposium” should address
                  • Biomechanical Research
                  • Development of Human Models and Simulation Software
                  • Industrial Applications
                  focusing on the theory, development or application of human simulation models in
                  automotive engineering.
                  The submitted abstracts will be evaluated by the program committee.
                  Speakers will be informed of acceptance of their proposed presentations by April 30
                  REGISTRATION INFORMATION AVAILABLE AT https://www.carhs.de
                                                                                                   50
GHBMC Journal and Peer-Reviewed Publications

GHBMC Journal and Peer-Reviewed Publications
1. Evaluation of Kinematics and Injuries to Restrained Occupants in Far-Side Crashes using Full-Scale Vehicle and Human Body Models. Mike W. J. Arun, Sagar
    Umale, John R. Humm, Narayan Yoganandan, Prasanaah Hadagali & Frank A. Pintar. Traffic Injury Prevention 02 Sep 2016
2. Quantitative validation of a human body finite element model using rigid body impacts. Vavalle NA, Davis ML, Stitzel JD, Gayzik FS. Ann Biomed Eng. 2015;
    43(9):2163–74
3. Age- and Sex-Specific Thorax Finite Element Model Development and Simulation. Schoell S.L, Weaver A.A., Vavalle N., Stitzel, J.D., 2015 Traffic Injury
    Prevention, 16:sup1, S57-S65, DOI: 10.1080/15389588.2015.1005208
4. Development of a Computationally Efficient Full Human Body Finite Element Model. Schwarz, D. Guleyupoglu, B., Koya, B., Stitzel, J.D., Gayzik, F. S. 2015
    Traffic Injury Prevention, 16:sup1, S49-S56, DOI: 10.1080/15389588.2015.1021418
5. Development and Validation of an Older Occupant Finite Element Model of a Mid-Sized Male for Investigation of Age-Related Injury Risk. Schoell, Weaver,
    Urban, Jones, Stitzel, Reed, Rupp. STAPP Car Crash Journal Volume 59 (November 2015). Pp. 359-383
6. Comparison of Kriging and Moving Least Square Methods to Change the Geometry of Human Body Models. Jolivet, Lafon, Petit, Beillas. STAPP Car Crash
    Journal Volume 59 (November 2015) pp. 337-357
7. Validation of Shoulder Response of Human Body Finite Element Model (GHBMC) under Whole Body Lateral Impact Condition. Park, Kim, Panzer, Crandall,
    Annals of Biomedical Engineering 2015
8. The Effect of Pre-Crash Velocity Reduction on Occupant Response Using a Human Body Finite Element Model. B. Guleyupoglu, N.A. Vavalle,J. Schap, K.D.
    Kusano, F. S. Gayzic Traffic Injury Prevention 2015
9. Development and Preliminary Validation of a 50th Percentile Pedestrian Finite Element Model. Untaroiu, Putnam, Schap, Davis, Gayzik. Proceedings of
    ISETC/CIE 2015
10. The Application of Radial Basis Function Interpolation in the Development of a 95th Percentile Male Seated FEA Model. Vavalle, Schoell, Weaver, Stitzel,
    Gayzik, 2015 STAPP Car Crash Journal
11. Abdominal Organ Location, Morphology, and Rib Coverage for the 5th, 50th, and 95th Percentile Males and Females in the Supine and Seated Posture using
    Multi-Modality Imaging. Hayes, Gayzik, Moreno, Martin, Stitzel. 2015 Annals of Advances in Automotive Medicine (AAAM)
12. The Effects of Cadaver Orientation on the Relative Position of the Abdominal Organs. Howes, Hardy, Beillas. 2015 Annals of Advances in Automotive
    Medicine (AAAM)
13. A Method to Characterize Average Cervical Spine Ligament Response Based On Raw Data Sets For Implementation Into Injury Biomechanics Models.
    Mattucci S, Cronin DS. Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials. 2015; pp. 251-260 DOI information: 10.1016/j.jmbbm.2014.09.023
14. High Rotation Rate Behavior of Cervical Spine Segments in Flexion and Extension. Barker J, Cronin DS, Chandrashekar, N. Journal of Biomechanical
    Engineering, 2014 Dec; 136(12):121004. doi: 10.1115/1.4028107.
15. Evaluation of Biofidelity of Side Impact Computational Surrogates (ES-2re, WorldSID, GHBMC). Park G, Kim T, Crandall JR, Svendsen A. et.al. 2014 SAE WC
                                                                                                                                                    51
GHBMC Journal and Peer-Reviewed Publications

GHBMC Journal and Peer-Reviewed Publications
16. Evaluation of Biofidelity of Finite Element 50th Percentile Male Human Body Model (GHBMC) under Lateral Shoulder Impact Conditions, Park G, Kim T, Subit
    D, Donlon JP, Crandall JR, Svenderson A, Saunders N, and Markusic C. (2014). 2014 IRCOBI Conference, Berlin, Germany.
17. High-rate Mechanical Properties of Human Heel Pad for Simulation of a Blast Loading Condition Gabler, Panzer, and Salzar. 2014 IRCOBI Conference. Park G,
18. Evaluation of Biofidelity of Finite Element 50th Prcentile Male Human Body Model (GHBMC) under Lateral Shoulder Impact Conditions. Kim T, Subit D, et al.
    IRCOBI; 2014; Berlin, Germany
19. Validation of simulated chest band data in frontal and lateral loading using a human body finite element model. Hayes AR, Vavalle NA, Moreno DP, Stitzel
    JD, Gayzik FS. Traffic Injury Prevention 2014; 15(2): 181-186A
20. A Numerical Investigation on the Variation in Hip Injury Tolerance With Occupant Posture During Frontal Collisions. Yue N and Untaroiu CD., Traffic Injury
    Prevention, 2014; 15:5, 513-5221
21. Development of a finite element human head model partially validated with thirty-five experimental cases. Mao H, Zhang L, Jiang B, Genthikatti VV, Jin X,
    Zhu F, Makwana R, Gill A, Jandir G, Singh A, Yang KH. J Biomechanical Engineering. 2013 Nov;135(11):111002
22. An Evaluation of Objective Rating Methods for Full-Body Finite Element Model Comparison to PMHS Tests. Nicholas A. Vavalle , Benjamin C. Jelen , Daniel
    P. Moreno , Joel D. Stitzel & F. Scott Gayzik Traffic Injury Prevention 01 Aug 2013
23. Development of high-quality hexahedral human brain meshes using feature-based multi-block approach Mao H, Gao H, Cal L, Genthikatti V, Yang KH..
    Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering. 2013; 16(3):271-9.
24. A comprehensive experimental study on material properties of human brain tissue Jin X, Zhu F, Mao H, Shen M, Yang KH.. Journal of Biomechanics 2013 Nov
    15;46(16):2795-801.
25. Strain rate dependent properties of younger human cervical spine ligaments Mattucci S, Moulton JA, Chandrashekar N, Cronin DS.. Journal of the Mechanical
    Behavior of Biomedical Materials. 2013; 23: 71-79
26. Cervical spine segment finite element model for traumatic injury prediction. DeWit JA, Cronin DS.. Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical
    Materials. 2012 Jun; 10:138-50. (GHBMC, iAMi)
27. Biomechanical and Injury Response of Human Foot and Ankle Under Complex Loading. Shin J and Untaroiu. Journal of Biomechanical Engineering. 2013.
28. A Finite Element Model of the Lower Limb for Simulating Automotive Impacts. Untaroiu CD, Yue N, and Shin JAnnals of Biomedical Engineering. 2013.
29. Focusing on Vulnerable Populations in Crashes: Recent Advances in Finite Element Human Models for Injury Biomechanics Research. HU Jingwen, Jonathan
    D. Rupp, Matthew P. Reed. J Automotive Safety and Engergy, 2012 Vol. 3 No. 4
30. An evaluation of objective rating methods for full-body finite element model comparison to PMHS tests. Vavalle NA, Jelen BC, Moreno DP, Stitzel JD, Gayzik
    FS. (2013).. Traffic Inj Prev 2013; 14 Suppl: S87-94.
31. Lateral impact validation of a geometrically accurate full body finite element model for blunt injury prediction. Vavalle NA, Moreno DP, Rhyne AC, Stitzel JD,
    Gayzik FS. Ann Biomed Eng 2013; 41(3): 497-512.
                                                                                                                                                          52
G H B M C -日産の戦略と成果 -
 日・印・米3拠点の最小限のリソースでニーズ・ベースのモデル開発に特化、コンソーシアムを
 牽引して N H TSA をスポンサーに招き入れ、事実上、世界標準ダミーとしての位置を確立した
  Euro N CA P:歩行者保護から人体FEモデルによるN CA P評価の導入を計画中
  N H TSA :高い生体忠実度を持つG H B M Cモデルで脳傷害基準B rIC等の検証を検討
   中                                  John C om best(C hairm an)

    N TCE                                                               N TCN A
    -Euro-N CAPとの調整窓口
                                  Vim alathithan                        - G H BM C活動への参画
                                  - RN TBCI                             - 生体力学情報の収集と蓄積
                                  - モデル開発業務
N TC E   N TC E(B )               - 事故分析による妥当性検証
                                                                                        N TC N A
                                             D N TC          N M L&
N TC E(S)                                                               N TC N A
                                    N C IC       YN TC      Affiliate    (ATC )

                                                                        C hinm oy Pal
                      RN TB C I        N SEA

                                                      N TC (KiF)        N ATC (XG 2,YH A)
                                                      -製品開発の要望まとめと適用    - 戦略と開発の取りまとめ         NBA
GHBMC Journal and Peer-Reviewed Publications

GHBMC Journal and Peer-Reviewed Publications
32. Investigation of the Mass Distribution of a Detailed Seated Male Finite Element Model. Vavalle NA, Thompson AB, Hayes AR, Moreno DP, Stitzel JD, Gayzik
    FS.. J Appl Biomech. 2013
33. Comparison of Kinematics of GHBMC to PMHS on the Side Impact Condition. Park G, Kim T, Crandall JR, Arregui-Dalmases C, Luzon-Narro J.. 2013;
    International Research Council on Biomechanics of Injury (IRCOBI). Gothenburg, Sweden.
34. Abdominal Organ Location, Morphology, and Rib Coverage for the 5(th), 50(th), and 95(th) Percentile Males and Females in the Supine and Seated Posture
    using Multi-Modality Imaging. Hayes AR, Gayzik FS, Moreno DP, Martin RS, Stitzel JD. Annals of Advances in Automotive Medicine (AAAM) 2013; 57: 111-122.
35. Comparison of organ location, morphology, and rib coverage of a midsized male in the supine and seated positions. Hayes AR, Gayzik FS, Moreno DP, Martin
    RS, Stitzel JD.. Computational Mathematic Methods Med 2013: 419821.
36. Recent advances in developing finite element head model. Mao H, Zhang L, Jiang B, Genthikatti V, Jin X, Zhu F, Makwana R, Gill A, Jandir G, Singh A, and Yang
    KH. International Crashworthiness Conference, ICRASH 2012, Milan, Italy. Beillas P, Berthet F.
37. Performance of a 50th percentile abdominal model for impact: effects of size and mass. J Biomech. 2012;45:S83
38. Investigation of whiplash injuries in the upper cervical spine using a detailed neck model. Fice, J.B., Cronin, D.S., 2012. Journal of Biomechanics, 2012.01.016
39. Upper Cervical Spine Kinematic Response and Injury Prediction. Cronin DS, Fice J, DeWit J, Moulton J.. International Research Council on Biomechanics of
    Injury (IRCOBI). Dublin, Ireland, 2012
40. External landmark, body surface, and volume data of a mid-sized male in seated and standing postures. Gayzik FS, Moreno DP, Danelson KA, McNally C,
    Klinich KD, Stitzel JD.. Annals of Biomedical Engineering 2012; 40(9): 2019-2032.
41. A Finite Element Model of the Foot and Ankle for Automotive Impact Applications. Shin J, Yue N, and Untaroiu CD. Annals of Biomedical Engineering. 2012.
42. A paradigm for human body finite element model integration from a set of regional models. Thompson AB, Gayzik FS, Moreno DP, Rhyne AC, Vavalle NA,
    Stitzel JD.. Biomedical Science Instruments 2012; 48: 423-430.
43. Strain rate dependent properties of younger human cervical spine ligaments Mattucci SF, Moulton JA, Chandrashekar N, Cronin DS." Journal of the
    mechanical behavior of biomedical materials. 2012; 10: 216-226.
44. In vitro kinematics of the shoulder: comparison with in vivo data during arm flexion. Duprey S, Subit D, Lessley D, Guillemot H, and Kent R.. Computer
    Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering. 2011; 14(S1):193-4.
45. Development and validation of an occupant lower limb finite element model. Yue N, Shin J, Untaroiu CD. SAE; 2011. SAE Technical Paper 2011-01-1128
46. Structural response of cadaveric rib cages under a localized loading: stiffness and kinematic trends. Kindig M, Lau A, Forman J, Kent R.. Stapp Car Crash
    Journal 2010; 54:337-380.
47. Influence of mesh density, cortical thickness and material properties on human rib fracture prediction Li Z, Kindig M, Subit D, Kent R.. Medical Engineering
    and Physics. 2010; 32(9):998-1008.

                                                                                                                                                            54
GHBMC Journal and Peer-Reviewed Publications

GHBMC Journal and Peer-Reviewed Publications
48. A pseudo-elastic effective material property representation of the costal cartilage for use in finite element models of the whole human body. Forman J,
    Del Pozo E, Kent R. Traffic Injury Prevention. 2011; 11:613-622.
49. Cervical Spine Model To Predict Capsular Ligament Response In Rear Impact. Fice JB, Cronin DS, Panzer MB. Annals of Biomedical Eng.. 2011; 39 (8):2152-21.
50. A parametric study of hard tissue injury prediction using finite elements: Consideration of geometric complexity, sub-failure material properties, CT-
    thresholding, and element characteristics. Arregui-Dalmases, Del Pozo, Duprey, Lopez-Valdes, Lau, Subit, Kent . Traffic Injury Prevention. 2010; 11(3):286-
    293.
51. Structural response of cadaveric rib cages under a localized loading: stiffness and kinematic trends. Kindig M, Lau A, Forman J, Kent R.. Stapp Car Crash
    Journal 2010; 54:337-380.
52. A multi-modality image data collection protocol for full body finite element analysis model development. Gayzik FS, Moreno DP, Hamilton C, Tan J, McNally
    C, Duma S, Klinich KD, Stitzel JD. (2010). 2010, SAE Tech Paper, 2009-01-2261. SAE World Congress. Detroit, MI, SAE.
53. Development of a full body CAD dataset for computational modeling: a multi-modality approach. Gayzik FS, Moreno DP, Geer CP, Wuertzer SD, Martin RS,
    Stitzel JD.. Annals of Biomedical Engineering, 2011;39(10): 2568-2583.
54. Study of Rib Fracture Mechanisms Based on the Rib Strain Profiles in Side and Forward Oblique Impact. Leport T, Baudrit P, Potier P, Trosseille X, Lecuyer E,
    Vallancien G.. 2011 Stapp Car Crash Conference.
55. Biomechanical properties of the costovertebral joint. Duprey S, Subit D, Guillemot H, Kent R.. Medical Engineering and Physics. 2010; 32:222-227.
56. Cervical Spine Segment Finite Element Model Validation and Verification at Traumatic Loading Levels for Injury Prediction DeWit J, Cronin DS.. 2010
    IRCOBI, Hannover, Germany.
57. Structural response of cadaveric rib cages under a localized loading: stiffness and kinematic trends Kindig, M., Lau, A., Forman, J., Kent, R.. 2010 Stapp Car
    Crash Journal. 2010; 54:337-380
58. Rib fractures under anterior-posterior dynamic loads: experimental and finite element study. Li Z, Kindig M, Kerrigan J, Untaroiu CD, Subit D, Kent R..
    Journal of Biomechanics. 2010; 43:228-234.
59. Influence of mesh density, cortical thickness and material properties on human rib fracture prediction. Li Z, Kindig MW, Subit D, Kent RW. Med Eng Phys.
    2010;32:998–1008
60. Identifying the properties of ultra-soft materials using a new methodology of combined specimen-specific FE model and optimization techniques Zhu F, Jin
    X, Guan F, Zhang L, Mao H, Yang K, King AI. Materials and Design 2010; 31(10):4704-4712.

                                                                                                                                                           55
GHBMC Public Presentation Materials

Conference Presentation (no written paper):
1. The Status of the Global Human Body Models Consortium (GHBMC). John J. Combest, J.T. Wang, 2016 SAE Government Industry Meeting, Washington D.C.
2. An Objective Evaluation of Mass Scaling Techniques Utilizing Computational Human Body Models. Matthew Davis, Wake Forest/Virginia Tech., 2015 43rd
    International Workshop on Human Subjects for Biomechanical Research, November 8, 2015. New Orleans, LA
3. Understanding Head Injury Mechanisms: Parametric Modeling of Head/Neck Response. Derek A. Jones, Wake Forest/Virginia Tech., 2015 43rd International
    Workshop on Human Subjects for Biomechanical Research, November 8, 2015. New Orleans, LA
4. Effect of Impact Location on Brain Tissue Strain in Football Helmet Impacts. Benjamin S. Elkin, MEA Forensic Engineers and Scientists., 2015 43rd International
    Workshop on Human Subjects for Biomechanical Research, November 8, 2015. New Orleans, LA
5. Preliminary Investigation of Thoracolumbar Loads under Frontal Crashes using a Human Finite Element Model. Mike W. J. Arun, Medical College of
    Wisconsin., 2015 43rd International Workshop on Human Subjects for Biomechanical Research, November 8, 2015. New Orleans, LA
6. Development of Computational Models As Part of the Global Human Body Models Consortium - The Perspective of the Center of Excellence in Head
    Modeling. Computer-Aided Engineering and Multidisciplinary Design Optimization: Recent Advances, Technology, and Future Symposium. April 17, 2015, Ann
    Arbor, MI
7. Development and Validation of GHMBC Models by the Full Body Models Center of Expertise F. Scot Gayzik, 5th International Symposium “Human Modeling
    and Simulation in Automotive Engineering, Munich Germany, October 17, 2014.
8. Segment Tension Testing Jeffrey Barker, Naveen Chandrashekar, Duane Cronin, World Congress of Biomechanics July 8, 2014.
9. Current Research and Development Activities of the Full Body Model Center of Expertise of the Gloabal Human Body Models Consortium Project. F. Scot
    Gayzik, Joel Stitzel, ARL Workshop on Numerical Analysis of Human and Surrogate Response to Accelerative Loading, January 8, 2014
10. A Preliminary Evaluation of Human & Dummy Finite Element Models under Blast-Induced Accelerative Loading Conditions. Costin D. Untaroiu, ARL
    Workshop on Numerical AnalNeck Response of a Finite Element Human Body Model During a Simulated Rotary-Wing Air-craft Impact
11. Neck Response of a Finite Element Human Body Model During a Simulated Rotary-Wing Air-craft Impact. Joel Stitzel, ARL Workshop on Numerical Analysis
    of Human and Surrogate Response to Accelerative Loading, January 8, 2014
12. Phase II Plan & Status of the Global Human Body Models Consortium. J.T.Wang, SAE Government & Industry Meeting, January 24, 2014, Washington D.C.
13. Status of the Global Human Body Models Consortium. J. Combest, 4th International Symposium on Human Modeling and Simulation in Automotive
    Engineering. May 14th, 2013, Munich, Germany
14. Updated Status of the GHBMC (Global Human Body Models Consortium) J. Combest, RAMSIS update Conference, June 8th, 2013
15. Development of a Detailed Finite Element Neck Model for Automotive Safety Research. Fice JB, Moulton J, Cronin DS. NHTSA Biomechanics Workshop Paper,
    Dearborn, Michigan, 2012.
16. High Rate Behaviour of the Cervical Spine Segments. Barker J, Chandrashekar N, Cronin DS., Ohio State University Injury Biomechanics Symposium, 2012.

                                                                                                                                                          56
GHBMC Public Presentation Materials

Conference Presentation (no written paper):
17. Examination of the Kinematics of the Thoracoabdominal Contents under Various Loading Scenarios. Howes MK, Gregory SA, Beillas P, and Hardy WN. Stapp
    Journal and Car Crash Conference: Savannah, GA, 2012
18. Material Properties of the Post-Mortem Stomach in High-Rate Equibiaxial Elongation. Howes MK and Hardy WN.. ASME Summer Bioengineering Conference:
    Fajardo, Puerto Rico, 2012.
19. Material Properties of the Post-Mortem Small Intestine in High-Rate Equibiaxial Elongation. Howes MK and Hardy WN. The Ohio State University Injury
    Biomechanics Symposium: Columbus, OH, 2012.
20. A Finite Element Model of the Occupant Lower Extremity for Automotive Impact Applications. Untaroiu, Yue, and Shin (2012). ASME 2012 Summer
    Bioengineering Conference. 267-268.
21. Recent advances in developing finite element head model. Presented at the 2012 ICRASH. July 18th - 20th, Milan, Italy. Y.H. Kim, J.E. Kim, A.W. Eberhardt,
    ASME Summer Bioengineering Conf.,Fajardo, Puerto Rico, June 2012.
22. Performance of a 50th percentile abdominal model for impact: effect of size and mass. Beillas P., and Berthet F. European Society of Biomechanics
    Conference, Lisbon, Portugal, July 2012
23. Finite element simulation of pelvic fractures in side impacts. Kim, Kim, and Eberhardt. ASME Summer Bioengineering Conference, Fajardo, Puerto Rico, June
    2012.
24. Completion of Phase I Development of the Global Human Body Models Consortium Mid‐Sized Male Full Body Finite Element Model. F. Scott Gayzik, SAE
    Government Industry Meeting, January 26th, 2012
25. Development and Validation of an Finite Element Model of Occupant Lower Extremity. Untaroiu. NHTSA Human Subjects Workshop, Nov. 2011
26. Development & Validation of an In-Vivo Finite Element Pelvis Model with Cortical Thickness Mapped from a Cadaver. Kim, Kim, and Eberhardt (2011).,
    ASME Summer Bioengineering Conf., Nemacolin, PA, June 2011.
27. Status of the Global Human Body Models Consortium. John J. Combest, 3rd International Symposium on Human Modeling and Simulation in Automotive
    Engineering, Auschafenburg, Germany, May 27th, 2011
28. Development and Validation of an Finite Element Model of Occupant Lower Extremity, Neng Yue, Jaeho Shin,Costin Untaroiu NHTSA Workshop, Nov. 2011.
29. Development & Validation of an In-Vivo Finite Element Pelvis Model with Cortical Thickness Mapped from a Cadaver, Y.H. Kim, J.E. Kim, A.W. Eberhardt,
    ASME Summer Bioengineering Conf., Nemacolin, PA, June 2011.
30. Development of finite element model of the abdomen for impact. Beillas P., and Berthet F. Thirty-Ninth International Workshop on Human Subjects for
    Biomechanical Research - NHTSA, Dearborn, MI, November 2011 (oral presentation)
31. Prediction of rib cage fracture in computational modeling: effect of rib cortical thickness distribution and intercostal muscles mechanical properties. Subit,
    D, Kindig, M, Li, Z, Kent, R, Baudrit, P, Jansova, M, Hyncik, L, Dziewonski, T, Toczyski, J. (2011) Proceedings of the 39th International Workshop on Human
    Subjects for Biomechanical Research, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, U.S. D.O.T.

                                                                                                                                                           57
GHBMC Public Presentation Materials

Conference Presentation (no written paper):
32. Development of the GHBMC thorax finite element model. Subit, D, Kindig, M, Li, Z, Kent, R, (2011) Workshop 'From medical image reconstruction to human
    body models ' for the European project THOMO (Valenciennes, France)"
33. Mechanical Properties of Human Cervical Spine Ligaments Relevant to Car Crash Scenarios. Mattucci, S., Moulton, J., Chandrashekar, N., Cronin, D.,
    Biomedical Engineering Workshop: Foundations for the Future, November 17, 2011, University of British Columbia, British Columbia, Canada.
34. Prediction of Neck Injury in Out-of-Position Rear Impact. Shateri, H., Cronin, D.S., Graduate Student Research Conference 2011, University of Waterloo,
    Waterloo, Ontario, April 28, 2011.
35. Prediction of Neck Response in Out Of Position Impact Scenarios. Shateri, H. and Cronin, D.S., BIOMECH Pittsburgh, PA, November 7-9, 2011.
36. Development of a Detailed Finite Element Neck Model for Automotive Safety Research. Fice, J., Moulton, J., Cronin, D.S., 39th International Workshop on
    Human Subjects for Biomechanical Research, Dearborn, MI, November 6, 2011.
37. Mechanical Properties Of Human Craniovertebral Ligaments. Mattucci, S., Cronin, D., Chandrashekar, N., Moulton, J., American Society of Biomechanics,
    August 2011, California.
38. GHBMC Mid-Size Male Model 2011 Status & Future Plan. Mark S. Torigian, SAE Government/Industry Meeting, Washington, DC, Jan. 27, 2011.
39. Development of a New Device for Characterizing Solid Organ Failure Properties. Howes MK, White NA, Beillas P and Hardy WN. 6th World Congress of
    Biomechanics: Singapore, 2010.
40. Development of a finite element ribcage model of the 50th percentile male with variable rib cortical thickness. Li, Z., Subit, D., Kindig, M., Kent, R. Proc. 38th
    International Workshop on Human Subjects for Biomechanical Research, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, U.S. D.O.T. 2010
41. Development of a Finite Element Model of the Human Cervical Spine for Automotive Crashworthiness Fice, J., Panzer, M. and Cronin, D.S., Research World
    Congress of Biomechanics WCB 2010, Aug 1-6, 2010, Singapore.
42. Injury Prediction Using a Detailed Cervical Spine Segment Finite Element Model. Dewit, J. and Cronin, D.S., World Congress of Biomechanics WCB 2010, Aug
    1-6, 2010, Singapore.
43. Status of the GHBMC – Recent Progress and Next Steps. Duane Detwiller, SAE Government/Industry Meeting, 2010
44. Status of the GHBMC – Creation of Six Centers of Expertise. John Combest, SAE Government/Industry Meeting, 2009
45. Investigation of facet joint response under rear impact conditions using FE model of the cervical spine. Fice, Jason, Duane Cronin, Matthew Panzer. ESV.
    Stuttgart, 2009.
46. Introduction of Global Human Body Models Consortium, Robert C. Lange, SAE Government/Industry Meeting, Washington, DC, May 14-16, 2007
47. Technical Approach of the Global Human Body Models Consortium. Jenne-Tai Wang and Yuichi Kitagawa, SAE Government/Industry Meeting, Washington,
    DC, May 14-16, 2007

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