Introduction DR-BOB project - Dr Tracey Crosbie - Build Up

 
Introduction DR-BOB project - Dr Tracey Crosbie - Build Up
Introduction
DR-BOB project

  Dr Tracey Crosbie
Introduction DR-BOB project - Dr Tracey Crosbie - Build Up
Demand Response in Blocks of Buildings
              EU H2020 funded Innovation project
                      Mar 2016 – Feb 2019
               10 partners 5 EU countries 4 demos

                 Teesside University UK Project Coordinator

                 Centre Scientifique et Technique du Bâtiment France

                 Siemens Energy Management Division UK

                 R2M Solution Italy

                 NOBATEK France

                 Grid Pocket SAS France

                 Duneworks BV Netherlands

                 Fondazione Poliambulanza Italy

                 Servelect Romania

                 Technical University of Cluj-Napoca
March 3, 2016 / Teesside University                                    Slide 2
Introduction DR-BOB project - Dr Tracey Crosbie - Build Up
Aim of DR BOB
   To demonstrate the economic & environmental benefits of demand
    response in blocks of buildings for the actors required to bring it to
    market
   These actors include but are not restricted to
        Distribution Network Operators (DNOs)
        Energy Retailers
        Transmission Service Operators (TSOs)
        Energy Service Companies (ESCOs)
        IT providers
        Aggregators
        Facilities owners & managers

                                                                             Slide 3
Introduction DR-BOB project - Dr Tracey Crosbie - Build Up
DRBOB solution key functionality

   Aggregation of DR potential
    of many blocks of buildings
   Real-time optimisation of
    local energy
       production
       consumption
       & storage
                                          Automated intelligence
   User adjustable optimisation           adapts to
    criteria
                                              fluctuations in energy demand
       to maximise economic profit
                                               & production
       or to minimise CO2 emissions
                                              changing weather conditions
                                              dynamic energy tariffs

                                                                               Slide 4
Introduction DR-BOB project - Dr Tracey Crosbie - Build Up
DR-BOB Architecture & Interface
                             A scalable cloud based
                              central management
                              system
                             Supported by a local
                              real-time energy
                              management solution
                           Which communicates
                            with individual building
                            management systems
                            & generation / storage
                           Achieved by
                            integrating
                                  Demand Response
                                   Manager Siemens
                                  Local Energy Manager
                                   (LEM) –Teesside
                                   University
                                  Consumer Portal –
                                   GridPocket EcoTroks™

                                                          GM 1   Slide 5
Introduction DR-BOB project - Dr Tracey Crosbie - Build Up
Demand Response Technology Readiness Levels

   DRTRLs to measure the technological readiness of a block of
    buildings to participate in a building-stock oriented DR program
   Borrows from the TRL concept developed by NASA in the early 70s.
    Essentially TRLs provide a “discipline-independent, program
    figure of merit (FOM) to allow more effective assessment of, and
    communication regarding the maturity of new technologies”.
   Provides a scale which a facilities manager or building owner can
    use to conduct a technology readiness assessment (TRA) of the
    current energy and communications systems at their site, or sites,
    to support their decision to implement the DR-BoB energy
    management solution.

                                                                         Slide 6
Introduction DR-BOB project - Dr Tracey Crosbie - Build Up
Operationalising DRTRLs for BoBs
           refers to the building/site energy &
 communication systems
      includes metering & telemetry flexible load local energy
      generation & energy storage plant
               refers to time
     i.e. ready for operations at the present time
        refers to the extent of the capability of a block of
 buildings to take part in the DR-BoB energy management
 solution
                     refers to a group of buildings that may
 or may not be in proximity to each other if under
 common governance

                                                                  Slide 7
Introduction DR-BOB project - Dr Tracey Crosbie - Build Up
   DRTRL-0 no capability
        a building/site does not have the technical capacity to enable the implementation
        of the DR-BoB solution
   DRTRL-1 manual capability
       a building/site has flexibility and can be controlled in a manual capacity by facility
        managers or end consumers making a direct intervention to apply control signals
        typically based on a recommendation notification such as an email
   DRTRL-2 partially automated capability
       a building/site has the minimum technology required to partially enable some of
        the automated functioning of the DR-BoB energy management solution by directly
        responding to tele-command signals without manual intervention, but will still
        require manual intervention for the remaining functionality;
   DRTRL-3 full automated capability
        a building/site has the technologies required to fully enable all of the automated
        functioning of the DR-BoB energy management solution through tele-command
        signals, without requiring manual application of control.
                                                                                                 Slide 8
Introduction DR-BOB project - Dr Tracey Crosbie - Build Up
https://www.mdpi.com/2075-5309/8/2/13

                                        Slide 9
Introduction DR-BOB project - Dr Tracey Crosbie - Build Up
Pilot site DRTRL

                   Slide 10
DR-BOB
      The UK Pilot

Dr Michael Short / Dr Sergio Rodriguez
The UK pilot site
   The UK demonstration site of DR-BOB
    is part of the Teesside University
    main campus in Middlesbrough, North
    East of England.
   The main campus situated just
    outside Middlesbrough town centre
    and occupies an area approximately
    of three hectares.
   The main campus is based on 33
    separate buildings, 5 of which are
    residential town houses/halls for the
    students.
   Term-time occupancy is
    approximately 22,000.

                                            Slide 12
Architecture implemented at the UK pilot
site

                                           Slide 13
Pilot site DRTRL

                   Slide 14
Running the demonstrations

Scenario # and Name                                  Number of DR events in 2018
UK site                                      that have occurred and are expected to come
                                 Jan   Feb   Mar   Apr   May   Jun   Jul   Aug   Sep   Oct   Nov   Dec

1    Electric Demand Reduction
                                  1     3     1     1                 2     2     1           2     2
2    Electric Demand Increase
                                                          1     1     2     2
3a   Electric Peak Demand
     Reduction (Explicit)
                                        2     1     1                                         1     2
3b   Electric Peak Demand
     Reduction (Implicit)                     1     1                                        10

4    Static Frequency Response
                                  3                             3     3     3     3     3     3

                                                                                                         Slide 15
Case study example. Scenario 1. STOR

   deploy the overall DR-BOB technical solution at UK pilot site      The largest market for DR in the UK is the
                                                                        Short Term Operating Reserve (STOR). It
                                                                        has a 20 minute minimum alert time for
                                                                        response so it is possible to coordinate
                                                                        manually activated actions to reduce
                                                                        demand. In the case of the Teesside
                                                                        University pilot site this means that the
                                                                        larger units controlled by the BMS in a
                                                                        number of buildings could be activated
                                                                        together. These periods are usually found
        Clarendon building
                                                                        in the evenings (17:00 to 19:00)
                                                                       Hence when there is a grid warning, the
                                                                        system automatically changes the set point
                                                                        of HVAC systems in order to abide to the
                                                                        required energy demand reduction
                                                                       Responding to the grid warnings might
                                                                        result in economical benefits, but could
                                                                        have a negative effect if not managed
                                                                        adequately.
                                                                       It is crucial to ensure that the adequate
                                                                        optimization process is followed

                                                                                                                     Slide 16
Case study example. Scenario 1. STOR (cont.)

                  Aggregation of multiple HVAC zones / units across many buildings:

                                                                                                        Pd (k )   f Pd (k  1)   (k  1) 2
                                                                                                        Pn (k )   f Pn (k  1)   (k  1) APR(k  1)
                                                                                                                                              Pn (k )
                                                                                                         (k )   f  (k  1)  (1   f )           ATR(k )
                                                                                                                                              Pd (k )
                      OpenADR                                                                                            The co-ordination
                                                                                                                       procedure runs during
                                                                                                                        the prep and active
                                                                                                                              phases

                            J N ( xN )  g N ( xN );
                            k  N  1, N  2, ..., 1, 0 :
                            J k ( xk )  min {g k ( xk , uk )  J k 1 ( f k ( xk , uk ))};
                                                                                           The
                                                                                             optimal controls
                                       uk U k ( xk )
                                                                                           run perpetually

Short, M. “Optimal HVAC Dispatch for Demand Response: A Dynamic Programming Approach”. To appear in: Proceedings
             of the International Conference on Innovative Applied Energy (IAPE’19), Oxford, UK, March 2019.

                                                                                                                                                                GM 1   Slide 17
Case study example. Scenario 1. STOR (cont.)

           Calibrated Simulation Results

    DR                                       DR
  Window                                   Window

                                                    160 kWh

                                                    100 kWh
    DR
  Window

                                                              GM 1   Slide 18
0,0
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                                              11Apr18-11Apr18
                                                                      09:00:00
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                                              average high 7 of 10

                                                                      13:30:00
           Clarendon building. UK site                                14:00:00
                                                                      14:30:00
           Event 11 April 2018. Scenario 1.

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                                              DR shifted energy use

                                                                      18:30:00
                                                                                                                                                              Clarendon building. comparison of Wednesdays in 2018
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Case study example. Scenario 1. STOR (cont.)

                                                                      19:00:00
                                                                      19:30:00
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Preliminary Experimental Results

                                                                      20:30:00
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Slide 19
Scenario 3A. TNUoS scenario (TRIADS)

   Deployment of the scenario 3a at UK pilot site                                                                 The Triads are 3 of the highest demand
                                                                                                                    half hourly periods in the winter for which
                                                                                                                    customers are charged circa £40/kW.
                                                                                                                   These periods are usually found in the
                                                                                                                    evenings (17:00 to 19:00)
                                                                                                                   Hence when there is a grid warning, the
                                                                                                                    users need to carry out a communication
                                                                                                                    chain in order to perform the required
        Clarendon building           Middlesbrough tower           Constantine building   Stephenson building       energy demand reduction
                                                                                                                   Responding to the grid warnings might
                                                                                                                    result in benefits, not just economically,
                                                                                                                    but in the long term enhancing
                                                                                                                    organisational participation in DR
                                                                                                                   It is crucial to engage users in DR using
                                                                                                                    functionalities based on behavioural
                                                                                                                    theories designed to improve smart grid
                                                                                                                    stability and performance
                                                                                                                   There is a high diversity of stakeholders
                                                                                                                    involved, from staff, to building managers,
                                                                                                                    students, academics, researchers,
                                                                                                                    subcontrators…

               Middlesbrough tower EV chargers          Phoenix building
               DR-BOB architecture implemented at the UK pilot site. Scenario 3a

                                                                                                                                                                  Slide 20
Scenario 3a. TNUoS. Organisational readiness
                   Participation of stakeholders: Roles assigned
                    and prepared to start running the events.
                    Team leaders, facility managers, users…
                         TSO/DSO/Grid

                                         SC3a DR event
                                                            M
                                        generated (triad
                                                            E
                                           warning)

                                                                                                                               DR participation check.
                      Manager

                                                           Opt in    CP   Email Team Leaders   CP                                                        CP
                      Energy

                                                                                                                                  Initial evaluation

                                                           Opt out   CP
                      Team leader
                      Stephenson

                                                                                                    Communicate change in
                                                                                      Schedule        schedule and event       DR participation
                                                                                     management      guidelines to staff and     assurance
    SC3a DR event

                                                                                                           occupants

                                                                                                    Communicate change in
                      Team leader
                       Clarendon

                                                                                      Schedule        schedule and event       DR participation
                                                                                     management      guidelines to staff and     assurance
                                                                                                           occupants
                    Middlesbrough

                                                                                                    Communicate change in
                     Team leader

                                                                                      Schedule        schedule and event       DR participation
                        tower

                                                                                     management      guidelines to staff and     assurance
                                                                                                           occupants

                                                                                                    Communicate change in
                      Team leader
                        Phoenix

                                                                                      Schedule        schedule and event       DR participation
                                                                                     management      guidelines to staff and     assurance
                                                                                                           occupants

                                                                                                                                                              Slide 21
0
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                                                                                                            60
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                                                                  14Mar18
                                                                                      10:00
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                                                                  mean value winter

                                                                                      18:00
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                                                                                                                                  Case study example. Scenario 3a. TNUoS

                                                                                      20:30
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           Event 14 March 2018. Scenario 3a. Clarendon building

                                                                                      21:30
                                                                                      22:00
                                                                                      22:30
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Slide 22
Running the demonstrations
   Other Demand Response Scenarios in the UK
     SCENARIO 2 – DER (DTU in UK market)
    Event: During the summer months based on historical data
    Maximum expected impact, kW: approx. 220 kW (CHP)
    Number of Events per year: 4
    DR Programme: DER (DTU in UK Market)

     SCENARIO 3B – Electric peak demand reduction (implicit)
    Preferred Schedule: 9:00 to 10:00
    Maximum expected impact, kW: 12 kW
    Number of Events per year: 12
    DR Programme: DUoS (Distribution Use of System) charges in UK market

     SCENARIO 4 – Frequency regulation / emergency load shedding
    Number of Events per year: random (Poisson), mean of 10/year.
    DR Programme: Decentralised FD/AS (FCDM in UK Market)
                                                                           Slide 23
Main lessons learned
   Demand Response TRL shifted from 1 to 3 in order to
    enable the demonstrations;

   5 DR scenarios were implemented, ranging from manual
    response scenarios (TRIAD) to fast-acting automatic
    control scenarios (FFR).

   Demand shifting/demand reduction has been recorded in
    response to each of the generated DR events. Statistical
    analysis is needed to fully gauge effectiveness/depth and
    economic benefits of the solution architecture…

                                                                Slide 24
DR-BOB
The French Pilot

  PEREVOZCHIKOV Igor
The French pilot site
     Country: France
     Region: Nouvelle-Aquitaine                                        Training centre of The
     City: Anglet                                                      Compagnons du Tour de France
                                                                       (training center for building
                                                                       trades)
     GPS coordinates:
     Latitude N +43° 28’ 24,0882’’
     Longitude W -1° 30’ 37,8786’’

                                                                          Research and Technology Organisation Nobatek/INEF4
                                                                          (office building)
                                                                          NOBATEK/INEF4 is a coop open innovation center developing new
                                                                          solutions for sustainable buildings and cities in France, Europe
Arkinova Business Incubator                                               and worldwide.
Dedicated to sustainable and bio-
construction start-ups

                                                      Annual energy
           French demonstration site     Year of                      Number of       Net floor       Number of permanent
                                                      consumption,
                   buildings           construction                     levels        area, m2            occupants
                                                          MWh
       Nobatek building (NBK)             2009             66             3              843                     35
       Training center of Compagnons      2012            112             2             3850                     80
       du Tour de France(FCMB)
       Business Incubator (GA)            2016             70             2              1810                    20

                                                                                                                                             Slide 26
Architecture implemented at the pilot site

                                             DRTRL before the
                                             implementation of the
                                             DR-BOB solution : 1

                                             DRTRL level after the
                                             implementation of the
                                             DR-BOB solution: 3

                                                               Slide 27
Running the demonstrations
Scenario # and name                  Purpose                  Duration,      Real signal/
FR site                                                        hours      simulated signal?

1 Electric demand         Demonstrate a potential of             8
  reduction               controlling assets in block of
                          buildings in response to a market
                          signal related to a national
                          French consumption
3 Gas demand reduction    Local gas optimization for             1        Simulated signal
                          heating/ Gaz demand reduction
4 Peak power demand       Peak-power demand reduction            1        Simulated signal
  reduction
5 Virtual microgrid or    Matching of buildings’                 5        Simulated signal
  Sharing of electric     consumption to the local energy
  energy inside the       generated by PV panels on one
  demonstration site area building

                                                                                              Slide 28
Running the demonstrations
Scenario # and                 Operation               Buildings   Building assets involved
name                                                   involved
FR site
1 Electric demand   Loads shifting, loads shedding,    BI, NBK,
  reduction         preheating                          FCMB
3 Gas demand        Switch from gas-fired boiler to     FCMB
  reduction         the woodchip boiler, preheat,
                    decrease ambient temperature
                    setpoints
4 Peak power        Loads shifting, loads shedding,    BI, NBK,
  demand            preheating                          FCMB
  reduction
5 Virtual microgrid When locally generated energy      BI, NBK,
  or Sharing of     totally meet and excess             FCMB
  electric energy   electricity demand of buildings
  inside the        host, the excess of this energy
  demonstration     could be “virtually” shared with
  site area         other buildings inside the BOB

                                                                                              Slide 29
Running the demonstrations
Scenario # and name                                  Number of DR events in 2018
FR site                                      that have occurred and are expected to come
                                 Jan   Feb   Mar   Apr   May Jun Jul    Aug Sep    Oct     Nov Dec
1   Electric demand reduction          12      1                                                2

3   Gas demand reduction               11                                                       2

4   Peak power demand             6     3     12    1                                           2
    reduction
5   Virtual microgrid or                                                       5     2      2   1
    Sharing of electric energy
    inside the demonstration
    site area

                                                                                                     Slide 30
The results
Scenario # and name              Impact for building managers     Average energy
FR site                                                            shifted (not a
                                                                    final result),
                                                                        kWh

1 Electric demand reduction    Financial savings and raise   of         244
                               awareness between occupants
3 Gas demand reduction         Gas and financial savings               22,86

4 Peak power demand            Financial savings and raise   of        14,49
   reduction                   awareness between occupants
5 Virtual microgrid or Sharing Financial savings                  Up to 45 kW per
   of electric energy inside                                            hour
   the demonstration site
   area

                                                                                     Slide 31
Main lessons learned
   Buildings need to be highly instrumented to participate into
    DR programs
   Buildings should be equipped with Building Management
    Systems to allow monitoring of building’ assets during DR
    events
   Blocks of small office buildings can participate into CPP
    (Critical Peak Pricing), Capacity Bidding, DLC (Direct Load
    Control) and DER (Distributed Energy Resources) programs
   Blocks of small office buildings can’t participate into Fast DR
    Dispatch/Ancillary Services programs requiring a very fast
    (even immediate) manual action on building assets
   Building managers should be notified about incoming events at
    least 24 hours before event begins
   Engagement of occupants into energy shifting actions depend
    from the local context of building

                                                                      Slide 32
Pilot site DRTRL

                   Slide 33
DR-BOB
The ROMANIAN Pilot

        Dr. Andrei CECLAN
  Andrei.Ceclan@ethm.utcluj.ro
The Romanian pilot site
Faculty of Electrical Engineering        Student’s Dormitories

  Net floor area (m2): 10.565       Net floor area (m2): 17.376

  Occupants: 765                    Occupants: 2700

                                                                  Slide 35
The Romanian pilot site
 Faculty of Building Services        Swimming Pool Complex

Net floor area (m2): 5.725      Net floor area (m2): 6.616

Occupants: 500                  Occupants: 200

                                                             Slide 36
Implemented BEMS – interface

                               Slide 37
TV Screens at the entrance
of Romania pilot site buildings

                                  Slide 38
Running the demonstrations

                                                Number of DR events in 2018
                                        that have occurred and are expected to come
    Scenario # RO site
                            Jan   Feb     Mar   Apr   May   Jun   Jul   Aug   Sep   Oct   Nov   Dec

1 Virtual Critical Peak      -     -       -    1     2     2     3     2     2     3     4     3
   Pricing with Automated
   Control

2 Explicit Demand            -     -       -     -     -    3     2     1     2     2     2     2
   Reduction in Student
   Dormitories - Manual

3 Virtual ToU Tariff with    -     -       2    1      -    3     1      -    3     3     2     3
   Schedules Response

                                                                                                      Slide 39
The results Facts and figures – DR event (1)

                                               Slide 40
The results Facts and figures – DR event (2)

                                               Slide 41
Running the demonstrations–record of events
Scenario      Date         Hours               Assets opted in                  Comments

  2, 3     09.03.2018   18:00-19:00        Student’s Dormitories          Some TV football game
                                                                                there… 

  2, 3     22.03.2018   17:00-18:00        Student’s Dormitories          Group instruction at each
                                                                                 floor level

  2, 3     26.04.2018   20:00-21:00        Student’s Dormitories                      -

  1, 3     26.04.2018   11:00-12:00       Swimming Pool Complex           Automated control, with
                                                                             Staff involvement

  1, 3     10.05.2018   11:00-12:00   Faculty of Electrical Engineering    Decisive Administrator
                                                                                involvement

  1, 3     31.05.2018   12:00-13:00     Faculty of Building Services       Low energy use in fact

  2, 3     07.06.2018   20:00-21:00        Student’s Dormitories            Students competition

  2, 3     22.06.2018   20:00-21:00        Student’s Dormitories                      -

  1, 3     22.06.2018   11:00-12:00       Swimming Pool Complex                 Easy control

                                                                                                      Slide 42
Preliminary cost-benefit analysis

                                    Slide 43
Preliminary cost-benefit analysis

                                    Slide 44
Opportunity

     Romanian Demand Reponse
         potential market

              ≈ 100 M Eur/year

                                 Slide 45
Pilot site DRTRL

                   Slide 46
DR-BOB
The Italian Pilot

 Jorge Federico Galluzzi
Numbers of Fondazione Poliambulanza

 Fondazione Poliambulanza (FP) is a private nonprofit hospital,
  located in the city of Brescia (Northern Italy, 90km from Milan)

                                          Every day   Yearly energy consumption
                                          > 5,000
                                                                4,500 MWh

                                                                5,000,000 m3

  Inpatients / ER visits / outpatiens /                         8,000 MWh
         employees / visitors

                                                                                  GM 1   Slide 48
The italian pilot site
Main BUILDING
• Year of construction: 1997
• Number of levels: 6
• Net floor area 37,000 m2

Inpatient BUILDING
• Year of construction: 2012
• Number of levels: 7
• Net floor area 8,500 m2

Operating Rooms BUILDING
• Year of construction: 2016
• Number of levels: 4
• Net floor area 9,000 m2

Research CENTER - CREM
• Year of construction: 2001
• Number of levels: 2
• Net floor area 2,200 m2      49
                                    Slide 49
Architecture implemented at the pilot site
Before the DR-BOB project only a BMS was installed but during the project:
    •   Power meters were installed and data is collectet to a energy monitoring SW
    •   Data is transfer every 15min to the LEM (ftp server)
    •   Energy baseline was created and DR action are evaluated

        machine Command                                        Monitoring

              BMS

                                                                  50

                                                                                      Slide 50
Architecture implemented at the pilot site

                Name                                          Purpose                                                Operation
Scenario 1                                The scope of the DR action it to reduce load as         The action will use the inertia of the cooling circuit
Load curtailment or shedding chillers     much as possible during a given interval of time        to minimise impact on occupants' comfort. The
loads                                     which is expected to be a CPP interval.                 temperature set-point of the chillers will be reduced
                                                                                                  (lower temperature) before the starting time of the
                                                                                                  CPP interval and then increased at the time of the
                                                                                                  event
Scenario 2                                Reduce small power demand when requested as a           The energy manager will send emails to
Load shedding of small loads              consequence of dynamic electricity cost (in             administration staff requesting the action. These will
                                          combination with scenario 4)                            also be asked to provide a feedback
Scenario 3                                Shift use of food carts of 30 minutes with respect to   The facility manager will coordinate this with the
Load shifting of important loads          usual schedule (TBD) as a consequence of dynamic        canteen staff
                                          electricity cost (in combination with scenario 4)
Scenario 4                                Scope to this scenario is to optimise use of the        The energy manager receives the optimised schedule
Self-consumption and heat recovery from   generation assets of the hospital in order to           and operational parameters and controls assets
CHP power plant                           minimise energy cost. this involve all energy vectors   through the BMS accordingly. Electric energy
                                          (electricity, heat, coolth, gas, steam - see image      absorption is obtained shifting loads on gas
                                          below) and is done on a daily basis                     consumption.

For safety reasons, due to the kind of service the hospital provides and for a lack of explicit DR
programs in Italy, in DR-BOB project all the scenarios were run manually by the energy manager
team.

                                                                                                                                                           Slide 51
Running the demonstrations

Scenario #                                         Number of DR events in 2018
@ Fondazione Poliambulanza (FP)            that have occurred and are expected to come
                                  Jan   Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul       Aug Sep Oct        Nov   Dec
    Load curtailment or
1   shedding of HVAC and                                     2               2    3       4     3
    chillers loads

    Load shedding of small
2   loads                                    1               1    1    1                        3

    Load shifting of important
3   loads                                                                    1

    Self-consumption and
4   heat recovery from CHP                   1                               1    3       4
    power plant

                                                                                                     Slide 52
Implementation of DR scenarios
        Report of DR events
   Scenario 1+4  BEST combination to have longer and higher energy
    reductions

                                                                       Slide 53
Implementation of DR scenarios                                 -20 %
                                                                 peak power demand
         Report of DR events
                                                                   B
   Scenario 1+4
                      Event #      date         time
                        1.2     28/06/2018   11:00-12:00

                                                                                       D
                                                                       C

                                                   Event 1.2
                                                               B: 3/3 Tchiller flow = 5°C

                                                               C: 1/3 Tchiller flow = 8°C
                                                                  2/3 chillers off

                                                               D: 3/3 Tset-point = = 7°C

                                                                                            Slide 54
Implementation of DR scenarios
               Report of DR events
            Scenario 1+4                                                                         Event
                       1.200

                       1.000
Cooling capacity
absorption chiller
                        800

                                                                                                    -33%
                        600
 Electric
 Energy from
                        400
 the Grid
                                                             Pre-cooling
                        200
      Electric power
      chiller
                          0

                               Generale EE acquistata [kW]       Trige_assorbitore Energia Frigo (kW)      TRANE 4 potenza istantanea (KW)

                                                                                                                                             Slide 55
Main lessons learned

   The more people involved the less the power reduction is
    predictable and replicable;

   A full automation in the control of HVAC systems by a
    BMS makes the DR more effective;

   The design of the plant architecture (hydraulic and
    aeraulic circuits) and machine (chiller and boilers) can
    help to reach better results in energy reduction.

                                                               Slide 56
Pilot site DRTRL

                   Slide 57
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