LANGUAGE AND TRANSLATION - An introduction to language and translation for global online communications, localized websites and international ...

LANGUAGE AND TRANSLATION - An introduction to language and translation for global online communications, localized websites and international ...
    An introduction to language and translation for global online
    communications, localized websites and international social
                              media                                An IBT Online ebook publication©
LANGUAGE AND TRANSLATION - An introduction to language and translation for global online communications, localized websites and international ...
Inside your Ebook
                  IBT Online : Go Global with Website Localization
                  WHO SHOULD BE READING THIS EBOOK?                   3

                  LANGUAGE IN THE WORLD                               4

                  LANGUAGE IN EUROPE AND NORTH AMERICA                5

                  TRANSLATION INDUSTRY                                6

                  TRANSLATION SUPPLIERS                               7

                  TRANSLATION SERVICES                                8

                  TRANSLATION TECHNOLOGY                              10


                  SOCIAL MEDIA)
                  TRANSLATION TOP TEN TRENDS                          19

                  NEXT STEPS AND ABOUT IBT ONLINE                     21

Produced by IBT Online publications team. More resources available at:                       Language and Translation                                   2
LANGUAGE AND TRANSLATION - An introduction to language and translation for global online communications, localized websites and international ...
Who should be reading this?
          This ebook provides an introduction to language and translation for global online
             communications used for localized websites and international social media

           You should be reading this ebook, if you want an introduction to:
   Languages used for online communications, social media, localized websites and search engine
                                The translation service industry
                                Translation suppliers and services
                                   Translation technologies
                                      Translation online

This ebook is designed for business owners, marketing directors, international business development
managers who are looking to grow their exports and business globally and would like guidance on how to
                        manage language and translation in their target markets.

This ebook is both informative and practical. It will provide you with insight and understanding to help
   ensure that your business is addressing the issues of language and translation in order to achieve
                             successful exports and international business                         Language and Translation                                    3
LANGUAGE AND TRANSLATION - An introduction to language and translation for global online communications, localized websites and international ...
Language in the World
                           A world of languages
                          6,000 - 7,000 languages
                   150 languages spoken by >1 million people

                       Most widely spoken languages

                               Millions and languages
                   0                Language and Translation          4
LANGUAGE AND TRANSLATION - An introduction to language and translation for global online communications, localized websites and international ...
Language in Europe & North America
                                          Language: Europe
    The European Union has 24 official languages: Bulgarian, Croatian, Czech, Danish, Dutch, English,
   Estonian, Finnish, French, German, Greek, Hungarian, Irish, Italian, Latvian, Lithuanian, Maltese, Polish,
                          Portuguese, Romanian, Slovak, Slovene, Spanish, Swedish

                         Most widely spoken languages in Europe
              Official        First       Additional       Total
            languages       language      language

             English          13%           38%            51%

             German           16%           11%            27%

             French           12%           12%            24%

              Italian         13%            3%            16%

             Spanish          8%             7%            15%

                                       Language: North America
 The USA does not have an official language: English is used as the de-facto language although Spanish is
                                         almost as widely-spoken
                        Canada has 2 official languages: English and French
                        Language and Translation                                    5
LANGUAGE AND TRANSLATION - An introduction to language and translation for global online communications, localized websites and international ...
Translation Industry
                            What is the translation industry?
                      Language translation, localization and interpreting services

                              Size of the translation industry
                       >$40 billion in 2016, growing to $45 billion by 2020
                        Expected growth 6.5-7.5% annually through 2018
                >26,000 companies (lots of individuals, working on a free-lance basis)
                    Top 50 LSP’s account for US$4 billion (10% of the market)
                    Translation software market to reach US$3 billion by 2017

                                 Europe and North America
                         >50% of the language services market = Europe
            2nd place = North America – 4th fastest growing industry in the United States
                     Growth is driven by internationalization and technology

                                    Translation and business
 Multi-national, globally integrated companies have a presence in anywhere from 80 to 169 countries
(think Apple, L’Oreal…), requiring upwards of 50 language translation, localization and interpreting services
 Mid-cap international companies typically require 10-15 language translations into the world’s major
                                                  markets                       Language and Translation                          0             6
LANGUAGE AND TRANSLATION - An introduction to language and translation for global online communications, localized websites and international ...
Translation Suppliers
                         Language Service Providers (LSPs)
             Recognized industry leading report provided by Common Sense Advisory:
                                 The Language Services Market: 2015
         The world’s leading providers of translation, localization and interpreting services:
                                The Top 100 Language Service Providers
Leading LSP in the world = Lionbridge Technology , revenue of $560 million, growth >$100 million since

    Top LSPs – North America                              Top LSPs – Europe
  Lionbridge    MA      Technology, localization,           SDL           UK      Integrated language platforms,
  Technology             content development                                           technology, services
   Mission      OH      US government’s leading          Pangeanic       Spain         Translation services,
   Essential             provider of translators                                      translation technology
 TransPerfect   NY    Localization, interpretation,        STAR         Switzer      Multilingual information
                         document translation              Group         land             management
   Smartling    NY      Cloud-based translation           Kern AG       Germany      Translation, localization,
                        management platform                                               interpretation
  Welocalize    MD      Translation, localization,       RWS Group        UK           Intellectual property
                              multimedia                                             translation, localization                           Language and Translation                                        7
LANGUAGE AND TRANSLATION - An introduction to language and translation for global online communications, localized websites and international ...
Translation Services – Written & Spoken

                           Written language and spoken language
           Written language: Leaflets, technical manuals, brochures, letters, reports, websites
                General translation: non-specialized text from one language to another.
      Specialized translation: specialized text from one language to another e.g. scientific document
                                 Spoken language: On-site or remotely
           Consecutive interpreting: speakers pause to allow interpreter to convey the message
    Simultaneous interpreting: Carried out at the same time as the speaker (microphones & earphones)

                                       Software localization
Process of translating text and adjusting functional elements of a software application so it can be used by
                                           consumers internationally
Aim: transfer intent of original content and user interface from one language to another while maintaining
                Main types of software: desktop software, web applications, mobile apps
 Steps involved: analysis of material involved, cultural, technical and linguistic assessment, creation and
   maintenance of terminology glossaries, translation, adaptation of user interface, localization (graphics,
                                                scripts), testing                         Language and Translation                                   8
LANGUAGE AND TRANSLATION - An introduction to language and translation for global online communications, localized websites and international ...
Translation Services: Multimedia & Digital

                                     Multimedia localization
          Translation and localization activities that are related to visual and audio media
Aim: multimedia is focused on user experience; reach, inform and communicate with a global audience
                                 Cinema, TV, theatre, audio-visual…
                              Sub-titling: technical and precise process
   Voice over: replaces audio content not spoken by an actor, requires equipment and expertise
    Dubbing: used in markets where subtitling doesn’t fully accomplish the producers’ objectives
       Lip sync: insertion of audio attempts to match the lip movements of the original actors
Other services include: video production, art and graphics localization, animation localization, cultural
                                  assessments of multimedia content…

                                        Desktop publishing
                       Gives the final look and feel to the localized materials
  Even small layout or typographical mistakes impact how users perceive the product or the brand
                             Typesetting, graphics, website layouts etc.
     Translation related design services, graphic design, documentation, graphic localization
 Watch out for: different fonts, special characters, different word lengths, culturally appropriate style…                        Language and Translation                                     9
Translation Technology
                   Translation capabilities and innovation advantages
 Website: Translation of rapidly evolving/changing content and a choice of real-time or ongoing updates
  New technology allows the replication of design, formatting and branding, to correspond to the original
   language site. Allows the upload of prior translations to improve accuracy, verification is fast and easy.
                                   Ongoing content management system.

    Video and podcast/audio: Automated translation and verification options. Voice recognition can
   generate transcripts, audio translation can be delivered in a realistic synthetic voice. Videos allow video
    subtitles and/or closed caption files. The best podcast/audio providers can sync audio to account for
                                          language length differences.

Software and apps: Automated translation and verification options. New technology allows replication of
  apps into multiple languages. Can be released simultaneously to a global market. Popular business apps
                                  include live chat text and voice to voice.                        Language and Translation                                    10
Translation Technology
                            What is Machine Translation(MT)?
                    The use of software to translate from one language to another
         Optimal when large volumes of content need to be translated in a short timeframe
Excellent alternative when projects are so large that the cost or time investment for human translation
                                               isn’t feasible
                                      Reduces translation costs
                                 Helps reach global customers faster
                   Offers different levels of automation for different quality needs

            Types of MT                                          The growth of MT
The most common types :                               LSPs developing MT include Kantan and
 Statistical Machine Translation (SMT)                Pangeanic, launching, supporting, deploying for
 (translations generated on the basis of              their clients
   statistical models)                                Commercially viable and proven products are
 Rule-Based Machine Translation (RBMT)                on the market
   (based on linguistic information about             The largest enterprise-buyers are starting to
   source or target languages)                         outsource their machine translation
 Hybrid Systems, which combine both                   development work to external providers
   SMT and RBMT                                       At the heart of intelligent innovation in
                                                       translation technology                             Language and Translation                                  11
Translation Technology
                  What is Computer Assisted Translation (CAT)?
      A human translator uses computer software to support and facilitate the translation process
                 Breaks text down into segments to make translation faster and easier
The source text and the translation of each segment are saved together and presented as translation units

                                What is fuzzy match repair?
When CAT tools do not find an exact match for the source segment to translate in its translation memory
 (TM), translators must use fuzzy matches that come from translation units in the translation memory that
                                do not completely match the source segment
   A fuzzy match = translation memory match where the source segment in the text that needs to be
             translated is not quite the same as, but very similar, to a source segment in the TM

                                      Translation memories
   Linguistic databases that continually grow and “learn” from the translator
 Previous translations stored within the TM (in source and target language pairs
                        called translation units) and reused
     Means that the same sentence does not need to be translated twice
 The more the translation memories are built up, the faster translators can work                           Language and Translation                                 12
Translation Technology
                                Communicate in local language
          Prospective target audiences will find and understand you, in their local language
          Businesses today are web-centric, sophisticated, diverse, mobile and competitive
     Today, country specific websites are essential for a companies to compete successfully globally

                                          Local credibility
    Target audiences will know you respect and care about them, their market and their concerns
   Knowledge builds trust: localized websites help build trust for businesses in target export markets

                              Local engagement and knowledge
        You can engage in the local market – good for lead generation and market knowledge
Put your brand at the heart of your online presence and surround it with images and design features that
                        are understandable and look natural to your target country

  Huge multilingual               Everyday,
                                   864,000     Everyday, 2
                                                             Everyday, 5
                                                                             There are
                                                                            4.55 billion
                                   hours of
volume and competition
                                   video is     blogs are    tweets are
                                                                             pages on
                                 uploaded to     written        sent
                                                                           the internet
Translation Online
                                                Hosting and URLs
                                                Host your websites locally
                                                Reserve your URLs now!

                                                Content and design
                                  Content is not only about getting the language right
   Adapt text, ensure your sense of humor is understood, choose testimonials that your local audience can relate to
                            Convert measurements and monetary systems to the local ones
      Put your brand at the heart of your online presence - Surround it with images and design features that are
                                 understandable and look natural to your target country
                          Translate PDF brochures and catalogues and videos and/or subtitles
 Your dedicated localized websites should respect your existing design, spirit and structural features; but they must also
                   be adapted and customized to address specificities of each of your target markets

                                      The challenge
 Creating dedicated market websites is the first step
 Using them effectively is the bigger and long-term challenge
 Search engine optimization and social media communication are essential, but sometimes it's
  worth boosting your visibility with advertising, targeting each of your markets specifically
 Creating email campaigns, calls-to-action and landing pages in local languages helps you
  achieve your commercial objectives                                   Language and Translation                                           14
Translation Online

                         Google is dominant in Europe, Baidu in China
                       Google = 95% average market penetration in Europe, Baidu = 95% in China
                          Other search engines: Yandex (Russia), Naver (South Korea), Bing…
                          Country         Leader       Share         Runner-up     Share
                          Spain           Google       96%           Bing          2%
                          France          Google       95%           Bing          4%
                          Italy           Google       95%           Bing          2%
                          Germany         Google       93%           Bing          3%
                          UK              Google       89%           Bing          7%
                          USA             Google       67%           Bing          18%

                     Source: The Webcertain Global Search and Social Report by Webcertain, 2015

                   There is no one-size-fits-all when it comes to SEO
      Google in each market has its own search engine, examples for Germany, for UK etc.
                                                 SEO must be localized
              Research relevant keywords and phrasing for your online content to maximize web presence
 A website well optimized for will not be well optimized for (regardless of language similarity!)
  On page optimization such as page text content, meta data, local meta tags, URLs and files need to be well executed
    Apart from the right selection and application of keywords, having a local country domain extension is of crucial
                                                        importance                                     Language and Translation                                        15
Translation Online
                                       Keyword translation
  Words or phrases that internet users type into search engines to get required results. If your content
                     matches these keywords well, your website will rank in search results
 If your website appears at the top of search results at, it does not mean it will have the same
   outcome in the UK, France or Germany. People search using different keywords in each country, even if
                          they speak the same language (e.g. the USA and the UK)
  Research your target markets to find out which keywords are being searched for frequently (keywords
   with large search volume but are not used by many other websites: these are more competitive for high
                              ranking positions (keywords with low competition)

                           How to implement keyword translation
   According to Google, there are over 200 factors that influence your ranking position when someone
        searches for you – this includes the way your keywords are implemented in a number of places,
  Title, H1 (heading 1), Page text, Bold/strong text, URL (web link), Anchor text (hyperlinked text), Other

                                           Language and Translation                                    16
Translation Online
                           The challenge of multilingual social media
           Which social networks and which languages will be most effective for your brand?
 Localize social media accounts to increase visibility of relevant market-specific promotions, services, and
                                              product launches
  Facebook, Twitter and LinkedIn are strong leaders, local social media networks still remain strikingly
                    Eamples: Xing in Germany, Viadeo in France and Tuenti in Spain

                      Social media use in Europe and North America
    Country   Social Media Users   Social media penetration        Top three networks

     USA         196 million                76%                Facebook, Google+, Twitter
      UK          36 million                74%                Facebook, Twitter, Google+
   Germany        37 million                66%                Facebook, Google+, Twitter
    France        28 million                69%                Facebook, Google+, Twitter
     Italy        26 million                52%                Facebook, Google+, Twitter
    Canada        20 million                56%                Facebook, Twitter, Google+
     Spain        20 million                66%                Facebook, Google+, Twitter
    Poland        12 million                59%               Facebook, Naszaklasa, Google+                                      Language and Translation                           17
Translation Online
                                      New technology = new words
                                    New words generated by technology and social media
                             Terms such as “LOL” and “YOLO”, widely adopted, not only English.
 Selfie: Oxford’s English word of the year in 2013, hugely popular in France, Netherlands and Italy and Austria’s youth word
                                                       of the year in 2014
                  Many derive from English, also influenced by other languages e.g. to eat lunch “al desko”

                                             Abandoning alphabets
                                 Swiss-German word of the year in 2014 was a symbol: #
 Hashtag or ‘Gartehag’ in Swiss German (also known as ‘Doppelkreuz) was selected because of its frequent appearance in
                                        social media in combination with a keyword
              Global Language Monitor found that the heart emoticon was the most popular word of 2014
      “Hashtag”, “Vape” (“vapoter” in French, “svapare” in Italian and “Bashtag” (a critical hashtag) were listed too

                                       A new tech-based language?
                  Pay attention to discussions in your social networks and look for emerging new words
  Social media has changed the way we communicate. We share more personal information, but also communicate with
                                                      larger audiences
                      Use trends in your markets to optimize your contents, blogs and social media                                  Language and Translation                                           18
Translation Top Ten Trends

                            1. Increased use of Machine Translation
                                 2. Increased demand for speed
                                        3. Global content

                                    Newly emerging
                  4. Global translation market: 18% growth estimated in 2016
                      5. “Intelligent Innovation”: significant developments

                                    Growing rapidly
                      6. Increased internet penetration and use of mobile
                           7. Increased need for real time translation
              8. Mobile data traffic: tenfold increase by 2019, compared with 2013
                        9. Creation of 51 million new websites each year
                         10. Online customers: preference for chat text                          Language and Translation                        19
Next Steps
   Interested in exploring new export markets or building sales in existing export markets? Get visible. Get Online.
If you would like to learn more about a global online presence and international online marketing, contact us now!

             Your exports and business development are at the heart of our scalable proposals
                                     to build and market your business
                                                Online Global

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                                        GET YOUR ONLINE PROPOSAL!

   Please see our website for more information and help on international business development:                                  Language and Translation                                            20
About IBT Online

                         Grow your sales, brands and businesses online globally!

IBT Online works with your company to establish and manage your global online presence through website
                             localization and international online marketing.

From strategic planning, through content localization, design customization and technical implementation of
  localized websites, to country specific search engine optimization and social media marketing, our Online
                  Global services are tailored support your international business strategy.

                                    Get in touch! Email:
                           You can also find us on Twitter, Facebook and LinkedIn

                                           Language and Translation                                 21
Useful Links

                Language and translation links                                         Export and business links
   Bloomberg: How Recession-Proof is the Translation Industry?                           US Commercial Service
       Box Blogs: A Look at the Translation Industry in 2014                              European Commission
Centre for Retail Research: Online Retailing: Britain, Europe, US and                          AmCham EU
                           Canada 2015                                        American Chambers of Commerce in Europe
                     Common Sense Advisory                                              BritishAmerican Business
                           Digital Trends                                            Canadian Chamber of Commerce
   Economic Modeling: Translation and Interpretation Services                 Commission of the European Communities
                Financial Times: # Word of the Year                                           Eurochambres
        Forbes: The Biggest Industry you’ve Never Heard Of                                   FDI Intelligence
                     Global Language Monitor                                     International Chamber of Commerce
  ibt partners: Optimizing websites for European search engines                       International strategic analysis
                             Lionbridge                                             The Global Competitiveness Report
                             Pangeanic                                                Transatlantic Economic Council
                                SDL                                                     World Trade Organization
                Sovee: Translating a Moving Target                                            Language and Translation                                        22
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