Questions Planned for the 2020 Census and American Community Survey - Federal Legislative and Program Uses - Census.gov

 
Questions Planned for the 2020 Census and American Community Survey - Federal Legislative and Program Uses - Census.gov
Questions Planned for the 2020 Census and
American Community Survey
Federal Legislative and Program Uses

Issued March 2018
Questions Planned for the 2020 Census and American Community Survey - Federal Legislative and Program Uses - Census.gov
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Questions Planned for the 2020 Census and American Community Survey - Federal Legislative and Program Uses - Census.gov
Contents
Introduction.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .    1
Protecting the Information Collected by These Questions .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .                                                                             2
Questions Planned for the 2020 Census.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .                                                3
  Age . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                                                   5
  Citizenship. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                                                        7
  Hispanic Origin. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                                                            9
  Race. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                                                  11
  Relationship. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                                                        13
  Sex. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                                                 15
  Tenure (Owner/Renter). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                                                                   17
  Operational Questions for use in the 2020 Census.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                                                                                       19
Questions Planned for the American Community Survey .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .                                                                             21
  Acreage and Agricultural Sales. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                                                                        23
  Age . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                                                  25
  Ancestry. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                                                      27
  Commuting (Journey to Work). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                                                                           29
  Computer and Internet Use. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                                                                       31
  Disability. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                                                    33
  Fertility. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                                                   35
  Grandparent Caregivers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                                                                   37
  Health Insurance Coverage and Health Insurance Premiums and Subsidies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                                                                                                               39
  Hispanic Origin. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                                                           41
  Home Heating Fuel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                                                               43
  Home Value and Rent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                                                                  45
  Income . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                                                     47
  Industry, Occupation, and Class of Worker. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                                                                                 49
  Labor Force Status. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                                                              51
  Language Spoken at Home . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                                                                        53
  Marital Status and Marital History. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                                                                        55
  Migration (Previous Residence)/Residence 1 Year Ago. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                                                                                             57
  Place of Birth, Citizenship, and Year of Entry. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                                                                                59
  Plumbing Facilities, Kitchen Facilities, and Telephone Service. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                                                                                              61
  Race. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                                                  63
  Relationship. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                                                        65
  School Enrollment, Educational Attainment, and Undergraduate Field of Degree. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                                                                                                                    67
  Selected Monthly Owner Costs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                                                                          69
  Sex. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                                                 71
  Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP)/Food Stamps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                                                                                                           73
  Tenure (Owner/Renter). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                                                                   75
  Units in Structure, Rooms, and Bedrooms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                                                                                  77
  Vehicles Available. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                                                            79
  Veteran Status, Period of Military Service, and Department of Veterans Affairs (VA)
    Service-Connected Disability Rating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                                                                              81
  Work Status Last Year. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                                                                 83
  Year Built and Year Moved In. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                                                                      85
  Operational Questions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                                                                 87
Appendix A: Year the Planned Questions Were First Asked in the Decennial Census Program.  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .                                                                                                                                       A1

U.S. Census Bureau                                                                                           Questions Planned for the 2020 Census and American Community Survey iii
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Questions Planned for the 2020 Census and American Community Survey - Federal Legislative and Program Uses - Census.gov
Introduction
BACKGROUND                                                           produce comparable data for every geographic area
                                                                     recognized by the Census Bureau.
Since 1790, a national census of the U.S. population
has been conducted every 10 years, as required by the
                                                                     SUBMISSION OF QUESTIONS PLANNED FOR
U.S. Constitution. Additional information beyond the
population count has been collected with each census
                                                                     THE 2020 DECENNIAL CENSUS PROGRAM
in response to the challenges facing the nation and a                The Census Act requires that the questions to be
national desire to understand ourselves.                             included in the next census be submitted to Congress
                                                                     no later than 2 years before the census date. The
For much of the 20th century, most addresses
                                                                     contents of this handbook describe the questions that
received a “short” form, while a portion of addresses
                                                                     will be asked on the 2020 Census and the ACS.
received a more detailed “long” form. The Census
2000 short form was designed to collect basic
                                                                     ABOUT THE QUESTIONS PLANNED FOR
demographic and housing information (i.e., age,
                                                                     THE 2020 DECENNIAL CENSUS PROGRAM
sex, race, Hispanic origin, relationship, and tenure)
to be used for congressional apportionment and to                    Throughout each decade, regular content reviews are
provide data to states for intrastate redistricting. The             conducted to ensure that the information collected
long form, sent to approximately 1 in 6 households,                  through the decennial census program is required by
collected social, housing, and economic information                  federal programs.2
(e.g., educational attainment, disability status,
                                                                     To prepare for the 2020 Census, the Office of
employment status, income, and housing costs) that
                                                                     Management and Budget and the Census Bureau
was used to plan and determine funding for a wide
                                                                     embarked on a comprehensive review including
array of federal, state, local, and tribal programs.
                                                                     chartering the Interagency Council on Statistical Policy
Since 2005, in order to provide communities,                         (ICSP) Subcommittee on the ACS and conducting the
businesses, and the public with the detailed long-                   2014 ACS Content Review. This effort was designed
form information more frequently, these data have                    to examine and confirm the value of each question
been collected monthly (and released annually)                       on the ACS, and to confirm and update the statutory
through the American Community Survey (ACS).1                        and regulatory authority for the questions with federal
This innovation enabled the 2010 Census to be a                      agencies. In 2016, the Census Bureau asked federal
“short-form-only” census. Decoupling the collection                  agencies to provide any updates to this documentation.
of short- and long-form data allowed the U.S. Census
                                                                     The resulting information about federal uses is
Bureau to focus decennial census efforts on the
                                                                     presented throughout the descriptions of the questions
constitutional requirements to produce a count of
                                                                     on the following pages. These descriptions are
the resident population, while employing technology
                                                                     designed to give the reader a clear understanding
in both collections to improve efficiencies, improve
                                                                     of 1) the relationship between questions asked of
accuracy, and reduce costs. The result has been
                                                                     respondents and the summarized data that are
the dissemination of more current and detailed
                                                                     released in published tables, 2) how federal agencies
information than has ever been available.
                                                                     use the resulting data, and 3) the benefits of the data at
The 2020 Decennial Census Program, comprised of                      the community level.
the 2020 Census and the ACS, will provide an official
count through a "short-form-only" census (i.e., age,
sex, race, Hispanic origin, relationship, tenure, and
citizenship), as well as a portrait of communities
counted across the nation through data collected
by the ACS. This program is the only data-gathering
effort that collects information from enough people to

    1
      The ACS also collects short-form data on its questionnaire.
However, the ACS asks for basic demographic and housing                  2
                                                                           Selected statutory uses of each subject are published in the
information from a sample of households, while the decennial         "Subjects Planned for the 2020 Census and American Community
census asks for basic demographic and housing information from all   Survey," available at .

U.S. Census Bureau                                      Questions Planned for the 2020 Census and American Community Survey 1
Questions Planned for the 2020 Census and American Community Survey - Federal Legislative and Program Uses - Census.gov
Protecting the Information Collected by These Questions
The Census Bureau has an obligation to produce             •• We promise to inform respondents about the
accurate, relevant statistics about the nation’s              purpose and uses for every survey or census we
economy and people, but we recognize that the                 conduct before respondents provide answers.
information collected by these questions is often
private. We depend on cooperation and trust,               Respectful treatment of respondents: Are our
and promise to protect the confidentiality of this         efforts reasonable and do we treat people with
information.                                               respect?

Federal law protects this information; Title 13 of the     •• We promise to minimize the effort and time it takes
U.S. Code protects the confidentiality of all collected       for respondents to participate in the data collection
information. Violating this law is a crime with severe        by efficient designs.
penalties. Please visit            professionally accepted practices in collecting data.
for details.
                                                           •• We promise to ensure any collection of sensitive
OUR PRIVACY PRINCIPLES                                        information from children and other sensitive
                                                              populations does not violate federal protections
We recognize the value of respondent trust, and
                                                              for research participants and is done only when it
we believe that when a person answers the 2020
                                                              benefits the public good.
Census or the ACS we must serve as caretakers of the
information. The Census Bureau’s Privacy Principles        Confidentiality: How do we protect this
remind us of this promise and help ensure the              information?
protection of respondent information throughout all of
our activities.                                            In addition to removing personally identifiable
                                                           information (i.e., names, telephone numbers, and
The Privacy Principles are our guidelines. They help       addresses) from our data files, we use various
us as we determine content to consider respondents’        approaches to protect personal information—including
rights and concerns. Every principle embodies a            computer technologies, statistical methodologies, and
promise to the respondent.                                 security procedures.

Necessity: Do we need to collect information on            Our security measures ensure that only a restricted
this question?                                             number of authorized people have access to private
                                                           information and that access is only granted to conduct
Every time we prepare to ask a question, we
                                                           our work and for no other purposes. Every person who
determine whether the information is truly necessary.
                                                           works with census confidential information collected by
All of the information we collect is used for federal
                                                           the Census Bureau is sworn for life to uphold the law.
programs.
                                                           Violating the confidentiality of a respondent is a
•• We promise to collect only information necessary
                                                           federal crime with serious penalties, including a
   for each survey and census.
                                                           federal prison sentence of up to 5 years, a fine of up
•• We promise that we will use the information only        to $250,000, or both.
   to produce timely, relevant statistics about the
                                                           •• We promise that every person with access to
   population and the economy of the United States.
                                                              respondent information is sworn for life to protect
                                                              respondent confidentiality.
Openness: Do respondents know why we are
collecting this information?                               •• We promise that we will use every technology,
We collect information only for statistical purposes,         statistical methodology, and physical security
and it is never used to identify individuals. Before          procedure at our disposal to protect respondent
participating, respondents have the right to know why         information.
we are conducting the survey or census, why we are
asking specific questions, and the purposes for which
the information will be used.

2 Questions Planned for the 2020 Census and American Community Survey
Questions Planned for the 2020 Census and American Community Survey - Federal Legislative and Program Uses - Census.gov
Questions Planned for the 2020 Census
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Questions Planned for the 2020 Census and American Community Survey - Federal Legislative and Program Uses - Census.gov
Age asked since 1790.

                                                        living safely in their homes and communities (Older
   ANSWERS TO THE AGE AND DATE OF                       Americans Act). Age data are also used in programs
   BIRTH QUESTION PROVIDE THE DATA                      that provide services and assistance to seniors, such
   THAT HELP US UNDERSTAND THE SIZE                     as financial assistance with utilities (Low Income Home
   OF DIFFERENT AGE GROUPS AND                          Energy Assistance Program).
   HOW OTHER CHARACTERISTICS MAY
   VARY BY AGE.                                         Provide Assistance to Children and Families
                                                        Knowing the numbers and ages of children in families
                                                        can help communities enroll eligible families in
Age data are used in planning and funding               programs designed to assist them. For example, age
government programs that provide funds or services      data are used in targeted efforts to enroll eligible
for specific age groups, such as children, working-     people in Medicaid and the Children’s Health Insurance
age adults, women of childbearing age, or the           Program.
older population. These statistics are also used
to enforce laws, regulations, and policies against      Educate Children and Adults
age discrimination in government programs and in        Knowing how many children and adults depend on
society.                                                services through schools helps school districts make
                                                        long-term building, staffing, and funding decisions.
AGE DATA HELP COMMUNITIES:
                                                        Ensure Equal Opportunity
Provide Assistance to Older Americans
                                                        Knowing the age distribution of a community’s
Knowing how many people in a community are aged
                                                        population helps government and communities
60 and older helps local officials provide programs
                                                        enforce laws, regulations, and policies against
and services that enable older adults to remain
                                                        discrimination based on age.

U.S. Census Bureau                         Questions Planned for the 2020 Census and American Community Survey 5
Questions Planned for the 2020 Census and American Community Survey - Federal Legislative and Program Uses - Census.gov
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Citizenship                 asked since 1820.1

                                                                          CITIZENSHIP DATA HELP COMMUNITIES:
   A QUESTION ABOUT A PERSON'S
   CITIZENSHIP IS USED TO CREATE                                          Enforce Voting Rights Law
   STATISTICS ABOUT CITIZEN AND                                           Knowing how many people reside in the community
   NONCITIZEN POPULATIONS.                                                and how many of those people are citizens, in
                                                                          combination with other information, provides the
                                                                          statistical information that helps the government
These statistics are essential for enforcing the Voting                   enforce Section 2 of the Voting Rights Act and its
Rights Act and its protections against voting                             protections against discrimination in voting.
discrimination.
                                                                          Understand Changes
                                                                          Knowing how many citizens and noncitizens live in the
                                                                          United States, in combination with other information,
                                                                          is of interest to researchers, advocacy groups, and
                                                                          policymakers.
   1
       Citizenship asked 1820, 1830, 1870, and 1890 to present.

U.S. Census Bureau                                           Questions Planned for the 2020 Census and American Community Survey 7
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Hispanic Origin              asked since 1970.

                                                            HISPANIC ORIGIN DATA HELP
                                                            COMMUNITIES:
   A QUESTION ABOUT WHETHER A
   PERSON IS OF HISPANIC, LATINO, OR                        Ensure Equal Opportunity
   SPANISH ORIGIN IS USED TO CREATE
                                                            We ask about the Hispanic or Latino origin of
   STATISTICS ABOUT THIS ETHNIC
                                                            community members to help governments and
   GROUP.                                                   communities enforce antidiscrimination laws,
                                                            regulations, and policies. For example, data on the
These data are required for federal and state               Hispanic population are used to:
programs and are critical factors in the basic research     •• Establish and evaluate the guidelines for federal
behind numerous policies, particularly for civil               affirmative action plans under the Federal Equal
rights. Hispanic origin data are used in planning and          Opportunity Recruitment Program.
funding government programs that provide funds
                                                            •• Monitor compliance with the Voting Rights Act.
or services for specific groups. These data are also
used to evaluate government programs and policies           •• Monitor and enforce equal employment
to ensure they fairly and equitably serve the needs of         opportunities under the Civil Rights Act of 1964.
the Hispanic population and to monitor compliance           •• Identify segments of the population who may not
with antidiscrimination laws, regulations, and policies.       be getting needed medical services under the
States also use these data to meet legislative                 Public Health Service Act.
redistricting requirements.
                                                            Understand Changes
Though many respondents expect to see a Hispanic,
                                                            Researchers, advocacy groups, and policymakers
Latino, or Spanish category on the race question,
                                                            are interested in knowing if the distribution of the
this question is asked separately because people of
                                                            Hispanic and non-Hispanic population changes by age,
Hispanic origin may be of any race(s) in accordance
                                                            sex, relationship, and housing tenure.
with the 1997 Office of Management and Budget
standards on race and ethnicity.

U.S. Census Bureau                             Questions Planned for the 2020 Census and American Community Survey 9
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Race        asked since 1790.

                                                             used to evaluate government programs and policies
   A QUESTION ABOUT A PERSON’S                               to ensure they fairly and equitably serve the needs
   RACE IS USED TO CREATE STATISTICS                         of all racial groups and to monitor compliance with
   ABOUT RACE AND TO PRESENT                                 antidiscrimination laws, regulations, and policies. States
   OTHER STATISTICS BY RACE GROUPS.                          also use these data to meet legislative redistricting
                                                             requirements.

                                                             The U.S. Census Bureau collects race data in
These data are required for federal, state, and              accordance with the 1997 Office of Management and
tribal programs and are critical factors in the basic        Budget standards on race and ethnicity. The categories
research behind numerous policies, particularly              on race are based on self-identification and generally
for civil rights. Race data are used in planning and         reflect a social definition of race. The categories
funding government programs that provide funds               are not an attempt to define race biologically,
or services for specific groups. These data are also         anthropologically, or genetically.

U.S. Census Bureau                             Questions Planned for the 2020 Census and American Community Survey 11
Race      asked since 1790—Con.

RACE DATA HELP COMMUNITIES:                                Understand Changes
                                                           Researchers, advocacy groups, and policymakers are
Ensure Equal Opportunity
                                                           interested in knowing if the distribution of the different
Knowing the races of community members                     racial groups changes by age, sex, relationship, and
helps government and communities enforce                   housing tenure.
antidiscrimination laws, regulations, and policies. For
example, race data are used in the following ways:         Administer Programs for Specific Groups

•• Establish and evaluate the guidelines for federal       Knowing how many people are eligible to participate
   affirmative action plans under the Federal Equal        in certain programs helps communities, including tribal
   Opportunity Recruitment Program.                        governments, ensure that programs are operating
                                                           as intended. For example, the Indian Housing Block
•• Monitor compliance with the Voting Rights Act.          Grant program, Indian Community Development Block
                                                           Grant program, and Indian Health Service all depend
•• Monitor and enforce equal employment
                                                           on accurate statistics of American Indians and Alaska
   opportunities under the Civil Rights Act of 1964.
                                                           Natives. Data for the American Indian and Alaska
•• Identify segments of the population who may not         Native population come from the question about a
   be getting needed medical services under the            person’s race.
   Public Health Service Act.

12 Questions Planned for the 2020 Census and American Community Survey                               U.S. Census Bureau
Relationship            asked since 1880.

                                                           RELATIONSHIP DATA HELP COMMUNITIES:
   A QUESTION ABOUT THE
   RELATIONSHIP OF EACH PERSON IN                          Provide Adequate Housing
   A HOUSEHOLD TO ONE CENTRAL                              Knowing about the different types of households
   PERSON IS USED TO CREATE                                in a community (single people, couples, families,
   ESTIMATES ABOUT FAMILIES,                               roommates, etc.) helps communities understand
   HOUSEHOLDS, AND OTHER GROUPS,                           whether available housing meets the needs of
   AND TO PRESENT OTHER DATA AT A                          residents.
   HOUSEHOLD LEVEL.
                                                           When housing is not sufficient or not affordable,
                                                           relationship data can help communities enroll eligible
                                                           households in programs designed to assist them,
Relationship data are used in planning and funding
                                                           and can help communities qualify for grants from
government programs that provide funds or services
                                                           the Community Development Block Grant, HOME
for families, people living or raising children alone,
                                                           Investment Partnership Program, Emergency Solutions
grandparents living with grandchildren, or other
                                                           Grant, Housing Opportunities for Persons With AIDS,
households that qualify for additional assistance.
                                                           and other programs.

                                                           Provide Assistance to Families
                                                           Knowing more about families, such as the ages of
                                                           children, can help communities enroll eligible families
                                                           in programs designed to assist them, such as Head
                                                           Start and the Children’s Health Insurance Program, and
                                                           can help communities qualify for grants to fund these
                                                           programs. Relationship data are also used to ensure
                                                           that programs like Temporary Assistance for Needy
                                                           Families are making a difference for families.

U.S. Census Bureau                           Questions Planned for the 2020 Census and American Community Survey 13
Relationship             asked since 1880—Con.

Understand Changing Households
Information about living arrangements and how they         young children, can help communities plan future
are changing, including whether older residents are        programs and services for residents. For example,
staying in their homes as they age, whether young          the Social Security Administration estimates future
people are living with parents or moving in with           program needs based on the current relationships of
roommates, and which kinds of households include           working people.

14 Questions Planned for the 2020 Census and American Community Survey                            U.S. Census Bureau
Sex asked since 1790.

                                                            Ensure Equal Opportunity
   A QUESTION ABOUT THE SEX OF                              Data disaggregated by sex are used to evaluate
   EACH PERSON IS USED TO CREATE                            employment practices under the Civil Rights Act of
   STATISTICS ABOUT MALES AND                               1964. The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission,
   FEMALES AND TO PRESENT OTHER                             using sex-disaggregated data, establishes and
   DATA BY SEX.                                             evaluates guidelines dealing with equal employment
                                                            opportunity. Data disaggregated by sex are used to
                                                            evaluate housing policies and practices under the Civil
Data disaggregated by sex are used in planning and          Rights Act.
funding government programs and in evaluating
other government programs and policies to ensure            Understand Changes
they fairly and equitably serve the needs of males
                                                            State and local planners analyze social and economic
and females. These statistics are also used to enforce
                                                            characteristics of males and females to predict future
laws, regulations, and policies against discrimination in
                                                            needs for housing, education, childcare, health care,
government programs and in society.
                                                            transportation, and employment.
DATA DISAGGREGATED BY SEX HELP
COMMUNITIES:

Provide Resources for Education
Data disaggregated by sex are used to allocate
funds to institutions of higher learning that increase
participation, particularly of minority women, in
scientific and engineering programs under the Higher
Education Act.

U.S. Census Bureau                           Questions Planned for the 2020 Census and American Community Survey 15
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Tenure (Owner/Renter)                    asked since 1890.

                                                         Plan Community Development
   A QUESTION ABOUT WHETHER A                            Knowing how the balance of rented homes,
   HOME IS OWNED OR RENTED IS USED                       mortgaged homes, and homes owned free and
   TO CREATE DATA ABOUT TENURE,                          clear changes over time can help communities
   RENTERS, AND HOMEOWNERSHIP.                           understand changes in local housing markets; identify
                                                         opportunities to improve tax, assistance, and zoning
                                                         policies; and reduce tax revenue losses from vacant or
Tenure is the most basic characteristic to assess        abandoned properties.
housing inventory. Tenure data are used in government
programs that analyze whether adequate housing is        Ensure Equal Opportunity
available to residents. Tenure data are also used to
                                                         Knowing the characteristics of people who rent and
provide and fund housing assistance programs. These
                                                         people who own homes in the community, such as
statistics are also used to enforce laws, regulations,
                                                         age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin, helps government
and policies against discrimination in private-market
                                                         and communities enforce laws, such as the 1968 Fair
housing, government programs, and in society.
                                                         Housing Act, designed to eliminate discrimination in
                                                         housing.
TENURE DATA HELP COMMUNITIES:
                                                         Understand Changing Households
Provide Adequate Housing
                                                         Knowing whether older residents are staying in homes
Knowing the rates of home rental and ownership helps
                                                         as they age or moving into rented homes, and whether
communities understand whether available housing
                                                         young people are staying with parents, renting with
meets the needs of residents.
                                                         roommates, or buying homes, can help governments
When housing is not sufficient, data about owners        and communities distribute funds appropriately
and renters can help communities enroll eligible         between homeownership and rental housing programs
households in programs designed to assist them.          and services for residents.

U.S. Census Bureau                         Questions Planned for the 2020 Census and American Community Survey 17
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Operational Questions for use in the 2020 Census.

Some operational questions will appear on the 2020 Census that will not result in published counts. These
questions are asked to better administer the data collection process and to ensure greater accuracy of the data
collected. Contact information is not part of published estimates and is carefully protected, as mandated by
federal law, to respect the personal information of respondents.

U.S. Census Bureau                         Questions Planned for the 2020 Census and American Community Survey 19
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Questions Planned for the American Community Survey
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Acreage and
             asked since 1960.

    Agricultural Sales asked since 1960.

                                                          eliminate those units that might benefit from farm
   QUESTIONS ABOUT THE ACREAGE                            subsidies and therefore have lower-than-market rents.
   ASSOCIATED WITH HOUSES, MOBILE                         Understanding which kinds of properties are eligible
   HOMES, AND AGRICULTURAL SALES                          for certain programs helps communities inform eligible
   ARE USED TO CREATE DATA ABOUT                          residents and determine whether the community is
   AGRICULTURAL PROPERTIES AND TO                         eligible for funds based on its farm population.
   BETTER UNDERSTAND HOME VALUE                           Support Agricultural Programs
   STATISTICS.
                                                          Knowing which areas of a community are agricultural
                                                          helps communities ensure eligible institutions receive
These data are used in planning government programs       funding for cooperative agricultural extension work
designed to benefit the farm population and identifying   and agricultural research. This funding is distributed to
or excluding agricultural areas for many other            eligible institutions based on a legislatively determined
programs.                                                 formula that uses these data.

ACREAGE AND AGRICULTURAL SALES                            Plan Community Development
DATA HELP COMMUNITIES:                                    Knowing the size and agricultural nature of
                                                          areas of each community can help communities
Provide Equitable Housing Assistance
                                                          understand changes in local housing markets; identify
Knowing which homes might qualify for farm subsidies      opportunities to improve tax, assistance, and zoning
and which homes qualify for housing subsidies is          policies; and reduce tax revenue losses from vacant or
important to ensure that funds are fairly allocated.      abandoned properties.
For example, the historical definition of Fair Market
Rents, used to allocate housing assistance, has always
excluded units on acreage of more than 10 acres to

U.S. Census Bureau                          Questions Planned for the 2020 Census and American Community Survey 23
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Age       asked since 1790.

                                                          Provide Assistance to Children and Families
   AGE AND DATE OF BIRTH QUESTIONS                        Knowing the numbers and ages of children in
   ARE USED TO UNDERSTAND THE                             families in combination with other information, such
   SIZE AND CHARACTERISTICS OF                            as household income, health insurance status, and
   DIFFERENT AGE GROUPS AND TO                            poverty status, can help communities enroll eligible
   PRESENT OTHER DATA BY AGE.                             families in programs designed to assist them. For
                                                          example, age data are used in targeted efforts to enroll
                                                          eligible people in Medicaid and the Children’s Health
Age data are used in planning and funding                 Insurance Program.
government programs that provide funds or services
for specific age groups, such as children, working-       Educate Children and Adults
age adults, women of childbearing age, or the
older population. These statistics are also used to       Knowing how many children and adults depend on
enforce laws, regulations, and policies against age       services through schools helps school districts make
                                                          long-term building, staffing, and funding decisions.
discrimination in government programs and in society.
                                                          Age in combination with other information, such
AGE DATA HELP COMMUNITIES:                                as disability status, language spoken at home, and
                                                          poverty status, assists schools in understanding the
Provide Assistance to Older Americans                     needs of their students and qualifying for grants that
                                                          help fund programs for those students (Elementary
Knowing how many people in a community are aged
                                                          and Secondary Education Act of 1965).
60 and older helps local officials provide programs
and services that enable older adults to remain
                                                          Ensure Equal Opportunity
living safely in their homes and communities (Older
Americans Act). Age data are also used in programs        Knowing the ages of people in the community
that provide services and assistance to seniors, such     in combination with information about housing,
as financial assistance with utilities (Low Income Home   employment, and education, helps government and
Energy Assistance Program).                               communities enforce laws, regulations, and policies
                                                          against discrimination based on age. For example,
                                                          age information is used to analyze the employment
                                                          status of workers by age (Age Discrimination in
                                                          Employment Act).

U.S. Census Bureau                          Questions Planned for the 2020 Census and American Community Survey 25
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Ancestry         asked since 1980.

                                                          based on national origin. For example, ancestry
   A QUESTION ABOUT A PERSON’S                            data are used to enforce nondiscrimination in
   ANCESTRY OR ETHNIC ORIGIN IS                           education (including monitoring desegregation); to
   USED TO CREATE STATISTICS ABOUT                        enforce nondiscrimination in employment by federal
   VARIOUS ANCESTRY GROUPS.                               agencies, private employers, employment agencies,
                                                          and labor organizations; and to enforce laws,
                                                          regulations, and policies against discrimination in
Ancestry data are used in planning and evaluating         federal financial assistance (Civil Rights Act of 1964).
government programs and policies to ensure they
                                                          Understand Changes
fairly and equitably serve the needs of all groups.
These statistics are also used to enforce laws,           Knowing whether people from different backgrounds
regulations, and policies against discrimination in       have the same opportunities in education, employment,
society.                                                  voting, homeownership, and many other areas is
                                                          of interest to researchers, advocacy groups, and
ANCESTRY DATA HELP COMMUNITIES:                           policymakers. For example, ancestry data are used
                                                          with age and language data to address language and
Ensure Equal Opportunity                                  cultural diversity needs in health care plans for the
Knowing the ethnic groups in a community in               older population.
combination with information about housing,
voting, language, employment, and education,
helps government and communities enforce laws,
regulations, and policies against discrimination

U.S. Census Bureau                          Questions Planned for the 2020 Census and American Community Survey 27
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Commuting (Journey to Work)             asked since 1960.

                                          Journey to work data are used in planning and funding
   QUESTIONS ABOUT WHERE PEOPLE           for improvements to road and highway infrastructure,
   WORK, HOW THEY GET THERE, WHEN         developing transportation plans and services, and
   THEY LEAVE, AND HOW LONG IT            understanding where people are traveling in the
   TAKES ARE USED TO CREATE DATA          course of a normal day. These data are also used to
   ABOUT COMMUTING OR A PERSON’S          evaluate transportation plans to ensure they fairly and
   JOURNEY TO WORK.                       equitably serve the needs of all groups.

U.S. Census Bureau          Questions Planned for the 2020 Census and American Community Survey 29
Commuting (Journey to Work)                              asked since 1960—Con.

COMMUTING DATA HELP COMMUNITIES:                           Ensure Equal Opportunity
                                                           Knowing where people could reasonably commute
Improve Transportation Planning
                                                           from in order to work in a certain area is used by
Knowing where people commute to and from,                  communities and businesses for employment planning,
and what time of day they are commuting, helps             and by communities and governments to enforce
transportation planners create mass transportation         laws, regulations, and policies against employment
and metropolitan transportation plans that are             discrimination.
compliant with various transportation, environmental,
and antidiscrimination regulations.                        Understand Changes in Commutes
Local agencies and organizations use these statistics      As commuting patterns change, information about
to plan transportation programs and services that          where people could reasonably commute from in
meet the diverse needs of local populations, including     order to work in a certain area is used to understand
the disabled population, bicycle commuters, carpools,      commercial markets and labor force participation, and
and ride-sharers. Commuting data are also used to          to plan local emergency response programs.
forecast future use of new or updated transportation
systems.

30 Questions Planned for the 2020 Census and American Community Survey                           U.S. Census Bureau
Computer and Internet Use     asked since 2013.

                                         QUESTIONS ABOUT THE COMPUTERS
                                         AND DEVICES THAT PEOPLE USE,
                                         WHETHER PEOPLE ACCESS THE
                                         INTERNET, AND HOW PEOPLE ACCESS
                                         THE INTERNET ARE USED TO CREATE
                                         DATA ABOUT COMPUTER AND
                                         INTERNET USE.

                                      These statistics were first released to the public in
                                      September 2014. The questions were added as a
                                      requirement of the Broadband Data Improvement
                                      Act of 2008. They help federal agencies measure the
                                      nationwide development of broadband access and
                                      decrease barriers to broadband access.

                                      COMPUTER AND INTERNET USE DATA
                                      HELP COMMUNITIES:
                                      Ensure Residents Can Communicate
                                      State and local agencies can use these statistics to
                                      evaluate access to broadband in their communities.
                                      Schools, libraries, rural health care providers,
                                      and other public service providers also use this
                                      information. Communities ensure their residents
                                      are connected to assistance programs, emergency
                                      services, and important information. These statistics
                                      may also be useful to understand whether to use
                                      Internet or more expensive outreach methods
                                      for distributing important public health or safety
                                      information.

                                      Federal agencies use these data to evaluate the extent
                                      of access to, and adoption of broadband, with a focus
                                      on underserved areas. State and local agencies might
                                      choose to use these statistics to evaluate access to
                                      broadband in their communities.

U.S. Census Bureau      Questions Planned for the 2020 Census and American Community Survey 31
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Disability       asked since 1830.

                                                          QUESTIONS ABOUT A PERSON’S
                                                          DIFFICULTY WITH SPECIFIC DAILY
                                                          TASKS ARE USED TO CREATE
                                                          STATISTICS ABOUT DISABILITY.

                                                       Disability data are used in planning and funding
                                                       government programs that provide funds or services
                                                       for populations with disabilities. In addition, these data
                                                       are used in evaluating other government programs
                                                       and policies to ensure that they fairly and equitably
                                                       serve the needs of all groups. These statistics are also
                                                       used to enforce laws, regulations, and policies against
                                                       discrimination.

                                                       DISABILITY DATA HELP COMMUNITIES:

                                                       Provide Adequate Housing
                                                       Knowing the different types of disabled households in
                                                       a community helps communities understand whether
                                                       available housing meets the needs of residents. When
                                                       housing is not sufficient or not affordable, disability
                                                       data can help communities enroll eligible households
                                                       in programs designed to assist them and can help
                                                       communities qualify for grants from the Community
                                                       Development Block Grant, HOME Investment
                                                       Partnership Program, Emergency Solutions Grants,
                                                       Housing Opportunities for Persons With AIDS, and
                                                       other programs.

U.S. Census Bureau                       Questions Planned for the 2020 Census and American Community Survey 33
Disability         asked since 1830—Con.

Provide Health Care to Children and Families                Provide Assistance to People With Disabilities
Knowing the disability status of people in families         Knowing how many people in a community over a
in combination with other information, such as              certain age have a disability helps local officials provide
household income, health insurance status, and              programs and services to older adults that enable them
poverty status, can help communities enroll eligible        to remain living safely in their homes and communities
families in programs designed to assist them. For           (Older Americans Act). Disability status data are also
example, disability data are used to target efforts         used in programs that provide services and assistance
to enroll eligible people in Marketplace, Medicaid,         to people with a disability, such as financial assistance
and the Children’s Health Insurance Program                 with utilities (Low Income Home Energy Assistance
(CHIP). Disability data are also used to ensure that        Program).
Marketplace, Medicare, Medicaid, and CHIP programs
are adequately serving these families.                      Understand Changes
                                                            Knowing whether people with disabilities have the
Ensure Equal Opportunity
                                                            same opportunities in education, employment, voting,
Knowing the disability status of people in the              homeownership, and many other areas is of interest
community in combination with information about             to researchers, advocacy groups, and policymakers.
housing, voting, employment, and education,                 Communities also need to understand changes in
helps governments and communities enforce laws,             the needs and geographic concentrations of people
regulations, and policies against discrimination based      with disabilities to ensure that they can meet the
on disability status. For example, disability data are      community’s needs during weather events, disasters,
used to evaluate whether there are health care or           and public health emergencies.
public health program disparities based on disability
status (Developmental Disabilities Assistance and Bill of
Rights Act of 2000).

34 Questions Planned for the 2020 Census and American Community Survey                                 U.S. Census Bureau
Fertility        asked since 1890.

                                                          communities, tribes, and the federal government
   A QUESTION ABOUT WHETHER A                             estimate the demand for health care through the
   WOMAN HAD A BABY IN THE LAST                           Indian Health Service.
   YEAR IS USED TO CREATE STATISTICS
   ABOUT FERTILITY.                                       Understand Changing Households
                                                          Knowing the characteristics of women who are
                                                          giving birth, including where in the country they live,
Fertility data are used in planning government            is important to understand the relationships among
programs and adjusting other important data, such         different development patterns, including housing and
as the size of the population eligible for different      travel information, public health, and pollution.
services, as new people are born. These statistics
                                                          Though local vital statistics offices typically have
can also be used to project the future size of the
                                                          a count of births per year, fertility data are able to
population and to understand more about growing
                                                          provide federal program planners, policymakers, and
families.
                                                          researchers with additional statistics about the age,
                                                          education, and employment of parents in households
FERTILITY DATA HELP COMMUNITIES:
                                                          welcoming children, and other important information
Provide Health Care to Children and Families              about the homes (age, size, etc.) and households
                                                          (income, language spoken, etc.) for a more complete
Knowing the number of women with a recent
                                                          picture of families.
birth in combination with other information, such
as marital status, labor force status, household          State and local agencies can use these statistics
income, health insurance status, and poverty status,      in combination with other information about
can help communities understand changes in the            new mothers, such as education and income, to
demand for health care. For example, knowing how          understand future needs for the local education
many American Indian babies are born can help             system and health services.

U.S. Census Bureau                          Questions Planned for the 2020 Census and American Community Survey 35
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Grandparent Caregivers                       asked since 2000.

                                                            GRANDPARENT CAREGIVER DATA HELP
                                                            COMMUNITIES:
                                                            Provide Assistance to Families
                                                            Knowing more about families, particularly those where
                                                            grandparents care for grandchildren, along with
                                                            data about the ages of children, household income,
                                                            disability, and poverty status can help communities
                                                            enroll eligible families in programs designed to assist
                                                            them, such as the Children’s Health Insurance Program,
                                                            and can help communities qualify for grants to fund
                                                            these programs. These data are also used to evaluate
                                                            programs like Temporary Assistance for Needy Families.

                                                            Provide Assistance to Older Americans
                                                            Knowing how many people in a community are over
                                                            a certain age, including whether older Americans are
                                                            caring for grandchildren, helps local officials fund
                                                            programs and services targeted to reach older adults
                                                            with the greatest economic and social needs (Older
                                                            Americans Act).

                                                            Understand Changing Households
                                                            Knowing more about how often grandparents are
                                                            responsible for the basic care for grandchildren and
   QUESTIONS ABOUT WHETHER A                                how long they have been responsible in combination
   PERSON IS THE PRIMARY CAREGIVER                          with information about age, presence of children,
   FOR HIS/HER GRANDCHILDREN AND                            income, etc., can help communities understand if
   HOW LONG HE/SHE HAS CARED                                available housing and services are meeting residents’
   FOR HIS/HER GRANDCHILDREN ARE                            needs.
   USED TO CREATE STATISTICS ABOUT
   GRANDPARENT CAREGIVERS.

Grandparent caregiver data help federal agencies
understand the special provisions needed for federal
programs designed to assist families, as older
Americans are often in different financial, housing, and
health circumstances than those of other ages. These
data are also used to measure the effects of policies
and programs that focus on the well-being of families,
including tax policies and financial assistance programs.

U.S. Census Bureau                           Questions Planned for the 2020 Census and American Community Survey 37
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Health Insurance Coverage asked
                              and since 2008.
    Health Insurance Premiums and Subsidies                                      starting in 2019.

                                                          HEALTH INSURANCE DATA HELP
   QUESTIONS ABOUT THE SOURCES                            COMMUNITIES:
   OF A PERSON’S HEALTH INSURANCE
   ARE USED TO CREATE STATISTICS                          Provide Assistance to Children and Families
   ABOUT THE PERCENTAGE OF PEOPLE                         Knowing the health insurance coverage status in
   COVERED BY HEALTH INSURANCE                            combination with other information, such as number
   AND THE SOURCES OF HEALTH                              and age of children in families, household income, and
   INSURANCE.                                             poverty status, can help communities enroll eligible
                                                          families in programs designed to assist them. For
                                                          example, health insurance coverage status and age
Health insurance data are used in planning                data are used to target efforts to enroll eligible people
government programs, determining eligibility criteria,    in Marketplace, Medicaid, and the Children’s Health
and encouraging eligible people to participate in         Insurance Program (CHIP). Health Insurance data
health insurance programs.                                are also used to ensure that Marketplace, Medicare,
                                                          Medicaid, and CHIP programs are improving health
                                                          outcomes for families.

U.S. Census Bureau                          Questions Planned for the 2020 Census and American Community Survey 39
Health Insurance Coverage and
                              asked since 2008—Con.

    Health Insurance Premiums and Subsidies starting in 2019—Con.

Provide Health Care for Veterans                           Understand Changes
Knowing the number and characteristics of veterans         Knowing the health insurance coverage status of
eligible to use Department of Veterans Affairs health      people in a community helps planners identify gaps in
care, compared to those currently using services,          community services, plan programs that address those
can help communities and the federal government            gaps, and qualify for funding for those programs.
estimate the future demand for health care services
                                                           Knowing more about changes in health insurance
and facilities for veterans.
                                                           coverage rates and the characteristics of people who
Provide Health Care for American Indians                   have or do not have health insurance is also of interest
                                                           to researchers, advocacy groups, and policymakers.
Knowing the health insurance coverage status of            For example, State Councils on Developmental
American Indians can help communities, tribes, and         Disabilities use health insurance coverage data in their
the federal government estimate the demand for             comprehensive reviews and analyses of the unmet
health care through the Indian Health Service.             needs of people with developmental disabilities.

40 Questions Planned for the 2020 Census and American Community Survey                              U.S. Census Bureau
Hispanic Origin              asked since 1970.

                                                           HISPANIC ORIGIN DATA HELP
   A QUESTION ABOUT WHETHER A                              COMMUNITIES:
   PERSON IS OF HISPANIC, LATINO, OR
   SPANISH ORIGIN IS USED TO CREATE                        Ensure Equal Opportunity
   STATISTICS ABOUT THIS ETHNIC                            Knowing about the Hispanic or Latino origin of
   GROUP.                                                  community members in combination with information
                                                           about housing, voting, language, employment, and
                                                           education, to help governments and communities
These data are required for federal and state programs
                                                           enforce antidiscrimination laws, regulations, and
and are factors in the basic research behind numerous
                                                           policies. For example, data on the Hispanic population
policies, particularly for civil rights. Hispanic origin
                                                           are used to:
data are used in planning and funding government
programs that provide funds or services for specific       •• Establish and evaluate the guidelines for federal
groups. These data are also used to evaluate                  affirmative action plans under the Federal Equal
government programs and policies to ensure they               Opportunity Recruitment Program.
fairly and equitably serve the needs of the Hispanic       •• Monitor compliance with the Voting Rights Act and
population. They are also used to monitor compliance          enforce bilingual election requirements.
with antidiscrimination laws, regulations, and policies.
                                                           •• Monitor and enforce equal employment
Though many respondents expect to see a Hispanic,             opportunities under the Civil Rights Act of 1964.
Latino, or Spanish category on the race question,          •• Identify segments of the population who may not
this question is asked separately because people of           be getting needed medical services under the
Hispanic origin may be of any race(s) in accordance           Public Health Service Act.
with the 1997 Office of Management and Budget              •• Allocate funds to school districts for bilingual
standards on race and ethnicity.                              services under the Bilingual Education Act.

U.S. Census Bureau                          Questions Planned for the 2020 Census and American Community Survey 41
Hispanic Origin              asked since 1970—Con.

Understand Changes                                         in the science and engineering workforce. Several
                                                           federal agencies use these data to investigate whether
Researchers, advocacy groups, and policymakers
                                                           housing or transportation improvements have
are interested in knowing if people of Hispanic and
                                                           unintended consequences for the Hispanic population.
non-Hispanic origin have the same opportunities in
                                                           Data on the Hispanic population are used with age
education, employment, voting, and homeownership.
                                                           and language data to address language and cultural
The National Science Foundation uses these data
                                                           diversity needs in health care plans for the older
to provide information on the Hispanic population
                                                           population.

42 Questions Planned for the 2020 Census and American Community Survey                            U.S. Census Bureau
Home Heating Fuel                   asked since 1940.

                                                          Estimate Future Energy Demand
   QUESTIONS ABOUT HOME HEATING                           Knowing the current users of certain heating systems
   FUEL ARE USED TO CREATE DATA                           and the kinds of systems used in new homes helps
   ABOUT HOME ENERGY USE.                                 communities predict future demand for fuels and the
                                                          future costs of systems in use in a community. For
                                                          example, the Department of Energy uses these data to
These data are used in government programs that           project demand over the next 30 years, assessing the
analyze community air quality and energy needs.           energy needs of the U.S. economy in a domestic and
Federal agencies use these statistics to forecast         international context.
future energy demand, analyze the fuels available to
community residents, and plan and fund programs           Measure Environmental Impacts
that help low-income residents afford to heat their
homes.                                                    Communities with older heating systems may have
                                                          lower air quality at times when they are in high use.
HOME HEATING FUEL DATA HELP                               Home heating fuel data are used to develop an
                                                          inventory of the national aggregate emissions of each
COMMUNITIES:
                                                          greenhouse gas and to research and report on the
Provide Assistance With Utilities                         relationships among different development patterns
                                                          (including housing and travel information) and public
Knowing which fuel is used to heat homes in
                                                          health and pollution (Clean Air Act, Clean Water Act).
combination with the cost of those fuels and the
characteristics of the low-income households that
need assistance with their utilities, helps communities
enroll eligible households in assistance programs like
the Low Income Home Energy Assistance Program
and qualify for grants to fund assistance. These data
are also used to evaluate whether these programs
benefit eligible households.

U.S. Census Bureau                          Questions Planned for the 2020 Census and American Community Survey 43
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Home Value and Rent                     asked since 1940.

                                                         When rental housing is not affordable, rent data are
   QUESTIONS ABOUT THE MONTHLY                           used to identify rental distribution of housing units
   RENT AMOUNT OR HOW MUCH THE                           (the standard cost of different types of housing in
   HOME AND PROPERTY ARE WORTH                           different areas of the country) and to determine Fair
   ARE USED TO PRODUCE STATISTICS                        Market Rents, which the Department of Housing and
   ABOUT RENT AND HOME VALUE.                            Urban Development uses to determine the amount of
                                                         tenant subsidies in housing assistance programs.

                                                         When housing is not sufficient or not affordable,
These data are used in government programs that
                                                         housing cost data can help communities enroll eligible
analyze whether adequate housing is affordable for
                                                         households in programs designed to assist them
residents and provide and fund housing assistance
                                                         and can help communities qualify for grants from
programs. These statistics are also used to enforce
                                                         the Community Development Block Grant, HOME
laws, regulations, and policies designed to eliminate
                                                         Investment Partnership Program, Emergency Solutions
discrimination in private-market housing, government
                                                         Grants, Housing Opportunities for Persons With AIDS,
programs, and in society.
                                                         and other programs.

HOME VALUE AND RENT DATA HELP                            Plan Community Development
COMMUNITIES:
                                                         Knowing how the balance of rented homes,
Provide Adequate Housing                                 mortgaged homes, and owned homes changes over
                                                         time can help communities understand changes in
Knowing the different types of households in
                                                         local housing markets and identify opportunities to
a community (single people, couples, families,
                                                         improve tax, assistance, and zoning policies.
roommates, etc.) helps communities understand
whether available housing meets the needs of
                                                         Ensure Equal Opportunity
residents. Housing costs in combination with
relationship and combined income of all people in a      Knowing more about people who rent and people who
household helps communities understand whether           own homes in the community in combination with age,
housing is affordable.                                   sex, race, Hispanic origin, disability, and other data,
                                                         helps government and communities enforce laws, such
                                                         as the 1968 Fair Housing Act designed to eliminate
                                                         discrimination in housing.

U.S. Census Bureau                         Questions Planned for the 2020 Census and American Community Survey 45
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Income           asked since 1940.

U.S. Census Bureau                       Questions Planned for the 2020 Census and American Community Survey 47
Income         asked since 1940—Con.

                                                           Provide Assistance to Children and Families
  QUESTIONS ABOUT THE FUNDS A                              Knowing household income in combination with other
  PERSON RECEIVES FROM VARIOUS                             information, such as the number and age of children
  SOURCES ARE USED TO CREATE                               in families, health insurance status, and poverty
  STATISTICS ABOUT INCOME,                                 status, can help communities enroll eligible families
  ASSISTANCE, EARNINGS, AND                                in programs designed to assist them. For example,
  POVERTY STATUS.                                          income data are used to identify eligibility and provide
                                                           funding in programs like Medicaid, the Child and Adult
                                                           Care Food Program, and Head Start.
Income data are used in planning and funding
government programs that provide economic                  Educate Children and Adults
assistance for populations in need and measure
                                                           Knowing how many children and adults depend
the economic well-being of the nation. Income and
                                                           on services through schools helps school districts
poverty estimates are often part of allocation formulas
                                                           make long-term building, staffing, and funding
that determine how food, health care, job training,
                                                           decisions. Household income and family composition
housing, and other assistance are distributed.
                                                           determine poverty status, which is used along with
                                                           school enrollment, information on disability status,
INCOME DATA HELP COMMUNITIES:
                                                           and language spoken at home, to help schools
Provide Adequate Housing                                   understand the needs of their students and qualify
                                                           for grants that help fund programs for students with
Knowing the combined income of all people in               needs for additional services or assistance, including
a household in combination with housing costs              free/reduced price school lunches (Elementary and
helps communities understand whether housing is            Secondary Education Act of 1965).
affordable for residents. When housing is not sufficient
or not affordable, income data can help communities        Plan Community Development
enroll eligible households in programs designed to
                                                           Knowing more about the financial situation of
assist them and can help communities qualify for
                                                           residents, including income, employment, and housing
grants from the Community Development Block Grant,
                                                           costs, can help communities qualify for loan and grant
HOME Investment Partnership Program, Emergency
                                                           programs designed to stimulate economic recovery,
Solutions Grant, Housing Opportunities for Persons
                                                           improve housing, run job-training programs, and
With AIDS, and other programs.
                                                           define areas as empowerment or enterprise zones.
Provide Assistance to Older Americans
Knowing how many older people in a community
are living in poverty in combination with other
information, such as age and disability status of other
family members, can help communities ensure these
residents receive appropriate assistance, such as
financial assistance with utilities (Low Income Home
Energy Assistance Program).

48 Questions Planned for the 2020 Census and American Community Survey                             U.S. Census Bureau
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