Sen4CAP Sentinels for CAP monitoring approach - Sen4CAP team European Space Agency, Earth Observation Directorate - Copernicus

 
Sen4CAP Sentinels for CAP monitoring approach - Sen4CAP team European Space Agency, Earth Observation Directorate - Copernicus
Sen4CAP
         Sentinels for CAP monitoring approach

 Sen4CAP team
 European Space Agency, Earth Observation Directorate
ESA UNCLASSIFIED - For Official Use
Sen4CAP Sentinels for CAP monitoring approach - Sen4CAP team European Space Agency, Earth Observation Directorate - Copernicus
Sentinels for Agricultural Dynamics
Majority of Europe >2 day revisit       Majority of Europe >3 day revisit

S-1A    & -1B- For
ESA UNCLASSIFIED (July-Sept
                   Official Use 2018)   S-2A & -2B (July-Sept   2018)
                                                          24 MARS conference | 21/11/2018 | Slide
                                                                    th                              2
Sen4CAP Sentinels for CAP monitoring approach - Sen4CAP team European Space Agency, Earth Observation Directorate - Copernicus
Sen4CAP Evolution
   CzechAgri                              Request                                                                                                                 Sen4CAP KO   EU Parliament       User Consultation
    2015/16                              Jan 2017                                                                            Ref. Ares(2017)277720 - 18/01/2017
                                                                                                                                                                     2017          2017                  2017
                                                              EUROPEAN COMMISSION
                                                              DIRECTORATE-GENERAL FOR AGRICULTURE AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT
                                                              DIRECTORATE GENERAL FOR INTERNAL MARKET, INDUSTRY, ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND
                                                              SME'S

                                                              Directorate D. Direct support
                                                              Space policy, Copernicus and Defence
                                                              Directors

                                                                                                 Brussels,
                                                                                                 D3/BR/cj Ares(2016) 7830056

                                 Subject:           Cooperation between the European Commission and the European
                                                    Space Agency (ESA) on the follow-up of the CzechAgri study

                                 Dear Mr Aschbacher,

                                 Both ESA and the European Commission have an interest in promoting and supporting
                                 the development of Earth Observation (EO) use and related capacity in Agriculture.

                                 We have taken great interest in the results of the CzechAgri study that was jointly
                                 initiated in December 2015 by ESA, DG JRC and SZIF (Czech Paying Agency) and
                                 successfully implemented thanks to ESA funding and a technical steering involving DG
                                 AGRI.

                                 Following these promising results, it would be extremely useful to further explore –in
                                 close cooperation with the European Commission– the capabilities of the Copernicus
                                 Sentinels in view of the current works on the modernisation and simplification of the
                                 CAP and the opportunities of EO from space for supporting the Integrated
                                 Administration and Control System (IACS). As you may know, technical solutions to
                                 improve and to make the IACS more cost efficient are high on the political agenda. A
                                 promising way forward is offered by the important potential of Sentinel/Copernicus for
                                 administration and control purposes, i.e. in a broader perspective than the current on-the-
                                 spot controls using remote sensing. Indeed, the ambition for the next programming
                                 period is greater, we also want the IACS to be a key tool in the delivery of enhanced
                                 environmental services and public goods.

                                 With this letter, we acknowledge and welcome ESA´s readiness to continue this effort by
                                 conducting two or three follow-up pilot studies to the CzechAgri project in preparation of
                                 the CAP 2020 reform together with the main stakeholders (DG AGRI, DG GROW and
                                 DG JRC) and the national Paying Agencies.

             1st
               Evidence                                                                                                                                  Checks by Monitoring        1st Demonstration Results
                                 Mr. Josef Aschbacher
                                 Director of Earth Observation Programmes
                                 European Space Agency
                                 Via Galileo Galilei
                                 Casella postale 64
                                 00044 Frascati - Italy

                                 Commission européenne/Europese Commissie, 1049 Bruxelles/Brussel, BELGIQUE/BELGIË - Tel. +32 22991111

             March 2018                                                                                                                                       May 2018                    November 2018

ESA UNCLASSIFIED - For Official Use                                                                                                                                                       24th MARS conference | 21/11/2018 | Slide 3
Sen4CAP Sentinels for CAP monitoring approach - Sen4CAP team European Space Agency, Earth Observation Directorate - Copernicus
CAP Monitoring Approach – Technology meets Policy

Sen4CAP Objectives:
 o      Provide evidence how Sentinel derived information can support the
        modernization and simplification of the CAP in the post 2020 timeframe
 o      Provide validated algorithms, products, workflows and best practices
        for agriculture monitoring relevant for the management of the CAP
ESA UNCLASSIFIED - For Official Use                      24th MARS conference | 21/11/2018 | Slide 4
Sen4CAP Sentinels for CAP monitoring approach - Sen4CAP team European Space Agency, Earth Observation Directorate - Copernicus
Sen4CAP – Expertise, Technology & Collaboration

    Paying Agencies
       & Farmers

                                                     Validated
      DG-Agri, JRC,
       DG-Grow                                      Performance CAP2020
                                                                 Reform
                                                      National
                                        Cloud
                                                   Demonstration
         EO Experts                   Technology
                                        (DIAS)

ESA UNCLASSIFIED - For Official Use                       24th MARS conference | 21/11/2018 | Slide 5
Sen4CAP Sentinels for CAP monitoring approach - Sen4CAP team European Space Agency, Earth Observation Directorate - Copernicus
Sen4CAP Pilot Countries

ESA UNCLASSIFIED - For Official Use   24th MARS conference | 21/11/2018 | Slide 6
Sen4CAP Sentinels for CAP monitoring approach - Sen4CAP team European Space Agency, Earth Observation Directorate - Copernicus
From Satellites to Compliance - IACS use cases
Use case
Crop diversification
Permanent grassland identification
EFA-Land lying fallow
EFA-Catch crops                       Use Cases
                                      w/ Paying                 2 nd
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                                       Agencies                    e
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LPIS update
Claimless system
ESA UNCLASSIFIED - For Official Use               24th MARS conference | 21/11/2018 | Slide 7
Sen4CAP Sentinels for CAP monitoring approach - Sen4CAP team European Space Agency, Earth Observation Directorate - Copernicus
Sentinel-based markers for CAP Monitoring

                                                                                                                               Autumn
                                                                                                                                barley
                Crop type mapping

                      Vegetation growing        Crop type information & vegetation growing indicators

                      indicator                                                                                 Sunflower

                      Grassland mowing
                      detection

                                           Number of detected mowing events
                Agricultural practices
                monitoring

ESA UNCLASSIFIED - For Official Use                                                                     24Physical
                                                                                                          th MARS       conference
                                                                                                                   markers                 | 21/11/2018
                                                                                                                           to monitor EFA agricultural practices | Slide 8
Sen4CAP Sentinels for CAP monitoring approach - Sen4CAP team European Space Agency, Earth Observation Directorate - Copernicus
Parcel Level Implementation – New Approach

       Czech Republic                                                                                                 • 5-m inner
                                                 Netherlands                               Lithuania
                                                                                                                        buffer
       3%                 0%                9%                    0%            6%                 0%
                                                                                                                      • Parcels
                                                                                                                        whose
  Parcels               Area           Parcels                   Area        Parcels              Area                  centroid
                                                                                                                        is inside
        97%               100%               91%                 100%          94%
                                                                                                       100%

                                                         Italy                             Romania
     # of parcels
                                                            16%               11%                  2%
                                                   36%
              Area                     Parcels
                                      64%                        Area        Parcels                Area
                                                                       84%           89%
                                                                                                        98%

ESA UNCLASSIFIED - For Official Use     *based on crop diversification use case                24th MARS conference | 21/11/2018 | Slide 9
Sen4CAP Sentinels for CAP monitoring approach - Sen4CAP team European Space Agency, Earth Observation Directorate - Copernicus
Monitoring of Agricultural Practices
•       IACS use case: Ecological Focal Area compliancy (5% area for farms >15ha)
                • based on S1&2 time series – 5 markers tracing crop activities

                                                                                                 Harvest
                                                   Catch crop, Czech Republic
Output:
   Harvest (per  parcel)
           – Visual check

•        Harvest detection
•        Harvest week
•        Catch crop detection
•        Confidence level for                                                                Catch Crop
         compliancy                                                                            period

        Winter Catch Crop – Visual check

    ESA UNCLASSIFIED - For Official Use                                24th MARS conference | 21/11/2018 | Slide 10
HARVEST   CATCH CROP PERIOD
                                      WINTER WHEAT

                          HARVEST     CATCH CROP PERIOD                                            HARVEST    CATCH CROP PERIOD
       SPRING WHEAT                                                                SPRING WHEAT

ESA UNCLASSIFIED - For Official Use                                                    24th MARS conference | 21/11/2018 | Slide 11
Crop type mapping for crop diversification monitoring
Netherlands - National Scale                                            High confidence in agreement
                                                                        Average confidence in agreement
Observed crop type                                                      Weak confidence in agreement
            (2017)                                                      High confidence in disagreement

                                       95% of parcels

                                        Full Resolution Visualization Online:
 ESA UNCLASSIFIED - For Official Use    http://www.esa.int/spaceinimages/Images/2018/05/Crop_map
                                                                              24th MARS conference | 21/11/2018 | Slide 12
Crop type mapping for crop diversification monitoring
 Castilla y Leon – « National Scale »
                                                   Castilla y Leon - 2018
Observed crop type                                       OA = 84%
map (2018)

                                      95% of
                                      total area

ESA UNCLASSIFIED - For Official Use                              24th MARS conference | 21/11/2018 | Slide 13
Crop type mapping for crop diversification monitoring
 Castilla y Leon – « National Scale »
        Observed crop type            Agreement indicator   Compliance indicator
           map (2018)                 at the parcel level   at the holding level

ESA UNCLASSIFIED - For Official Use                         24th MARS conference | 21/11/2018 | Slide 14
Permanent Grassland Use Case (Czech Republic)
Grassland mowing product consists in the detection of mowing events occurred on grassland parcels during the period of
  interest and in the assessment of their compliancy, according to the national regulations

                 0                                                                        National          Czech Republic
                                      ✓ Parcel identifier
                 1
                 2
                                                                                          regulations
                                      ✓ Grassland Crop type                               At least 1 mowing or grazing
                                                                                          within 31st July
                                      ✓ Number of mowing events (maximum 4)

                                      ✓ For each mowing event (up to 4):
                                                                                    Compliancy level
                                        o Temporal interval in which the mowing
                                          event occurred (t_start and t_end)
                                                                                    0: Not assessed
                                        o Confidence      level  in   terms    of
                                                                                    1: Assessed and compliant because
                                          probability of right mowing (conf)
                                                                                        a mowing occurred in the
                                        o Satellite mission data used for               reference period
                                          detection of mowing (S1, S2 or both)
                                                                                    2:     Assessed and not compliant
                                        o Compliancy level                                because no mowing occurred in
                                                                                          the reference period
ESA UNCLASSIFIED - For Official Use                                                      24th MARS conference | 21/11/2018 | Slide 15
2018 – Status of production & parcel analysis
 •    Evaluation of impact of parcel size and shape number of parcels assessed
 •    Approach adopted: all parcels having at least 1 pixel whose centroid falls inside 5 meters buffer
 •    Performance – preliminary 2018 results for NLD show >80% accuracy (2017 accuracy: NLD 88%, CZE 89%)
 •    High heterogeneity of grassland phenology between different climate zones (e.g. NDL - ESP)

                        Area Of         EO input       Total        Parcels not   Mean parcel area       Total AOI area not
     Country
                        Interest       up to now    Parcels (n°)   assessed (%)   not assessed (ha)        assessed (%)

     NLD*        100 % country        S2              404.975         0.3 %            0.8 ha                     0.1 %

     CZE*        100 % country        S2              323.269         0.03 %           1.3 ha                    0.01 %

                                      S2
     LTU         100 % country                        402.160         0.1 %            0.9 ha                    0.05 %
                                      S1
                 100 % of the AOI
     ITA*                             S2              277.603         17 %             0.01 ha                    0.2 %
                 (5 Regions)
                 100 % of the AOI
     ESP                              in progress    1.273.693
                 (Castilla Y Leon)

     ROU         100 % country        in progress    2.080.995

* Statistics on NLD, CZE and ITA are based on products generated only on the basis of S2 data. They could be slightly
overestimated
ESA UNCLASSIFIED - For Official Use                                                     24th MARS conference | 21/11/2018 | Slide 16
Preliminary 2018 results
 Grassland mowing detection - Lithuannia
                                       Based on S1 and S2 (only NDVI)
                                       Final version will also use S2 LAI and FAPAR

                                      277.603 parcels of Grassaland

                                      • GPŽ, Pasture or meadow, perennial grass up to 5 years
                                      • DGP, Perennial pastures or meadows 5 years and more
                                      • GPA, Pasture or meadow, perennial grass up to 5
                                             years, renewed in the current year
                                      • EPT, Extensive meadows grazing with livestock
                                      • NPT, Natural and semi-natural meadows
                                      • SPT, Specific meadows
                                      • 5PT-2, Extensive management of wetlands (direct
                                               payments are paid

ESA UNCLASSIFIED - For Official Use                        24th MARS conference | 21/11/2018 | Slide 17
Design of Sen4CAP processing system
                                                                 Sen4CAP Orchestrator
                                                                                                                                                          Decomposition into tiles
      Automated Download
                                                                                   Biophysical Indicators Processor                      Vegetation
                                                                                                                                           Status
                                                                                        Biophysical Indicators Processor                 Indicators
                                                                                                    Node #1
Scheduled
                                                                             Scheduled

                                                                                   Grassland Monitoring Processor                        Monitoring
                                                                                                                                         of Mowing
                                                                                        Grassland Monitoring Processor                     Events
                                                                                                   Node #2
               S2 L1C Time      Triggered                                    Scheduled
                  Series
                                                                                         Crop Type Map Processor                         Crop Type
                                         Atmospheric   L2A Optical                                                                        Map &                                            Sentinel-Hub
                                         Corrections   Time Series                         Crop Type Map Processor                      Extent Area
                                                                                                   Node #3
                                           (MAJA)
     L8 L1T Time                                                            Scheduled
        Series                                                                                                                           Agricultural
                                                                                   Agricultural Practices Monitoring                                                                        Interactive RGB
                                                                                                                                           Practices                                      Imagery and Simple
                                                                                               Processor
                             Triggered                                              Agricultural Practices Monitoring                    Monitoring                                             Idicators
                                                                                      Processor             Node #4                       Indicators

                                                       S1 Amplitude         Scheduled
            S1 SLC Time
                                          SAR Pre-      Coherence
               Series                                   Time Series
                                         Processing

                                                                                              In-situ Information
                                                                                                     & LPIS
                                                                                                                       Triggered

                                                                                                                                   Simple Indicators for Visualization
                                                                                                                                    Simple Indicators for Visualization
                                                                                                                                                           Node #5

 ESA UNCLASSIFIED - For Official Use                                                                                                                          24th MARS conference | 21/11/2018 | Slide 18
Towards uptake by Paying Agencies

Integration of S1 & S2 images, EO products &
markers in PA’s environment
WMS providing RGB imagery and simple
indicators
o     Easily integrated in PAs environment
o     S1, S2 & L8 images
o     Planet imagery visualization
o     Vegetation Indicators (NDVI, LAI, Fcover, FAPAR)
o     Time filtering
o     Configurable visualization
o     Reprojection to local coordinate systems
o     Customizable by country

ESA UNCLASSIFIED - For Official Use                      24th MARS conference | 21/11/2018 | Slide 19
Visualisation tool – Compliancy at parcel/farm level

ESA UNCLASSIFIED - For Official Use           24th MARS conference | 21/11/2018 | Slide 20
Validation – performance across EU heterogeneity
•       In-situ data sets shared by Paying Agencies
                • LPIS/GSAA datasets, subsidy applications, physical inspections, CwRS
•       Dedicated In-situ data sets
                • farmer interviews – 250 to 500 fields surveyed by practices & country
                • Visual analysis of Planet time series (250-500 fields by practices & country)
•        Sampling heterogeneous EU agricultural landscape:
                • LPIS types: Cadastral (IT, ES), Physical Block (NL, LI, RO), Farmers Block (CZ)
                • Field sizes: Minimum: RO & IT 72-85% < 1ha, Maximum: CZ 66% > 1ha
                • Landscape & climate: wide geographical range
•       Validation results 2017 (2018 on-going):
                • crop type (OA): CZ 93%, ES 83%, IT 66%, LI 87%, NDL 96%, RO 71%
                • grassland (OA): CZ 89%, NDL 88%
    ESA UNCLASSIFIED - For Official Use                                  24th MARS conference | 21/11/2018 | Slide 21
Visual Validation - Grassland Mowing
      3 May                                   First Mowing Date 1: 07.05.2018
                                      4 May
                                                   5 May                             8 May

ESA UNCLASSIFIED - For Official Use                        24th MARS conference | 21/11/2018 | Slide 22
From National to European scale

                                      Czech         Italy           Europe
                                      Republic                      (indicative)
Input EO data (2018-2019)             28 TB         100 TB          2 PB
Output L2 data (2018-                 34 TB         123 TB          2 PB
2019)
Output L3 data (2018-                 14 TB         50 TB           1 PB
2019)
Processing & pre-                     16 cores,     32              500 cores, 4 TB
processing resources                  128 GB        cores,256
(ongoing)                                           GB

 Distribution resources               8 cores, 64   16 cores, 96    50 cores, 352 TB
 (ongoing)                            GB            GB
ESA UNCLASSIFIED - For Official Use                                24th MARS conference | 21/11/2018 | Slide 23
From Satellites to Compliance - Implementation

    Sentinel-1 & -2

   EO products                                     Use Cases
                                                   w/ Paying
                                                    Agencies
   In-situ data
                                        Cloud
                                      Technology
                                        (DIAS)
ESA UNCLASSIFIED - For Official Use                24th MARS conference | 21/11/2018 | Slide 24
DIAS assessment and migration plans

                                      DIAS assessment:
                                      • Sen4CAP requirements definition
                                      • RFI document to the 5 DIAS-es
                                      • 2 weeks of services verification
                                      • Results:
                                         • Data availability/offer
                                         • Data access reliability
                                         • ICT performance

                                           Selection in progress
                                       to be ready end of 2018 for
                                      continuous processing in 2019

ESA UNCLASSIFIED - For Official Use                  24th MARS conference | 21/11/2018 | Slide 25
Sen4CAP: An European Effort to prepare for CAP2020
•       Open & operational Sentinel time series enable CAP monitoring approach
•       Interaction with PA operations for IACS implementation essential
•       Sen4CAP tools support automated, E2E monitoring at large scale
•       Cloud computing on DIAS will allow for national to European up-scaling
•       Open source approach for direct and customizable uptake & sharing
•       Hand in hand demonstration in 2019 together with Paying Agencies

                                          http://esa-sen4cap.org
    ESA UNCLASSIFIED - For Official Use                            24th MARS conference | 21/11/2018 | Slide 26
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