Status of Nuclear Power Plant Development in Indonesia

 
Status of Nuclear Power Plant Development
                  in Indonesia

        Sudi Ariyanto                                               Wiku Lulus Widodo
        asudi@batan.go.id                                           wikululu@batan.go.id

                            Center for Nuclear Energy Development
                                            BATAN

Seoul, 17 Maret 2014
                                                                                           1
Indonesia – Country Profile
                                2012 :                                           •   Area : 1.9 million km2
                                • GDP (Purchasing Power Parity) : US$ 1,237 b    •   Coastline : 54,716 km
                                • GDP per capita : US$ 5,100                     •   Population: 245.5 million
                                • GDP real growth : 6,2 %                        •   Density: 134 per square km
                                • Export : US$ 187 b
                                • Import : US$ 179 b                             Population density of Java:
                                                                                 951 per square km - the world’s most
                                                                                   populous island

    Medan    Sumatra            Kalimantan
                                                            Sulawesi
                                    Pontianak

                                                                           Maluku                         Jayapura
                                                                                Ambon

                               Java              Ujung-Pandang
                          Jakarta
                                                                                            Irian Jaya
                                                  Bali

•   > 17,000 islands : 6,000 islands inhabited                                                                      2
PLN (Perusahaan Listrik Negara)
      Indonesian State-owned Electricity Company

PLN is major integrated electric utility company in Indonesia.

Sole owner of transmission and distribution assets with control over majority of generation assets
in Indonesia.

          Generation                       Transmission                       Distribution

 ¨ Owner of 38 GW Power             ¨ Sole responsibility for          ¨ Sole distributor of
   Plant                              power transmission in              electricity to end
                                      Indonesia                          customers in Indonesia
 ¨ Controls over 85% of
   national generation capacity     ¨ Transmission lines with          ¨ Distribution lines of
                                      38 thousands kmc and               740 thousands kmc and
 ¨ Main purchaser of electricity      72 GVA of power                    39 GVA of transformer
   from Independent Power             transformer capacity               capacity, serving around
   Producers (IPPs)                                                      50 Millions customers, 6
                                                                         million PrePaid Meters.

                                                                                                     3
Electrification Ratio ( 2012 )

    More than 60 million Indonesian people had no access to electricity                                      Electrification
                                                                                                                                      2012
                                                                                                                 Ratio

                                                                                                                   PLN                73.1%

                                                                                                             (PLN+ Non PLN)           75.9%

                                                               KALTIM:75.9%
                                        KALBAR: 89.7%
                         RIAU:78.4%                                                               SULUT: 76.4%
NAD: 88.8%                                                                              GORONTALO: 60.7%            MALUT: 85.4%
                                                                            SULBAR: 89.3%                                           PAPUA: 33.1%
SUMUT: 87.2%

 SUMBAR: 76.9%
                                                                                              SULTENG: 66.0%

  JAMBI: 70.0%

    BENGKULU: 71.2%
                                           BABEL: 92.8%
      SUMSEL: 66.7%
                                                                   KALSEL:75.9%
                                               DKI: 96.4%                                                        MALUKU: 77.3%
                                                               KALTENG: 56.6%                SULTRA: 68.8%
         LAMPUNG: 70.0%
                                                                                  SULSEL: 81.2%
               BANTEN: 80.5%

                       JABAR: 75.9%
                                                                                                                               PAPUA BARAT: 66.5%
                               JATENG: 77.8%                                                          NTT: 53.2%
                                                                           BALI:74.5%
                                                                                         NTB: 53.3%
                                           DIY: 77.8%       JATIM: 75.2%

                                                                                                                                                    4
Electricity Fuel Mix is not ideal ....
 400,0                                                                                  300,0
                     Indonesia                                                                           Jawa Bali
 350,0
                                                                                        250,0
 300,0
                                                                                        200,0
 250,0

 200,0                                                                                  150,0                                                                                              Electricity demands rising fast, new addition
                                                                                                                                                                                           of 55 GW needed for the next 10 years
 150,0
                                                                                        100,0
 100,0
                                                                                         50,0
  50,0

          -                                                                                   -
              2011    2012    2013   2014   2015    2016   2017   2018   2019   2020              2011    2012   2013    2014   2015   2016   2017    2018   2019   2020

 70,0                                                                                   40,0
                     Indonesia Barat                                                                     Indonesia Timur
 60,0                                                                                   35,0
                                                                                                                                                                                               10.000
 50,0
                                                                                        30,0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      8.987   8.976
                                                                                        25,0                                                                                                    9.000
 40,0
                                                                                        20,0
 30,0                                                                                                                                                                                           8.000
                                                                                        15,0

 20,0
                                                                                        10,0                                                                                                    7.000                                        6.415
 10,0                                                                                    5,0
                                                                                                                                                                                                        5.728
      -                                                                                   -
                                                                                                                                                                                                6.000                                                                  5.231
              2012   2013     2014   2015   2016    2017   2018   2019   2020   2021              2012   2013    2014    2015   2016   2017   2018    2019   2020   2021                                                             5.207
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               4.744   4.311
                                                                                                                                                                                                5.000
                                                                                                                                                                                                                3.883      3.844
                                                                                                                                                                                                4.000

                                                                                                                                                                                                3.000

          450.000                                                                                                                                                                               2.000

                                                                                                                                                                                                1.000
          400.000
                                                                                                                                                                                                   -
          350.000                                                                                                                                                                                       2012    2013       2014      2015    2016     2017    2018    2019     2020    2021

          300.000                                                                                                                                                                                                  Other      GTPP    CCPP    GeoPP    HEPP   CFPP    Total

          250.000
GWh

          200.000

          150.000
                                                                                                                                                                                          ..too much relies on                     Coal : 38 GW
                                                                                                                                                                    coal                  coal > 65 % in 2021                      Geothermal: 6.4 GW
          100.000
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Comb. Cycle: 2.5 GW
               50.000                                                                                                                                                                                                              GT/Gas Eng.: 4 GW
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Hydro: 5.3 GW
                       -
                             2012           2013           2014            2015                   2016            2017             2018              2019           2020           2021                                            Others: 0.25 GW
                 Impor          Biomass            Surya/Hybrid          HSD           MFO               LNG            Gas       Batubara           Geothermal            Hydro

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               5
Current National Energy Mix

       Energy Mix 2011                        1.   Fossil energy is still dominant, the
                                                   Oil still dominated
                                                   resources   are limited;with 47.2%
                                              2.   Electrification ratio in 2013 still low
                                                   (74 %)
                         Gas
 Oil                     21.5                 3.   Utilization of New and Renewable
47.2                                               energy not yet optimal;
                                              4.   Environment issues:
             Coal                Hydro, 2.5
             26.7
                                                   a. Climate change mitigation;
                                                   b. Carbon trading;
                                                   c. National commitment on emission
                                Geothermal
                                   1.2                redcution 26% in the year 2020;
                                Renewable
                                   0.9
                                              5.   Financing for energy sector
                                                   development still limited.

                                                                                             6
Energy Policies has been set ...

• The Presidential Decree No.5 year 2006 indicates the target of
  energy mix until 2025 and the share of nuclear energy is about
  2% of primary energy or 4% of electricity (4000 MWe).

• The first two units of NPP is expected as stated in Act No. 17 year
  2007 on National Long Term Development Planning 2005-2025.

• The Energy Law No. 30 of August 2007 creates a National Energy
  Council (NEC) chaired by the President with the authority to
  design and formulate energy policy on behalf of the GOI. The
  policy then must be endorsed by Parliament.

                                                                   7
Presidential Decree 5/2006 gives direction....

                                     Target of National Energy Mix 2025

       YEAR 2005
Oil           : 54.76%                             YEAR 2025
Natural Gas   : 22.24%
Coal          : 16.77%
Hydro         : 3.72%
                                                                          Biofuel > 5 %
Geothermal    : 2.48%
                               Coal >33 %

                                              New & Renewable             Geothermal > 5 %
                                               Resources >17 %
                         Gas >30 %

                                                                          Nuclear, Hydro, Solar, Wind
                                       Oil< 20 %
                                                                          And biomass >5 %

                                                                          Liquefied Coal >2 %

                                                                                                        8
Proposed Sites for NPP

                        Bangka Sites: Feasibility
                                study
                             (2011-2013)             Muria Site: Has been evaluated
                                                              (1991-1996),
                                                    Now: monitoring of meteorology
                                                           and microseismic

Banten Site:    Under
  preliminary study

                                                                                      9
Current Status of Indonesia NPP Program
                                                                                               Milestone 3
                                                                                               Ready to commission and
                              Milestone 1                       Milestone 2                    operate the first NPP
Nuclear power
                              Ready to make a                   Ready to invite bids
option included
                              knowledgeable                     for the first NPP
   within the
national energy               commitment to a nuclear
    strategy                  programme
                                             Current
                                                                                                          Phase 4
                                             Position
                                                                                                    Maintenance and
                                               Act. 17/2007                     Phase 3                   continuous
                                                                                                       infrastructure
                                                                               Activities to
                 Pres.Reg. 5/2006                    Phase 2                                           improvement
                                                                          implement a first
tnempoleveD
erutcurtsarfnI

                         Phase 1                                                       NPP
  margorP

                                               Preparatory work
                                             for the construction
                       Consideration             of a NPP after a
                 before a decision to        policy decision has
                    launch a nuclear                  been taken
                  power programme
                            is taken

                   Pre Project               Project Decision           Construction                 Operation/
                                                 Making
   PPN ts1

                                                                                                   decommissioning
   tcejorP

                                 Feasibility study           Bidding process             Commissioning

                                              10-15 years
                                                                                                                         10
Readiness Position
                         Result of INIR Mission Phase 1 by IAEA for Indonesia (2009)

No.            INFRASTRUCTURE                                           STATUS OF PHASE 1
 1. National Position                      NEPIO not yet established
2.   Nuclear Safety                        No actions needed
3.   Management                            NEPIO not yet established
4.   Funding and Financing                 Minor actions needed
5.   Legislative Framework                 Minor actions needed
6.   Safeguards                            No actions needed
7.   Regulatory Framework                  No actions needed
8.   Radiation Protection                  No actions needed
9.   Electric Grid                         No actions needed
10. Human Resource                         No action needed
11. Stakeholder Involvement                Well-structured programme needs to established

12. Site and Supporting facility           Minor actions needed
13. Environmental Protection               No actions needed
14. Emergency Planning                     No actions needed

15. Security and Physical Protection       No actions needed
16. Nuclear Fuel Cycle                     No actions needed
17. Radioactive Waste                      No actions needed
18. Industrial Involment                   Minor actions needed
19. Procurement                            No actions needed
                                                                                            11
Indonesia Status - INIR Mission Findings              [1/3]

• Indonesia is planning in earnest for the introduction of
  nuclear power.
• Two key organizations have been formed: BATAN as
  promoting organization that in charge of development work
  and preparations for nuclear energy, and BAPETEN, the
  regulatory body.
• No decision has, however, yet been made on what
  organization will be responsible for owning and operating the
  nuclear power plants.
• Several options are considered.
   – Note : PLN ? --- is ready and willing to give long term PPA (30 years),
     willing to be an operator/owner if government appoints us, now has
     an initiative to carry out FS

                                                                               12
Indonesia Current Status - INIR Mission Findings    [2/3]

• There is a national consensus in principle that nuclear energy
  should be a part of the energy portfolio in Indonesia ( Act
  Number 17 Year 2007 ).

• There is good progress in the development of the national
  infrastructure in many areas, especially nuclear law, safety
  regulations, grid, human resources development, emergency
  planning, environmental protection, fuel cycle and waste-
  management.

                                                                   13
Indonesia Current Status - INIR Mission Findings   [3/3]

• However less progress has been made in areas, which will
  require the involvement of the owner/operator of the nuclear
  power plants, e.g. management, funding and financing and
  industry involvement.
• The activities for stakeholder involvement will in particular
  require significant improvement.
• The infrastructure activities performed by different
  organisations have so far been informally coordinated;
• It would be advantageous to introduce formal steering and
  coordination of the future activities.

                                                                  14
Roadmap of NPP Development

                             15
Scope of Feasibility Study – BATAN & PLN

                                           16
Aspect of Feasibility Study
                                                                             EXTERNAL EVENTS

                                                               1.   Topography dan Geography
                                                               2.   Geology, geophysic dan geotechnics
                                                               3.   Seismology
                                                               4.   Volcanology
                                                               5.   Oceanography, Off-shore geophysic &
                          SAFETY RELATED                            coastal flooding
                             ASPECTS                           6.   Hydrogeology and hydrology
                                                               7.   Meteorology
                                                               8.   External Human Induced Events
SITE STUDY
                                                                     Impact of NPP to Environment

                                                               9. Demography
                                                               10. Land, water and marine use
                      NON-SAFETY RELATED                       11. Radioactivity Background, Dispersion and Dose
                                                                    assessment
                           ASPECTS                             12. Emergency Preparedness

                                                               13. Spatial Planning and Infrastructure
                                                               14. Ecology + endangered species
                 1.   Technology and safety (size, technical   15. Social economy and socio-culture + historical
                      fiture, etc)
 NON-SITE        2.   Fuel cycle and Rad Wast Management
                                                                   monuments
                                                               16. Other consideration
                 3.   National Participation (industry,
  STUDY               services, important material)
                 4.   Human Resources
                 5.   Management (contract, schedule)
                                                                                                                   17
Finding sites is challenging ......

    Bangka
      Belitung

     TECTONIC SETTING OF INDONESIA
                                      18
Active volcanic hazards around the country....

                                                 19
Next Urgent Steps for Indonesia

• Clarify the planning and decisions needed for a nuclear power
  program and identify owner/operator
• Create an inter-agency team to oversee and steer infrastructure
  development work
• Develop a detailed action plan for infrastructure development
  for phase 2 (until invitation to bid is issued) as part of longer
  term planning
• Develop a comprehensive program for stakeholder (incl. public)
  involvement
• Expand the existing national policy and strategy for national
  industry involvement to also include the involvement for
  constructing and operating nuclear power plants
• Enhance international/regional/bilateral cooperation

                                                                  20
Recent Activities
          Experimental Power Reactor
Objective
1. To strengthen the facilities for R&D to support
   development of new and renewable energy
2. To increase man power capabilities in project
   management of nuclear construction
3. To support public acceptance activities

                                                     21
Proposed Sites for EPR

Serpong, Banten in a complex for
    science and engineering
  development owned by the
          Government
                                              22
General Information for EPR
• Type of reactor: High Temperature Reactor
• Capacity: 10-30 MWt
• Utilization: Electricity, and Heat for co-
  generation
• Target: commissioning in 2019
• Budget: Self-financed
• Site evaluation program has been sent to
  Regulatory Body to get permission
                                               23
Conclusion

Indonesia has done extensive preparatory work on most
infrastructure issues that would allow the country to make
decision to further consider introduction of nuclear power,
i.e. to go from phase 1 to phase 2 in Milestone methodology.

It can be suggested that some issues mainly connected to the
responsibilities of the owner/operator of the nuclear power
plant, still will require further work, most of which can be
performed in parallel during Phase 2.

                                                               24
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