Survey of Egg Usage in the Irish Hotel, Restaurant and Commercial Catering Industry May 1999

Survey of Egg Usage in the Irish Hotel, Restaurant and Commercial Catering Industry May 1999  Food Safety Authority of Ireland 1999

Acknowledgements The expertise and direction provided by John Linnane from DIT Cathal Brugha Street College Dublin, is very much appreciated. The Authority also extends it’s gratitude to Henry O’Neill of the Irish Restaurants Association, John Power from the Irish Hotels Federation and Helena O’Brien from the Catering Management Association for all their co-operation and support. Thanks also to the members of all of the above associations and attendees at the RDS Catering Exhibition who took the time to fill in the questionnaire.

Table of Contents Table of Contents . . ii Table of Figures ... . iv Main Recommendation . . vi Executive Summary . . vii 1 Introduction ___ 1
1.1 Introduction ___ 2
1.2 Egg Quality Assurance Scheme ___ 2
1.3 The Food Safety Authority of Ireland ___ 3
1.4 The Survey ___ 4
2 Results ___ 5
2.1 Overall Response Rates ___ 6
2.1.1 Categories of establishments ___ 6
2.1.2 Position of employment ___ 7
2.1.3 Region ___ 9
2.2 Usage of fresh shell eggs ___ 10
2.2.1 Respondents using fresh shell eggs ___ 10
2.2.2 Categories of establishments ___ 11
2.2.3 Regional use ___ 12
2.2.4 Quantity used ___ 13
2.3 Usage of Pasteurised Egg ___ 15
2.3.1 Respondents using pasteurised egg ___ 15
2.3.2 Categories of establishment ___ 16
2.3.3 Regional use ___ 17
2.3.4 Quantity used ___ 18
2.3.5 Changing to pasteurised egg ___ 19
2.3.6 Reasons for changing to pasteurised egg ___ 21
2.3.7 Pasteurised egg restricting menu ___ 21
2.3.8 Organoleptic quality of pasteurised egg ___ 22
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2.4 Responses to the Egg Quality Assurance Scheme ___ 24
2.5 Awareness of Salmonella in eggs ___ 27
2.5.1 Bacteria associated with eggs ___ 27
2.5.2 Where Salmonella can be found ___ 30
2.5.3 Risk of Salmonella ___ 32
2.5.4 Salmonella controlled flocks ___ 34
2.6 Food Safety Management ___ 36
2.6.1 Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point ___ 36
2.6.2 Written hygiene policy ___ 38
2.6.3 Hygiene training ___ 39
3 Conclusions ___ 41
3.1 Usage of fresh shell egg ___ 42
3.2 Usage of pasteurised egg ___ 43
3.3 Changing to pasteurised egg ___ 44
3.4 Egg Quality Assurance Scheme ___ 45
3.5 Awareness of salmonella in eggs ___ 45
3.6 Food Safety management ___ 46
3.6.1 HACCP/Written Hygiene Policy ___ 46
3.6.2 Training ___ 47
3.6.3 Education ___ 47
Appendix i (Advice for Caterers - Salmonella and Egg Safety Factsheet) ___ 48
Appendix ii (Questionnaire ___ 50
Appendix iii (The Irish Egg Industry Factsheet ___ 55
Appendix iv (Statutory Requirements ___ 57
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Table of Figures Figure 1 Response rate by category of establishment ___ 6
Figure 2 Response rate by position of employment ___ 8
Figure 3 Regional response rate ___ 9
Figure 4 Usage of fresh shell eggs ___ 10
Figure 5 Usage of fresh shell eggs per establishment ___ 11
Figure 6 Regional use of fresh shell eggs ___ 13
Figure 7 Quantity of fresh shell eggs used ___ 14
Figure 8 Usage of pasteurised egg ___ 15
Figure 9 Usage of pasteurised egg per establishment ___ 16
Figure 10 Regional use of pasteurised egg ___ 18
Figure 11 Quantity of pasteurised egg used ___ 19
Figure 12 Establishments changing to pasteurised egg ___ 20
Figure 13 Reasons for changing to pasteurised egg ___ 21
Figure 14 Pasteurised egg restricting menu ___ 22
Figure 15 Pasteurised egg changing organoleptic properties ___ 23
Figure 16 Egg Quality Assurance Scheme (E.Q.A.S ___ 24
Figure 17 Egg Quality Assurance Scheme alleviating customers fears ___ 25
Figure 18 Egg Quality Assurance logo ___ 26
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Figure 19 Bacteria associated with eggs ___ 27
Figure 20 Respondents by occupation associating bacteria and eggs ___ 28
Figure 21 Respondents with training associating bacteria and eggs ___ 29
Figure 22 Where salmonella can be found ___ 30
Figure 23 Respondents with training indicating where Salmonella can be found ___ 31
Figure 24 Respondents with training indicating the risk of Salmonella ___ 32
Figure 25 Respondents by position of employment indicating the risk of Salmonella ___ 33
Figure 26 Overall percentage of respondents sourcing eggs from Salmonella controlled flocks ___ 34
Figure 27 Establishments sourcing eggs from Salmonella controlled flocks ___ 35
Figure 28 Establishments with a HACCP system ___ 36
Figure 29 Establishments identifying eggs as a potential hazard ___ 37
Figure 30 Establishments with a written hygiene policy ___ 38
Figure 31 Respondents who received hygiene training ___ 39
Figure 32 Respondents by occupation that received hygiene training ___ 40
v

Main Recommendation ! Caterers using fresh shell eggs in uncooked or semi-cooked dishes are advised to source their eggs from Salmonella controlled flocks produced under the Bord Bia Egg Quality Assurance Scheme. Alternatively, caterers should use pasteurised eggs in such dishes. (See appendix i for the Advice for Caterers - Salmonella and egg safety factsheet). Significant proportions of establishments are currently using fresh shell eggs in uncooked egg dishes (e.g. mayonnaise or mousse) as well as in semi-cooked egg dishes (e.g. Hollandaise or similar sauces). There is an increased risk of contracting Salmonella from fresh shell eggs and their products where increased quantities of fresh shell eggs are being used, such as in catering premises.

Pasteurised egg should ideally be used where there is large-scale food production of uncooked and semi-cooked egg dishes in order to eliminate the risk of Salmonella.

However, in light of the survey it is evident that there is a genuine awareness of this risk but equally a genuine reluctance by caterers to use pasteurised egg in these high-risk dishes. Some caterers are even willing to remove these high-risk products from their menus rather than use pasteurised egg. The Food Safety Authority of Ireland aims to ensure that food complies with legal requirements or appropriate recognised codes of practice. Therefore, in the interests of consumer protection and in keeping with the findings of the survey, caterers are advised to source their fresh shell eggs from reputable suppliers with Salmonella controls in place, such as suppliers implementing the Bord Bia code of practice for eggs.

This voluntary code of practice for eggs covers both their production and packaging. The survey highlighted the wish of caterers to revert to using safe fresh eggs. The main focus of the Egg Quality Assurance Scheme is to deliver these safe fresh shell eggs. The consumption of fresh shell eggs and fresh shell egg products such as homemade mayonnaise, mousses, ice-cream, tira-misu, baked Alaska and sauces, e.g. Hollandaise sauce, should be avoided by vulnerable groups such as the elderly, young infants, pregnant women or those with any form of poor health. vi

Executive Summary This report contains the findings from a survey on egg usage in the Irish Hotel, Restaurant and Commercial Catering Industry.

In its role as a consumer protection agency, the Food Safety Authority of Ireland undertook to explore the current level of use of fresh shell eggs and pasteurised egg in the Irish catering industry. The surveys were distributed throughout Ireland during February 1999 to the members of The Restaurants Association of Ireland, The Catering Management Association and The Irish Hotels Federation. In addition, a stand was also set up at the RDS during the National Catering Exhibition 1999 and attendees requested to take part in the survey.

The following is a list of some of the key findings: Fresh shell eggs # Considering the risks associated with the usage of fresh shell eggs, high percentages of all establishments use fresh shell eggs in uncooked (26%) and semi-cooked (43%) egg dishes. # The main users of fresh shell eggs are small and medium sized hotels and restaurants in uncooked and semi-cooked dishes, from approximately ¼ (25%) to less than ½ (48%) of respondents in these categories. Pasteurised egg # Low percentages of all establishments use pasteurised egg in uncooked (26%) and semi-cooked egg dishes (21%).

The main users of pasteurised egg are large hotels and restaurants in uncooked egg dishes (43% and 37% respectively) and in semi-cooked egg dishes (41% and 29% respectively).

Only 4% of small restaurants are using pasteurised egg in uncooked or semicooked egg dishes. Salmonella controlled flocks # 80% source their eggs from Salmonella controlled flocks. vii

Changing to pasteurised egg # Approximately 1 /3 (34%) of all establishments changed to using pasteurised egg in uncooked egg dishes and 28% in semi-cooked egg dishes. # 97% of respondents who changed to pasteurised egg did so for safety reasons. Perceptions of pasteurised egg # Significant proportions, 33% to 42%, of all establishments in all categories of premises indicated that pasteurised egg restricts their menu. # 12% to 17% of all establishments perceived that pasteurised egg impairs the organoleptic quality of the product.

Egg Quality Assurance Scheme # 72% of all establishments responding to the Scheme would use fresh shell eggs if there was an Egg Quality Assurance Scheme.

Awareness of Salmonella # 86% of respondents were aware that Salmonella could be present inside the egg. # Only 47% were aware there was a risk from Salmonella on the outside of the eggshell. HACCP # 41% of all respondents indicated they have a HACCP system in place, with approximately two thirds of the large hotels, restaurants and commercial caterers presenting the highest implementation rate. # Out of the total number or respondents only a very small proportion, 9%, of medium hotels and restaurants identified eggs as a potential hazard. viii

1 Introduction ix

1.1 INTRODUCTION Ireland is one of four EU member states (along with Sweden, Finland and Denmark) which have an EU approved Salmonella Plan. Under the plan all farms are tested and monitored by the Department of Agriculture and Food and any egg laying flocks with confirmed Salmonella infections are slaughtered immediately. A number of foodborne outbreaks during the summer months of 1998 were associated with the consumption of fresh shell eggs and fresh shell egg products. The source of the eggs from four of the outbreaks was traced to flocks from Northern Ireland.

Eggs produced under the Republic of Ireland Salmonella Control Programmes were not implicated.

The risk of contracting Salmonella from table eggs in the Republic of Ireland appears to be small but as a precautionary measure consumers were advised to cook all eggs and egg dishes thoroughly before consumption. However, there is an increased risk associated with large-scale food production in the catering industry due to the large volumes of eggs that are used. One egg infected with Salmonella could contaminate a whole batch and these bacteria could subsequently multiply to fatal levels in foods that are left unrefridgerated, for example, food at buffets. All caterers were therefore advised by the Food Safety Authority of Ireland to use pasteurised egg in all raw egg dishes.

1.2 EGG QUALITY ASSURANCE SCHEME Subsequent to the foodborne outbreaks in 1998 and as a result of the increasing association between Salmonella and eggs, An Bord Bia in association with the Irish egg industry developed Ireland’s first Quality Assurance Scheme for eggs. This Egg Quality Assurance Scheme was launched in March 1999 and lays down quality assurance requirements that must be adhered to by the participants, from producer to packer, in order to minimise the risk to consumers. x

This is a voluntary code of practice, with enhanced Salmonella controls, which covers all aspects of egg production (including hygiene, disease control and flock welfare) as well as packaging. During the production stage the Salmonella controls are built around the sourcing of pre-lay birds from approved sources with the relevant documentary evidence. Product identification and traceability is the key element of the packer’s requirements. This ensures that if there is any breach of the quality chain the product can be traced back to the farm of origin. The Egg Quality Assurance Scheme is designed to build on the general high health status of the country’s egg laying flocks with the main focus of delivering SAFE eggs to consumers and caterers alike.

The Scheme incorporates recognised international Quality Management Systems, Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) and EU derived legislation. All eggs produced under the Scheme will be stamped with the Quality Assurance logo. 1.3 THE FOOD SAFETY AUTHORITY OF IRELAND The Food Safety Authority of Ireland is an independent science-based body dedicated to protecting public health and consumer interests in the area of food safety and hygiene. The principal function of the Authority is to take all reasonable steps to ensure that food produced, distributed or marketed in the State meets the highest standards of food safety and hygiene.

It also aims to ensure that food complies with legal requirements, or where appropriate with recognised codes of good practice.

The Food Safety Authority of Ireland ultimately aims to ensure that all eggs produced in Ireland will be from “Salmonella free flocks” thus raising the standard of egg production to equal that of the Salmonella free eggs produced in Scandinavia. The Egg Quality Assurance Scheme was therefore welcomed by the Food Safety Authority of Ireland with its endeavours to deliver SAFE eggs from producers and packers to retail, catering and other outlets. xi

1.4 THE SURVEY The Food Safety Authority of Ireland commissioned a survey among the hotels, restaurants and commercial caterers throughout Ireland with the core objective of establishing the current level of use of fresh shell eggs and pasteurised egg in the Irish catering industry.

Whilst identifying the patterns and preferences among the catering industry, it was also the intention of the survey to ascertain if the catering industry would be confident in using fresh eggs again if they were sourced from the Bord Bia Egg Quality Assurance Scheme.

The aim of the survey was twofold in that not only did it attempt to discover the broad facts on egg usage in the Irish catering industry but also to highlight the risk of Salmonella in eggs and the current policies that are in place by the regulatory authorities. Therefore a factsheet on the Irish Egg Industry was sent out in accompaniment to the questionnaire. (See Appendix ii and iii for the questionnaire and factsheet respectively). To ensure a good response the questionnaires were anonymous and a pre-paid envelope provided. A 32% response rate was achieved.

In total 1,670 surveys were distributed throughout Ireland to the members of The Restaurants Association of Ireland, The Catering Management Association and The Irish Hotels Federation during February 1999.

In order to disseminate the questionnaire further amongst the catering trade, a stand was set up at the RDS Catering Exhibition from February 22nd to 25th 1999. Attendees were requested to take part in the survey as well as being provided with food safety literature. The information provided by all of the respondents is of great value to the Food Safety Authority of Ireland and subsequently to the Irish catering industry itself. The Food Safety Authority has considered the opinions expressed by the industry during the course of the survey and a key recommendation has been made in line with these findings.

The Authority will ensure that the appropriate policies are put in place to reassure the food industry and consumers alike of the safety of Irish eggs.

2 Results xiii

2.1 OVERALL RESPONSE RATES 2.1.1 Categories of establishments The types of establishments surveyed were divided into one of seven categories as follows: # Small hotels - less that 20 rooms (including guesthouses and bed and breakfasts etc.) # Medium hotels - 21 to 100 rooms # Large hotels - greater than 100 rooms # Small restaurants - less than 30 seats (including coffee shops etc.) # Medium restaurants - 31 to 100 seats # Large restaurants - greater than 100 seats # Commercial Caterers Of the 1,670 surveys disseminated (excluding the surveys distributed at the RDS Catering Exhibition) approximately 820 were sent to hotels, 590 to restaurants and 260 to commercial caterers.

The majority of respondents, 27%, were from medium sized restaurants (figure 1). Small and medium sized hotels were also well represented with an 18% and 20% response rate respectively. Figure 1 Response rate by category of establishment 18 20 9 4 27 9 10 25 50 100 Hotel (1-20 room s) H (21-100) H (> 100) Restaurants (1-30 seats) R (31-100) R (> 100) Comm.Caterer O ther Category of establishm ent Percentage xiv

The total percentage of respondents in all categories of establishments amounts to more than 100%, as some establishments indicated that they were in more than one category. For example, a number of hotels indicated that they were in the business as both a hotel as well as a restaurant. This reflects the high response rate from medium sized restaurants (even though more hotels were surveyed) in that some medium sized hotels also provided a restaurant service. The larger establishments, hotels with greater than 100 rooms and restaurants catering for greater than 100 customers, were not as well represented, with both having a 9% response rate.

A similar figure of 10% of establishments responding to the survey were in the category of commercial caterer. This may reflect the fact that fewer types of these larger establishments are in existence. Small-scale restaurants were the establishments with the least number of respondents (4%). This may be attributed to the fact that the smaller enterprises were not affiliated to any of the Associations that the survey was sent out through. It would have been expected that responses from a number of such establishments should have been obtained at the RDS Catering Exhibition. It is possible, however, that small-scale establishments may not have been as well represented at the exhibition because they are subject to additional pressures such as small numbers of staff and/or managers to look after the business and many more would not be located in the Dublin catchment area.

2.1.2 Position of employment Respondents were divided into four job categories: chef, owner, manager or other. From the total number of respondents more than half (52%) were in the position of chef (figure 2). One quarter of respondents were owners (25%) and a similar percentage of managers (23%) responded to the questionnaire. Again the total percentage of respondents in the various job categories, as outlined, does not total 100%. This is as a result of a high proportion of respondents indicating they were in more than one category of job, in that they had more than one function or duty e.g.

chef/owners or owner/managers.

Figure 2 Response rate by position of employment 25 23 52 17 50 100 OW NER M ANAGER CHEF OTHER Position of em ploym ent Percentage It was the intention that representatives from all job categories were included in the survey. The postal questionnaires targeted members of management of either catering or purchasing positions. Some of these questionnaires were given to those who usually prepared the egg-based dishes, such as pastry chefs. Reponses from the exhibition were predominantly from chefs or those working directly in the kitchen area. In addition, as already mentioned, a lot of the chefs also functioned as the owner or manger, which may be responsible for the apparent increase in the response rate from those in the ‘chef’ category.

The remainder of respondents in the category ‘other’ (17%) tended to be in various managerial or other chef positions or were either catering instructors or consultants.

2.1.3 Region The response rate varied somewhat throughout the country (figure 3). The largest response was from the Leinster area (42%). The majority of the establishments surveyed were not however, based in Leinster. The members surveyed from the two biggest catering associations (The Irish Hotels Federation and The Restaurants Association of Ireland) were fairly evenly distributed throughout the Republic. The majority of the commercial caterers however appeared to be mainly Dublin based. Smaller percentages of respondents were from Munster (27%) and Connacht (16%).

Only 6% of respondents were from Ulster but a very small percentage of catering establishments from Ulster are members of the Republics Catering Associations. The majority of respondents from Ulster may have attended the Catering Exhibition in Dublin. A total of 9% did not respond to this question. Figure 3 Regional response rate 6 27 42 16 9 50 100 ULSTER MUNSTER LEINSTER CONNACHT UNKNOW N Region Percentage xvii

2.2 USAGE OF FRESH SHELL EGGS 2.2.1 Respondents using fresh shell eggs Approximately ¼ (26%) of all establishments surveyed are using fresh shell eggs in uncooked dishes, such as cold desserts, and just under ½ (43%) are using them in semi-cooked dishes, such as slightly heated sauces. The majority of establishments are using fresh eggs in fully cooked dishes (89%). (Figure 4). Figure 4 Usage of fresh shell eggs 26 43 89 25 50 75 100 UNCOOKED DISHES SEM ICOOKED DISHES FULLY COOKED DISHES Type of dish Percentage xviii

2.2.2 Categories of establishments The general trend for all categories of establishments was that the least percentage use fresh shell eggs in uncooked egg dishes with an increasing amount of establishments using them in semi-cooked dishes.

The highest proportions of all establishments in each category of premises use fresh shell eggs in fully cooked dishes. When divided into the various types of establishments, the highest percentage of establishments using fresh shell eggs in uncooked dishes was small restaurants with 35% (figure 5). Slightly more than a quarter of all small hotels surveyed (29%), medium sized hotels (25%) and medium sized restaurants (30%) also indicated using fresh shell eggs in uncooked egg dishes. One fifth (20%) of the commercial caterers use fresh shell eggs in uncooked egg dishes whereas the larger undertakings, hotels and restaurants, tended to use very little fresh shell eggs in uncooked dishes (10%).

Figure 5 Usage of fresh shell eggs per establishment 29 25 10 35 30 10 20 45 48 35 39 48 37 33 88 89 84 70 87 90 84 20 40 60 80 100 Hotel (1-20 rooms) H (21-100) H (> 100) Restaurants (1-30 seats) R (31-100) R (> 100) Com m.Caterer Categories of Establishm ent Percentage FRESH SHELL EGG IN UNCOOKED DISHES FRESH SHELL EGG IN SEMICOOKED DISHES FRESH SHELL EGG IN FULLY COOKED DISHES xix

A greater percentage of establishments used fresh shell eggs in semi-cooked egg dishes than in uncooked dishes. There were no major differences of use among the different categories of establishments with approximately one third to one half of establishments using fresh shell eggs in semi-cooked dishes.

The lowest figure of usage was for commercial caterers, large hotels and large restaurants (as was for the use of fresh eggs in uncooked dishes) where only 33%, 35% and 37% respectively use fresh shell eggs in semi-cooked dishes. Small and medium sized hotels (45% and 46%) and small and medium restaurants (39% and 48%) used more fresh shell eggs in semi cooked dishes. There were no major differences in the use of fresh shell eggs in fully cooked egg dishes among the various categories of establishments apart from small restaurants with the lowest usage rate of 70%. This may reflect the fact that some coffee shop businesses or sandwich bars do not prepare fully cooked egg dishes apart from buying in pre-prepared egg ingredients.

The remaining establishments generally had a very high usage rate of fresh shell eggs in fully cooked dishes as would be expected (between 84 and 90%). 2.2.3 Regional use There was a similar general trend for the total number of respondents by region using fresh shell eggs in uncooked, semi-cooked and fully cooked dishes as there was for the use of fresh shell eggs according to establishment type. That is to say that the percentage of use of fresh eggs increased from uncooked to semicooked and fully cooked dishes in all regions of the country. (Figure 6). Leinster, Ulster and Connacht use similar amounts of fresh shell eggs in uncooked egg dishes (19%, 15%, 18% respectively) whilst the highest figures were recorded for Munster (34%).

In semi-cooked dishes there is a similar pattern of use throughout all the regions Leinster 35%, Ulster 42%, Munster 45% and Connacht 41%. Fresh egg usage in fully cooked egg dishes was high and also quite similar throughout the country (Leinster 87%, Ulster 79%, Munster 90% and Connacht 78% respectively).

Figure 6 Regional use of fresh shell eggs 19 15 34 18 38 35 42 45 41 45 87 79 90 78 81 25 50 75 100 LEINSTER ULSTER MUNSTER CONNACHT UNKNOW N Region Percentage FRESH SHELL EGG IN UNCOOKED DISHES FRESH SHELL EGG IN SEMICOOKED DISHES FRESH SHELL EGG IN FULLY COOKED DISHES 2.2.4 Quantity used For the total number of establishments surveyed over half (52%) indicated that they used between 1 and 5 dozen eggs per day, 30% used between 6 and 10 dozen per day and 3% did not use fresh shell eggs at all. When the quantity of fresh eggs used per day is analysed by establishment type, the majority of small and medium hotels, medium sized restaurants and commercial caterers use between 1 and 5 dozen fresh shell eggs per day.

(Figure 7). (Figures are not shown for all categories of establishments as the quantities of eggs used are very small). They also all used varying smaller percentages of other quantities of fresh shell eggs. An overwhelming majority of small hotels, 79%, and 60% of medium sized restaurants used 1 to 5 dozen fresh shell eggs per day.

Commercial caterers generally used larger quantities than all other establishments, 20% of which used more than 20 dozen per day. xxi

Figure 7 Quantity of fresh shell eggs used 1 1 1 7 79 34 60 29 12 29 18 22 3 14 7 15 3 12 20 0 0 2 5 25 50 75 100 Hotel (1-20 rooms) H (21-100) R (31-100) Com m.Caterer Categories of Establishm ent Percentage NONE 1-5 DOZ. 6-10 DOZ. 11-15 DOZ. 16-20 DOZ. > 20 DOZ. DON'T KNOW xxii

2.3 USAGE OF PASTEURISED EGG 2.3.1 Respondents using pasteurised egg Only a small percentage of all establishments use pasteurised egg in any of their dishes whether they are uncooked, semi-cooked or fully cooked (figure 8).

A significantly low percentage (26%) of all the establishments surveyed use pasteurised egg in uncooked dishes and only 21% indicated using pasteurised egg in semi-cooked dishes. 14% of establishments indicated using pasteurised egg in fully cooked dishes. Thus, a reasonably high percentage (14%) are using pasteurised egg in fully cooked dishes considering that it would not be necessary to use pasteurised egg in such dishes for safety reasons. Whereas only minorities (26%) of establishments are using it in uncooked egg dishes even though they were advised to do so for safety purposes.

Figure 8 Usage of pasteurised egg 26 21 14 25 50 75 100 U N CO O KED D ISHES SEM IC O O KED DISH ES FULLY C O O KED D ISH ES Type of dish Percentage xxiii

2.3.2 Categories of establishment The general trend for both medium and large hotels and restaurants was that the highest percentages use pasteurised egg in uncooked egg dishes. A decreasing amount of establishments use it in semi-cooked dishes and the lowest percentage in fully cooked egg dishes (figure 9). However, small hotels use less pasteurised egg in uncooked dishes than in semi-cooked dishes and commercial caterers use more pasteurised egg in fully cooked than in semi-cooked egg dishes.

Small restaurants use the same amount (very little, 4%) pasteurised egg in all egg dishes whether uncooked, semi-cooked or fully cooked. Figure 9 Usage of pasteurised egg per establishment 7 32 43 4 31 37 27 10 21 41 4 22 29 20 4 11 20 4 11 18 22 20 40 60 80 100 H otel (1-20 room s) H (21-100) H (> 100) R estaurants (1-30 seats) R (31-100) R (> 100) C om m .C aterer C ategories of Establishm ent Percentage PASTEURISED EG G S IN UNCO O KED DISHES PASTEUR ISED EG G S IN SEM IC O OKED DISHES PASTEURISED EG G S IN FULLY C O OKED D ISHES xxiv

The highest figure of use of pasteurised egg was 43% of the large hotels and 37% of large restaurants in uncooked egg dishes. Medium sized establishments use slightly less pasteurised egg in uncooked dishes (32% and 31% for medium hotels and restaurants respectively) and the smaller establishments as would have been expected, use the least amount of pasteurised egg in such dishes (7% and 4% for small hotels and restaurants respectively). 27% of commercial caterers use it in uncooked products. Pasteurised egg in semi-cooked dishes mirrored its use in uncooked egg dishes in that large hotels and restaurants (41% and 29%) use the most and the medium sized establishments (medium hotels and restaurants 21% and 22% respectively and commercial caterers 20%) are using slightly less.

The small hotels and restaurants use very little pasteurised egg in semi-cooked dishes. There were no major differences in the percentage of pasteurised egg used by the various catering establishments in fully cooked dishes and the figures are generally low (less than 22%), also as would have been expected. However, if the premises are using pasteurised egg already in uncooked and semi-cooked dishes they may be more inclined to use it also in some fully cooked dishes e.g. pastries, due to ease of handling.

2.3.3 Regional use Overall the highest percentage of use for pasteurised egg by region was in uncooked egg dishes. Subsequently the percentage decreases from uncooked egg dishes to semi-cooked to fully cooked dishes, as would have been expected (figure 10). Establishments in the Leinster and Munster region have the highest use of pasteurised eggs in uncooked egg dishes with 27% of respondents using it in both regions. Similar but lower figures of use were obtained for Ulster and Connacht (21% and 22% respectively).

The percentage of pasteurised egg used in semi-cooked dishes by region was slightly lower than in uncooked dishes.

However, the figures reported were similar throughout all the regions (Leinster 22%, Ulster 21%, Munster 20% and Connacht 16%). The lowest figures noted for the use of pasteurised egg were in fully cooked egg dishes with the percentages only slightly varying throughout the country (Leinster 16%, Ulster 9%, Munster 7% and Connacht 12%). Figure 10 Regional use of pasteurised egg 27 21 27 22 22 21 20 16 16 9 7 12 25 50 75 100 LEINSTER ULSTER M UNSTER CO NNACHT R egion Percentage PASTEU R ISED EG G S IN UN C O O KED D ISH ES PASTEUR ISED EG G S IN SEM ICO O KED D ISHES PASTEU R ISED EG G S IN FULLY C O O KED D ISH ES 2.3.4 Quantity used 62% of all respondents indicated that they did not use pasteurised egg at all.

When divided into establishment type, all establishments indicated a high level of non-usage, 80% in small hotels and 50%, 53% and 46% in medium sized hotels and restaurants and commercial caterers respectively. (Figure 11). (Figures are not shown for all categories of premises due to the very small quantities used). xxvi

Figure 11 Quantity of pasteurised egg used 81 50 53 46 8 28 26 20 1 4 3 15 0 1 4 2 20 40 60 80 100 Hotel (1-20 room s) H (21-100) R (31-100) Comm .Caterer Categories of Establishm ent Percentage NO NE 1-5 KG 6-10 KG 1-15 KG Medium sized establishments (28% of medium hotels, 26% of medium restaurants and 20% of commercial caterers) use between 1 and 5kg of pasteurised egg per day. Commercial caterers tended to use larger quantities of pasteurised egg with 12% using between 6 and 10 kg per day as opposed to 1% of small hotels and 4% and 3% of medium sized hotels and restaurants respectively.

2.3.5 Changing to pasteurised egg From the total number of respondents approximately only one-third (34%) changed to using pasteurised egg in uncooked egg dishes, 28% changed in semi-cooked dishes and 14% in fully cooked dishes.

When analysed by establishment type, out of the total number of respondents over half (51%) of medium sized hotels changed to using pasteurised egg in uncooked egg dishes (figure 12). xxvii

Figure 12 Establishments changing to pasteurised egg 16 51 43 9 38 37 27 16 36 45 31 39 20 3 18 22 16 16 20 25 50 75 100 Hotel (1-20 room s) H (21-100) H (> 100) Restaurants (1-30 seats) R (31-100) R (> 100) Com m.Caterer Categories of Establishment Percentage UNCOOKED DISHES SEMI COOKED DISHES FULLY COOKED DISHES Less than half, 43%, of large hotels and 38% and 37% of medium and large restaurants respectively, also changed to using pasteurised egg in uncooked dishes. Just over a quarter (27%) of commercial caterers changed to pasteurised egg as well as a small percentage of small hotels (16%) and a very small percentage of small restaurants (9%).

Similar but slightly less establishments changed to using pasteurised egg in semi-cooked dishes except for large hotels and restaurants where a slightly higher percentage changed (45% and 39%). Those changing to pasteurised egg in fully cooked dishes varied somewhat but was low, from zero percent in small restaurants to 22% in large hotels. xxviii

2.3.6 Reasons for changing to pasteurised egg 97% of respondents who changed to pasteurised egg did so for safety reasons (figure 13). Smaller but similar percentages changed for handling (14%), storage (15%) and quality (13%) purposes.

A very small percentage changed for taste and price (4%). Figure 13 Reasons for changing to pasteurised egg 97 14 15 12 4 4 20 40 60 80 100 SAFETY HANDLING STORAGE QUALITY TASTE PRICE Reasons for change Percentage 2.3.7 Pasteurised egg restricting menu One third to just under a half (33% to 42%) of all establishments feel that pasteurised egg restricts their menu. More specifically, approximately one-third (33% to 38%) of all hotels (small, medium, and large) as well as commercial caterers feel pasteurised egg restricts their menu (figure 14). However, a slightly higher proportion of all restaurants, small (39%), medium (42%) and large (41%) feels it restricts their menu.

xxix

Figure 14 Pasteurised egg restricting menu 33 38 33 39 42 41 36 21 40 63 22 37 43 36 54 78 96 61 79 84 73 25 50 75 100 Hotel (1-20 rooms) H (21-100) H (> 100) Restaurants (1-30 seats) R (31-100) R (> 100) Comm.Caterer Categories of establishm ent Percentage YES - PASTEURISED EGG RESTRICTS MENU NO - PASTEURISED EGG DOES NOT RESTRICT MENU TOTAL PERCENTAGE OF RESPONDENTS 2.3.8 Organoleptic quality of pasteurised egg There was a low response rate in general to the questions regarding the perceived changes in the organoleptic quality of the resulting egg product when using pasteurised egg.

In total only 36% to 38% responded to the changes detected in the various categories of organoleptic properties (figure 15). The respondents possibly did not know, never tasted pasteurised egg or had no opinion. Even though the response rate was low, the general trend of perceived changes was similar in all categories, whether respondents indicated improved, impaired or no change in the organoleptic quality.

Figure 15 Pasteurised egg changing organoleptic properties 21 17 18 17 19 13 18 17 13 12 36 38 37 37 36 50 100 M OU TH FEEL TASTE FLAVOU R C O N SISTEN C Y APPEAR AN C E O rganoleptic Properties Percentage N O C HANG E IM PRO VED IM PAIRED TO TAL PER CENTAG E O F RESPO N DENTS The majority or respondents (17-21%) indicated that there was no change detected in mouthfeel, taste, flavour, consistency and appearance when using pasteurised egg. A slightly lower proportion indicated that the above organoleptic properties were impaired when using pasteurised egg.

13% said that pasteurised egg impaired mouthfeel and consistency, 12% indicated appearance and a slightly higher proportion, 18% and 17%, felt that taste and flavour were impaired. A very small percentage indicated that pasteurised eggs actually improved the organoleptic qualities (3% to 4%) but a slightly higher proportion (6%) indicated they improved the consistency of the product. xxxi

2.4 RESPONSES TO THE EGG QUALITY ASSURANCE SCHEME 72% would consider using fresh shell eggs again if there was an effective Egg Quality Assurance Scheme. However, the response rate in general was quite low with less than half the total number of respondents answering this question. When responses where divided into establishment type, the highest response rate to this question was from large hotels (73%) and this was also unsurprisingly the highest percentage of respondents, 45%, who indicated they would use eggs again if there was such a scheme introduced. (Figure 16). Figure 16 Egg Quality Assurance Scheme (E.Q.A.S.) 23 44 45 17 30 33 44 6 9 29 11 24 16 30 54 73 17 41 57 60 20 40 60 80 100 Hotel (1-20 rooms) H (21-100) H (> 100) Restaurants (1-30 seats) R (31-100) R (> 100) Comm .Caterer Categories of Establishm ent Percentage YES TO E.Q.A.S.

NO TO E.Q.A.S. TOTAL PERCENTAGE O F RESPONDENTS xxxii

Less than half of medium hotels and commercial caterers (both 44%) said they would use fresh eggs again if there was a scheme. One third of the large restaurants surveyed (33%) would use fresh shell eggs again if there was an egg quality assurance scheme as opposed to only a small percentage of small hotels (23%) as well as small and medium restaurants (17% and 30% respectively). 78% of respondents feel that the Egg Quality Assurance Scheme would alleviate their customers’ fears with respect to Salmonella in eggs (figure 17). Figure 17 Egg Quality Assurance Scheme alleviating customers’ fears 78 14 25 50 75 100 YES NO Respondents indicating the E.Q.A.S.

alleviates custom ers' fears Percentage xxxiii

An overwhelming majority of all respondents in each category of premises said they would use the egg logo from the Egg Quality Assurance Scheme as a mark of quality on their menu (from 78% of small hotels to 92% of large hotels and restaurants, figure 18). Figure 18 Egg Quality Assurance logo 78 82 92 83 86 82 91 11 17 8 13 12 10 2 89 99 100 96 98 92 93 20 40 60 80 100 Hotel (1-20 rooms) H (21-100) H (> 100) Restaurants (1-30 seats) R (31-100) R (> 100) Comm.Caterer Categories of establishm ent Percentage YES - W OULD USE LOG O NO - W OULD NOT USE LOGO TOTAL PERCENTAGE OF RESPONDENTS In addition, of those 78% of respondents indicating that the Egg Quality Scheme would alleviate the fears of their customers, 92% said they would use a logo on their menu.

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2.5 AWARENESS OF SALMONELLA IN EGGS 2.5.1 Bacteria associated with eggs The majority of the total number of respondents (84%) associated Salmonella with eggs. However, 14% also associated E. coli with eggs. (Figure 19). Figure 19 Bacteria associated with eggs 84 14 2 4 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Percentage Bacteria SALMO NELLA E. E.COLI CAMPYLO BACTER STAPHYLO CCOCUS AUREUS xxxv

According to their position of employment similarly high percentages of owners, managers and chefs felt that Salmonella enteritidis was associated with eggs (87%, 83% and 86% respectively, figure 20).

A similar pattern but a significantly lower percentage of owners, managers and chefs (14%, 11% and 15%) felt that E. coli was associated with eggs. Very few respondents associated eggs with Staphylococcus aureus or Campylobacter. Figure 20 Respondents by occupation associating bacteria and eggs 87 14 83 11 86 15 25 50 75 100 SALMO NELLA E. E.CO LI Bacteria Percentage O W NER M ANAG ER CHEF xxxvi

With respect to training status, of the 84% of respondents who indicated there was an association between Salmonella and eggs, 91% had received food hygiene training. However, of the 14% who said E. coli was associated with eggs, 89% had received training. (Figure 21). Figure 21 Respondents with training associating bacteria and eggs 91 89 25 50 75 100 Salmonella E.coli Respondents with training associating bacteria with eggs Percentage xxxvii

2.5.2 Where Salmonella can be found An overwhelming majority of the total number of respondents (86%) felt Salmonella could be found within the eggshell (figure 22).

However, less than half of all respondents (47%) were aware that there was also a risk from Salmonella on the surface of the eggs. Figure 22 Where Salmonella can be found 47 86 6 38 82 13 56 85 7 45 92 4 25 50 75 100 SURFACE W ITHIN THE EGG DON'T KNOW Respondents indicating location of Salmonella Percentage TOTAL PERCENTAGE OF RESPONDENTS OW NER MANAGER CHEF According to position a high proportion of owners, managers and chefs (82%, 85% and 92% respectively) indicated that Salmonella could be found inside the egg whereas a significantly smaller percentage felt Salmonella could be found on the surface (38%, 56% and 45%).

Thus, more managers (56%) than owners and chefs (38% and 45% respectively) were aware there was a risk from Salmonella on the surface of the eggshell. A small percentage in total indicated they ‘didn’t know’ where Salmonella could be found with the highest percentage in the owner bracket (13%).

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Of the total of 86% of respondents who felt there was a risk of Salmonella from within the egg, 90% of them received food hygiene training (figure 23). Of the small number of respondents (47%) who felt there was risk of Salmonella on the surface of the egg a large majority 93% had actually received food hygiene training. Figure 23 Respondents with training indicating where Salmonella can be found 93 91 11 25 50 75 100 S U R FAC E W ITH IN TH E E G G DO N'T espondents w ith training indicating location of Salm onella Percentage xxxix

2.5.3 Risk of Salmonella Of the total number of respondents the highest percentage, 29%, felt there was an intermediate risk from Salmonella in eggs of which 90% had received training in food hygiene.

22% felt the risk of Salmonella in eggs was low, 17% high, 15% very low and 8% very high. (Figure 25). Figure 24 Respondents with training indicating the risk of Salmonella 15 22 29 17 8 5 94 91 90 97 89 79 20 40 60 80 100 VERY LOW LOW INTERM EDIATE HIGH VERY HIGH DON'T KNOW Level of risk associated with Salm onella Percentage TOTAL PERCENTAGE OF RESPONDENTS TRAINING For all the various risk categories that respondents associated Salmonella with eggs, the overall percentage of respondents who received food hygiene training was high. The lowest percentage of respondents (5%) who indicated they ‘didn’t know’ the risk associated with Salmonella in eggs, 79% received food hygiene training.

Overall respondents in all positions of employment felt the risk associated with Salmonella in eggs was low to intermediate, with the least amount of respondents indicating the risk was very high or that they didn’t know (figure 25). With regard to the perceived risk of Salmonella in eggs according to position of employment, the owners were fairly evenly divided in that similar proportions felt the risk was very low, low or intermediate (26%, 26% and 25%). Only a small percentage of owners felt that the risk was high or very high (11% and 2%). Figure 25 Respondents by position of employment indicating the risk of Salmonella 26 26 25 11 2 6 12 27 33 16 6 6 18 24 28 16 10 5 25 50 75 100 VERY LOW LOW INTERM EDIATE HIGH VERY HIGH DON'T KNOW Risk Percentage OW NER MANAG ER CHEF Managers were more varied in their opinions with 12% considering the risk from Salmonella in eggs was very low, 27% felt it was low, 33% intermediate and 16% high.

Reponses from chefs were slightly less varied in that 18% felt the risk was very low, 24% low, 28% intermediate and 16% high.

2.5.4 Salmonella controlled flocks 80% of the total number of respondents said they sourced their fresh shell eggs from Salmonella controlled flocks . (Figure 26). Figure 26 Overall percentage of respondents sourcing eggs from Salmonella controlled flocks 80% 14% 6% YES - EGGS SOURCED FROM CONTROLLED FLOCKS NO - EGGS NO T SOURCED FROM CONTROLLED FLOCKS UNKNO W N When broken down by establishment type a high percentage of medium and large establishments surveyed source their eggs from Salmonella controlled flocks i.e. medium and large hotels (88% and 92%) and medium and large restaurants (85% and 92%, figure 27).

70% of commercial caterers and 68% of small hotels obtain their eggs from Salmonella controlled flocks however, only 57% of small restaurants indicated that this was their practice. xlii

Figure 27 Establishments sourcing eggs from Salmonella controlled flocks 68 88 92 57 85 92 69 30 8 8 22 12 2 22 98 96 100 78 97 94 91 20 40 60 80 100 Hotel (1-20 rooms) H (21-100) H (> 100) Restaurants (1-30 seats) R (31-100) R (> 100) Comm.Caterer Categories of establishment Percentage YES - EGGS SOURCED FROM CONTROLLED FLOCKS NO - EGGS NOT SOURCED FROM CONTROLLED FLOCKS TOTAL RESPONSE RATE xliii

2.6 FOOD SAFETY MANAGEMENT 2.6.1 Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point The response to the question regarding whether establishments had a Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) system in place was quite high (figure 28).

The response rate varied from 93 to 100% amongst the various catering establishments. The responses themselves varied somewhat. The highest percentage of establishments that reported having a HACCP plan in place in their premises was unsurprisingly the larger enterprises – large hotels (61%), large restaurants (65%) and commercial caterers (64%).

Figure 28 Establishments with a HACCP system 16 47 61 39 39 65 64 77 48 33 57 58 29 36 93 95 94 96 97 94 100 20 40 60 80 100 Hotel (1-20 room s) H (21-100) H (> 100) Restaurants (1-30 seats) R (31-100) R (> 100) Comm.Caterer Categories of establishment Percentage YES - HACCP INSTALLED NO - HACCP NOT INSTALLED TOTAL PERCENTAGE OF RESPONDENTS Small and medium restaurants had the same proportion of establishments with HACCP in place (39%). Medium hotels had slightly more premises with HACCP (47%) but the small hotels had less (16%).

xliv

Out of the total number of respondents, whether there is a HACCP system in place or not, only a very small portion of each of the establishments surveyed indicated eggs as a potential hazard which needed to be monitored and controlled in the kitchen area (figure 29).

The highest figure was for medium sized hotels and restaurants of which 9% and 8% respectively, said that they identified eggs as a hazard. Only 5% of large hotels, restaurants and commercial caterers had addressed this issue. An even smaller proportion of small hotels and restaurants, 2% and 1% respectively, noted the increased risk associated with fresh eggs on their premises.

Figure 29 Establishments identifying eggs as a potential hazard 10 20 30 Hotel (1-20 rooms) H (21-100) H (> 100) Restaurants (1-30 seats) R (31-100) R (> 100) Com m.Caterer Categories of establishm ent Percentage YES - EGG S IDENTIFIED AS HAZARD NO - EGGS NOT IDENTIFIED AS HAZARD xlv

2.6.2 Written hygiene policy Generally the percentages indicating they had a written hygiene policy in their kitchen were similar for most of the establishments surveyed. However, the highest percentage with a written hygiene policy was the commercial caterers (84%, figure 30).

The lowest figure was for small hotels (44%). Figure 30 Establishments with a written hygiene policy 44 71 73 65 66 75 84 43 24 20 17 21 12 16 87 95 94 83 87 88 100 20 40 60 80 100 Hotel (1-20 rooms) H (21-100) H (> 100) Restaurants (1-30 seats) R (31-100) R (> 100) Comm.Caterer Categories of establishm ent Percentage YES - HAVE W RITTEN HYGIENE POLICY NO - DO NO T HAVE W RITTEN HYGIENE POLICY TOTAL PERCENTAGE OF RESPO NDENTS Similar proportions of medium and large hotels (71% and 73%) indicated they had a written hygiene policy in their kitchen and there were no major variations between small, medium and large restaurants (65%, 66% and 75%).

The response rate for this question varied somewhat from between 83% for small restaurants to 100% for commercial caterers.

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2.6.3 Hygiene training The level of response to this question was quite high. In general a very high proportion of all establishments indicated having hygiene training, approximately 92 to 100% (figure 31). However the responses only really reflect the training status of the individual filling in the questionnaire and not the policies of the establishment. Lower figures were noted for those receiving hygiene training in small hotels (83%) and small restaurants (78%). Figure 31 Respondents who received hygiene training 83 96 100 78 92 92 98 15 4 22 8 4 2 98 100 100 100 100 96 100 20 40 60 80 100 Hotel (1-20 room s) H (21-100) H (> 100) Restaurants (1-30 seats) R (31-100) R (> 100) Com m .Caterer C ategories of establishm ent Percentage YES - RECEIVED TR AIN IN G NO - DID N O T RECEIVE TRAIN ING TO TAL PERCENTAG E O F RESPO ND EN TS When those who received hygiene training were divided by position of employment, the response rate from owners, managers and chefs alike was high 97% to 100% (figure 32).

The vast majority of chefs as well as managers (94% and 93% respectively) indicated receiving hygiene training. The percentage of owners that received hygiene training was slightly lower (80%). xlvii

Figure 32 Respondents by occupation that received hygiene training 80 17 93 7 94 4 20 40 60 80 100 YES NO Respondents that received hygiene training Percentage O W NER MANAGER CHEF xlviii

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