2020-2021 STUDENT & PARENT HANDBOOK

 
2020-2021 STUDENT & PARENT HANDBOOK
STUDENT & PARENT HANDBOOK

      2020-2021
2020-2021 STUDENT & PARENT HANDBOOK
Table of Contents
                              Stay Up-to-Date With KMS News - 2
                                     Class Bell Schedule - 2
                                        About KMS - 3
                                    Student Information - 6
                                     Student Conduct - 11
                                         Athletics - 17
                                      Student Health - 18
                                      Student Safety - 19
                                   Student Resources - 20
                                     Bus Information - 21
                            Leveled Behavior and Consequences - 22
                                  Choose Success at KMS - 23
                            MLA Format Works Cited Reference - 24

                                       Administration

  Tryg Johnson, Principal           Dallas Stuker, Assistant         Anne Castren, Assistant
         751.3777                          751.3779                         751.3776
johnsontryg@sd5.k12.mt.us           stukerd@sd5.k12.mt.us            castrena@sd5.k12.mt.us

                                               1
Stay Up-to-Date with KMS News

Our KMS Website will keep you posted on all the current events taking place at Kalispell Middle School.

                                       https://www.sd5.k12.mt.us/3/home

   •   You may also refer to our Calendar of Events that shows school holidays, trimester breaks, no school
       days and music and sporting events.
   •   Check out our Activities link for dates of all sporting events and to download medical release and parent
       consent forms.
   •   Many of our teaching teams have websites that will keep you informed on student projects and
       assignments.
   •   If you need to contact any staff member you will find contact information on our site.
   •   You may check your student’s grades online. The link for Power School is located on our KMS Home
       page. You will also be able to read our Daily Bulletin every morning from the Power School area.

                       Bell Schedule – Adjusted for Social Distancing

          7th Grade - 1st Lunch            8th Grade - Middle Lunch            6th Grade - Late Lunch

            7:55 - Warning Bell                7:55 - Warning Bell                7:55 - Warning Bell

         8:00 - 8:21 - Home Base            8:00 - 8:21 - Home Base            8:00 - 8:21 - Home Base

          8:25 - 9:17 - Period 1              8:25 - 9:13 - Period 1             8:25 - 9:13 - Period 1

          9:21 - 10:09 - Period 2            9:17 - 10:05 - Period 2            9:17 - 10:05 - Period 2

         10:13 - 11:01 - Period 3           10:09 - 10:57 - Period 3            10:09 - 10:57 - Period 3

          11:06 - 11:36 - Lunch              11:01 - 11:49 - Period 4           11:01 - 11:49 - Period 4

         11:41 - 12:29 - Period 4            11:54 - 12:24 - Lunch              11:53 - 12:41 - Period 5

          12:33 - 1:21 - Period 5            12:29 - 1:17 - Period 5             12:46 - 1:16 - Lunch

           1:25 - 2:11 - Period 6             1:21 - 2:09 - Period 6             1:21 - 2:09 - Period 6

          2:15 - 3:00 - Period 7              2:13 - 3:00 - Period 7             2:13 - 3:00 - Period 7

                                                       2
About KMS
FEES
Vocational classes may assess a fee for special projects and activities. Activity tickets for high school athletes
can be purchased in the KMS office. There will be a charge to replace a lost or stolen activity card. P.E.

   •   Uniforms: Set: $15 Purchased Individually: Shorts: $10, Shirt: $5 Recycled: $5
   •   Art: $5
   •   Culinary Art/Hospitality: $10
   •   FACS: $5 Sewing fee by project price
   •   Woods / Creative Construction: $10
   •   Design and Modeling: $5
   •   Student Planner: $4

LUNCH AND BREAKFAST FEES
  • Breakfast cost-Students: $1.75
  • Lunch cost-Students: $3.00
  • A la Carte items available

Applications for free/reduced lunch can be found in the main office. School District #5 uses a computerized
cafeteria accounting system. Depositing money into student meal accounts should be done in the morning at the
cafeteria each day. Depositing in the morning helps keep our lunch line moving in a timely manner allowing our
students to have plenty of time to eat. As per district policy, charging meals is not allowed.

www.mymealtime.com can also be used for free and reduced lunch application, to view student accounts or
deposit money into student accounts.

HOME BASE
Each student will participate in our KMS Home Base. Home Base consists of a small community of students
who will meet on a daily basis with a KMS staff member. This environment will allow the students to develop a
trusting relationship among students and adults, promoting a positive climate and allowing students to have a
greater sense of belonging at KMS.

Academic issues along with career information, developing student self-confidence and leadership, are a few of
the topics that will be discussed during Home Base

OPPORTUNITIES FOR PARENTS
Frequent and open communication with parents is an important goal at KMS. In addition to those contacts
which are initiated by teachers and/or parents, several other opportunities for sharing are available.
   1. Newsletters - Periodic newsletters containing general information about school events, activities and
       other issues are sent home via email.
   2. Back to School Night - Early in the school year a night is set aside for parents to follow a shortened
       version of their child’s schedule. This evening provides an opportunity for parents to meet teachers and
       to get brief descriptions of each course.
   3. Parent/Teacher Conferences - Scheduled once each year, these conferences are designed to enable
       parents to meet with their child’s teachers in order to discuss progress.
   4. Parent Gathering - Evening meetings are scheduled periodically and are open to any parent who would
       like to participate in an open exchange of ideas about programs and policies.

                                                         3
5. School Visits - Visits to the school and to specific classes are welcomed. Please make an appointment to
      see teachers, counselors, principals and other school specialists.
   6. Extra-Curricular Events - Parent attendance at these events is strongly encouraged. Music, drama,
      athletics, etc., provide important opportunities for students to develop skills and confidence.

PERSONNEL RECORDS
Parents may request information regarding the professional qualifications and degrees of teachers and
paraprofessionals who provide instruction to your son/daughter. Please submit your request for information in
writing to the principal. The request should include your student’s full name, your name, and your mailing
address.

PROCESS FOR PARENT COMMUNICATION
We encourage you to bring issues and concerns to our attention whenever they arise. It is important that we
work together for the benefit of your children. If a parent questions a teacher’s judgment of a student’s
schoolwork or behavior they should:
   1. Contact the teacher via phone or email regarding your concern.
   2. Request a meeting with your child’s teacher or team of teachers.
   3. Ask for an appointment with the principal if you feel dissatisfied with the outcome of the meeting with
       the teacher.

STANDARDS BASED GRADING
The academic year is broken down into three trimester grading periods. Mid-term grade reports will be issued
halfway through each trimester. Trimester grades will be issued at the end of each trimester. The following
Standards Based Grade scale will apply to grades:
    • 4 – AD - Advanced
    • 3 – P - Proficient
    • 2 – NP - Nearing Proficient
    • 1 – N - Novice
    • 0 – NE - No Evidence

STUDENT PROGRESS REPORTS
KMS offers student progress reports on-line. To access grades, you need your student username and ID number.
You will have access to attendance information and current grades. The Power School link is located on the
KMS home page under Quick Links.

TEAMING
KMS is organized by teaming in all three grade levels. Teaming consists of a core group of teachers sharing the
same group of students. This allows for flexibility and variety in creating cross curricular instruction and
provides a smaller learning environment within KMS.

TECHNOLOGY PARENTAL OPT OUT OF PARTICIPATION
Electronic information, services, and networks have become an essential part of the education process in our
school. Instruction on using these resources along with instruction on the ethics and safety issues that
accompany such resources is a part of our curriculum and our State education benchmarks. As a result, students
will be using computers and our District-wide network to learn about electronic information access, services
and networks. If, for some reason, a parent does not want their student using these resources, please deliver a
written objection to the school to designate the student as a non-user of District electronic information, services,
and network. All relevant staff will be notified.

                                                         4
WORK ETHIC
Our primary purpose for making the shift to Standards-Based Grading has been to have student’s academic
grades reflect what she/he knows based on the state and national standards. In order to effectively do that, we
have separated out a student’s “Work Ethic” grade. The Work Ethic grade reflects three key categories:
timeliness, citizenship/teamwork, and a student’s quality of work. Each of these categories is broken down into
subcategories addressing their relationships and productivity. Work Ethic scores are based on the guidelines
within our KMS Work Ethic rubric. While academic skill area scores are based on material/concepts being
taught and learned at stages of development, Work Ethic scores are the grades students directly influence
through hard work and appropriate behavior.

                                                       5
Student Information

ATTENDANCE POLICY
  1. Parents should call the school on the morning of an absence with an explanation. If this call is not made,
     the attendance secretary will attempt to reach parents by phone. A student may be considered unexcused
     for day(s) missed if parental/guardian contact is not made with the school within two school days.
     NOTE: If a student leaves school during the day and does not check out at the attendance office, it is
     considered an unexcused absence. Verification from a parent must be made in advance, not after the
     absence.
  2. Students returning to school following an absence are expected to bring a written excuse signed and
     dated by a parent, if the parent has not yet been in contact with the school. The student remains
     unexcused until a parent contacts the school.
  3. Attendance is based on a trimester system. If total of excused and unexcused absences exceeds more
     than 8 days per trimester the student will not be allowed to make up work for any further absences for
     that trimester. • Student’s missing more than eight days per trimester will be required to submit medical
     documentation pertaining to those absences in order to receive make up work. • School sponsored
     absences and suspensions are not counted in the 8 absences. • Absences for death in the immediate
     family are not counted in the 8 absences. Immediate family is defined as father, mother, brother, sister or
     grandparents.
  4. Work missed due to illness is to be made up on the following time frame: one calendar day makeup time
     for each excused day absence from class. Dates for long term assignments and preassigned tests may or
     may not be extended at the discretion of the teacher.
  5. Work missed for school-sponsored activity will be made up on the following time frame: one calendar
     day make-up time for each excused day absent from class.
  6. Students who take extended vacations run the risk of losing the opportunity for fulfill class assignments.
     These students could receive a lower grade due to the extended absence. Students can be required to
     make up work before or after the absences at the teacher’s discretion. NOTE: For professional
     appointments, a student is to see the attendance office with a note before 8:00 a.m. on the morning of the
     scheduled appointment. At that time a pass will be issued for leaving the building later in the day.

BIKES
Students who ride bicycles to school are encouraged to use a bike lock. The school is not responsible for lost or
stolen bikes. All bikes must be parked in the area provided for them.

CLASS ASSIGNMENTS / HOMEWORK
Missed assignments threaten student success. Students who complete classroom assignments/homework will
earn good grades. Students whose nonproductive behavior interferes with teaching and learning will be referred
to the Assistant Principal. Such students may be considered insubordinate resulting in academic suspension,
Saturday School, and/or referral to the Superintendent for a deferred expulsion hearing.

CLOSED CAMPUS
Students are expected to remain in school from 8:00-3:00 unless they have permission from the attendance
office to leave. Once students arrive at school they are to remain on campus. Disciplinary action will be taken
for students who violate this policy. The parking lot is off limits during school hours. Students are not allowed
to leave KMS for lunch unless a parent contacts the attendance office and excuses the absence prior to the lunch
being missed.

                                                        6
FAMILY EDUCATIONAL RIGHTS AND PRIVACY ACT
The Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA) afford parents/guardians and students over 18 years
of age (“eligible students”) certain rights with respect to the student’s education records.
They are:
    1. The right to inspect and copy the student’s education record within a reasonable time of the day the
        District receives a request for access.
    2. The right to request the amendment of the student’s education records that the parent(s)/guardian(s) or
        eligible student believes are inaccurate, misleading, irrelevant, or improper.
    1. 3.The right to permit disclosure of personally identifiable information contained in the student’s
        education records, except to the extent that FERPA or state law authorizes disclosure without consent.
    3. The right to a copy of any school student record proposed to be destroyed or deleted.
    4. The right to prohibit the release of directory information concerning the parent’s/guardian’s child.
    5. The right to file a complaint with the U.S. Department of Education concerning alleged failures by the
        District to comply with the requirements of FERPA. The rights contained in this section are denied to
        any person against whom an order of protection has been entered concerning a student.

GUIDANCE SERVICES
The guidance office at KMS provides a variety of services to students ranging from personal counseling to help
with scheduling, course selection, and decision making. All counseling is confidential. The building’s
counselors have a variety of resources to help students be successful. Appointments or drop-in visits are
welcome.

GUIDELINES FOR STUDENT DRESS
Student clothing is a responsibility of the parent as well as the student. Appropriate dress is important. Ask
yourself this question: Are your child’s clothes well cared for and appropriate and tasteful for the school
setting?

Apply the following guidelines when dressing for school:
   • Clean, good condition, stomach and chest covered.
   • Undergarments are covered.
   • Footwear is required for sanitation and safety.
   • Skirts or shorts will be appropriate length for school.
   • No offensive, profane, drug/alcohol related pictures or sayings on clothing.
   • Headwear (including hoods) is to be removed upon entering the building.
Students deemed inappropriately dressed will be asked to call home or change into their gym uniform.

INSURANCE
Accident insurance can be purchased at any time during the school year. Enrollment envelopes will be sent
home at the beginning of the school year and when a student enrolls during the year.

LOCKERS/BACKPACKS
Lockers are assigned by the Home Base advisor. Students may not change lockers without permission from
their Home Base advisor. Lockers may be inspected anytime the need arises and are to be kept clean and
organized.

Backpacks are used only for carrying schoolwork to and from school. All backpacks are to be kept in lockers
and students will carry only notebooks and textbooks to classes. KMS encourages you to keep all valuables in
locked lockers.
                                                         7
PRE-APPROVED ABSENCES
Students planning to be out for two or more school days should bring a signed note of explanation from a parent
at least TWO DAYS, more if possible, before the planned absence. An assignment sheet will then be issued for
presentation to each teacher. Make-up work should be completed ahead of time when possible.

SELLING BY STUDENTS
Students are not to sell items at school for profit unless permission is granted by the principal.

KPS ACCEPTABLE USE POLICY
A complete copy of this policy can be found at https://app.eduportal.com/publicfolders/602153/list/60621

KPS strives to maintain an environment that promotes ethical and responsible conduct in all online network and
Internet activities by staff and students. KPS has the following rights and obligations:
        • To remove a user account on the network.
        • To monitor the use of online activities.

User Responsibilities
   • Use of the electronic media provided by KPS is a privilege. This resource is offered to staff, students,
      and other patrons at no cost. *
   • KPS is not responsible for additional data charges the user may occur if these terms are not accepted

Acceptable Use
   • All communications and information accessible via the KPS data network should be assumed to be KPS
      property.
   • All use of the Internet must be in support of educational and research objectives consistent with the
      mission and objectives of KPS.
   • Network accounts are to be used only by the authorized owner of the account for the authorized purpose.
      This means do not share your username and password with anyone.

Unacceptable Use of KPS Devices and Google Accounts
   • Use of the network for any unlawful purpose is prohibited.
   • Use of Social media, online communications, and cyber-bullying are prohibited on the network.
   • Giving out personal information about another person, including home address and phone number, is
      strictly prohibited.
   • Users shall not intentionally seek information on, obtain copies of, or modify files, other data, or
      passwords belonging to other users, or misrepresent other users on the network.
   • Hardware and/or software shall not be destroyed, modified, or abused in any way. Ex. keyboards,
      Chromebooks, settings
   • The unauthorized installation of any software, including downloads, add-ons, and extensions unless
      specifically authorized by a teacher for instructional purposes.
   • Playing games is prohibited unless specifically authorized by a teacher for instructional purposes.

Disregard of this policy will result in disciplinary action, which may include the loss of access to
technologies; referral to school administrators; if applicable, legal prosecution; and payment for
damages.

                                                          8
SCHOOL GOOGLE ACCOUNTS
Your student will be given a SD5 Google account. If they are coming from a SD5 elementary school, they may
already be familiar with the use of Google and Google Classroom. This account enables students to access
school assignments anywhere they use a computer with Internet. Students need to keep their account
information private and not share passwords with friends. Google for Education is fully committed to the
security and privacy of data and protects users with the highest industry standards. Google for Education
complies with the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA) and has also signed the Student Privacy
Pledge.

STUDENT CLUBS
Student clubs will be formed from student interest. Meetings will be read in the morning announcements and
posted on our website.

STUDENT RECOGNITION
KMS values the contributions of individual students and organizes a number of activities to recognize those
who demonstrate responsibility, maturity and a conscientious approach to student life. Among the more visible
recognition efforts are:
    • Academics - Special programs and events are planned to honor those with high academic achievement.
       These programs are designed and implemented by the teams.
    • Report Cards - Teacher comments on trimester report cards provide opportunities for teachers to
       recognize positive student behavior and progress.
    • Daily Bulletins - Bulletins are read to students each day during Home Base and information is shared
       about student achievement in and out of school.

STUDENT RIGHTS AND RESPONSIBILITIES
KMS students have the right to learn in a safe environment free from interruptions, disruptions, or distraction,
whether inside the classroom or from the outside. Behavior which disrupts the normal functions of classes is an
infringement on the rights of others and contrary to school policy

TEXTBOOKS
Students will be supplied with books at the opening of school. No deposit is required but students are
responsible for keeping the books clean and neat and returning them in the same condition as received. The
value of each book is determined by the same condition when issued. Fines will be assessed according to loss or
damage. A $2.00 processing fee will be charged to all students for any refunded book fine upon receipt of book.
Any fines not paid will be forwarded to the high school the student will attend. Fines at the high schools must
be paid before a diploma is issued.

TRANSFER OR WITHDRAWAL FROM KMS
A student transferring or withdrawing from KMS will observe the following procedures:
   1. A parent must come into school to withdraw a student from KMS.
   2. Books must be returned, and outstanding fees must be paid prior to withdrawal.
   3. A student is not officially withdrawn until a request of records from the student’s next school is
       received.
   4. For students transferring to Home School, you must register with the Flathead County Superintendent’s
       Office prior to withdrawing from KMS.
   5. Students who have withdrawn may not be on campus without permission from Administration.

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VALUABLES
Do not bring items of value to school, particularly unnecessary amounts of money. Valuables should be left
with the office secretary to place in the safe and may be reclaimed at the end of the day. Protection of valuables
is a special problem in GYM CLASSES. Students are asked to give valuables to their PE teacher for
safekeeping if such items have not already been turned in to the office. The best policy is to leave valuables at
home. Coats and other personal belongings should be marked with suitable identification as it is difficult to
recover missing items that do not have distinguishing features. Students should mark coats and all personal
belonging brought to school. KMS assumes no responsibility for lost or stolen items and will not be responsible
to solve crimes.

                                                        10
Student Conduct

FEDERAL LAWS
We expect all KMS students and staff to support and comply with federal laws. The following three regulations
have special application to our school setting:
   1. Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (revised 7/1/97) “No person in the United States shall, on the
       grounds of race, color or national origin, be excluded from, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to
       discrimination under any program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance.”
   2. Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 (revised 7/1/97) “No person…shall, on the basis of sex,
       be excluded from participation, in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any
       education program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance.” This means no student shall, on
       the basis of sex, be denied equal access to programs, activities, services, or benefits or be limited in the
       exercise of any right, privilege, advantage, or denied equal access to our educational and extracurricular
       programs and activities.”
   3. Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (revised 7/1/97) “No otherwise qualified handicapped
       individual…shall, solely by reason of handicap, be excluded from the participation in, be denied the
       benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity receiving Federal financial
       assistance.”

STATE LAWS
We expect all KMS students and staff to support and comply with state laws. The following two regulations
have special application to our school setting:
   1. State Constitution Article X “It is the goal of the people to establish a system of education which will
       develop the full potential of each person. Equality of educational opportunity is guaranteed to each
       person of the state…”
   2. Statutes (MCA) Title 49 Human Rights “The right to be free from discrimination because of race, creed,
       sex, religion, color, physical or mental handicap, age or national origin is recognized as and declared to
       be a civil right…”

For questions regarding these policies, contact the district Title IX Coordinator:
      Tracy Scott
      Director of Human Resources
      406-751-3444
      scott@sd5.k12.mt.us

BULLYING/HARASSMENT
KMS staff is trained under the Montana Behavior Initiative to provide a safe, positive school climate for our
students. Posters in bright orange and green are displayed in classrooms and common areas, displaying
appropriate, expected behaviors and leveled consequences.

                                         Our guidelines for success are:
                                BE ... SAFE * RESPECTFUL * RESPONSIBLE

The purpose of this policy is to ensure a positive and productive learning and working environment. Bullying,
harassment, intimidation, or hazing by students is strictly prohibited and shall not be tolerated. Bullying is the
unprovoked, aggressive and repeated use of power or influence to intentionally hurt or harm another person
physically or emotionally.

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HARASSMENT
Harassment is verbal, written, graphic or physical conduct directed toward an individual. This action is
sufficiently severe and persistent so as to cause that individual to not participate in or benefit from the school’s
programs, activities and educational offerings. A hostile environment may be created by behaviors such as:
intimidation and implied or obvious threats of physical violence; physical acts of aggression of assault upon
another or damage to another’s property; depending on circumstances and context demeaning jokes, slurs,
nicknames, name-calling or other derogatory remarks.

If an incident is reported to an adult at home, please relay the information to someone at school as well. Parents
and school employees need to work together whenever students feel bullied.

SEXUAL HARASSMENT
School District Five prohibits sexual harassment of all students and staff. Students who believe they are being
subjected to sexual harassment by an employee or student of the district are encouraged to report the matter
promptly as provided below.
   1. Sexual harassment means any unsolicited comments, gestures, or physical contact of a sexual nature that
       has the purpose or effect of interfering with an individual’s work performance or creating an
       intimidating, hostile or offensive learning environment. This can include:
       • Sexually suggestive looks or gestures. • Sexual jokes, pictures or teasing.
       • Pressure for dates or sex.
       • Sexually demeaning comments.
       • Deliberate touching, cornering or pinching.
       • Threats, demands or suggestions that favors will be granted in exchange for sexual advances.
       • Spreading rumors.
   2. Students who believe they have been the subject of sexual harassment must bring the alleged act to a
       district employee, a building principal, or to the Title IX compliance officer who is the superintendent of
       schools.
   3. The investigation process will include notification of the accused and parents of the accused of the
       complaint and appropriate due process procedures for all concerned.
   4. The Superintendent in consultation with the investigation team shall make final determination of the
       proposed action to be taken based upon the validity of the complaint. The report and decision shall
       remain confidential.
   5. Substantiated violations of this policy may result in appropriate disciplinary action, including expulsion
       for a student, dismissal for an employee.

The complete text of this Board Policy is available in the office.

AFTER SCHOOL DETENTION
Students may be assigned after school detention (3:05-4:00 P.M.) for inappropriate behavior and for attendance
violations, including tardies, from the administration. Students may also be required to spend time after school
with individual teachers for missing assignments and/or homework. Detention students will be given 24 hours’
notice to inform parents and make arrangements for transportation. Further missed detention will result in
assigned Saturday School and/or suspension. Bus students are not excused from detention.

BEHAVIOR AT SCHOOL AND ON SCHOOL GROUNDS
Aggressive or reckless behavior which jeopardizes the health, safety or welfare of students or staff will result in
disciplinary action. Students are to act appropriately while at school. Once school has ended, students are not to
loiter in the school or outside and are to leave the school grounds as soon as possible. Anyone found promoting,
perpetuating or instigating a fight between other students will be disciplined and can be suspended. The
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appropriate conduct and orderly movement of our large student population within the hallways is important.
Students are cautioned about the following:
   • Congregating in groups so that others have difficulty passing.
   • Running in the halls or on the stairs.
   • Sliding down banisters.
   • Sitting on the floor.
   • Students may not be in hallways without a pass during class.
   • Public displays of affection. Students are to keep their hands to themselves and not violate the body
       space of others, willingly or unwillingly.
   • Inappropriate language/profanity.
   • Students are not to wrestle, be involved in rough, boisterous play or fighting while outside on campus or
       within the school.

CELL PHONES
Students at Kalispell Middle School are expected to be respectful, responsible and safe with personal electronic
devices. Based on parent, student and staff feedback and a focus on learning, all personal electronic devices
(cell phones, wireless headphones, iPads, Kindles, Apple watches, etc.…) must remain off and in a student’s
locker between the hours of 8:00 am and 3:00 pm. Before and after school, student possession and use of such
devices is a privilege. At no time will any student operate a cell phone or other device with video capability in
a locker room, bathroom or other locations where personal privacy might be violated or compromised.

Consequences for unacceptable use or having phone out between 8:00 am and 3:00 pm could include, but are
not limited to the following:
       • Device shall be confiscated (first time/student picks up after school; second and all subsequent
       times/parent can pick up at his/her convenience)
       • Device may be subject to search
       • Device may be turned over to law enforcement
       • Parents may be informed

Students are encouraged to leave personal electronic devices at home, but if they do come to school they are to
be secured and off in a student’s locker during the academic school day. No staff shall be held responsible for
lost, stolen or confiscated electronic devices and the KMS administration will not take time to track down
missing phones.

CHEATING
Students guilty of cheating, including plagiarism, will receive a zero on that assignment. A student guilty of
cheating a second time will receive a zero on that assignment and be considered for administrative discipline
consequences. Check course description for individual class policies.

FALSE REPORTS
Anyone found guilty of making a false report to the school concerning any type of catastrophe will be charged
with intimidation by the police department and will face severe discipline charges from the school. Making
false 911 or emergency calls from a school phone, pulling a fire alarm or discharging an extinguisher is not
excusable and suspension discipline and contacting authorities can be the consequences.

GANGS AND GANG ACTIVITY
The Board is committed to ensuring a safe and orderly environment, where learning and teaching may occur
void of physical or psychological disruptions, unlawful acts, or violations of school regulations. Gang activities

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create an atmosphere of intimidation in the entire school community. Both the immediate consequences of gang
activity and the secondary effects are disruptive and obstructive to the process of education and school
activities. Groups of individuals which meet the definition of gangs, defined below, shall be restricted from
school grounds or school activities.

A gang is defined as any group of two (2) or more persons, whether formal or informal, who associate together
to advocate, conspire, or commit one or more criminal acts; or acts which threaten the safety or well-being of
property or persons, including, but not limited to, harassment and intimidation. Violations of this policy shall
result in disciplinary action, up to and including suspension, expulsion, and/or notification of police. Students
on school property or at a school-sponsored activity shall not:
         • Wear, possess, use, distribute, or sell any clothing, jewelry, emblem, badge, symbol, sign, or other
             items which are evidence of membership in or affiliation with any gang and/or representative of any
             gang;
         • Engage in any act, whether verbal or nonverbal, including gestures or handshakes, showing
             membership in or affiliation with any gang and/or that is representative of any gang;
         • Engage in any act furthering the interest of any gang or gang activity, including, but not limited to:
                          i. Soliciting membership in or affiliation with any gang.
                         ii. Soliciting any person to pay for protection or threatening another person, explicitly or
                             implicitly, with violence or with any other illegal or prohibited act.
                       iii. Painting, writing, or otherwise inscribing gang-related graffiti, messages, symbols, or
                             signs on school property.
                        iv. Engaging in violence, extortion, or any other illegal act or other violation of school
                             property.

ITEMS PROHIBITED IN SCHOOL
Many problems arise because students bring articles and playthings which are hazardous or distracting to other
students. No pocketknives, stink bombs, squirt guns, sling shots, fireworks, peashooters or cigarette lighters will
be permitted in school. If a student is found carrying or using any such item, it will be impounded and released
only to the parent. The use of skateboards on KMS property is prohibited. Electronic devices (i.e. Gameboys,
personal music players) can only be used before and after school. KMS assumes no responsibility for lost or
stolen items and will not be responsible to solve crimes.

Alcohol, Drugs, drug paraphernalia, tobacco, tobacco paraphernalia, vapor cigarettes and vapor cigarettes
paraphernalia are not permitted at school. If a student is found carrying or using any such item, the item will
be confiscated, the student will be suspended, and appropriate law enforcement agency notified.

MULTIPLE OFFENSES
Some students fail to respond to the consequences which follow inappropriate actions. These students create a
negative environment for learning which affects others. To be fair to the large majority and to maintain a
productive atmosphere which facilitates learning, multiple offenders will be subject to the following: Student
may be referred to the office for cumulative minor offenses. The teacher will log minor offenses and attempt to
correct this behavior in every manner possible, including seeking assistance from the student’s parents. If
behavior does not improve, a cumulative report will be filed with the office. Cumulative minor infractions may
result in a suspension and/or Saturday School. The appropriate Law Enforcement agency will be contacted
when administrators believe a law has been broken.

                                                         14
POLICE INVOLVEMENT
School officials are not required to initiate or complete due process procedures prior to notifying police
authorities. If police authorities are notified, parents will be contacted by telephone or certified letter. Any
action taken by police authorities will be in addition to action taken by the school.

RESPECT FOR SCHOOL PROPERTY
Vandalism is not tolerated. Students who damage or attempt to damage property will be required to reimburse
the school and are subject to discipline. Vandalism includes, but is not limited to, graffiti being placed on walls,
lockers or desks or defacement of school property. If damage cannot be cleaned by the student, reimbursement
by the student may be required.

SATURDAY SCHOOL
Saturday School may be assigned to a student as a consequence for rule violations. Saturday School begins
promptly at 8:00 a.m. and ends at 12 noon. Late arrivals will not be admitted. Failure to attend or complete an
assigned Saturday School will result in a two-day out-of-school suspension.

SEARCHES AND SEIZURE
The search of a student, by authorized school authorities, is reasonable if it is both:
       • justified at its inception
       • reasonably related in scope to the circumstances which justified the interference in the first place

School authorities are authorized to utilize any reasonable means of conducting searches, including but not
limited to the following: a “pat down” of the exterior of the student’s clothes; a search of the student’s clothing
including pockets; a search of any container or object used by, belonging to or otherwise in the possession or
control of a student; and/or devices or tools such as breath test instruments, saliva test strips, etc.

TARDY POLICY
You need to be on time for class! Tardiness is considered a discipline issue that disrupts the educational
environment being established in the classroom. Those students reporting to school after 8:00 am must report to
the office before going to class. Chronic tardiness could result in detention, Saturday school, suspension,
classroom removal for the period tardy and/or permanent classroom removal.

TERMS
 In-School - Generally students who are suspended will be expected to go home. Under certain circumstances
that may not be possible, and students may be placed in a confined area for all or a portion of the school day.

Out-of-School - The student is not allowed to attend class or attend or participate in school functions. Parents
may be required to meet with a building administrator before the student is readmitted.

Deferred Expulsion - A meeting where a decision is made on readmitting the student or having an expulsion
hearing with the Board of Trustees. If the student is readmitted, he/she is placed on a Deferred Expulsion
Contract. Should this contract be broken, an expulsion hearing is scheduled.

Expulsion - Action taken by the Board upon administration recommendation. Extenuating circumstances may
lead the Board to override administrative recommendation by either dismissing the case, further suspending or
deferring an expulsion. In most cases with the verification of evidence, an expulsion may be expected.

Disciplinary - In lieu of an expulsion hearing with the Board of Trustees, the superintendent may offer a student
the option of a disciplinary withdrawal from KMS.
                                                          15
THREATS BY STUDENTS
Any threat made by a student directed at individuals of the school including students, faculty, administration
and all other individuals, will be taken seriously. Threats will be investigated and if found accurate, the
individual making the threat can be disciplined with suspension and/or expulsion. Proper authorities will be
contacted and consulted when investigating anything of a threatening nature.

WEAPONS POLICY
Students who knowingly possess, handle, transmit or use any gun, ammunition, knife, pocket knife or other
objects that reasonably could be considered a weapon or dangerous instrument, in any school building, or on
any school premises, or on any school bus, or at any school related activity, event or function will be suspended
from school and will be ordered to appear before the trustees at an expulsion hearing. A student who has
knowledge of another student possessing any weapon or dangerous instrument on the grounds of KMS and does
not report that information to the KMS office or teacher, can be considered an accomplice and subject to
suspension or expulsion.

       KALISPELL PUBLIC SCHOOLS ANNUAL NOTICE REGARDING ASBESTOS HAZARD
                                       EMERGENCY RESPONSE ACT
In 1986, Congress passed the Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act (AHERA), which required that public
schools be inspected for purposes of identifying any asbestos-containing building materials (ACBM). The
Kalispell School District conducted its initial AHERA inspection of all of its facilities in the late 1980’s as
required by AHERA, and all known and suspected ACBM in those facilities was located, sampled (or assumed)
and rated according to its condition and potential hazard. In accordance with AHERA, the Kalispell School
District has since conducted a re-inspection of its facilities every three years to determine whether the condition
of that ACBM has changed and to provide information on how best to manage that ACBM (or any newly-
discovered ACBM) through maintenance or removal. In addition to its inspection, re-inspection and periodic
surveillance requirements, AHERA also requires that school districts develop and maintain a management plan
for any known or suspected ACBM. A copy of the Kalispell School District’s Management Plan is available for
review and inspection by appointment at either our Central Administration Office located at 233 First Avenue
East or any of our school facilities.

                                                        16
Athletics

ATHLETICS AT KMS We encourage all students at KMS to be active and participate in the variety of
activities that are offered. Our primary goals and our underlying philosophy is that we are concerned with skill
development, participation, and connecting our students to our school.

ACTIVITIES OFFERED
     • Football
     • Girls Volleyball
     • Boys/Girls Basketball
     • Boys Wrestling Track
     • Cross Country
     • Girls Tennis

ATHLETICS / ACTIVITIES — DRUG / ALCOHOL POLICY
A student may not:
   • Use, or have in possession drugs of any kind, or be present for any length of time at a gathering or
       location where the use or the possession of drugs is illegally taking place during an activity season.
       Alcohol is a drug.
   • Use, or have in possession, tobacco and / or vapor cigarettes in any form at any time during an activity
       season.

The penalty for any of the above is immediate dismissal from the activity for that season. The offending
student may not participate in another activity during that season.

ELIGIBILITY FOR ATHLETICS
All students are eligible for activities with the beginning of each school year. The student work ethic grade will
be used to determine eligibility throughout the academic year. Student work ethic grades will be checked
weekly during each athletic season and the following policy will apply:

       •   Students with a work ethic grade of 0 or 1 in ANY class, will be deemed ineligible for athletic
           contests for one calendar week.
       •   Students will be allowed to attend and participate in practice but will not travel to away contests, or
           compete in any games, matches, or meets during the calendar week.
       •   Grades will again be checked at the conclusion of the week, and if the student’s work ethic grades
           are satisfactory, they will be restored to good standing and allowed to participate in, and travel to
           athletic contests.
       •   If grades are found to be unsatisfactory, the student will again be ineligible for participation in
           athletic contests for another calendar week, etc.

PHYSICAL FORMS
All KMS students wishing to try out or participate in athletic activities must have a physical prior to the
beginning of the activity season and by the time of the first practice session. All physicals should be given after
May 1st and valid for the school year and so noted by the physician to cover the entire school year. An example
would be July 10, 2020 to July 1, 2021. Participants also need to have a completed Parent Release Form. Forms
can be downloaded from our school website.

                                                        17
Student Health

ILLNESS
If you become ill during the school day, ask your teacher for a pass to the nurse’s office. Students should not
call their parents from the classroom. The attendance secretary or nurse will call your parents if it is necessary
for you to go home. Students who stay in the bathroom instead of reporting to class or to the nurse will receive
an unexcused absence and be assigned detention and/or Saturday School.

INJURIES
First aid supplies are located in the nurse’s office. Please report any injury to the nurse’s office immediately.

MEDICATIONS GIVEN AT SCHOOL
Medications are rarely necessary for pupils during the school day. They are justified in some chronic health
conditions or short-term acute health conditions. No prescription medication will be administered by the school
nurse or her designee until communication with a parent has taken place and physician’s orders received. The
procedure for administering medication at school is:
   • Written orders from student’s physician must be on file at school.
   • The medication must be brought to the school nurse in its original container labeled by a parent or
       guardian as follows:
                         i. Student’s name
                        ii. Dosage
                      iii. Name of drug
                       iv. Doctor’s name
                        v. Time of day medication is to be given
   • Misuse of prescription drugs may result in suspension or expulsion.
   • Students are expected to provide their own nonprescription medication (Ibuprofen, Tylenol, cold
       medicine, cough drops, etc.) for routine aches and pains and to take any medication only with parental
       approval. They are allowed to keep these medications in their lockers.
   • No student is allowed to give nonprescription medications (Tylenol, Ibuprofen, No-Doze, etc.) to any
       other student on campus. Violations will result in suspension or possible expulsion both for those giving
       and receiving medication.

   NURSE
   Students at KMS have the benefit of emergency and health education services from a registered nurse. Our
   school nurse provides many services to the school including:
          • Crisis intervention (such as first aid).
          • Conducting appropriate screening (such as vision, hearing).
          • Serving as a resource person for staff and students.
   The nurse’s office is located in the administrative office area. We encourage students and parents to contact
   the school nurse for assistance.

                                                         18
Student Safety

EMERGENCY DRILLS
We wish to be prepared for any and all emergencies at any time of the day.

INTRUDER DRILLS
KMS will practice intruder drills to simulate an intruder in the building requiring that the school be locked
down. These drills will be practiced throughout the school year. FIRE DRILLS Fire drills at regular intervals
are required by law and are important for safety reasons. It is very important that students respond promptly at
the first signal and clear the building as rapidly as possible. Individual classroom teachers will provide
instructions on exit routes.

EARTHQUAKE DRILLS
Earthquake drills at regular intervals are required by law and are important for safety reasons. Classroom
teachers will instruct students on what to do in case of an earthquake.

FIRE ALARMS AND EMERGENCY EQUIPMENT
Tampering in any way with emergency equipment about the school is considered to be a serious violation of
school regulations and will result in a recommendation for expulsion.

SCHOOL RESOURCE OFFICER
The School Resource Officer is an officer with the Kalispell Police Department. The SRO serves three roles
with KMS: law enforcement officer, law-related counselor, and law-related education teacher. The SRO
position was created to assist in the development of a safe and secure learning environment at KMS. The SRO
is available to talk to students at any time they are in the building.

                                                       19
Student Resources
LIBRARY SERVICES
KMS welcomes you to the Library Media Center. Staff members are there to assist you in research or in
choosing materials for recreational reading. The Center belongs to everyone. Please be respectful and thoughtful
of others and make the library a pleasant place to read and study. The Library Media Center is open from 7:30
to 3:30.

BOOKS AND PERIODICALS
All circulating books may be checked out for a three-week loan period. Students returning books late will be
fined 10 cents per book per school day. Students with overdue books or outstanding fines (over $1.00) will not
be allowed to check out additional materials. Current issues of magazines are on display and are non-
circulating. Past issues of magazines may be checked out for three days. Students are encouraged to renew
materials to avoid over-due charges.

LOST OR DAMAGED MATERIALS
Lost materials, or those damaged beyond reasonable wear, must be paid for at the purchase price plus a
nonrefundable $2 processing fee

LIBRARY COMPUTERS
The library has computers for student use. Students are only allowed to use library technology for school related
assignments. Patron Access Catalog computers (PAC’s) help students lookup district-wide materials for check-
out. Inappropriate use of the telecommunication equipment at KMS will result in disciplinary action.

ONLINE SUBSCRIPTIONS ACCESS INSTRUCTION
Ebsco: An electronic magazine index - in database list, click on Ebsco Home Access Library ID: discovery
World Book Online Reference Center

World Book Online is the premier online general encyclopedia and reference resource.
http://www.worldbookonline.com Username: kms678 Password: library

                                                       20
Bus Information

CANCELLATION POLICY
In order to eliminate confusion, the following will govern school attendance when a decision is made not to
operate the buses (or a bus) when school is in session:
    1. Students who rely on district transportation will be given an excused absence. This absence will not
       count in the attendance policies that restrict the number of absences.
    2. Students who do not rely on district transportation whose parents decided that it is too unsafe to drive
       them or have them drive themselves to school will be handled in the same way. Written verification
       from a parent will be required in such instances. This absence will not count in the attendance policies
       that restrict the number of absences.
    3. Every effort will be made by the district to make cancellation decisions no later than 6:00 a.m. Once
       made, the decision will be immediately announced over local radio stations.

PASSES
A registered bus student may have a guest student ride with them provided that the guest has a guest pass. The
guest’s parent must call the Transportation Office, 751-3404, before 10:00 a.m. on the day of the request. The
parent must know the name of the registered bus student, the bus number and the school the pass will be sent to.

REGULATIONS
Passenger safety is our #1 priority. These regulations are necessary to achieve this goal. Parents and school
administrators will be notified if a student violates bus rules. Disciplinary action may include an assigned seat
or riding privileges may be revoked as decided by school administration and the Transportation Office.
    1. Students are to arrive at their assigned bus stop 5 minutes prior to the departure time.
    2. The driver is in full charge of the bus. Students will comply promptly with any request and will have no
        part in the operation of the bus.
    3. At the discretion of the driver, seats may be assigned.
    4. Unnecessary conversation with the driver is prohibited.
    5. The bus is an extension of the classroom. Outside of ordinary conversation, classroom conduct is to be
        observed by students. Any pupil who is guilty of unbecoming conduct, fighting, or using inappropriate
        language or abusing or showing disrespect toward the driver or other pupils, forfeits the right to ride on
        the bus. Cell phones are to remain in the off position while riding the school bus.
    6. Littering is prohibited (in the bus or out through windows).
    7. Safety dictates that no portion of the body will be extended out the bus window.
    8. Students will not get on or off or be out of their seats while the bus is in motion.
    9. Any damage to the bus must be reported to the driver at once.
    10. The possession or use of tobacco is prohibited. See Board Policy 3310.
    11. Matches and cigarette lighters are not allowed on the bus.
    12. Weapons of any kind will not be allowed on the bus. See Board Policy 3310.
    13. Drugs and alcohol are prohibited. See Board Policy 3310.
    14. Band instruments will be allowed as long as they go behind a seat or can be held on the student’s lap.
        Instruments cannot displace a bus passenger. Skateboards and other hazardous equipment are not
        allowed on buses.
    15. Students should wear warm clothing during cold weather.

       If your child does not arrive at home on schedule, please: CALL THE SCHOOL OFFICE
      IMMEDIATELY. 751.3800 We will contact the Transportation Manager for bus information

                                                        21
Leveled Behaviors & Consequences
     General Misbehavior                   Verbal Behavior                 Non-Verbal Behavior                 Physical Behavior                Consequence Menu
                                                                                 LEVEL 1
*   Absenteeism                    *   Gossiping                      * Making Threatening or Insulting   * Pushing/Shoving/Poking         *   Phone Call/Email Home
*   Tardies                        *   Starting or Spreading Rumors     Gestures                          * In Other’s Personal Space      *   Reminder/Warning
*   Unprepared for Class           *   Teasing Others                 * Dirty Looks                       * Intimidation                   *   Problem Solving Plan
*   Throwing Objects               *   Exclusion                      * Ignoring or Excluding Others                                       *   Refocus
*   Classroom Disruptions          *   False Reporting                * Hiding Items from Others                                           *   Removal from Activity
*   Dress Code Violation           *   Name Calling                   * Writing/Passing Notes                                              *   Team Consequence
*   Intentional Disrespect         *   Insulting Remarks                                                                                   *   Teacher Detention
*   Inappropriate Technology Use   *   Threats                                                                                             *   Re-Teach Expectations
*   Inappropriate Language         *   Profanity                                                                                           *   Counseling Referral
*   Cheating/Lying                                                                                                                         *   Team Parent Meeting
                                                                                 LEVEL 2
*   Minor Physical Altercation     *   On-going Harassment            * Defacing Property                 * Threatening Physical Harm      * Phone Call/Email Home
*   Disrespectful Actions          *   Promoting a Fight              * Embarrassing Others               * Purposeful Physical Actions    * Counseling Referral
*   Truancy                        *   Racial Name Calling            * Recurring Level 1 Behaviors       * Scratching/Spitting/Biting     * Office Referral
*   Recurring Level 1 Behaviors    *   Gender Name Calling                                                  Tripping                       * Parent Meeting
                                   *   Recurring Level 1 Behaviors                                        * Recurring Level 1 Behaviors    * Administrative Detention
                                                                                                                                           * Saturday School
                                                                                                                                           * Re-teaching with School
                                                                                                                                             Counselor
                                                                                                                                           * Administrator May Select from
                                                                                                                                             Level 3 Options
                                                                                 LEVEL 3
* Fighting                         *   Prolonged Harassment           *   Destroying Property             * Making Repeated or Graphic     *   Phone Call/Email Home
* Drugs/Weapons                    *   Sexual Harassment              *   Arranging Public Humiliation      Threats                        *   In-School Suspension
* Distribution of Drugs            *   Instigating a Fight            *   Writing Graffiti of Any Kind    * Practicing Extortion           *   Saturday School
* Continued Insubordination        *   Racial Slurs                   *   Videotaping Conflicts/Fights    * Starting/Instigating a Fight   *   Out-of-School Suspension
* Leaving School Grounds           *   Recurring Level 2 Behaviors    *   Vandalism                       * Physical Harm                  *   Restitution
* Throwing Dangerous Objects                                          *   Theft/Stealing                  * Acts of Violence               *   Law Enforcement Contacted
* False Reporting                                                     *   Recurring Level 2 Behaviors     * Assault                        *   Parent Meeting
* Accessing Inappropriate                                                                                 * Recurring Level 2 Behaviors    *   Expulsion Recommendation
  Internet Sites
* Recurring Truancy
* Recurring Level 2 Behavior

                                                                                         22
Choose Success at KMS
                    Schoolwide                      Classroom                      Hallways                  Cafetorium                  Outside                Personal

              - Treat others the way you     - Speak politely to             - Monitor your voice       - Make sure no one eats    - Show tolerance for    - Treat others with
                want to be treated              teachers and classmates        level                      alone                      others’ differences   courtesy

Be            - Honor others personal
                space and boundaries
                                             - Allow others to speak
                                               without interruption
                                                                             - Remove headwear
                                                                             when entering the
                                                                                                        - Talk in a quiet tone
                                                                                                        - Move appropriately
                                                                                                                                   - Include others in
                                                                                                                                     activities
                                                                                                                                                           - Listen respectfully
                                                                                                                                                           - Use kind words

Respectful    - Use appropriate language
              - Avoid spreading rumors
                                             - Cooperate and work well
                                               with others
                                                                             building
                                                                             - Travel hallways
                                                                                                                                   - Exit and enter the
                                                                                                                                      building quietly
                                                                                                                                                           - Think before
                                                                                                                                                           speaking
                and gossip                   - Be on time and ready to         quietly
              - Comply with adult requests     learn
              - Respect other people’s       - Participate
                possessions                  - Follow classroom rules

              - Make good choices            - Be prepared                   - Carry a hall pass        - Make healthy food        - Consume food and      - Admit and learn from
              - Be truthful                  - Listen carefully and            when in the hall           choices                     drinks only in the   mistakes
              - Own your behavior             follow all directions            during class time        - Clean up the area           cafetorium           - Help others who are
              - Admit mistakes               - Complete and turn in all      - Get where you need         around you               - Enter the building    in need

Be            - Be a good role model
              - Follow through on your
                                               assignments on time
                                             - Check for what you miss
                                                                               to be in a timely
                                                                               manner
                                                                                                        - Only touch your own
                                                                                                          food, or food you are
                                                                                                                                     through the
                                                                                                                                     designated doors
                                                                                                                                                           - Use calming
                                                                                                                                                           strategies

Responsible      commitments
              - Report dangerous and
                                               when absent and complete
                                               make-up work
                                                                             - Keep our halls and
                                                                               your locker clean
                                                                                                          purchasing               - Return equipment in
                                                                                                                                      good condition
                 inappropriate behavior to   - Give full effort                                                                    - Be active… get some
                 an adult                    - Stay on task                                                                           exercise
              - Keep all valuables locked    - Ask for help if you need it
                in your locker or at home

              - Know and follow              - Know the evacuation           - Walk                     - Wait for permission to   - Engage in safe        - Use self -monitoring
                emergency procedures           routes and meeting places     - Keep to the right on       be dismissed             activities              strategies

Be            - Keep hands, feet and
                objects to self
                                             - Move appropriately in
                                               the classroom
                                                                               stairways and hallways
                                                                             - Allow traffic to flow
                                                                                                        - Walk                     - Stay on campus        - Respect others’
                                                                                                                                                           boundaries

Safe          - Students should never
                open outside doors for
                                             - Handle all classroom
                                               equipment and materials
                                                                             - Respect personal space
                                                                             and boundaries
                                                                                                                                                           - Use healthy problem
                                                                                                                                                           solving strategies
                visitors                       properly and carefully                                                                                      - Seek adult help when
              - Keep backpack in locker                                                                                                                    needed

                                                                                    23
KMS Library Media Center 2019-2020 WORKS CITED: MLA Format
             •     A list of works cited is arranged in alphabetical order by the first word of each entry with the exception of
                   a, and the.
             •     Entries are double spaced evenly throughout the list. * The first line of each citation is not indented, but
                   every other line under it is indented (hanging indention).
             •     If you are handwriting your citation, you may underline titles instead of using italics.

                                                    PRINT SOURCE EXAMPLES
Book
         Structure: Author or editor’s Last name, First name. Title. Publishing Company, Copyright date.
         Example: Haines, Aubrey L. The Yellowstone Story: A History of Our First National Park. University Press. 1977.

         In-Text Citation: Author’s last name and the page number(s) from which the quotation/paraphrase is taken must appear in
         the text. Author’s name may appear either in the sentence itself or in parentheses following the quotation/paraphrase.

         Examples: Human beings have been described by Kenneth Burke as “symbol-using animals” (3). Human beings have been
         described as “symbol-using animals” (Burke 3).

Book (Two Authors)
       The first given name appears in last name, first name format; subsequent author names appear in first name last
       name format.

         Example: Webber, Ann and Zimbardo, Philip. Psychology. New York: HarperCollins, 1994.

         In-Text Citation: (First Author’s Last name and second author’s Last name page #s).

         Example: (Webber and Zimbardo 137-147).

                                                 NON-PRINT SOURCE EXAMPLES
Internet Website

Entire Website
        Structure: Author or editor (if available). Name of Website. Sponsor or Publisher, date of resource creation (if available),
        URL. Date of Access.

         Example: Smithsonian.com. Smithsonian Institution, 2019, www.smithsonianmag.com. Accessed 07 Feb 2019.

Page on a website
        Structure: Author or editor’s name. “Title of Article”. Name of website, date of resource creation (if available), URL. Date
        of Access.

         Example: Twomey, Steve. “Pay Dirt in Montana.” Smithsonian.com, Apr. 2018, www.smithsonianmag.com/history/pay-
         dirt-in-montana-31814889/. Accessed 10 Feb 2019.
         In-Text Citation: ….a second round of deliberation lasted nearly six weeks (Ferling) (If no author then use the “Article
         Title” or Website title)

Internet Image
        Structure: Creator’s Last name, First name. “Title of the digital image.” Title of the website, Publisher, date of resource
        creation, URL. Date of Access.

         • If there is no official title given, write a description of the image in your own words, but don’t put in quotation marks.

         • Cite the original source of an image - NOT Google Images

                   For an easy to follow guide on citing a variety of formats; visit the following website:
                                       https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/purdue_owl.html

                                                                    24
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