Changes Proposed for agricultural aviation - vectorPointing to Safer aviation - asymmetric flight Dipsticks taildraggers 101 - CAA

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Changes Proposed for agricultural aviation - vectorPointing to Safer aviation - asymmetric flight Dipsticks taildraggers 101 - CAA
September / October 2009
                                               Pointing to Safer Aviation

                           Changes Proposed for
                           Agricultural Aviation

                           Asymmetric Flight
                           Taildraggers 101
Changes Proposed for agricultural aviation - vectorPointing to Safer aviation - asymmetric flight Dipsticks taildraggers 101 - CAA
vector                                                                                                                              In this issue...
                                                                   Changes Proposed for
                                                                   Agricultural Aviation
                                                                                                                                        Changes Proposed for
                                                                   You can participate in the rule development
                                                                   process. We remind you how to get
                                                                                                                                        Agricultural Aviation                                                   3
                                                                   involved, and mention some of the changes
                                                                   proposed in the soon-to-be released Notice
                                                                                                                                        Asymmetric Flight                                                       4
                                                                   of Proposed Rule Making (NPRM) for
                                                                   Part 137 Agricultural Aircraft Operations.                           Which Runway Are You Going For?                                         8
                                                                                                                                        Dipsticks                                                               9
                                                                                                                                        Prop Strikes                                                         12

                                                                                                                                        CAA to Relocate in Central Wellington                                13
                                                                   Asymmetric Flight
                                                                                                                                        Taildraggers 101                                                     14
                                                                   Asymmetric flight is an exercise that
                                                                   must be practised regularly. However,                                Flight Instructor Seminars                                           17
                                                                   in light twins, that practice can be more
                                                                   dangerous that the real life engine failure.
                                                                                                                                        Airspace Changes                                                     18
                                                                   Practising must never put the aeroplane
                                                                   in danger.
                                                                                                                                        Competently Current                                                  20
                                                                                                                                        Aviation Safety Advisers                                             21
                                                                                                                                        IFIS Met Now MetFlight GA                                            21

                                                                                                                                        Icing Correction                                                     21
                                                                                                                                        Director’s Awards                                                    22
                                                                   The fuel dipstick is a very reliable way to
                                                                   measure the amount of fuel in your aircraft                          GPS Equipment Maintenance                                            23
                                                                   tanks, but it is often a misunderstood tool.
                                                                   Here are some reminders about dipsticks,                             Flight Training Changes                                              23
                                                                   usable and unusable fuel, and aircraft
                                                                   empty weight.                                                        New Products                                                         24
                                                                                                                                        Planning an Aviation Event?                                          24
                                                                                                                                        How to Get Aviation Publications                                     24

                                                                                                                                        Accident Briefs                                                      25
                                                                   Taildraggers 101
                                                                                                                                        What’s New?                                                          26
                                                                   The short-field performance and prop
                                                                   clearance of many taildragger types make                             GA Defects                                                           27
                                                                   them a logical choice if you are interested
                                                                   in strip flying. Here are a few basics to get                        Photo Competition                                                    28
                                                                   your head around before your first lesson.

                                                                                                                                        Cover: Ray Patchett, owner and pilot for Omaka based
                                                                                                                                        company Patchett Ag Air, is seen here spreading lime
                                                                                                                                        on a vineyard in the Awatere Valley with the Gippsland
                                                                                                                                        GA200 Fatman. Photo: Gavin Conroy

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2                         vector September / October 2009                                                                                                                             ISSN 1173-9614
Changes Proposed for agricultural aviation - vectorPointing to Safer aviation - asymmetric flight Dipsticks taildraggers 101 - CAA
Changes Proposed
for Agricultural Aviation
A Notice of Proposed Rule Making (NPRM) on amendments to Part 137
Agricultural Aircraft Operations is due to be released soon.

      he proposals should have no           believes the changes proposed to the          active Part 137 certificated operators,
      surprises for those in the industry   rule will help them do that. The proposed     97 aeroplanes, and 133 helicopters.
      – they have been discussed at         changes will help create a level playing
                                                                                          To be alerted when the NPRM is
previous annual conferences, and a          field, and establish some standards that
                                                                                          published, subscribe to our email
project working group of industry           will assist operators to better manage the
                                                                                          notification service,
participants has been involved in the       safety of their businesses.”
rule development since March 2008.                                                        subscribe. This notification will include
                                            There are a number of proposals in            the closing date for submissions.
John Fogden, CAA Manager Rotary             the NPRM, including: certification under
Wing and Agricultural Operations, says,     Part 137, fatigue management, chief           The NPRM is published so that all
“At the Agricultural Aviation Association   pilot responsibilities, training and super-   interested parties can have their say
(AAA) conference held in Blenheim in        vision of junior pilots, seat restraints,     about the changes proposed. You can
                                            determination of hopper contents,             find out more about having your say, and
July, there was a strong message from
                                            and the overloading determination in
the industry itself that the agricultural                                                 the whole process, in our free booklet,
                                            Appendix B.
sector has an unacceptable safety record.                                                 The Rule Development Process – just
The membership was urged to take            The agricultural aviation industry curr-      email for a copy.
ownership of the situation, and the CAA     ently consists of approximately 112

                                                                                             vector   September / October 2009        3
Changes Proposed for agricultural aviation - vectorPointing to Safer aviation - asymmetric flight Dipsticks taildraggers 101 - CAA
Asymmetric Flight
    An engine failure after takeoff (EFATO) will be the most
    performance-critical manoeuvre in your twin-engine life.

          his emergency happens close to the ground, at low                             Climb performance depends on four factors:
          airspeed, at the heaviest point of the whole flight, and                      »» Airspeed – too little or too much will decrease climb
          asks the remaining engine to operate at its maximum                              performance.
    available power setting. Not a situation to be taken lightly.
    Add to that the need to accurately control the aeroplane, carry                     »» Drag – gear, flap, cowl flap, prop, and speed.
    out the emergency actions, and follow the Standard Instru-                          »» Power – amount available in excess of that needed for
    ment Departure. It makes you tired just thinking about it.                             level flight.
    There is a need to practise this, so you are well prepared                          »» Weight – passengers, baggage, cargo, and fuel load greatly
    should you be unlucky enough to face this in real life.                                affect climb performance.
    Unfortunately, there are more accidents because of simulated
    EFATO, than because of real EFATO. That does not negate the                         Yaw
    need for practice – it just illustrates the need for a heightened
                                                                                        Immediately following the failure of one engine, yaw is caused
    awareness of the dangers.
                                                                                        by asymmetric thrust and displacement of the total drag
    The most critical things you lose, when you lose power from                         towards the inoperative engine. Yaw forces must be balanced
    one engine, are climb performance and controllability.                              with the rudder (or by reducing power on the operating engine)
                                                                                        (see Figure 3).
    Climb Performance                                                                   Loss of power on one engine reduces slipstream (and induced
    Climb performance depends on excess power. Loss of power                            lift) over the wing. Yaw also affects the lift distribution over
    from one engine obviously represents a 50 percent loss of                           the wing, causing a roll towards the inoperative engine.
    power, but in virtually all light twins, this results in a reduction                These roll forces may be balanced by banking towards the
    of climb performance of at least 80 percent (see Figure 1).                         operating engine.
    The amount of power required for level flight depends on how                        If a small bank angle (about five degrees) is used towards
    much drag must be overcome to sustain level flight. Clearly,                        the operating engine to help counteract the yaw, a smaller
    drag is increased if the gear and flap are down and a prop is                       rudder force will be required. Since the displaced rudder
    windmilling, and more power will be required to overcome                            increases drag, any reduction in rudder angle will lessen the
    this. You may need to reach down into the memory banks,                             drag, and performance will be improved. Think of it as
    however, to remember that drag also increases as the square                         ‘raising the dead’ and then you will remember to raise the
    of the airspeed, and power required to maintain that speed                          wing with the dead engine.
    increases as the cube of the airspeed (see Figure 2).


                  Vertical speed

                                                                                            Percentage of increase

              0                                                                                                                                                            e

                                                                                                                                                                     s   pe
                                                                                                                     500                                         air
              -                                                                                                                                           ain                        ed
                                                                                                                     400                               m                          pe
                                                                                                                                                 d to
                                                                                                                                                                         t h airs
                                                                                                                                                e                       i
                                                                                                                                            u ir                   es w
                                                                                                                     300                 req               incr
                                                                                                                                      er               a g
                                         Indicated airspeed                                                                        Po
                                                                                                                                     w             D r
             Twin-engine climb                       One engine inoperative,
                                                     prop windmilling                                                100
             One engine inoperative                                                                                     100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200
             and minimum drag                        One engine inoperative, gear and
                                                     flaps down, prop windmilling                                                    Airspeed (knots)

    Figure 1. Effect of inoperative engine and aircraft configuration on                Figure 2. Effect of airspeed on drag and power required to maintain that
              vertical speed.                                                                     airspeed in level flight.

4                 vector           September / October 2009
Changes Proposed for agricultural aviation - vectorPointing to Safer aviation - asymmetric flight Dipsticks taildraggers 101 - CAA
Photo: © / Ken Babione

Critical Engine                                                       Airspeed
The critical engine is that engine, which failed, would most          Airspeed is the key to safe single-engine operations. There are
adversely affect the performance or handling qualities of the         a few you should be familiar with:
aeroplane. The critical engine on most US-manufactured light
                                                                      VMCA     Minimum control speed airborne.
twins is the left engine, as its failure requires the most rudder
force to overcome yaw.                                                VSSE     Airspeed below which an intentional engine cut should
                                                                               never be made.
In level flight, the thrust line of each engine is through the
propeller hub. But at low airspeeds and high angles of                VYSE     Best single-engine rate of climb speed.
attack, the effective thrust centreline shifts to the right on each   VXSE     Best single-engine angle of climb speed.
engine, because the down-going propeller blades produce
more thrust than the up-going blades (called asymmetric               V1       Decision speed.
blade effect, asymmetric propeller thrust, or P-factor, see           V2       Takeoff safety speed.
Figure 4). Therefore, the thrust line of the right engine moves
further from the centreline of the aircraft (giving a longer          VMCA – Minimum Control Speed Airborne
lever arm), resulting in greater yaw and more rudder needed           VMCA is designated by the red radial on the airspeed indicator,
to counterbalance the yaw.                                            and indicates the minimum speed at which you can still control
Twins with counter-rotating propellers don’t have a critical          the aeroplane while airborne, at sea level.
                                                                                                                                   Continued over   »
                                         Thrust from
                                                                                                                        Off-set thrust lines
                                       operating engine
                                                                                                                        due to “P-factor”

        Drag from                 Direction of
       inoperative              yawing tendency
                                         Counterbalancing                                                                Counterbalancing
                                          force exerted by                                                                force exerted by
                                               rudder                                                                          rudder

Figure 3. Yaw.                                                        Figure 4. Engine thrust line shifts to the right at low airspeeds and high
                                                                                angles of attack.

                                                                                                       vector    September / October 2009                      5
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»          Continued from previous page

    VMCA is determined by the manufacturer as the minimum                                     VMCA well before the stall onset, the exercise may need to be
    airspeed at which it is possible, after a sudden failure of the                           carried out at a lower level.
    critical engine, to recover directional control of the aircraft
                                                                                              Recovery from VMCA should start as soon as the pilot has lost
    within 20 degrees heading change, and then maintain
                                                                                              directional control by five degrees, but it is imperative that
    straight flight with no more than five degrees of bank, in the
                                                                                              recovery is made at the first sign of any stall onset. If the yaw
    following configuration:
                                                                                              coincides with the stall, or soon after, a spin will be the most
    »» Takeoff power on both engines.                                                         likely result. Some light twins have not had spin recovery
                                                                                              demonstrated, and the likelihood of you recovering would
    »» Rearmost allowable centre of gravity.
                                                                                              be remote. Consequently, it is not advisable to fly at speeds
    »» Flap in takeoff position.                                                              approaching VMCA, except in training situations or during
    »» Landing gear retracted.                                                                flight tests, where you have a qualified multi-engine flight
                                                                                              instructor with you.
    »» Propeller windmilling in takeoff pitch                                 configuration
       (or feathered if automatically feathered).                                             Recovery from flight at or below VMCA is made by reducing
    Sudden engine failures rarely occur in this configuration,                                power on the operating engine (to stop further yaw),
    however, and therefore the actual VMCA may vary.                                          while decreasing the angle of attack by lowering the nose.
                                                                                              Immediately following this initial recovery, power is returned
    For instance, VMCA decreases when the propeller is feathered,                             to both engines, and the aircraft accelerated back to a
    or when power on the operative engine is reduced, or when                                 safe speed.
    the C of G is forward of the rear limit.

    Other factors affecting this minimum control speed include:                               VSSE – Intentional One-Engine-Inoperative Speed
                                                                                              VSSE is specified by the aeroplane manufacturer and is the
    »» Turbulence – which will effectively increase VMCA because
                                                                                              minimum speed you can intentionally fail an engine. The use
       the pilot cannot control the aircraft as precisely as they
                                                                                              of VSSE is intended to reduce the potential for an accident
       otherwise might.
                                                                                              arising from loss of control after an engine failure has
    »» The strength and skill of the pilot – we are not all test pilots.                      been simulated at, or near, minimum control speed.
    »» Pilot seat position – so that full and sustained rudder                                VSSE demonstrations are necessary in training but should
       deflection is possible.                                                                only be made at a safe altitude above the terrain and with
                                                                                              the power reduction on one engine made at, or above, VSSE.
    Practising VMCA                                                                           Power on the operating engine should be set at the position
    Extreme caution must be used when undertaking minimum                                     for maximum continuous operation as airspeed is reduced
    control speed exercises. With some aircraft, VMCA occurs below                            slowly (one knot per second), until directional control can no
    VS at all altitudes. When this is not the case, there is a point                          longer be maintained, or there is any indication of stall onset
    where the single-engine power-on stall speed will correspond                              (see Figure 5).
    with the VMCA line (see Figure 5). In this situation, the instructor
    may need to promote the loss of directional control in order                              VYSE – Best Single-Engine Rate-of-Climb Speed
    to achieve the practise exercise. In turbocharged aircraft
                                                                                              VYSE is designated by the blue radial on the airspeed
    there is generally plenty of power available, which means
                                                                                              indicator. VYSE delivers the greatest gain in altitude in
    the exercise can be practised at higher altitudes. With non-
                                                                                              the shortest possible time, and is based on the
    turbocharged engines, the power availability diminishes
                                                                                              following criteria:
    quickly with increasing altitude. Therefore, in order to achieve
                                                                                              »» Critical engine inoperative, and its propeller in
                                                                                                 the minimum drag position.
                                            Vmca                                              »» Operating engine at no more than maximum
                                                                                                 continuous power.
                                                  Stall first
                                                                                              »» Landing gear retracted.

                                                                        Single engine         »» Wing flap in the most favourable position
                                                                        power-on                 (best lift/drag ratio).
                                                                        stall speed
                                                                                              »» Cowl flap as required for engine cooling.
                                                                                              »» Aircraft flown at recommended bank angle.
       Pressure altitude

                              Recovery may be difficult                                       Drag, caused by a windmilling propeller, extended landing
                                                                                              gear, or flap in the landing position, will severely degrade
                                                                                              or destroy single-engine climb performance. Single-engine
                                                                Yaw                           climb performance varies widely with type of aeroplane,
                                                                first                         weight, temperature, altitude and aeroplane configuration.
                                                                                              The rate of climb may be marginal – or even negative – under
                           Indicated airspeed
                                                                                              some conditions. Study the Flight Manual for your specific
                                                                                              aeroplane and know what performance to expect with one
    Figure 5. Relationship between stall speed and VMCA (non-turbocharged                     engine inoperative (OEI).

6                           vector   September / October 2009
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It is important to remember that the figures in the Flight
Manual cannot be guaranteed. These figures were established
in a brand-new aeroplane and in the hands of a test pilot – you
may well be unable to reproduce the stated performance.
In many light-twin aircraft, there may not be any single-engine
climb performance. Don’t bet your life on the book figures.

VXSE – Best Single-Engine Angle-of-Climb Speed
VXSE is used only to clear obstructions during initial climb-out,
as it gives the greatest altitude gain per unit of horizontal
distance. It provides less engine cooling and requires more
rudder than VYSE. Some manufacturers do not quote a VXSE,
as performance is marginal – and rarely better than at VYSE.

V1 – Decision Speed
V1 is the maximum speed, for a given length of runway,
from which a particular aircraft could be brought to rest in
the remaining length of runway after one engine has failed.

V2 – Takeoff Safety Speed
V2 is the lowest speed above the stall, while in the takeoff
configuration, and following failure of the critical engine,
where a safe margin of control is ensured for the average pilot.    It is not advisable to fly at speeds
The safety speed is therefore always higher than the worst
critical speed. Takeoff safety speed is either declared in the      approaching VMCA except in training
Flight Manual or is the greater of 1.2 VS or 1.05 VMCA. Takeoff
safety speed does not provide maximum performance.
                                                                    situations or during flight tests,
                                                                    where you have a qualified multi-
The next issue of Vector will have an article on the
practical aspects of dealing with an EFATO.
                                                                    engine flight instructor with you.

                                                                                      Photo: © / Jeffrey Zavitski

                                                                             vector    September / October 2009                    7
Changes Proposed for agricultural aviation - vectorPointing to Safer aviation - asymmetric flight Dipsticks taildraggers 101 - CAA
Photo: © Maciej Noskowski

    Which Runway
    Are You Going For?
    There seems to be some inconsistency in the way we,
    as pilots, refer to runways. This is particularly important
    at aerodromes where there are parallel runways.

          ach runway is designated by            will be considered normal operations. This would
          the aerodrome operator and             equally apply at Tauranga, Hamilton, New
          published in AIP New Zealand,          Plymouth, Gisborne, and Rotorua.
    Vol 4 and pilots should use those
                                                 Let’s look at a slightly more complicated example
                                                 – Wanganui. There are three parallel runways,
    In order to maintain consistency, and to     29L, 29, and 29R. 29L and 29R are the grass
    mitigate any human factors related risks,    vectors, and 29 is the sealed vector. If you are
    the CAA has been asked to clarify its        joining for one of the grass vectors you could
    position on the correct phraseology to       add “grass” to the designator, for example
    use when referring to parallel runways.      “29L grass”. To ensure consistency through-
                                                 out the country, wherever there is a parallel
    Let’s look at a simple example – Wanaka.
                                                 runway, when joining the sealed runway,
    Here there are two parallel runways of
                                                 you should say “joining for 29 seal”.
    similar length, both designated runway
    29. If you are joining for Wanaka, you       Now let’s look at the exceptions.
    should be absolutely clear as to which       Take Queenstown for example. If you
    runway you intend to land on. When           are flying a large aircraft intending
    joining for 29 you should say “joining       to land on runway 23, there will
    for 29 seal”, or “joining for 29 grass”.     be absolutely no need to request
    Other examples of this are Woodbourne,       “23 seal”. However, if you are a light
    Timaru, Motueka, Kaikoura, Hastings,         aircraft, you need to be completely
    and Dargaville.                              clear, so the controller is also clear,
                                                 which vector you intend to land
    Let’s look at another example – Napier.
                                                 on. You should request either
    This aerodrome is slightly more critical,
                                                 “23 grass”, or “23 seal”. The
    as the grass vector crosses taxiways,
                                                 same would apply at Christ-
    and there is a mix of light aircraft and
                                                 church and Invercargill.
    turboprop airliners. On initial contact
    with Napier, Tower or traffic, inform        Hopefully, this has cleared
    them of your intentions, for example         up any confusion. If in
    “34 grass” or “34 seal”. The exception       doubt, add either “grass”
    would be, however, those airlines that       or “seal” and then it will
    always use the seal. They do not need        be completely unam-
    to specify the seal to the Tower – that      biguous.

8            vector   September / October 2009
Changes Proposed for agricultural aviation - vectorPointing to Safer aviation - asymmetric flight Dipsticks taildraggers 101 - CAA
                                                                       The fuel dipstick is a very
                                                                       reliable way to measure
                                                                       the amount of fuel in your
                                                                       aircraft tanks, but it is often
                                                                      a misunderstood tool.

       wo long-standing problems have been identified in            Unusable Fuel
       relation to dipsticks and usable/unusable fuel: there
                                                                    The quantity of unusable fuel is determined
       are no set standards for dipsticks, and there can be
                                                                    during the original aircraft certification
variations in the way engineers take account of unusable
                                                                    process. Usually, this involves a test to find
fuel in calculating empty weight.
                                                                    out how much fuel remains in the tanks at
A look around the GA fleet at any aerodrome is most likely          the point at which the engine fuel supply is
to reveal a variety of home-made dipsticks, calibrated in            interrupted. Federal Aviation Regulation
different ways. It is rare to find a dipstick made by the            23.959(a) says that the unusable fuel supply
manufacturer for a particular aircraft.                              for each tank must be established as not
                                                                     less than the quantity at which the first
Here are some points regarded as best practice for dipsticks:
                                                                      evidence of malfunctioning occurs under
»» Dipsticks should be made up by licensed engineers                  the most adverse fuel feed condition
»» The dipstick should be specific to a particular aircraft,          occurring under each intended operation
   and have the registration letters on it                            and flight manoeuvre. For conventional
                                                                      aircraft with a forward mounted engine,
»» It should be made of a non-absorbent material that will             this is usually nose up at best angle of
   show the fuel level                                                 climb attitude.
»» It should not be able to fall into the tank (usually achieved
                                                                      The amount of unusable fuel can vary
   with length, or a T-cross)
                                                                      considerably from aircraft to aircraft.
»» The zero calibration should be the point where usable              There is a big difference between Piper
   fuel starts                                                        and Cessna aircraft, for example.
»» It should be calibrated in litres.                                  The Flight Manual should show the
If using an existing dipstick, you must know if it is reading          unusable fuel quantity.
usable fuel (recommended) or total fuel. If it reads total fuel,
you will need to know the aircraft’s unusable fuel quantity.
This can be found in the Flight Manual.
                                                                                                    Continued over   »
Usable Fuel
Usable fuel is the quantity of fuel available for flight planning
purposes – it is the only figure that should be used when
calculating fuel endurance. If the dipstick indicates total tank
quantity you must subtract the unusable fuel quantity to arrive
at usable fuel for calculating endurance.

Some aircraft have a placard showing the usable fuel quantity
near the filler cap.

                                                                           vector   September / October 2009             9
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»   Continued from previous page

     Aircraft Empty Weight
     Empty weight is the weight of an aircraft, including airframe,
     powerplant(s), all fixed equipment, full oil tank(s), and unusable
     fuel. The empty weight figure is found in the form CAA2173
                                                                                                                   Usable fuel
     located in the Flight Manual and can be expressed in                   Unusable
                                                                            fuel quantity
     pounds or kilograms. On the back of the form is listed all
                                                                            as stated in
     the equipment fitted at the time the aircraft was weighed.             the Flight
     Engineers preparing the CAA2173 form need to adhere to the
     manufacturers’ procedure for determining unusable fuel. This           Fuel outlet
     varies from type to type. For example, some manufacturers                         To engine
                                                                                                                                  Un-drainable fuel
     will use a method that runs the engine until it stops, and then
                                                                                                               Fuel drain point
     add a specified quantity, whereas other manufacturers may
     say to drain the tanks entirely, and add a specified amount.         Cross-section of an aircraft fuel tank (not to scale)
     The resulting level may be above the fuel outlet port to allow
     for the manoeuvres described above (see diagram).
                                                                          »» Fuel tanks should always be dipped after refuelling to
     For more information see our booklet, Weight and Balance,               establish the exact amount of fuel on board – even when
     and Advisory Circular AC43-2 Aircraft weight and balance                adding a known quantity of fuel.
     control – forms CAA2102 and CAA2173.                                 »» The dipstick should be inserted in the filler neck perpen-
                                                                             dicular to the wing surface, unless there is another method
     Role of the Fuel Gauges                                                 specified in the Flight Manual. Some aircraft fuel tanks
     Contrary to some opinion, most fuel gauges do read reason-              must be dipped on an angle because the main spar is
     ably accurately. After dipping the tanks, check the gauges and          directly below the filler neck.
     compare the readings – you will then know if the gauges              »» Always take a fuel sample from each drain point after
     are reading accurately. If they don’t, they need to be repaired.        refuelling, to check for correct fuel grade and any impurities.
     The fuel gauges should be an integral part of your fuel              For more information, see our booklet Fuel Management.
     management. Monitor levels during flight, and compare with           You can get a free copy by emailing
     your calculations. Fuel loss in flight can happen – through fuel
     venting, for instance, or a leaking fuel drain. This may not be
     visible, especially in a low-wing aircraft, so the fuel gauges
     may be your only clue that fuel is being used at a greater rate
     than planned.

     Tips for Dipping Your Tanks
     Here are some points that should be kept in mind when
     dipping a fuel tank:

     »» The aircraft should be parked on level ground. If this is
        not possible, dip each tank, turn the aircraft through 180
        degrees, dip each tank again, and take the average of the
        two values. This may not be totally accurate, but it will be
        better than either of the two single readings.
     »» Cross-feeding during refuelling, or at any other time, can be
        prevented in most single-engine aircraft by selecting either
        the LEFT or RIGHT tank only. The trap here is that when
        you are refuelling the aircraft with the fuel selector
        set to BOTH, the tank that you are filling can be
        cross-feeding to the other tank. Although not large,
        this could result in a quantity of fuel less than was
        originally intended in the first tank by the time you have
        finishing filling the second tank, and this could be a
        problem if the flight requires both tanks to be full.

10             vector   September / October 2009
Contaminated Fuel
   Contaminants (especially water) in              Allow the fuel time to settle after
   fuel have been known to cause engine            doing this before taking a fuel
   failures – usually just after the aircraft      sample.
   has become airborne. There have
                                                »» Ensure that the drain vessel is clean
   been instances when fuel from jerry
                                                   before taking a sample. Hold the
   cans that had been contaminated
                                                   sample to the light and inspect it for
   with water was used in aircraft
                                                   water (normally indicated by small
   operations, with disastrous results.
                                                   globules sitting on the bottom, or a
   The pilots involved were simply
                                                   ‘cloudy’ appearance), and sediment.
   unable to tell by looking at the sample
                                                   Check that it is the correct colour
   that the fuel was contaminated.
                                                   and smell for the intended grade of
   Here are some tips to check for                 fuel – this will also confirm that you
   contaminants in fuels:                          have not just drained a sample of
   »» After refuelling, allow the fuel to          pure water.
      settle for as long as possible. This      »» If the sample is contaminated, empty
      gives any impurities a chance to             the vessel and continue draining until
      settle into the drain sump of each           a clean sample is obtained.                                Fuel tester, showing
                                                                                                              water that has
      tank. At an intermediate stop, it is a                                                                  settled at the bottom
                                                »» Do not tip the sample back into
      good idea to refuel the aircraft first,                                                                 (holding it against
                                                   the aircraft tank, even if it is clean –                   the white surface
      before attending to other business
                                                   dispose of it in an appropriate                            helps to show the
      – this will normally allow enough                                                                       fuel colour and any
      time for any water in suspension to                                                                     water present).
      settle out.                               »» If there are unusually large quantities
                                                   of water present in the fuel, consult
   »» Water often collects in wrinkles and
                                                   an aircraft engineer.
      low points within fuel bladders.
      Lateral shaking of the aircraft wing      »» In cold winter conditions, small
      will help to work any trapped water          amounts of water can freeze the
      down to the fuel drain sumps.                drain plug, rendering it inoperative.

Flight Instructor Jonathan McKay of the
Wellington Aero Club looks at the fuel
readings on the aircraft’s dipstick.

                                                                                              vector   September / October 2009       11
Prop Strikes
     Engine and propeller manufacturers are quite clear about what constitutes a
     prop strike and what maintenance is then required.

           extron Lycoming defines a prop strike in its Service
           Bulletin 533A as, “Any incident during engine operation
           in which the propeller impacts a solid object which
     causes a drop in RPM and also requires structural repair of the
     propeller (incidents requiring only paint touch up are not
     included). This is not restricted to propeller strikes against
     the ground, and although the propeller may continue to rotate,
     damage to the engine may result, possibly progressing to
     engine failure.
                                                                                 A bent propeller that can be repaired.
     “Textron Lycoming must take the position that in the case of a
     ... propeller/rotor strike ... the safest procedure is to remove
     and disassemble the engine and completely inspect the
     reciprocating and rotating parts including crankshaft gear and
     dowel parts. Any decision to operate an engine which was
     involved in a ... propeller/rotor strike ... without such an
     inspection must be the responsibility of the agency returning
     the aircraft to service.”
     Therein lies the heart of the matter. As an engineer you are
     responsible for returning the aircraft to service. If you do not
     get the inspection done, what acceptable data are you basing                Cracking of the crankshaft after impact damage, shown up by fluorescent
     the return to service decision on?                                          light during magnetic particle crack testing.

     Even if no drop in engine rpm was seen – it’s unlikely the pilot’s          If the fear of the cost is making your aircraft owner nervous,
     attention was on the rpm gauge when hearing loud crunching                  they need to realise that this cost is usually covered by the
     noises from the propeller – there could still be significant                insurance policy, and the cost of not doing it may be much
     damage to the engine.                                                       higher if they suffer an in-flight engine failure.
     Alan Hockey of Flightline Aviation Dunedin says, “There                     The inspection of the engine must be carried out by an
     doesn’t seem to be any pattern to the damage to the engine                  appropriately approved Part 145 Maintenance Organisation
     when compared to the damage the prop has sustained. I have                  and includes a complete dismantling of the engine, inspection
     seen propellers that seem to have minor damage, but                         of all rotating components and engine-driven accessories,
     the engine attached to them has a broken crank-shaft. Like the              replacement of particular parts (such as connecting rods
     aircraft that hit a hidden airfield marker board.”                                and nuts, and anything specified in the Replacement of
     The Prop Shop at Safe Air stresses that you                                            Mandatory Parts Bulletin) and probably some non-
     cannot just straighten the prop out and                                                   destructive testing.
     continue on flying. You have no idea                                                             Propeller testing and overhaul must be
     what damage has been done without                                                                  completed by an approved maintenance
     a proper inspection.                                                                                provider.

                                               Bends are measured in degrees over a two inch
                                               length using a protractor.

12             vector   September / October 2009
CAA to Relocate
in Central Wellington
The CAA is to relocate from Petone, Lower Hutt to central Wellington in
February 2011.

   t will occupy one-and-a-half floors      Director of Civil Aviation Steve Douglas    that we will move to is modern in design,
   of a commercial office block, still      says the process was thorough and all       with good energy efficiency design
   under construction, directly opposite    options were carefully examined.            characteristics. Our people will have a
Wellington’s Railway Station. The only                                                  good working environment, and be
                                            “The CAA’s Board has been fully
other tenants in the 15-storey building                                                 located close to public transport.
                                            involved since the project began in
will be the Inland Revenue Department                                                   “And as those who have a longer history
                                            2007. The relocation and the funding
and the Aviation Security Service.                                                      with the CAA will remember, this will be a
                                            arrangements were approved by
The CAA currently occupies two              the Board with the support of the           return to central Wellington for the CAA.
                                                                                        The organisation moved from central
buildings in Petone, of which one is a      Government in 2008.”
                                                                                        Wellington to Lower Hutt in 1988.”
converted warehouse. Neither is suitable
                                            The CAA has conservatively estimated
for the CAA’s long-term requirements.
                                            the one-off costs of the move will be
The expiry of the lease on the two          $6.7 million, and will be funded from the
buildings provided an opportunity to        CAA’s reserves and cash flow.                       Beehive                                 ton
consider relocation and the CAA started
                                            Steve Douglas says the move to

a project in 2007, engaging specialist

                                            Wellington is a positive development


advice to evaluate the relocation                                                                              ay


                                            that is in the long-term interests of the                        Qu

opportunities. The project considered

                                            CAA and the function it serves.                          La                                                       Wellington
the CAA’s projected space and resource                                                                                                               Bu
                                                                                                                                                            Railway Station

requirements in the next 15 to 20 years,    “We set about finding office space that                                                                      yS



as well as the need to be more accessible   addressed feedback we had received                                         St                      CAA




to the aviation industry and closer to      from industry, and to meet our current





other transport sector agencies.            and future requirements. The building

                                                                                               vector           September / October 2009                                       13
Taildraggers 101

     You take off, accompanied by friends and a picnic basket full of delectable
     treats. You fly over some of New Zealand’s most incredible scenery, and
     land on a remote strip. You while away the afternoon in a beautiful spot.
     Then the alarm clock goes off…

                hy not make this dream a reality by learning to fly a taildragger?          Figure 1. Directional instability of a taildragger.
                The short-field performance and prop clearance of many taildragger
                types make them a logical choice (but not the only choice) if you are
     interested in strip flying.
                                                                                                          Aircraft momentum
     Here are a few basics to get your head around before your first lesson.

     On the Ground
     Taxiing successfully requires your full attention at all times. In addition to using
     your feet quickly and purposefully, instructor Paul MacDonald tells students
     transitioning from flying a nose wheel aeroplane, to the C185, “Don’t be afraid
     to use power and brake at times, always position your ailerons in the correct
     sense for the wind direction, and catch things early.”

     Taildraggers act as a weather vane, and turn into wind naturally. A turn in that
     direction is simple, but turning downwind can be very hard. In strong winds
     you will need appropriate use of rudder, brake, and power. Power will increase
     the air flow across the rudder, making it more effective.                                                 Main wheels

     Watch the nose direction at all times and concentrate on keeping it straight.
     Anticipate any movement of the nose and use positive rudder inputs to control it.
     It is important to be proactive, because once a taildragger starts to turn, they
     tend to continue turning. This characteristic is related to the C of G position.
     A taildragger’s C of G is behind the main gear, to stop it tipping on its nose.
     If a taildragger taxis in a straight line and then turns left (as in Figure 1), the
     C of G becomes positioned behind the right main wheel. Due to momentum,
     the C of G continues moving along its original path, which is straight ahead.
     This continues the turn by pushing against the outside wheel.

     When you press the rudder pedal in a taildragger, there will be a slight delay                                                 Tail wheel
     between applying the pressure and seeing movement. Once the nose is moving,
     it will continue to move whether the pedal is pressed or not, so rudder is only
     used to initiate movements, not held in while turning. You will then need to

14            vector   September / October 2009
Figure 2. Lift forces on takeoff.
                                                                           Lift Forces on Takeoff
                                                                           In Figure 2, you will see that the horizontal tail surfaces on the
                                                                           trike produce a downward force to raise the nosewheel. This
                                                                           ‘negative lift’ effectively adds weight to the aeroplane and requires
                                                                           the wing to produce additional lift for takeoff. By comparison,
                                                                           the horizontal tail surfaces on a taildragger produce an upward
                                                                           force (positive lift) to raise the tail. Since the tailplane supports
                                                                           some aircraft weight, the wing does not have to produce as much
                                                                           additional lift to get the aeroplane off the ground.

                                                                           Takeoff techniques vary between types and between instructors.
                                                                           Many higher performance aeroplanes (such as the Pitts Special)
                                                                           start the takeoff roll with the stick hard back until there is plenty of
                                                                           airflow over the rudder, then raise the tail. Whereas some slower
                                                                           taildraggers begin the takeoff roll with the stick hard forward so
    Lift forces of the tail surfaces in nosewheel vs tailwheel aircraft.   the tail comes up as soon as it has enough speed.

                                                                           In either case, here are a couple of issues to be aware of.
apply rudder with your other foot to stop the nose where you               Any time the propeller disc moves its plane of rotation,
want it. The amount of rudder required is inversely proportional           gyroscopic forces occur. Raising the tail too abruptly on takeoff
to your speed. The faster you are moving, the less rudder you              (by forcefully pushing the stick forward), will cause the propeller
need for directional control.                                              to precess, and the aeroplane to turn left. Always use positive
                                                                           rudder inputs to keep the aeroplane straight, do not let it start
The degree of difficulty you will have in controlling a taildragger        to turn in the first place.
is directly related to your ability to see slight movements of
                                                                           Raising the tail too high during takeoff will set the wing at a
the nose and correct for them. Tiny movements need tiny
                                                                           negative angle of attack and drive the main landing gear harder
corrections – let big movements develop and you will need
                                                                           onto the ground. The increased tyre friction created, along
big corrections, or potentially loose directional control.
                                                                           with the additional drag produced by such a tail-high attitude,
It will take new taildragger pilots time to get used to the                will reduce your acceleration considerably. It can even prevent
restricted visibility over the nose. Slowly S-turning along the            some low-powered taildraggers, at a high density altitude,
taxiway will give you the ability to look for other traffic and see        from ever reaching liftoff speed.
where you are going.                                                                                                              Continued over   »
                                                                                                       vector   September / October 2009               15
Photo courtesy of Craig Hayden

     »    Continued from previous page

     Figure 3. Bounce on touchdown.

               of atta           Momentum
                      ck inc


     Paul MacDonald explains to his students, “On takeoff, slight          would usually require either full forward or back elevator
     forward pressure is needed to get the tail up and flying, then        pressure, heavy braking, or a combination of these with power.
     ease back gently to lift off. Since the Cessna 185 naturally lifts    The key to avoiding this is understanding the effects of C of G
     off at around 35 or 40 knots, you may need forward pressure           position and the wind, taxiing slowly with your controls in the
     after liftoff to accelerate to a safe speed – depending on the trim   appropriate position, and smoothly applying brake.
     setting.” Your instructor will show you what the appropriate
                                                                           Ground loops after landing are usually caused by losing direc-
     takeoff trim settings are for the type of aircraft you are flying.    tional control through inattention. They happen when yaw is not
                                                                           anticipated, and then assertive rudder inputs are not made to
     Landing                                                               firstly stop the turn continuing, and secondly bring the nose
     The key to a successful landing in a taildragger is to touch          back parallel with the centerline. When the nose begins to swerve,
     down straight, at the appropriate speed and attitude for the          unless it is caught, it continues to yaw with a progressively
     type of landing you have opted for.                                   shorter turning radius. As the arc made by the aircraft begins to
                                                                           spiral inward, the rate of turn also increases. Simultaneously,
     A bounce is the result of a pilot error; a factor of landing          centrifugal force increases, and unless this is interrupted, the
     speed and rate of descent. The C of G location in a taildragger       aircraft ultimately loses balance and topples toward the outside
     (behind the main gear) contributes towards their propensity to        wing. Anticipation is essential. If you wait until the nose swerves,
     bounce, but a pilot cannot shift the blame for a bounce onto          and then try to correct it, it is too late. Paul MacDonald says,
     the aircraft design. If the aeroplane is landed in the appropriate    “After landing, keep your feet working and steer straight away –
     wheeler or three-point attitude, at the appropriate speed, a          don’t go to sleep once you are on the ground.”
     bounce will not occur.
                                                                           Ground loops are not that difficult to avoid. Just remember that
     The aeroplane in Figure 3 has been allowed to touch down              a taildragger landing is not complete until the aircraft is parked –
     prematurely, and the tailwheel is still off the ground. If the        don’t think your job is done after a successful touchdown.
     touchdown occurs with any significant sink rate, the momentum
                                                                           Learning to fly a taildragger is not necessarily more difficult than
     of the C of G tends to push the tail further down. In the process,
                                                                           learning to fly a trike. They are just less tolerant of errors made
     the nose rises, increasing the wing’s angle of attack. As a result,
                                                                           along the way.
     additional lift is produced, causing an involuntary liftoff.
     Newton’s third law also applies. For every action there is an         Specialist taildragger instructor, Kerry Conner, says, “the
     equal and opposite reaction, so the ground ‘pushes back’.             challenge of flying a taildragger is controlling and handling it
                                                                           correctly on the ground.
     If the tail wheel touches simultaneously with the main gear,
     however, or slightly earlier, the angle of attack cannot be made      “When a new taildragger pilot has mastered the three-point
     to increase providing the aircraft is virtually stalled when in the   landing, and their confidence is building, their concentration
     three-point attitude, resulting in a minimal touchdown speed.         drops off, they get a wind gust, and bam – they are off the
                                                                           runway or facing 180 degrees to the landing direction. After
     New taildragger pilots often look out the side window as the
                                                                           this lesson, it is time to move on to wheel landings – no wind
     aeroplane settles on the ground. This makes it difficult to judge
                                                                           at first, to get the technique mastered, and once that is
     if you are rolling straight or not. Instead, look straight ahead
                                                                           under control I take them out in a crosswind. Students start by
     and use your peripheral vision to look at both sides of the
                                                                           learning the three-point crosswind, then a wheel crosswind,
     runway at once. This will make minor movements of the nose
                                                                           which eventually has them landing on one wheel.
     easier to detect, and a quicker response possible.
                                                                           “Once they have mastered the three, two, and one wheel landings
     A ‘wheel landing’ can be more difficult to perform. It is executed
                                                                           on a sealed runway, a new taildragger pilot is ready to fly solo.
     in a near-level attitude by literally flying the main wheels onto
     the runway. The pilot has better visibility during a wheel landing    “Throw in the short landing technique and you can have five or
     due to the aircraft attitude, and when it is gusty, a wheel landing   six different types of landings with which to test your piloting
     allows you to maintain control right down to the runway.              skills. Flying a taildragger is a test of a pilot’s situational aware-
                                                                           ness of wind when determining landing type, making the
     In most taildraggers, it is possible to nose over during touch-
                                                                           correct decision, and being able to execute the chosen landing
     down, but flying a stable approach profile, using the correct
                                                                           while keeping both pride and aircraft intact,” says Kerry.
     technique for the landing type, maintaining speed control, and
     immediate directional control, will avoid this. It is also possible   If you do take up the challenge, make sure you learn with an
     to nose over when taxiing with a tailwind, or turning – but this      instructor who is experienced on type.

16              vector   September / October 2009
Flight Instructor Seminars
The recent flight instructor seminars held in Masterton, Hamilton, and Ashburton were a great success,
with approximately 130 instructors attending. The prime objectives were to give instructors the
opportunity to network and to give them direct access to CAA expertise.

“We deliberately hold the seminars           affects your student’s     attitude   and    Day one was finished off by Rachel
away from the main centres because           perception of flying.                        Donald giving a presentation on Spider-
it’s important for them to get together                                                   tracks – the New Zealand developed
                                             Mark Price, CAA Examiner AME and
and find out that they have the same                                                      flight following technology.
                                             very experienced maintenance engineer,
problems as each other. It can feel pretty
                                             emphasised that as pilot-in-command          Day two started with Dr Claude Preitner,
isolated, working away in a small aero
                                             you are the final decision maker when        CAA Senior Medical Officer, and pilot,
club on your own, and we want to send
                                             it comes to determining if the aircraft is   talking on life changes, particularly the
the message that instructing counts,”
                                             airworthy. He then talked about what         aging process, and the Recreational
says John Parker, CAA Flight Examiner.
                                             is airworthy and what is not.                Pilot Licence.
This year’s theme was changes – what
                                             John Parker, organiser of this event,        The rest of the day was an instructional
changes have recently occurred, what is
                                             spoke about threat and error manage-         techniques refresher by Kaye Sutherland
coming up, and how to deal with change.
                                             ment. He encouraged instructors to           of Air New Zealand.
Day one saw Rex Kenny, CAA Manager           become familiar with this approach, as
Sport and Recreation and prolific                                                         Jeremy Anderson of Nelson Aviation
                                             they will see more of this in general
amateur aircraft constructor, give a                                                      College says, “I enjoyed it immensely.
                                             aviation, not just in the airlines.
presentation on the future use of Light                                                   It was the first time I have been, but I
Sport Aircraft for flight instruction.       Airways gave a presentation on radar         am really keen to get to the next one.
                                             air traffic control, using a radar screen    Probably the best thing about the
ASL gave a presentation on the changes       replay to show how air traffic controllers   seminar was the ability to talk to other
to examinations, particularly the intro-     maintain separation and traffic flow in a    instructors and to the CAA directly. Now
duction of computer-based exams.             busy radar environment.                      that doesn’t mean that the sessions
Peter Wheeler, CTC Aviation Hamilton,                                                     weren’t good – they were, some of them
                                             Carlton    Campbell,    CAA Training
gave a presentation on the changing                                                       were great, especially the ones on air-
                                                                                                                                      Photo courtesy of Cessna Aircraft Company

                                             Standards Development Officer, A-Cat,
face of avionics and new GPS                                                              worthiness and your job as an instructor,
                                             and experienced mountain flyer, gave a
technologies available in GA aircraft.                                                    and the one from the doctor.”
                                             heads up on the terrain and weather
There is some very high-tech gear
                                             training being introduced into the PPL       Steve McNabb, of Helipro in Paraparaumu
available for light aircraft.
                                             and CPL syllabuses, and how that             added, “I thoroughly enjoyed it, and I
Brendan Bourne, CAA Aviation Examiner        training is being rolled out. He also        didn’t really expect to. The networking
and experienced A-Cat, talked about          alerted instructors to the current           was important, but for me, I really
the responsibilities you take on as          development by the CAA of a new              enjoyed the stuff on Spidertracks,
an instructor. How your attitude and         mountain flying DVD, and the topic of        mountain flying, and the instructional
professionalism, especially as a C-Cat       next year’s AvKiwi Safety Seminars.          techniques refresher.”

                                                                                             vector   September / October 2009        17
Airspace Changes
       This year’s round of airspace changes will come into effect 19 November 2009,
       to coincide with new Visual Navigation Charts. Here is a summary of the main
       changes. It is not exhaustive – pilots should familiarise themselves with all
       the changes published in AIP Supplements 134/09, 135/09 and 136/09.

              here are two main outcomes from       the safe and efficient flow of VFR traffic.   The second outcome is an increased
              the 2009 airspace review process.     This will reduce the number of circuitous     number of Common Frequency Zones
              VFR aircraft will have increased      tracks flown to avoid controlled air-         (CFZs). CFZs are designed to improve
       access to portions of controlled air-        space, and also reduce controller             safety by establishing a single frequency
       space, either by the establishment of        workload. Always operate your trans-          to assist collision avoidance, and reduce
       VFR transit lanes, or by the removal         ponder on mode A and C, to provide            congestion on 119.1 MHz. Use of the
       of controlled airspace entirely. Where       added safety assurance when operating         CFZ frequency is not mandatory.
       controlled airspace is not used by IFR       near controlled airspace boundaries,
       aircraft, it has been released to improve    especially within VFR transit lanes.


             OLD                                                                                                            NEW


 OLD                                                                                                                                          NEW

18              vector   September / October 2009
The collision avoidance frequency for
                                                The Paraparaumu MBZ has
                                                                                       AIXM Database
aircraft transiting between the Auckland        been extended offshore,
                                                                                          The CAA provides an Aeronautical Infor-
City MBZ and the Ardmore MBZ has been           while onshore portions of the
                                                                                           mation Service (AIS) comprising the AIP
clarified with the establishment of a new       MBZ have been reduced. The
                                                                                            New Zealand, aeronautical charts, NOTAM
Ardmore CFZ using 118.1 MHz. Adjacent           MBZ will become transponder
                                                                                             and pre-flight briefing services. Airways
MBZ and CFZ boundaries have been                mandatory from 1500 feet amsl
                                                                                              Corporation are contracted to provide
adjusted in accordance with feedback            and above. To the East of the
                                                                                                this service. The CAA also provides
from airspace users.                            MBZ, a new Tararua CFZ has been
                                                                                                 a legal description of airspace,
A new Coromandel CFZ has been                   established on the same frequency
                                                as Paraparaumu.                                    and the geographical coordinates
established between the Great Barrier,                                                             of designated points and other
Ardmore and Bay of Plenty areas. As             Within the Wellington control zone,                significant locations contained in
a consequence, the following aero-              new sectors have been established to               the New Zealand Air Navigation
dromes will change to 124.5 MHz on              allow safer transit of VFR aircraft
                                                                                                   Register (ANR).
19 November 2009: Coromandel, Great             above the new wind turbines west of
Mercury, Matarangi, Pauanui Beach,              Wellington.                                        The data for the various AIS prod-
Thames, Waihi Beach, and Whitianga.                                                                ucts and the ANR resides in
                                                                                                   many separate databases. Currently,
Waikato                                         The Nelson VFR transit lanes have
                                                                                                   human processing is involved at
                                                                                                   several key stages of AIS production.
Two new VFR transit lanes have been             been expanded and merged. The MBZ
                                                                                                   Information is submitted for the
established within the Hamilton control         at Motueka has been enlarged at user
                                                                                                   AIP in paper format, then manually
zone. The Northern VFR transit lane             request, and a new Motueka CFZ has
                                                                                                   processed to produce a paper
(NZT 251) will allow aircraft operating by      been established adjacent to the MBZ,
day to transit from the north to the east,                                                         format AIP New Zealand. All users
                                                on the same frequency.
below 1000 feet amsl, without the need                                                             manually enter the data into their
                                                Woodbourne airspace has had major                  systems, and the CAA manually
to contact ATC. Even though the transit
                                                changes to allow VFR aircraft to                   updates the ANR.
lanes have been designed to be well clear
                                                operate to and from Omaka aero-
of IFR procedures, pilots need to carefully                                                        This is in the process of changing.
                                                drome, by day, without an ATC
identify the new transit lane boundaries                                                           The CAA and Airways are devel-
                                                clearance. This will significantly reduce
so they do not infringe controlled airspace.                                                       oping an Aeronautical Information
                                                Woodbourne Tower’s workload. How-
The landscape within the transit lane                                                              eXchange Model (AIXM) database
                                                ever, as Omaka is very close to the
has relatively few prominent features.                                                             to serve as the single source of
                                                extended centreline for Woodbourne
To assist pilots, a railway/road intersection                                                      national aeronautical information.
                                                Aerodrome’s runways, it is essential
and major roads have been used as the                                                              This move is in line with develop-
transit lane boundaries.                        that Omaka traffic respect and comply
                                                with the strict limits of the new                  ments in the rest of the world, and
The Northern VFR transit lane has also          Omaka VFR transit lane. The Waihopai               will use an ICAO recognised format
been merged with the Hospital VFR               and Ponds VFR transit lanes will be                to reduce the need to manually
transit lane to allow helicopters to freely     disestablished as a result.                        manipulate data. Once all aerodrome,
arrive and depart from the Hospital                                                                heliport, airspace, navaid, obstruction,
Heliport by day. Fixed wing pilots should       Within the Omaka VFR transit lane,                 instrument procedure, route, and
note that the rule 91.311 requirement to        pilots must not cross New Renwick
                                                                                                   significant point data has been
maintain 1000 feet above built up areas         Road unless they receive an ATC
                                                                                                   entered into the database, and
means it is not possible for them to use        clearance to do so (this road was
                                                                                                   verified, it can then be transferred
the portion of the VFR transit lane above       the northern boundary of the
                                                                                                   electronically to users.
Hamilton City.                                  disestablished Fairhall Sector).
The new Te Awamutu VFR transit lane to          To the south and west of
                                                Woodbourne, a large portion of                   »» A single source database for aero-
the south will allow VFR aircraft to operate
                                                control area (CTA) has been                         nautical data.
freely south of Lake Ngaroto, below 1000
feet amsl, by day.                              disestablished in order to allow               » Paper based products will be
                                                gliding operations to take place              generated directly from the AIXM data
Taupo                                           in class G airspace in this area.             with minimum manual intervention.
At the request of airspace users, the                                                         » Aeronautical data will be available to
Taupo MBZ has been extended to the              Canterbury                                   the aviation community in an electronic
east. The transponder mandatory portion         A new Rangiora CFZ has been                 format.
of the MBZ has been lowered to 2500             established, so the frequency
                                                                                            The AIXM is currently being populated with
feet amsl. The Centennial Park CFZ has          of Rangiora Aerodrome will
                                                                                           existing data. Over the next two years the
been also extended and its upper limit          change to 120.2 MHz. The
                                                                                          AIP New Zeland and the ANR will begin to be
raised to 4500 feet amsl to better reflect      Canterbury CFZ has had
                                                                                         produced out of the AIXM database, going
the normal operating area of gliders near       a consequential boundary
                                                                                        ‘live’ once the products are fully tested.
Centennial Park Aerodrome.                      amendment.

                                                                                                  vector   September / October 2009           19
Competently Current
     Unless you are employed as a pilot it can be hard to stay current – and even
     then you may need a top-up from time to time. Current shouldn’t just mean
     legally current, it should mean competently current.

          he bare minimum required to be legally current is far      You are the best person to be able to judge if you are current
          from ideal, and it could leave you floundering in an       enough to do a particular flight or task. To allow for things
          unexpected or emergency situation.                         you hadn’t planned on, you must be prepared to a higher
                                                                     standard than may prove necessary on any particular flight.
     In flying, as in any other endeavour in life, the rewards and
     satisfaction achieved are proportional to the effort put in.
     Are you happy to be a ‘bare minimum’ pilot, or would you        How to Improve Currency
     rather be thought of as a careful and competent pilot others
                                                                     In Your Aircraft
     are happy to go flying with.
                                                                     Decide what flying you really need. Money seems to have
                                                                     stopped growing on trees, so tailor your flying to best prepare
     Currency                                                        you for the type of flying you do.
     You progressively lose your touch the longer you go without
                                                                     If you are an infrequent flyer, collecting type ratings
     flying. The longer the break, the less current, competent,
                                                                     may be fun, but is it the safest option for
     and confident you become.
                                                                     maintaining an adequate currency level?
     There are legal minimum requirements to be able to              Sticking to one type may help you feel
     exercise the privileges of your licence, including recent       more confident, and your flying will be
     experience requirements. But these may not be enough to         safer and enjoyable.
     be truly current.

     Currency is not just the number of flying
     hours and takeoffs and landings you
     have completed in the last 90 days –
     it’s a measure of your readiness
     to undertake a particular exercise
     without significant risk.

20            vector   September / October 2009
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