Clearing the Air: Highlighting Actions on Fighting Air Pollution in India - NRDC

 
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Clearing the Air: Highlighting Actions on Fighting Air Pollution in India - NRDC
INTERNATIONAL: INDIA                                                           FEBRUARY 2018    INTERIM FACTSHEET

Clearing the Air:
Highlighting Actions on
Fighting Air Pollution in India

Air pollution is one of the highest-ranking environmental         toxic mixture of solids and liquids. Particles of 10 micrometers
health challenges in the world, especially in developing          in diameter or smaller (PM10) and especially the even finer-
countries such as India. Since 2016, high air pollution levels    sized PM2.5 are so small (much smaller than the width of a
and “air emergencies” have been in the news across India.         human hair, for example) that they can penetrate deep into
Air pollution is no longer just a Delhi centric problem, but a    the lungs, where they can cause serious health problems.
major threat to regions across India. To reduce air pollution     Major sources of larger PM10 include windblown dust, and
levels and deadly health risks, leading regions are taking        construction, while smaller PM2.5 stems from combustion,
action to address the threat of air pollution.                    including vehicles, power plants, industry, waste burning,
                                                                  agricultural burning and cooking with solid fuels. Residents
This factsheet highlights actions that key regions in India       in eight out of every ten Indian cities breathe polluted air
are taking to improve air quality and protect communities.        that contains PM10 at higher levels than recommended in the
The actions highlighted include Delhi’s Graded Response           national safety limits, according to a recent report.
Action Plan, the Ahmedabad region’s health-based clean
air program and air quality index; Chennai’s enhanced air
quality monitoring, and Nagpur and Bengaluru’s mitigation
efforts including electric vehicles. While this factsheet does
not provide a comprehensive list of activities underway to
tackle air pollution in India, it highlights several examples
that showcase the range of activities and interventions by
decision-makers and leading groups across the country.
These actions are good first steps toward building more
comprehensive action to clear the air.

THE AIR POLLUTION PROBLEM
Air pollution is a serious problem in India. Ambient air
quality is monitored in 280 cities, and all of them exceed
the World Health Organization’s (WHO) safe levels of coarse
particles (PM10) – a major component of urban air pollution.
Indian citizens also face one of the highest exposures to PM2.5
in the world. Particulate Matter (PM) describes a complex
Clearing the Air: Highlighting Actions on Fighting Air Pollution in India - NRDC
heavy trucks, shut down power plants, and close brick
    Pollution Is a Major Health Threat Around                               kilns and stone crushers.
    the World – The Lancet Commission on
                                                                       •    Delhi has also taken a series of actions to ramp up air
    Pollution and Health 2017
                                                                            quality monitoring and public awareness through Air
                                                                            Quality Index (AQI) systems, with over fifty sites planned
    Air pollution is the greatest contributor to pollution-related
                                                                            for displaying the daily AQI at major traffic intersections,
    deaths globally, according to a major scientific study
                                                                            using data from over 25 monitoring sites administered
    published in the Lancet in 2017. The study finds that global
    pollution contributes to nearly 9 million premature deaths              by different agencies, citizen monitoring, and targeted
    every year—about 16% of deaths worldwide. The study                     programs for vehicles, including an odd-even program
    examines data on causes of disease and premature deaths                 and restricting the entry and movement of heavy trucks.
    from 130 countries.
                                                                       •    The Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate
    Key findings for India:                                                 Change (MOEFCC) released a 12-point Air Action Plan to
                                                                            tackle air pollution in the Delhi-National Capital Region
    • India and China account for the largest number of
                                                                            (NCR).
      premature pollution-related deaths with India at an
      estimated 2.5 million and China at 1.8 million deaths.           •    In February 2018, as a joint initiative of the Delhi state
    • Ambient air pollution contributed to 1.09 million deaths              government and MOEFCC, a two-week Clean Air
      in India in 2015, while indoor air pollution contributed to           Campaign and an air pollution monitoring “war room”
      0.97 million premature deaths                                         for Delhi were established at the Central Pollution
    • Overall, pollution’s health impacts tally to an estimated
                                                                            Control Board.
      GDP loss of 1.3% in developing countries, compared to
      0.5% in developed countries.                                     •    The state government of Delhi is in the process of
                                                                            developing a “green budget”, laying out a comprehensive
                                                                            action plan to tackle air pollution in Delhi.
Ambient air pollution is estimated to contribute to 1.1 million
premature deaths each year in India, a rise of almost 50%
since 1990, according to the 2017 State of Global Air report.4
                                                                       AHMEDABAD REGION:
Children are particularly vulnerable to air pollution because
                                                                       HEALTH-BASED AIR PLAN WITH AIR QUALITY
of their still-developing bodies and a higher dose of pollution        INDEX
per kilogram of body weight, compared to adults. Studies
have shown irreparable harm to children’s lung function from           Ahmedabad is one of India’s largest and fastest growing
air pollution exposure. A recent study documented reduced              cities with a population surpassing 7.3 million in the larger
lung development in children in Delhi when compared to                 metro area. The World Health Organization urban air quality
children in developed countries.5 Climate change is fueling            database and several international and Indian studies have
more extremely hot days, and that heat worsens some types              identified Ahmedabad as one of the most polluted cities in
of air pollution.                                                      the India.
                                                                       •    In 2017, Ahmedabad launched a new Air Quality Index
THE NATIONAL CAPITAL REGION:                                                (AQI) and Air Information and Response plan that
DELHI’S GRADED RESPONSE ACTION PLAN                                         provides daily air quality reports and an early warning
                                                                            system to alert residents about dangerously high
Delhi is the capital of India with nearly 25 million residents              pollution levels. This plan helps to support a local expert
across the larger metropolitan area. Severe air pollution                   group convened to formulate policy recommendations,
continues to plague the region, with major spikes during the                utilizing technical expertise from the Indian Institute
winter seasons. Delhi is considered one of the most polluted                of Tropical Meteorology, Pune and the System of Air
cities in the world. Government officials, health experts, and              Quality and Weather Forecasting and Research (SAFAR),
civil society groups are taking a flurry of actions in efforts to           and partnering with the Indian Institute of Public
improve air quality:                                                        Health-Gandhinagar and the Natural Resources Defense
                                                                            Council. The plan also supports an air quality awareness
•     Based on an order by the Supreme Court of India in 2017,
                                                                            program that reaches 140,000 children in over 90 schools.
      Delhi’s Graded Response Action Plan (GRAP), prepared
      by the Environment Pollution (Protection and Control)            •    The AQI is based on ten new air quality monitoring
      Authority, aims to improve air quality by triggering alerts           stations across the Ahmedabad region, with 11 LED
      when high air pollution levels last for 48 hours. The plan            display boards that publicize both the AQI and specific
      aims to issue alerts when air pollution persists; responses           ways for citizens (including vulnerable populations) to
      could include measures to stop garbage burning, ban                   protect their health on polluted days.

    PAGE 2   NRDC INTERNATIONAL: INDIA                               CLEARING THE AIR: HIGHLIGHTING ACTIONS ON FIGHTING AIR POLLUTION IN INDIA
Clearing the Air: Highlighting Actions on Fighting Air Pollution in India - NRDC
Chennai in 2018 that display results on a website as part
                                                                                of a joint project by Huma Lung Foundation, The Other
                                                                                Media’s Healthy Energy Initiative, and UrbanSciences.
                                                                                The monitors measure levels of PM2.5, carbon monoxide,
                                                                                sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide.

                                                                            BENGALURU REGION:
                                                                            LEADING THE CHARGE WITH ELECTRIC
                                                                            VEHICLES
                                                                            A major technology hub and the capital of Karnataka,
                                                                            Bengaluru has been increasingly in focus for its air pollution
                                                                            that regularly exceeds national safety limits. A reputation for
                                                                            endless snarls of traffic congestion and vehicular emissions
                                                                            motivated state and local administrations to take action on
•    A volunteer expert working group comprising of premier                 air pollution. The Bengaluru region is piloting activities and
     academic institutions has been formed in Ahmedabad to                  policy development focused on electric vehicles:
     advise steps to improve air quality in the city.
                                                                            •   The Bangalore Electricity Supply Company (BESCOM),
                                                                                the local power utility, is launching fast-charging public
CHENNAI REGION:                                                                 stations for electric vehicles in 2018 with 11 stations
INFORMING CITIZENS USING AIR QUALITY                                            throughout the city, with the first station set to be
MONITORS ON HOSPITALS                                                           inaugurated in February 2018.
                                                                            •   Bangalore’s infrastructure planning is part of the state’s
Chennai, the capital of Tamil Nadu, is the fourth largest city                  2017 EV Policy – the first statewide policy in India.
in India. Tamil Nadu is a major contributor to India’s gross
domestic product and is one of the country’s most urbanized                 •   Other initiatives in the Bengaluru region to support
states. Air pollution is an increasing concern with emissions                   clean air activities include air quality monitoring systems
from vehicles, industry and thermal plants, among others.                       by the Karnataka State Pollution Control Board, and
Focusing on improved monitoring, groups in the Chennai                          potential collaborations with industry leaders and
region are stepping up efforts:                                                 automakers to roll out electric vehicles in the city.

•    The Tamil Nadu Pollution Control Board operates
     eight continuous air quality monitoring stations in                    NAGPUR REGION:
     the Chennai region under the National Air Quality                      DRIVING TRANSFORMATION IN PUBLIC
     Monitoring Program, and has yet to convert the raw                     E- MOBILITY
     concentration data into an air quality index.
                                                                            In the heart of India, the Nagpur region is driving the
•    Launching a local air quality monitoring network,                      country’s move toward electric vehicles. With a population
     hospitals and other groups installed low cost real-time                of 2.5 million, Nagpur is the third largest city in the state of
     air quality monitoring systems at five locations in

    CLEARING THE AIR: HIGHLIGHTING ACTIONS ON FIGHTING AIR POLLUTION IN INDIA                              NRDC INTERNATIONAL: INDIA   PAGE 3
Clearing the Air: Highlighting Actions on Fighting Air Pollution in India - NRDC
National Action on Clean Air

                                                                           Recognizing that ambient air pollution is a major national
                                                                           problem that needs to be addressed, the national
                                                                           government and other groups are stepping up to take action.
                                                                           These efforts include:
                                                                           • Dr. Harsh Vardhan, Minister for Environment, Forests
                                                                               and Climate Change, announced that India will
                                                                               strengthen the National Clean Air Programme in around
                                                                               100 non-attainment cities where parameters (air
                                                                               quality) are not right and requires attention. The target
                                                                               is that these cities will bring down pollution levels
                                                                               by 50% over the next 5 years. The programme will
Maharashtra and it faces severe air pollution problems from                    include expanding monitoring networks, conducting air
vehicular traffic and the clusters of neighboring industrial                   pollution health impact studies, setting up of air info
and thermal power plant activities. To mitigate pollution,                     systems, certification of monitoring institutes, air quality
Nagpur is boosting electric vehicle mobility:                                  forecasting systems, awareness and capacity building
                                                                               drives, among others.
•     Nagpur is the first city in India to have announced a large
                                                                           • The Central Pollution Control Board is executing a
      electric fleet in 2017 with a total of 200 electric vehicles             nation-wide program of ambient air quality monitoring
      planned for the city, including taxis, buses, e-rickshaws                known as the National Air Quality Monitoring Program
      and auto-rickshaws.                                                      (NAMP). The network consists of 683 operating stations
                                                                               covering 300 cities and towns across the country.
•     To drive transformation, Nagpur is building a plan with
                                                                           • Following a Supreme Court directive to address the
      charging infrastructure, partnerships with ride-sharing
                                                                               severe air pollution experienced in Delhi in the winter of
      company Ola for elective vehicles, tax incentives for
                                                                               2017, the national government announced a two-year
      electric and hybrid vehicles as well as lower fares for                  advancement of the roll out of the Bharat Stage VI fuel
      electric buses. The first charging station was opened in                 (equivalent to Euro IV) in Delhi in April 2018.
      November 2017.                                                       • In 2017, the Indian government announced that all new
                                                                               cars sold in India by 2030 will be electric. Following this
                                                                               announcement, the national government established an
WE ALL BREATHE THE SAME AIR                                                    Electric Vehicle 2030 Mission, with the national think
                                                                               tank NITI Aayog in charge of spearheading the mission,
Air pollution is a countrywide challenge, and the impacts                      coordinating the different agencies involved, and drafting
of bad air are not localized. Tackling this issue requires                     a national EV policy. The state-owned Energy Efficiency
not only effective interagency coordination, but bold                          Services Limited (EESL) is leading the way in the
action by all stakeholders. Achieving clean air is not the                     government by floating two tenders for 10,000 electric
government’s responsibility alone. Industry, civil society and                 vehicles each for use by the national government.
the media all play key roles – from market transformation
to public information and education. Some recent and key
                                                                       •    Non-governmental organizations such as the Public
developments include:
                                                                            Health Foundation of India, Indian Institute of Public
•     At the 2018 World Economic Forum in Davos, Anand                      Health, Centre for Science and Environment, Urban
      Mahindra, Chairman of the multi-billion-dollar                        Emissions, Clean Air Asia, Natural Resources Defense
      Mahindra Group, committed that all Mahindra Rise                      Council, The Energy and Resources Institute, among
      group companies would set and work towards science-                   others, are working with state and local governments to
      based emission reduction targets, challenging 500 other               help develop clean air response plans and awareness
      companies to set similar targets in 2018.                             systems.
•     Automakers such as Mahindra and TATA motors are
      rolling out electric auto models, and are in discussions         Cities, states, and the national government are stepping
      with the government for collaborations to enable larger          up efforts to improve air quality. However, much greater
      scale expansion.                                                 action is needed to protect human health and the wellbeing
                                                                       of India’s most vulnerable populations in our cities and
•     National and local media are ramping up daily reporting          towns. These actions are a step in the right direction and
      and information campaigns on air pollution in regions            continuing strong leadership to spur action is the key to
      across India, including publication of local AQIs.               transformative change on the ground – and in the air.

    PAGE 4   NRDC INTERNATIONAL: INDIA                               CLEARING THE AIR: HIGHLIGHTING ACTIONS ON FIGHTING AIR POLLUTION IN INDIA
Clearing the Air: Highlighting Actions on Fighting Air Pollution in India - NRDC
KEY SOURCES OF INFORMATION

•    Health Effects Institute, Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation’s Global Burden of Disease Project,
     State of Global Air 2017, 2017.

•    GreenPeace, Clean Air Nation, Airpocalypse II: Assessment of Air Pollution in Indian Cities, 2018.

•    The Lancet, The Lancet Commission on Pollution and Health, October 19, 2017.

•    Central Pollution Control Board, Graded Response Action Plan for Delhi & NCR, Ministry of Environment,
     Forest and Climate Change, Government of India.

•    Air Laboratory, Ambient Air Quality Data of Delhi-NCR for the Month of November 2017, Central Pollu-
     tion Control Board, December 2017.

•    World Health Organization, Global Health Observatory Data Repository, Ambient (Outdoor) Air Pollution
     Database, by Country and City, 2014;

•    SAFAR-Ahmedabad, SAFAR-Air Quality Forecast for Diwali-2017, Institute of Tropical Meteorology, Indian
     Meteorological Department, 2017.

•    Natural Resources Defense Council, Indian Institute of Public Health, Gandhinagar, Institute of Tropi-
     cal Meteorology, Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation, Ahmedabad Air Information and Response Plan,
     Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation, May 2017.

•    Government of Tamil Nadu, Urban Scenario in Tamil Nadu.

•    Tamil Nadu Pollution Control Board, Air, Noise and Water Monitoring Network.

•    Government of Karnataka, Proceedings of the Government of Karnataka, Karnataka Electric Vehicle and
     Energy Storage Policy 2017, 2017.

•    Karnataka State Pollution Control Board, Annual AQI of Bangalore and other cities, 2017.

•    UrbanEmissions, Daily Dose of Air Pollution Air Quality in Nagpur (Maharashtra), October 18, 2016.

•    NITI Aayog, Rocky Mountain Institute, India Leaps Ahead: Transformative Mobility Solutions for All, NITI
     Aayog, May 2017.

    CLEARING THE AIR: HIGHLIGHTING ACTIONS ON FIGHTING AIR POLLUTION IN INDIA                                    NRDC INTERNATIONAL: INDIA   PAGE 5
rECoMMEndatIons to sCalE ClEan                                                                                                                                                                                     n                  report jobs data: Given the importance of emplo
                    EnErgy In IndIa                                                                                                                                                                                                                       in the Indian market, increasing the transparency
                    The overall key recommendations from NRDC and                                                                                                                                                                                         information about the number of jobs created in t
Highlighted Resources:
              CEEW’s analysis are as follows:                                                                                                                                                                                                             renewable energy sector would strengthen public
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          and lender confidence in clean energy.
                    n                        Boost Financing: To inject new liquidity and reduce the
                        cost ofHealth
                   Protecting   capital, theIncreasing
                                      from    Indian government
                                                        Air Pol- should develop AhmedabadTimely    Policy implementation:
                                                                                            Air Information  and Response (AIR)Policy
                                                                                                                                 Plan delays and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       n

                        innovative
                   lution                                                                  unpredictable    shifts, such  as wind energy’s acceler
                                    financing solutions, such as green banks, https://www.nrdc.org/sites/default/files/ahmedabad_air_
                          in Ahmedabad
                   https://www.nrdc.org/sites/default/files/
                        green bonds, and infrastructure debt funds for renewableplan_feb_2017_final_pdf.pdf
                                                                                           depreciation   policies  and  long delays in solar poli
                   ahmedabad_aqi_-_final.pdf                                               have recently slowed solar and wind market growt
                                             energy. The government must diligently enforce
                                             Renewables Purchase Obligations (RPOs) and support                                                                                                                                                           Both national and state programs must continue t
                                             further development of the Renewable Energy Certificate                                                                                                                                                      increase market momentum through timely progr
                                             (REC) market to send clear market signals.                                                                                                                                                                   implementation, with predictable timelines for gu
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          auctions, and payments.

Highlighted blogs:
•     Air Pollution Emergency in Delhi – #DelhiSmog, Anjali Jaiswal, Sayantan Sarkar
                     For more information and to download these reports, please visit:
      (https://www.nrdc.org/experts/anjali-jaiswal/air-pollution-emergency-delhi-delhismog)
•
                    www.nrdc.org/international/india/renewable-energy-jobs.asp
      Indian Cities: Air Pollution this Diwali, Dr. Dileep Mavalankar, Sayantan Sarkar, Anjali Jaiswal
      (https://www.nrdc.org/experts/anjali-jaiswal/indian-cities-air-pollution-diwali)
•                                    Reenergizing
                        international: india

      New Air Quality Flag Program for             India’s SolarSayantan
                                       Schools in Ahmedabad,
                        ReeneRgizing india’s solaR eneRgy
                                                                  Energy Sarkar, Nehmat Kaur    Creating Green Jobs: Employmen
                                                                                                        auguSt 2014            report
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           international: india

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Creating green Jobs: employment Created
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       auguSt 2014      iSSue paper

      (https://www.nrdc.org/experts/nehmat-kaur/new-air-quality-flag-program-schools-ahmedabad) Created by Kiran Energy’s 20 Me
                                     Market Through   Financing
                        MaRket thRough Financing                                                                                                                                                                                           by Kiran energy’S 20 megawatt Solar plant in
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           rajaSthan, india
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           india’s rapid growth has resulted in energy demand that consistently outstrips supply. in 2010, as part of its plan
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           to address the urgent and growing demand for energy by advancing clean energy solutions, the government of
                        prepared by:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           india’s ministry of new and renewable energy (mnre) launched the jawaharlal nehru national Solar mission (nSm)
                        Council on energy, environment and Water
                        natural resources defense Council                                                                                                                                                                                  to promote grid-connected and off-grid solar energy. the mission’s goal is to establish india as a global leader in
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           solar energy through policies that lead to the deployment of 20 gigawatts (gw) of solar power by 2022, enough
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           to meet the peak demand of delhi—a city of 16 million people—3.5 times over.1 recognizing the vast potential for
                                                                                                                                                             © bhaskar deol

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Solar Plant in Rajasthan, India
                            Solar panels at a nSM                                                                                                                                                                                          employment generation in the indian renewable energy sector, the central government has also cited job creation
                            commissioned power plant
                            at Jaisalmer, rajasthan
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           as part of its rationale for the Solar mission.

                                                                                                                                                                              www.nrdc.org/international/india/files/renewable-

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          © Kiran energy
•     Flagging Air Pollution for School Children in Ahmedabad, Sayantan Sarkar, Nehmat Kaur
                                     energy-solar-financing-report.pdf                            www.nrdc.org/international/india/files/renew
      (https://www.nrdc.org/experts/nehmat-kaur/flagging-air-pollution-school-children-ahmedabad) energy-solar-jobs-kiran-ip.pdf pdf
•     Health First: Ahmedabad’s Groundbreaking AIR Plan, Anjali Jaiswal                                                              Supported in part by:                                                                                                                                                                                        Supported in part by:

      (https://www.nrdc.org/experts/anjali-jaiswal/health-first-ahmedabads-groundbreaking-air-plan)
•
                        international: india

      Ahmedabad, India: Protecting the Most Vulnerable from Dangerous Air Pollution, Frances Beinecke
                        A Second Wind for indiA’S energy MArket:
                                                                                                        auguSt 2014        iSSue paper

                                                                                                                                                                              A Second Wind for India’s Energy                             international: india

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Making Use of the Roof: employment
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       auGuSt 2014      iSSue paper

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Making Use of the Roof: Employm
                                      Market: Financing Mechanisms to                             Generation from Hero                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             MotoCorp’
                        Financing MechaniSMS to Support india’S                                                                                                                                                                            Generation from Hero motoCorp’S 80 kW
                        national Wind energy MiSSion                                                                                                                                                                                       rooftop Solar projeCt in Haryana india
                        india is struggling with skyrocketing energy demands, declining energy supplies, and peak load blackouts and                                                                                                       as prices of solar photovoltaic (pV) electricity approach grid parity with fossil fuels, solar pV is rapidly becoming

      (https://www.nrdc.org/experts/frances-beinecke/ahmedabad-india-protecting-most-vulnerable-dangerous-air-pollution)
                        shortages that limit energy access.1 the country’s recent economic growth has depended largely on fossil fuels,                                                                                                    an economically viable source of electricity. the escalating costs of electricity from coal, gas, or diesel-based
                        resulting in greater energy security concerns, higher electricity pricing, and increased pollution. at the same time,                                                                                              generation, coupled with attractive government rooftop solar programs, are motivating leading companies to
                        the Indian government recognizes that wind energy can be a significant clean energy resource. Supported by                                                                                                         take advantage of their roofs to generate electricity for industrial and commercial applications. as companies are
                        initial government policies, India is already the fifth-largest wind energy producer, achieving 20 gigawatts (GW) of                                                                                               learning, not only do rooftop solar projects increase reliable energy supply, but they also create much needed jobs.
                        installed wind power. Yet, much more can be achieved. India’s wind energy production can grow at least four to five                                                                                                this report takes a close look at clean energy employment generation, using the Hero motoCorp’s 80 kW rooftop

                                                                                                                                                                              Support India’s National Wind Mission                                                                                                                                                                          Rooftop Solar Project in Haryana
                        times its current level to achieve the country’s 100 gW wind energy potential.2 to achieve the higher potential, the                                                                                               pV project in Haryana, installed by Hero future energies, as an illustrative example.
                        government announced plans in 2014 to launch a national Wind energy Mission. designing strong policies and
                        programs that attract investment is essential to scale wind power to reach 100 gW and to breathe new life into
                        india’s wind energy market.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          © bhaskar deol
                           India’s renewable energy capacity is nearly 13 percent       energy installations. Wind energy is also vital to diversifying
                        of total generation capacity. Of the total renewable energy     India’s energy mix and is a viable means to meet demands for
                        generation, wind energy currently makes up the majority         clean, affordable energy that creates jobs as discussed in the

•     Indian Leaders Move to Tackle Growing Costs of Air Pollution, Frances Beinecke
                        with nearly 70 percent. The country’s 100 GW wind energy        12th Five-Year Plan.
                        potential—almost half of India’s total electricity generation      Investments in the Indian wind market have fluctuated
                        capacity in 2013—reveals tremendous opportunities for           as have government policies. Financiers invested more than
                        solving India’s energy crisis through a resurgence in wind      Rs 18,700 crore ($3.9 billion) in wind energy to add 3,200 MW

                                      www.nrdc.org/international/india/files/renewable-             www.nrdc.org/international/india/files/renew
                                                                                                                                                             © bhaskar deol

                         Wind mills in Jath, Sangli district
                         in Maharashtra, india

      (https://www.nrdc.org/experts/frances-beinecke/indian-leaders-move-tackle-growing-costs-air-pollution)
                                      energy-wind-financing-IP.pdf                                  energy-solar-jobs-hero-ip.pdf
                                                                                                                                     Supported in part by:                                                                                                                                                                                        Supported in part by:

                        international: inDia

                        Solar Power JobS:
                                                                                                        august 2014            report

                                                                                                                                                                              Solar Power Jobs: Exploring the                              international: india

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Creating green Jobs: employment Generation
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       auGuSt 2014      iSSue paper

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Creating Green Jobs: Employmen
                                                                                                                                                                              Employment Potential in India’s                                                                                                                                                                                Generation from Wind Energy in I
                        exPloring the emPloyment Potential                                                                                                                                                                                 by GameSa-renew power’S 85 meGawatt wind
                        in india’S grid-ConneCted Solar market                                                                                                                                                                             project in jath, maharaShtra
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Facing rising fuel prices, threats to energy security, and the need to manage economic growth with pragmatic
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           consideration of climate change, renewable energy offers a critical solution to india’s burgeoning energy demand
                        prepareD by:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           challenges. Further, renewable energy technologies are more labor-intensive than more mechanized fossil fuel
                        Council on energy, environment and Water
                        natural resources Defense Council                                                                                                                                                                                  technologies, as demonstrated in more mature markets, and can provide a tremendous opportunity to create
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           domestic jobs.1 wind power, constituting the largest share of india’s installed renewable capacity at 68 percent,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           is price competitive with conventional thermal power in india. this robust, 30 year old market is expected to be

                                                                                                                                                                              Grid-Connected Solar Market
                                                                                                                                                             © bhaskar Deol

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           vital to realizing india’s goal of doubling renewable energy capacity in the country by 2017, as outlined in india’s
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           12th Five Year Plan. This maturing sector also presents an added opportunity to generate significant employment

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             www.nrdc.org/international/india/files/renew
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           in the country.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            © bhaskar deol

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             energy-wind-jobs-ip.pdf
                                                                                                                                                                              www.nrdc.org/international/india/files/renewable-
                                                                                                                                                                              energy-solar-jobs-report.pdf
                                                                                                                                     supporteD in part by:                                                                                                                                                                                        Supported in part by:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Authors
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       CEEW team: Arunabha Ghosh, Rajeev Palakshappa,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Rishabh Jain, Shalu Aggarwal, Poulami Choudhury
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       NRDC team: Anjali Jaiswal, Meredith Connolly,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Bhaskar Deol, Nehmat Kaur, Avinash Kar
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    PAGE 6   NRDC INTERNATIONAL: INDIA                                                                                                                                                                         CLEARING THE AIR: HIGHLIGHTING ACTIONS ON FIGHTING AIR POLLUTION IN INDIA
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