Endangered Species - Marine Turtles

 
Year 4 - Science

                               Endangered Species - Marine Turtles
                               Year 4 Australian Science Curriculum Focus
                               Recognising questions that can be investigated scientifically and investigating them
                               Students investigate the impact of coastal development and climate change on marine turtles.
                               Students develop an understanding of:
                                 • Marine turtle species and features
                                 • Life cycles of marine turtles
                                 • Threats to marine turtles
                                 • Endangered species (categories and classifications)
                                 • Solutions to the threats.
                               Inquiry questions for the unit:
                                  • What are the survival needs of marine turtles?
                                  • What is the life cycle of a marine turtle?
                                  • Why are marine turtles found on the Great Barrier Reef threatened?
                                  • What can we do to conserve marine turtles and their habitats?

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Year 4 unit overview — Endangered Species – Marine turtles
       School name                                    Unit title                                      Duration of unit
                                                      Endangered Species - Marine turtles             Approximately five weeks. Teachers could extend the
                                                                                                      investigation to create a term long unit by investigating other
                                                                                                      endangered species to highlight how science knowledge
                                                                                                      contributes to people understanding their actions.

       Unit outline
       Year 4 Australian Science Curriculum Focus – Recognising questions that can be investigated scientifically and investigating them.
       Students investigate the impact of coastal development and climate change on marine turtles.
       Students develop an understanding of:
                Marine turtle species and features
                Life cycles of marine turtles
                Threats to marine turtles
                Endangered species (categories and classifications)
                Solutions to the threats.
       Inquiry questions for the unit:
                What are the survival needs of marine turtles?
                What is the life cycle of a turtle?
                Why are marine turtles found on the Great Barrier Reef threatened?
                What can we do to conserve marine turtles and their habitats?

Year 4 Level Description – Between Years 3 to 6, students develop their understanding of a range of systems operating at different time and geographic scales. In Year 4,
students broaden their understanding of classification and form and function through an exploration of the properties of natural and processed materials. They learn that
forces include non-contact forces and begin to appreciate that some interactions result from phenomena that can’t be seen with the naked eye. They begin to appreciate that
current systems, such as the Earth’s surface, have characteristics that have resulted from past changes and that living things form part of the systems. They understand that
some systems change in predictable ways, such as through cycles. They apply their knowledge to make predictions based on interactions within systems, including those
involving the actions of humans.

Year 4 Achievement Standard - By the end of Year 4 students pose questions about their world and predict possible outcomes from investigations. They describe how they
and others use science to ask questions and make predictions. They record observations and measurements and identify patterns in data, including cause-and-effect
relationships. They describe situations where science understanding can influence their own and others’ actions.

Students use the properties of materials to explain how objects and materials behave. They identify changes to the observable world and suggest explanations for the motion
of objects. They describe how inter-relationships are essential for the survival of living things and identify major changes in the life cycle of a plant or animal.

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Teacher Notes:

     Unit overview
The Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority (GBRMPA) Endangered Species Teaching Unit is a science based Year 4 unit of work. The content descriptors for this unit are
from the 2011 Australian Science Curriculum (www.australiancurriculum.edu.au). Following the inquiry based 5Es approach to teaching science, the unit is based on the
Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority (ACARA) expectations of 1- 2 hours per week of science lessons for Year 4 students. Each lesson is of
approximately 45 minutes duration, with some lessons requiring more time to allow further depth of study or time for excursions. The nature of science investigations is to
follow the line of student inquiry to promote and encourage students to think like scientists. Teachers may find that students will need or want to complete investigations other
than those suggested in the teaching strategies outlined in this unit. Students are to be encouraged to follow their own line of inquiry and in the case where students do this,
the teaching strategies and resources outlined in this unit may be used as a guide to supplement the student directed investigations. The overall unit, or the individual
lessons, could be extended or shortened to cater for individual classes as deemed necessary by the class teacher. Teachers will need to allow time to prepare for the lessons
prior to teaching each lesson.

    Aim of the unit
The lessons are structured to build students knowledge of Endangered Species. The unit focuses on marine turtles, of which there are six different species found within the
Great Barrier Reef Marine Park. All six species are threatened. Building students knowledge of marine turtles, why they are threatened and what can be done to protect
them, will allow students to then make links with other endangered species. All marine animals are important to the overall health of the Great Barrier Reef ecosystem.
Having the knowledge and understanding to apply to protecting species will enable students to make ethical decisions when interacting within the ecosystem of the
endangered species. (For more information on endangered species and the Great Barrier Reef see below in ‘Marine Turtle background information’ and also
www.gbrmpa.gov.au). Teaching students about endangered species will build their environmental knowledge and encourage their understanding of sustainability and
stewardship. The main premise of this unit is climate change, which is one of the Key Focus Areas of the Great Barrier Reef Outlook Report 2009 (see www.gbrmpa.gov.au
for more information on the Outlook Report 2009). GBRMPA encourages teachers to follow the main aim of Reef Guardianship – to be stewards of the environment.

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Marine Turtle Background Information:

     o What species of marine turtle are found in the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park?
          Six of the world’s seven marine turtles are found in the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park: loggerhead turtle, olive ridley turtle, leatherback turtle, hawksbill turtle,
          flatback turtle and green turtle. All six species are considered threatened which means their population has declined and are still impacted by a range of threats.

     o Are they protected?
            All six species of marine turtle are protected. This means it is defined as a species that is protected by international, national or state laws, and/or under the
            Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Regulations 1983. Protected species need special management because of recognised threats to their populations.

     o What are the threats to marine turtles?
          Marine wildlife has always been affected by natural factors such as predators, cyclones and disease. However, over the last 150 years, a new threat has
          emerged – humans. Human related threats have reduced the abundance and range of many marine species including marine turtles. The greatest concern is
          that this could lead to population extinctions. Human-related threats to protected species include:
           Habitat degradation and loss from coastal development
           Incidental catch in fishing gear, shark control nets and drum lines at popular beaches
           Boat strike
           Ingestion of marine debris and entanglement (especially plastics and lost/discarded fishing gear)
           Harvesting: commercial and Indigenous, and illegal take especially by foreign vessels
           Depredation on nests by introduced predators (especially pigs and foxes)
           Declining water quality
           Climate change.

     o What is being done to reduce the risks to marine turtles?
          Ascertaining which species are under threat or at risk
          Identifying any threats to the survival of the species
          Developing and implementing management actions to mitigate threats
          Working with industry and management to encourage and refine sustainable fishing practices and the use of bycatch reduction devices such as the Turtle
          Exclusion Device (TED)
          Encouraging and educating Marine Park users to minimise their impact upon the Great Barrier Reef
          Educating and encouraging residents and businesses in the catchment to minimise their impact upon the Great Barrier Reef.

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Unit Lessons

Engage                                 Lesson 1: Marine turtles

Explore                                Lesson 2: Exploring what we know about marine turtles
                                       Lesson 3: Exploring marine turtles’ habitats

Explain                                Lesson 4: Life cycles of marine turtles
                                       Lesson 5: Endangered!

Elaborate                              Lesson 6: Caught in the net
                                       Lesson 7: Threats?

Evaluate                               Lesson 8: Report preparation
                                       Lesson 9: Report preparation
                                       Lesson 10: Report preparation

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Identify curriculum
       Content descriptions to be taught                                                                                                 General capabilities and
       Science Understandings                           Science as a Human Endeavour           Science Inquiry Skills                    cross-curriculum priorities

       Biological Sciences                              Use and Influence of Science           Questioning and Predicting                       Literacy
           Living things have life cycles                  Science knowledge helps people         With guidance, identify questions in
                                                                                                  familiar contexts that can be             Communicate confidently in
           Living things, including plants and             to understand the effect of their
                                                                                                  investigated scientifically and           listening, reading and viewing,
           animals, depend on each other                   actions
                                                                                                  predict what might happen based           writing, speaking and creating print
           and the environment to survive                                                         on prior knowledge                        and visual materials
                                                                                                                                               Critical and creative thinking
                                                                                               Planning and Conducting
                                                                                                                                            Observe, question, make
                                                                                                   Suggest ways to plan and conduct
                                                                                                                                            predictions and think creatively to
                                                                                                   investigations to find answers to
                                                                                                   questions
                                                                                                                                            solve problems during
                                                                                                   Safely use appropriate materials,
                                                                                                                                            investigations
                                                                                                   tools or equipment to make and             Ethical behaviour
                                                                                                   record observations, using formal        Consider human impacts on the
                                                                                                   measurements and digital                 environment and other living
                                                                                                   technologies as appropriate              organisms and evaluate their own
                                                                                                                                            and other people’s actions
                                                                                               Processing and Analysing Data and
                                                                                               Information                                     Personal and social
                                                                                                   Use a range of methods including            competence
                                                                                                   tables and simple column graphs to       Follow procedures and work both
                                                                                                   represent data and to identify           within a group and independently to
                                                                                                   patterns and trends                      share and discuss ideas
                                                                                                   Compare results with predictions,
                                                                                                   suggesting possible reasons for             Sustainability
                                                                                                   findings                                 Investigate human impacts on
                                                                                                                                            marine turtle populations and the
                                                                                               Evaluating                                   role we all play to help improve the
                                                                                                  Reflect on the investigation              future for marine turtle populations
                                                                                                  including whether a test was fair or
                                                                                                  not

                                                                                               Communicating
                                                                                                  Represent and communicate ideas
                                                                                                  and findings in a variety of ways
                                                                                                  such as diagrams, physical
                                                                                                  representations and simple reports

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Relevant prior curriculum                                                         Curriculum working towards
       Year 3 of the Australian Science Curriculum outlines that by the end of Year 3,   In Year 5, students are introduced to cause and effect relationships that relate
       students describe how they can use science investigations to respond to           to form and function through an exploration of adaptations of living things. They
       questions and identify where people use science knowledge in their lives. They    explore observable phenomena associated with light and begin to appreciate
       collect and present data in a way that helps to answer their questions and use    that phenomena have sets of characteristic behaviours. They broaden their
       their experience to make predictions. Students describe features common to        classification of matter to include gases and begin to see how matter structures
       living things. They use their knowledge of the movement of the Earth, materials   the world around them. Students consider Earth as a component within a solar
       and the behaviour of heat to suggest explanations for everyday observations.      system and use models for investigating systems at astronomical scales.
                                                                                         Students begin to identify stable and dynamic aspects of systems, and learn
                                                                                         how to look for patterns and relationships between components of systems.
                                                                                         They develop explanations for the patterns they observe.
       Links to other learning areas
       QSA Year 4 Literacy Indicators (2009)

       Speaking and Listening
          SL4 vi. Describe significant features related to subject matter by replacing commonly used words and everyday terms with more specialised vocabulary to
          provide specific meaning.

       Reading and Viewing
          RV4 i. Read and view for personal and learning purposes and select texts to match learning needs and areas of interest.

       Writing and Designing
           WD4 ii. Write about familiar subject matter for known audiences using a variety of text types and use structures such as compare-and-contrast and cause-
           and-effect to organise information.
           WD iv. Write and design texts using a range of strategies to plan, including
                        -   generate ideas and selecting an appropriate one
                        -   gathering information from personal knowledge and learning experiences, and from sources such as graphics or multimedia texts
                        -   completing in a reasonable time frame
                        -   organising main ideas and supporting details using storyboards or sequence charts
                        -   determining relevance of information for the purpose.
           WD4 x. Select words that define and describe concepts using familiar technical language to add detail.

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Assessment                                                                                                               Make judgements
       Describe the assessment                                                                    Assessment date               Student task sheet, links to QSA literacy
                                                                                                                                indicators (2009) and guide to making
       Summative Assessment                                                                       The summative                 judgements can be found in the resource
                                                                                                  assessment piece is           section of the unit.
       Option 1.                                                                                  designed to be produced
                                                                                                  and presented during the
       Students will provide a report on an endangered species. Students could choose
                                                                                                  Evaluate stage of the unit
       marine turtles, or another endangered species to research. The report will aim to
                                                                                                  when students will have
       inform and influence the audience about the endangered species and reasons for
                                                                                                  gathered all the knowledge
       action. The report will include:
                                                                                                  required to successfully
             An introduction to the animal, its habitat, needs for survival and life cycle        address the criteria. This
             An explanation of the main reasons the animal is endangered                          date is to be determined by
             Recommendations outlining how people can change their behaviour and/or               the class teacher.
             what people can do to help the species survive (this must be linked to their
             science knowledge of the animal and the reasons it is endangered)
             A conclusion summarising the main message of the report
             The students could also include graphs showing the decline of a population,
             images of the animal or images of causes for endangerment.

       Option 2.
       As an extension to Lesson 6, students design and test a Turtle Exclusion Device
       (TED). Students will write up their experiment using an investigation planner and
       explain their results in a scientific report. The investigation and report will include:
            Student’s design of a TED
            Student’s completed investigation planner
            Student’s explanation of results and conclusions about how TEDs can help
            stop marine turtles from becoming bycatch
            Student’s analysis of what people can do to help turtle populations increase.

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Useful Websites                                                                         Useful Books
Arkive – lots of video clips of marine turtles and other endangered animals             Myrtle’s Battle Against Climate Change, Mariana Fuentes (available free online
www.arkive.org                                                                          as a PDF at http://www.coralcoe.org.au/edures/myrtleclimatechange.pdf). This
                                                                                        book could be used in conjunction with the unit as a Walking Talking Text.
Eco Kids
www.ecokids.ca
                                                                                        Chelonia Green – Champion of Turtles, Cristobael Mattingley
Euro Turtle – clip on human impacts on marine turtles
www.euroturtle.org

Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority                                                The Smallest Turtle, Lynley Dodd
www.gbrmpa.gov.au

Middle School Science Resources                                                         One Tiny Turtle, Nicola Davies (also on DVD)
www.middleschoolscience.com

The Biology Corner                                                                      Into the Sea, Brenda Z. Guiberson
www.biologycorner.com

Sea Turtle Foundation – good information about marine turtles and getting involved in
                                                                                        I'll Follow the Moon, Stephanie Lisa Tara
turtle conservation activities locally.
www.seaturtlefoundation.org

YouTube Link – Romancing the Bag – a great clip about plastic bag pollution             Dugong and Marine Turtle: Teaching Resource and Information Package, Torres
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VzsQwwnqSGo                                              Strait Regional Authority's Land and Sea Management Unit
                                                                                        http://www.nailsma.org.au/publications/resource.html.
Department of Environment and Resource Management marine turtle web pages:
http://www.derm.qld.gov.au/wildlife-
ecosystems/wildlife/caring_for_wildlife/marine_strandings.html and the A-Z of
animals (look for various turtle species): http://www.derm.qld.gov.au/wildlife-
ecosystems/wildlife/az_of_animals/index.html.

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Teaching and learning                                                                                                    Supportive learning environment
Teaching strategies and learning experiences                                               Assessment                    Adjustments for needs of         Resources
                                                                                           opportunities                 learners
                                                                                                                         Section 6 of the Disability
ENGAGE - To capture interest and discover what we think we know                            Lesson 1                      Standards for Education (The     Lesson 1
Lesson 1 – Marine turtles                                                                  Diagnostic assessment         Standards for Curriculum         GBRMPA Great Barrier
Suggested Time – 45 minutes                                                                opportunities:                Development, Accreditation       Reef Marine Turtle
Introduction – Book reading                                                                                              and Delivery) state that         Identification Sheet
                                                                                            - use the TWHL chart and
                                                                                                                         education providers,             www.gbrmpa.gov.au
        Choose a book from the library, either fiction or non-fiction, about marine        discussion to determine
                                                                                                                         including class teachers,
        turtles.                                                                           students' current
                                                                                                                         must take reasonable steps
        Read this to the students and discuss the story line (if fiction) or some of       knowledge of marine turtles                                    YouTube clips of marine
                                                                                                                         to ensure a course/program
        the facts (if non-fiction).                                                                                      is designed to allow any         turtles moving, breathing,
        Ask students to share any experiences they have had with marine turtles.                                         student to participate and       and feeding in their
                                                                                                                         experience success in            natural environment.
        If most students have a story to share, students could write about the
        experience and illustrate their story to create a display in the classroom.                                      learning.
Investigation – TWHL Chart                                                                                               The Disability Standards for
                                                                                                                         Education 2005 (Cwlth) is
        Discuss with the students what they think they already know about marine
                                                                                                                         available from:
        turtles.
                                                                                                                          select
        Ask students if there is anything they would like to know about marine                                           Human rights and anti-
        turtles.                                                                                                         discrimination > Disability
        Record students’ responses in the TWLH chart.                                                                    standards for education.

         T                       W                          L              H                                             ESL Considerations
  What we think          What we want to           What we learned    How we know                                        Teachers should refer to the
  we know about         learn about marine          about marine        (scientific                                      Learning Place
  marine turtles               turtles                  turtles      understandings)                                     (www.learningplace.com.au),
                                                                                                                         ‘ESL in the Classroom’ for
                                                                                                                         ‘Break it Down, Build it Up’
         Read the GBRMPA Great Barrier Reef Marine Turtle Identification Sheet                                           resources to help restructure
         (available at www.gbrmpa.gov.au).                                                                               the unit according to the ESL
         Discuss how this information is important to scientists.                                                        needs of the class.
         View YouTube clips or other Internet clips showing marine turtles in their
         natural clean habitat. Draw students’ attention to the different types of                                       Risk Management
         marine turtles they are viewing, how they move and/or how they breathe.                                         Refer to Department of
         Allow students to comment on and discuss what they view in the clips.                                           Education and Training
                                                                                                                         www.education.qld.gov.au
         Start a word wall with students to continuously add to throughout the unit.
         This should be displayed in a place where students can always add to it                                         for advice and forms relating

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Teaching and learning                                                                                                    Supportive learning environment
Teaching strategies and learning experiences                                               Assessment                    Adjustments for needs of       Resources
                                                                                           opportunities                 learners
         each lesson. It may be done in alphabetical order or on moveable cards so                                       to risk management during
         that students can interact with the words and sort them into categories as                                      curriculum activities and
         they progress throughout the unit.                                                                              excursions.
         Start a science journal with the students to record their learning and
         reflections after each science lesson. A science journal is a record of
         observations, experiences and reflections. It contains a series of dated,
         chronological entries. It may include written text, drawings, labelled
         diagrams, photographs, tables and graphs. The science journal can be
         used as a part of the student assessment.

EXPLORE – To have shared, hands-on experiences
Lesson 2 – Exploring what we know about marine turtles                                     Lesson 2                                                     Lesson 2
Suggested time – 45 minutes                                                                Formative assessment                                         YouTube or other clips of
Introduction – Footage of marine turtles                                                   opportunities:                                               marine turtles in their
        Show students more YouTube or other Internet clips and/or images of                 - use students’                                             natural environment,
        marine turtles. This time show marine turtles in ‘bad’ situations such as          participation and responses                                  including marine turtles
        stuck in fishing nets, eating plastic or strangled by fishing line.                during activities to assess                                  in threatening situations
        Discuss with students what they see, what they think, what they feel after         students' ability to apply                                   such as stuck in nets,
        viewing the clips and images.                                                      knowledge to different                                       eating plastic or
Investigation – Hot Potato                                                                 situations                                                   strangled by fishing line.
        Explain to students they are going to participate in a Hot Potato activity.
                                                                                                                                                        Large paper for Hot
            o Each group gets a large sheet of paper and must answer the
                                                                                                                                                        Potato Activity, pens.
                 question as best they can (be creative and imaginative) before the
                 time limit is up. The teacher is to set the time limit according to the
                 needs of the class. When the time limit is up, groups rotate the
                 papers around so that each group gets a turn at answering each
                 question.
        Divide students into groups of three or four.
        Provide each group with a large sheet of paper with one of the following
        questions. Teachers may change these questions, add more or take some
        away according to number of groups and to suit the needs of the class.
        Read the questions out and explain any difficult words, but do not discuss
        the questions.
            o What would happen if marine turtles couldn’t swim?
            o What would happen if marine turtles couldn’t dive down?

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             o What would happen if marine turtles didn’t have a shell?
             o What do marine turtles eat?
             o Where do marine turtles eat?
             o What eats marine turtles?
             o Why are we learning about marine turtles?
         When all groups have had an opportunity to answer each question, display
         each sheet and read though some of the answers.
         Discuss some of the answers and ask students to explain some of their
         answers.
         Add any questions students may have about marine turtles to the TWHL
         chart.
         Add new words to the word wall.
         Students add their learning and reflections to their science journal.

Lesson 3 – Special relationships                                                        Lesson 3                                                  Lesson 3
Suggested time – 45 minutes                                                             Formative assessment                                      Video clips of marine
Introduction – Cleaning stations                                                        opportunities:                                            turtles at ‘cleaning
        View video clips from Arkive – www.arkive.org – showing marine turtles at       - use student research to                                 stations’ from Arkive
        ‘cleaning stations’.                                                            assess students’                                          www.arkive.org
        Ask and discuss with the students what the term ‘cleaning stations’ might       developing knowledge of
        mean.                                                                           how animals interact and                                  Books, Internet access,
                                                                                        behave in their natural                                   posters, fact sheets for
        Introduce the term 'symbiotic relationship' to the students. Ask if any of
                                                                                        environment.                                              student research.
        them already know what that means.
        If not, provide an explanation – when two animals form an association (like
        a friendship) that benefits both of them.
        Identify with students what symbiotic relationship is taking place in the
        video clips. How does the turtle benefit? How do the fish benefit?
        Ask students if they know of any other symbiotic relationships. Record
        these on a wall chart to remind students what a symbiotic relationship is.
Investigation – Exploring turtle habitats
        Explain to the students they are going to find out more about marine turtles
        and the habitat they live in. To save time in the students' research, each
        group is going to research one or two questions and then present their

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         findings to the class. This will all be recorded in a retrieval chart.
         Break students up into pairs or groups of three. Have a list of questions
         about marine turtles written on scrap paper and stuck onto a board or wall.
         Each group can choose one or two questions (depending on how many
         groups and how many questions the teacher puts up). Read the questions
         out to clarify unknown words. Suggested questions (teachers could adjust
         these according to the needs of the class):
              o Do all species of turtle eat the same thing? Provide examples of
                  what each species of turtle eats.
              o Where do marine turtles live? Do all species of turtle live in the
                  same places? Where does each species live?
              o What are the main external features of a turtle? Provide a drawing
                  with labelled body parts.
              o Are marine turtles predators or prey, or both? Explain your
                  answer.
              o How many species of marine turtle are found in the ocean? How
                  does a scientist identify each different species?
              o Are all marine turtles found on the Great Barrier Reef? Which ones
                  are and which ones are not? Where are those that are not found
                  on the Great Barrier Reef found?
              o Find an Indigenous Australian traditional story about marine turtles.
                  What Indigenous group does the story belong to? What is the
                  main message in the story?
              o Explain the day in the life of a turtle. What does it do all day? Does
                  it eat all day? Does it sleep? Does it hide from predators?
              o How long can marine turtles stay underwater? Is it the same
                  length of time for all turtle species? Can some stay underwater
                  longer than others? How often do marine turtles need to breathe?
              o What is the largest species of marine turtle? What is the smallest
                  species of marine turtle? Provide two facts about each species.
              o Which marine turtle has green fat? Why does it have green fat?
                  Find out four more interesting facts about marine turtles.
              o What are a turtle’s survival needs? Choose one or two species of
                  marine turtle and identify what they need for survival.
         Groups are then to research their question/s. Provide access to the

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         Internet, books, posters, or fact sheets for students to conduct their
         research.
         When students have finished their research, collate all the information and
         create a retrieval chart for students to refer to throughout the unit.
         Each group should share their information, answer questions from the class
         and participate in any discussions that may come from the research.
         If some students finish earlier than others, they could research a specific
         turtle species, visit the GBRMPA website to find out more about marine
         turtles, or complete some turtle artwork to add to the class display.
         Add new words to the word wall.
         Students add their learning and reflections to their science journal.

EXPLAIN – To demonstrate what we have learned by exploring
Lesson 4 – Life Cycles                                                                 Lesson 4                                                     Lesson 4
Suggested time – 45 minutes                                                            Formative assessment                                         YouTube clips or video
Introduction – YouTube Clips                                                           opportunities:                                               of the marine turtle life
        Discuss with students about life cycles e.g. humans and other animals. You      - use students'                                             cycle
        could show a diagram of a human life cycle and ask students to identify        participation in research                                    (http://www.youtube.com
        what stage they are at in the life cycle. What stage are their parents,        and discussion to assess                                     /watch?v=-Rdnd3iZw2g
        grandparents, brothers or sisters at?                                          students’ developing                                         is a good one).
        Have students identify different stages of chosen life cycles e.g. using       knowledge of life cycles
        pictures, the Internet or books.                                               and how animals and
        View YouTube clips of a marine turtle’s life cycle and ask students to take    humans interact in different
        notes. In their notes students should try to identify the stages of the life   ways.
        cycle and what species of marine turtles are in the clips. They should use
        their scientific knowledge from previous lessons to identify different
        species.
        Ask students to share their notes. Write down notes on a wall chart for
        reflection in the investigation.
Investigation – Creating life cycle diagrams
        From the information gathered, as a class discuss the life cycle of a marine
        turtle. Try to come up with a diagram to show the life cycle. If students
        need more information, have an image ready to show them (many are
        available off the Internet).

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         Once the class has come up with a labelled diagram, discuss each aspect
         of a turtle’s life and identify the threats marine turtles face in each part of
         their life. Use the following questions as a guide:
              o When they first hatch and need to get down to the ocean, what
                   might stop them from reaching the ocean?
              o If they do reach the ocean, what might stop them from growing up?
              o If they do grow up, what might stop them from getting back to the
                   beach to breed?
              o If they do lay eggs, what might stop the eggs from hatching?
         At each phase in the life cycle diagram, write down the students’ thoughts
         on what threats the students think the marine turtles face.
         Discuss with students how they think these threats affect the turtle
         population.
         Ask students to draw a copy of a turtle’s life cycle in their science book or
         science journal.
         Add words to the word wall.
         Students add their learning and reflections to their science journal.             Lesson 5                                                    Lesson 5
                                                                                           Formative assessment                                        Reef Beat 2009 Climate
                                                                                           opportunities:                                              Change and the Reef
Lesson 5 – Endangered!
                                                                                            - students' ability to                                     (Poster 1) and Sea
Suggested time – 45 minutes                                                                                                                            Turtles (Poster 7)
                                                                                           interpret information and
Introduction – Reef Beat Poster                                                            apply their knowledge to                                    (www.gbrmpa.gov.au).
       Read Poster 1 of the Reef Beat 2009 - Climate Change and the Reef and               the discussion
       Poster 7 – Sea Turtles (Climate Change – a cold blooded killer and Gender            - use student research to                                  Books, fact sheets,
       Bender).                                                                            assess students’                                            posters, Internet access
       Ask students to comment on the information or if they need certain words            developing knowledge of                                     for research.
       or information clarified.                                                           how living things depend on
       Ask students to reflect on the life cycle chart from the previous lesson.           each other and the
       Discuss with students - How does the information in the Gender Bender               environment to survive and
       paragraph relate to the life cycle? Where would the warmer section of the           how science knowledge
       nest be and the cooler section of the nest? Why would a nest with very              can be used to assess
       high temperature be at risk of failure?                                             human impacts on the
                                                                                           living things
       Read the next section of Poster 7– Australia’s treasured marine turtles.
       Ask students to comment on the information or if they need certain words

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                                                                                        opportunities   learners
        or information clarified.
        Read the last section of Poster 7 – Why are all turtle species on the Great
        Barrier Reef threatened?
        Ask students to define what endangered and extinct means. With students,
        create a definition of each word and display this in the classroom.
        Discuss with students if they know of any other animals that are
        endangered or extinct. Do they know how the animals became extinct or
        why they are endangered?
Investigation – Endangered Species
        Explain to the students that they are going to investigate what is making
        marine turtles endangered. Using each of the threats outlined on the Reef
        Beat Poster 7, they are going to research to find out more information.
        Split the class up into ten groups. Each group chooses one threat from the
        list on the Reef Beat Poster 7:
              o Climate change
              o Coastal development and habitat loss
              o Hunting and collecting
              o Fishing activities
              o Declining water quality
              o Boat strikes
              o Pollution and marine debris
              o Marine dredging and construction
              o Feral animals destroying nests and eating eggs
              o Disease.
        Have books, Internet, 2009 Reef Beat Posters and fact sheets available for
        each group to do their research.
        When each group has found some answers, each group shares their
        answers with the class. Answers do not need to be long, just a few
        sentences to explain briefly what the threat is. Some students may even
        be able to draw on current knowledge to create definitions. Create a
        retrieval chart with each topic as a heading and put the information under
        each topic. Students may use this in their final assessment piece.
        If a group finishes early, they could choose another topic to research to add
        more information during sharing time.

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         Ask students to comment on whether the threats are mainly natural or man-
         made? Do they think something can be done to help the marine turtles
         increase their population?
         Add new words to the word wall.
         Students add their learning and reflection to their science journal.

ELABORATE – To build understanding through an investigation                            Lesson 6                                                     Lesson 6
Lesson 6 – Caught in the net                                                           Summative assessment                                         Images of marine turtles
Suggested time – 45 minutes                                                            opportunities:                                               caught in fishing nets.
Introduction – View images                                                              - discussions can be used                                   YouTube and Arkive
        Find images on the Internet or in books of marine turtles caught in fishing    to assess students’ ability                                  (www.arkive.org) have
        nets and ghost nets.                                                           to use science knowledge                                     clips of marine turtles
                                                                                       to draw conclusions about                                    caught in nets.
        Discuss with students why this is a threat to turtle populations.
                                                                                       how humans can affect the
        Explain to students they are going to do their own experiment to see how
                                                                                       living things.                                               Resource 1 – Procedural
        marine turtles get caught in nets.
                                                                                        - use students'                                             Text – bycatch
Investigation – Bycatch
                                                                                       investigation planners to                                    experiment.
        Define the word "bycatch" for students. Bycatch is when any species of         assess students' science
        animal caught in fishing nets is not the targeted species. A trawler might     inquiry skills.
        be trawling for prawns, but they will also catch marine turtles, sharks,                                                                    Equipment for
                                                                                        - extension activity of                                     experiment, see
        manta rays, stingrays and all sorts of other marine animals. They are all
                                                                                       designing own TED can be                                     equipment list -
        bycatch, as the trawler only wanted to catch prawns.
                                                                                       used to assess science                                       Resource 1.
        Follow the procedure in Resource 1 – Procedural Text - Bycatch                 inquiry skills and students’
        Experiment.                                                                    ability to apply science
                                                                                                                                                    Resource 2 –
        Use the investigation planner to record results (Resource 2).                  knowledge to understand
                                                                                                                                                    Investigation Planner
        Discuss what the experiment is about and give a demonstration. Use             the effect they can have on
        Resource 3 – Predict Observe Explain, to generate discussion about how         the environment.
        the experiment will be conducted.                                                                                                           Resource 3 – Predict
                                                                                                                                                    Observe Explain Poster
        Discuss the results with students and conclude how the use of fishing nets
        affects turtle populations.
                                                                                                                                                    Footage of a Turtle
        Ask students if they can think of a way to stop marine turtles from getting
                                                                                                                                                    Exclusion Device (TED).
        caught in fishing nets.
                                                                                                                                                    YouTube, other Internet
        Show students footage of a Turtle Exclusion Device (TED). Ask students                                                                      sites, photos.
        to explain how the device works.

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         Discuss with students the impact the TED will have on turtle populations.                                                                   Extension Activities -
         Add new words to the word wall.                                                                                                             Option 2 – Resource 6 –
                                                                                                                                                     Task Sheet
         Students add their learning and reflection to their science journal.

EXTENSION ACTIVITIES:
Have students create their own TED and conduct an experiment similar to the one
in Lesson 6 with them to see if they make a difference to marine turtles becoming
bycatch (Resource 1 –Extension Activity). This could also be completed as their
final assessment piece – see Option 2 on Resource 6 – Task Sheet.
                                                                                          Lesson 7                                                   Lesson 7
Lesson 7 – Threats                                                                        Summative assessment                                       YouTube clips – The
Suggested time – 45 minutes                                                               opportunities:                                             Animals Save the Planet
Introduction – YouTube clips                                                                                                                         - Romancing the Bag
                                                                                           - Cause-and-Effect charts
        View the two YouTube clips The Animals Save the Planet – Romancing the            can be used to assess                                      http://www.youtube.com/
        Bag and Supermarket Bags.                                                         students knowledge of how                                  watch?v=VzsQwwnqSGo
                                                                                          animals interact in their                                  and Supermarket Bags
        Teachers could also use images of marine turtles eating plastic bags, or
        images of plastic that has been found in marine turtles’ stomachs. These          environment and how                                        http://www.youtube.com/
        are available on various Internet sites.                                          science knowledge can be                                   watch?v=gBZdUA8zxJ0.
                                                                                          used to draw conclusions
        Discuss with students what message the animals are trying to teach the
                                                                                          and predict how humans                                     Images of marine turtles
        audience. Ask students if they understand why plastic bags in the ocean
                                                                                          affect the environment.                                    eating plastic bags - No
        are such a big threat to marine turtles. Teachers could also show YouTube
        clips of marine turtles eating jellyfish to help make students make the                                                                      Bag Thanks
        connection.                                                                                                                                  www.abc.net.au/science/
        Ask students if they can recall other threats to marine turtles.                                                                             features/bags.
Investigation – Cause-and-Effect
                                                                                                                                                     Resource 4 – Turtle
        Play the Turtle Danger Game – Resource 4.
                                                                                                                                                     Danger Game.
        When returning to the classroom, ask students to complete a Cause-and-
        Effect chart outlining threats to marine turtles (Resource 5).
                                                                                                                                                     Resource 5 – Cause-
        Cause-and-Effect charts can be done in many different ways (see                                                                              and-Effect Chart
        Resource 5 for some examples). Adjust these to the needs of the class.
        If students have not done a Cause-and-Effect chart before, complete one
        as a class together. Then ask students to complete one on their own.
        Link these Cause-and-Effect charts to why marine turtles are an
        endangered species. Ask students to consider this when they are

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         completing their chart.
         When students have completed their own Cause-and-Effect chart, ask
         them to identify and explain a solution to the cause they identified.
         Ask students to share their charts and solutions and display these around
         the classroom.
         Add new words to the word wall.
         Students add their learning and reflection to their science journal.

EVALUATE – To review and reflect on learning
Lesson 8 – Report or investigation preparation
                                                                                          Lesson 8 – 10                                              Lesson 8
Suggested time – 45 minutes
                                                                                          Summative assessment                                       Resource 6 – Task
Introduction – Reflection and begin task                                                  opportunities:                                             Sheet.
        As a class, reflect and record what has been learned in the TWLH chart.            - student reports or
        Explain to the students that they are going to begin their final assessment       investigations can be used
        project. Present them with a task sheet (Resource 6 – Option 1 or Option          to assess students’
        2).                                                                               knowledge and
        Read through the task sheet together and identify all the requirements of         understanding of science
        the task.                                                                         understandings, science as
        Discuss available resources (identify all the work done throughout the unit       a human endeavour and
        that will help the students complete the task).                                   science inquiry skills
        Set out a plan for time management and resource management.
Investigation – Start preparing reports or investigation
        Allow students time to research and prepare their reports or investigations.
        Students may need scaffolding for different parts of the report writing or
        investigation; this will depend on the need of the class.

Lesson 9 and Lesson 10 – Continue report or investigation preparation.
Suggested time – How much time students are able to spend preparing their
reports and investigations will depend on the needs of the class and the length of
time available in the school term.

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Use feedback (these are some suggestions, teachers will need to vary this according to the needs of their class)
Ways to monitor learning and                      Year 4 teacher:
assessment                                          Initially plan the teaching, learning and assessment needs of all learners and make adjustments to the unit plan as necessary
                                                    Use diagnostic and formative assessment opportunities throughout the unit to plan for students learning and assess student
                                                    knowledge development
                                                    Mark presentations and moderate with colleagues to achieve consensus and consistency of teacher judgment

Feedback to students                              Teachers:
                                                    Plan opportunities for conversations to provide ongoing feedback (spoken and written) and encouragement to students on their
                                                    strengths and areas for improvement
                                                    Reflect on and review learning opportunities to individualise learning experiences required
                                                    Provide multiple opportunities for students to experience, practise and improve knowledge, processes and skills

                                                  Students:
                                                     Identify what they can do well and what they need to improve
                                                     Provide feedback to a peer on interaction skills and suggest some strategies for improvement (written and spoken feedback)

Reflection on the unit plan                       At the conclusion of the unit teachers can reflect on the unit for future planning by answering the following questions:
                                                      What worked well in this unit?
                                                      What was a stumbling block?
                                                      How would you refine it?
                                                      What trends and gaps in learning have you identified?
                                                      How will you build on these learning experiences next term and beyond?

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Resource 1 – Procedural Text – Bycatch Experiment
Aim
                                      To find out the effects of bycatch on turtle populations

Equipment
                                      •   Small aquarium nets, sieves, tea strainers or homemade simple nets using fine mesh or even dishcloth material.
                                      •   Small objects such as rice grains, dried kidney beans, dried peas (these will be the prawns the trawler is trying to catch).
                                      •   Larger objects such as dried lima beans, small plastic toys, pen lids (these will be the marine turtles).
                                      •   Large long container with water in it such as a tidy tray, aquarium, plastic storage container (this is the ocean). This container should be deep
                                          enough and long enough for you to trawl your net through the water to catch your prawns or fish.
                                      •   Data table (see below).

Procedure
                                      1. Fill in the investigation planner to plan how you are going to complete your experiment.
                                      2. Put your prawns into the ocean.
                                      3. Decide on how many marine turtles you are going to put into your ocean. Record this number in your data table. Put your marine turtles into
                                         your ocean.
                                      4. Use your net to trawl for prawns. Make one pass through the ocean with your net. You should close your eyes when you do this to make the
                                         test fair.
                                      5. Record how many prawns and marine turtles you caught in your net.
                                      6. Do not return your prawns or marine turtles to the water.
                                      7. Continue trawling for prawns, each time record how many marine turtles and prawns you catch.
                                      8. When you have caught all the prawns, explain your results in your investigation planner.

Data Table (add extra rows or columns if you decide to record other information)

                                     Current turtle population              Number of prawns caught                  Number of marine turtles               Number of marine turtles
       Trial Number
                                        (before you trawl)                        in the net                            caught in the net                     remaining in ocean
               1
               2
               3
               4
               5

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Resource 1 – Procedural Text – Bycatch Experiment (cont.)
Answer the following questions and discuss your answers with your class.
 1. What does bycatch mean?
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
 2. Explain how marine turtles and other marine animals are caught as bycatch.
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
 3. How can trawling for prawns affect turtle populations?
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
 4. How could trawlers change their nets to stop marine turtles from becoming bycatch? Describe or draw a design.
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

 Extension Activities
a) Design a net that the trawler could use to still catch prawns but not catch marine turtles. Test your net in your ocean, record your results.
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

b) Investigate what a Turtle Exclusion Device (TED) is. Design your own TED and conduct the bycatch experiment again using your TED.
   Compare your results with your first bycatch experiment.
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
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Resource 2 – Investigation Planner
  Investigation Planner
  Name: ........................................................................................................................   Date: ..........................................................................
   Title of our Investigation 							                                                                         Hypothesis. What do you think will happen? Explain why

   To make the test fair what are you going to:
    Independent Variable                                                 Dependant Variable                                                   Control Variable

   Change?                                                               Measure?                                                             Keep the same?
   Labelled Diagram                                                      Equipment                                                            Procedure

                                                                                                                                              How will you complete the investigation?
   Illustrate how you will set up your investigation.                    What equipment will you need?                                        Use dot points.

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Resource 2 – Investigation Planner (cont.)
Explaining Results

  When you changed the_________________________________________________what happened?

 Why did this happen?                                                Was your hypothesis accurate?

 What challenges did you have in doing this investigation?           How could you improve this investigation?
                                                                     What would you investigate next?

                                                                     Fairness? Accuracy?

Teacher Comments:

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Resource 3 – Predict Observe Explain Poster

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Resource 4 – Turtle Danger Game
Turtle Danger Game – the aim of the game is to assist students in learning that marine turtles face many pressures to survive.

 You will need:
• A large area to run around
• Markers to identify the beach, the sea, a safety strip on the beach side and a safety strip on the sea side (see diagram below)
• A whistle.

How to play:
  •   Discuss with students what dangers marine turtles face as they hatch from their eggs and try to get to the sea. Identify five different dangers e.g. wild pigs,
      people, birds, crabs, cars, lights rubbish etc.
  •   Choose five students to be one of the dangers. The rest of the students are hatchlings.
  •   The hatchlings start on the safety strip on the beach side. When the whistle blows they have to get to the safety strip on the other side of the ocean without
      getting caught by a danger. If tagged, the hatchling has to sit down out of the game.
  •   Have a second discussion with the students to identify dangers the marine turtles face in the ocean as they are growing up. Identify five different dangers e.g.
      sharks, fishing nets, boat propellers, crocodiles, oil pollution.
  •   Now that the marine turtles are mature they need to get back to the beach safely to lay eggs and start the cycle again. When the whistle blows the mature marine
      turtles need to get back to the safety strip on the beach without getting tagged by one of the dangers. If tagged, the mature turtle has to sit down out of the game.
  •   Discuss how many marine turtles survived out of how many were originally hatchlings.
  •   The activity could be adapted by allowing more dangers to see if this affects how many hatchlings or mature marine turtles are caught. This could lead into a
      discussion about turtle populations on the Great Barrier Reef.

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