Handbook CREATING SPACE FOR SUSTAINABLE FOOD SYSTEMS IN URBAN COMMUNITIES - Practical approaches and examples for cities

Handbook CREATING SPACE FOR SUSTAINABLE FOOD SYSTEMS IN URBAN COMMUNITIES - Practical approaches and examples for cities

Practical approaches and examples for cities

     Based on experiences from
     URBACT II Thematic network
     Sustainable Food in Urban Communities (2012-2015)
Handbook CREATING SPACE FOR SUSTAINABLE FOOD SYSTEMS IN URBAN COMMUNITIES - Practical approaches and examples for cities
    ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES AND                                                                                                                                                                                                   Landwinkels, shops at the farm gate

                                                                                                                                  Faro DOC from the Cuppari high school


                                                                                           ABOUT THE AUTHORS
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Landwinkel is a national organization supporting farmers in opening
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              shops at the farm gate. Landwinkel works as a co-operative, pooling
                                                                                                                                  Passionate staff from the Cuppari agriculture high school imagine a                         products from local farms so that each outlet offers not only its own
                                                                                                                                  strategy to face school budget shortage: from teaching wine produc-                         products produced on site but all the products produced locally by the
                                                                                                                                  tion they pass to producing quality wine with the launch of a new faro                      network of local farms. Landwinkel also provides commercial and
                                                                                                                                  DOC high quality wine and 12000 bottles to be sold the first year. They                     merchandizing support (i.e. branding, packaging, shop design, infor-
                                                                                                                                  also open a local wine tasting area and plan to facilitate direct access                    mation and advertisement material…) greatly facilitating farmers'
                                             Recovering food production                                                           for tourists from cruise ships passing through the Messina strait.                          ability to have their own shop and attracting customers to the out-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              skirts of the city where they are mainly located.
                                             in the outskirts of Ourense

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Food challenge for families in Brussels

                                             Since 2009, the city council has been encouraging an experimental                                                                                               Facilitating the development
                                                                                                                                                                                                             of a new shopping scene with
                                             project pooling unused land for market gardening. The organisation
                                             of such an innovative project relies on cooperation between inhabit-

     Core text of this Handbook Forstering
                                       been       written by:                                                             has
                                             ants that would lend or rent allotments to new farmers of different
                                             kinds: urban citizens that want to grow food or need complementary
                                             incomes, unemployed people, hobby farmers, etc. In order to ensure           1.2                                                                                innovative models of inter-                                                                     The "Food challenge” is an initiative of Etterbeek (one of the 19 mu-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             nicipalities of the region). It has been financed by Brussels Environ-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             ment sustainable development agency of the Region in the context of
                                             market access and drive this suburban food production the munici-
                                           the emergence of
                                             pality focuses on the rehabilitation of two traditional markets as 'food                                                                                        mediation between local food                                                                    the call for sustainable food projects in 2011. The idea was to create
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             positive dynamics around sustainable food by empowering families to

     François Jégou (Lead expert)
                                                                                                                                                                                                             producers and city dwellers.
                                             hubs' for the population of the city, developing social life around the                                                                                                                                                                                         become ambassadors of the topic. During 6 months, 12 households
                                new urban food businesses
                                             tradition of small bars, restaurants within the market offering free
                                             public transport access for customers coming to shop at the local
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             were involved every fortnight in activities such as cooking classes,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             tasting workshops, etc. Behaviours and view on food quickly evolved.

                                with hybrid value creation
     Joy Carey (Thematic expert)models
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2.1                                                                       Brunnsbo-school chef, Gothenburg
     Feed Bristol Project                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Reengaging the population
     With contributions 1.1
                        Securing urban land to
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              with food in particular in
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              dedicating some time and
                                                                                        enable growing food in                                                                                                                                                securing enough skills to
                                                                                        the city and its outskirts                                                                                                                                            prepare and cook their
     Brussels (Lead Partner) / Joëlle van Bambeke, Stephanie Mantell, Joséphine Henrion
     Situated in the outskirts of north Bristol on a 7 acres piece of land,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              own food.                                                                 Even Bakke is a young and motivated Chef who innovates towards
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        sustainable practices and challenges canteens rules. He wins inter-

     Amersfoort / Anne de Feijter, Cor Holtackers, Marianne Karstens
     the Feed Bristol project is twinned with ‘Sims Hill Shared Harvest’, a                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             national canteen Chef competitions. He involves pupils to help in the
     community supported agriculture scheme with 65 members divided                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     kitchen for a couple of hours a day and familiarize with the kitchen
     in 3 categories: growing members, vegetable sharing members and                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    activities. He proposes to the pupils to taste the food instead of wast-
     supporting members. The second category is particularly interesting:                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               ing it if they don't like it, Etc. This open-minded chef intends to raise
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        interest in food, to create dialogue with canteen employees as well as

     Athens / Yannis Evmolpidis,             George Keranis
     engaging people with nature and food is not always easy when they
     don't have time to take care of their own individual allotment. Vegeta-                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            with the pupils. The project is nominated to the White Guide Junior

     ble sharing members help for 4 hours a week for 6 months and in                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    prize.
     exchange get access to vegetable year round.

                         Focusing food culture at                                2.2
     Bristol / Dorothy Greaves
                         territorial level, pooling                              Ensuring a food education
                         together in a coherent                                  and canteen experience at
     Gothenburg / Annika       Källvik,
                         way each               Ulla Lundgren
                                    and any local                                school since it is less                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Geitmyra Culinary Centre, Oslo
                         food assets and creating                                likely to take place at
     Lyon / Lilian Pellegrino,       Caroline
                         or recreating  a city food Brand
        Lyon Fair and Sustainable City label
                         identity and label.
     Messina / Daniela Catanoso,
     Oslo / Line Tveiten              3.2                              2.3
                                                                       Increasing citizens food
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          The Geitmyra Culinary Centre is a non-profit foundation established
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          by the food writer and TV-cook Andreas Viestad. Based in the build-

                                      Exploring possible synergies                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        ings of a former farm near Geitmyra school and allotment garden

     Ourense / Uxio Novoneyra              Rei, foodSusana        Bayo
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          inside Oslo, the place has been refurbished to host school children. It

                                      between        and each          resilience within an
        Lyon Fair and Sustainable City label was set up in 2010 in order to
        create a community of sustainable practices among the trade people
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          proposes evening courses and biannual Farm Open Days. It host 30
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          classes per year for an entire week each. Kids have an immersive

                                      sector of the city towards an    urban food system likely
        in town. The label is characterised by transparency of selection                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  experience in a farm feeding chickens, taking care of the vegetable

     Vaslui / Vasile Paval, Stefan           Dudau,         Ionel Popa
        criteria and progressive improvement process for those who are not                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                garden, backing bread, smoking meat, making yogurt, etc and eating

                                      emerging   food-oriented         to generate less waste
        yet eligible. The cooperation develop in clubs of exchange between
        entities awarded with the label. The aim was to get 400 businesses or
        associations with the label at the end of 2014
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          the product of their labour.

                                                                       and reduce food poverty                    urban development.
                                                                                                                                                                             Developing a specific governance
     Thematic expert: Kevin Morgan, Cardifforiented
                                      Food market program in Vaslui
                                                    towards sustainable and                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Eleonas’ urban farm project in Athens
                                                                                                                                                                             quality food, rais ing decision
                                                                                                                                                                             makers’ awareness on the stra-
                                                                                                                                                                             tegic dimension of food in urban
     Design by:                                                                                                                                                              context and finally fostering a
                                                                                                                                                                             proper food-oriented city leader-
     Christophe Gouache, Thibaut Métivier / Strategic Design Scenarios
                                      The Traian market is the first of a series of modern food markets to
                                      be deployed in the city of Vaslui. It is divided in 4 sectors: fruits and
                                      vegetables; cheese and dairy; meat; fish. A special place is reserved
                                      by the municipality for the local 'producers'. The aim is to avoid the
                                                                                                                                                                             ship.                                                                                                                     The Municipality of Athens is supporting a large action towards
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       reclaiming available urban space for growing food. They are imple-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       menting real urban farms on the larger pieces of land and urban
                                      stalls being all taken over by 'sellers' of less quality products coming
                                      from all the country. A food quality control laboratory is also installed                                                                                                                                                                                        gardening on smaller plots. Eleona is a neighbourhood of Athens with
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       mixed industrial and commercial areas. A large piece of wasted land
                                      in the market and plays an important role in raising trust among                  Bristol Food Policy Council                                                                                                                                                    is planed to be turned into an urban farm (municipal property of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Brussels Job-Employment Alliance                                                    approximately 20.000 m²). The project is about to start and foresees
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       benefits both in terms of creation of jobs for unemployed people and

     Publisher : Strategic Design Scenarios Publishing
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       of urban production of food for poor household.

     ISBN : 978-2-9601314-1-3
                                                                                                                        The Bristol Food Policy Council was launched in March 2011, as the

    FINDING SPACE FOR FOOD                                                                                              first Food Policy Council in UK. It brings together stakeholders from
                                                                                                                        diverse food-related sectors to examine how the food system is
                                                                                                                        operating locally and to develop recommendations on how to improve
                                                                                                                        it. Bristol Food Policy Council has been established as an independ-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   The Food Job-Environment Alliance starts from the premise that
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   environmental issues are an essential field of employment and eco-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   nomic development for companies that are able to adapt quickly or

    IN THE GOVERNANCE OF                                                                                                ent body including representative from the local government and a                          engage in economic sectors related to the environment. This transi-
                                                                                                                        board of local key players. Its aims are educating officials and the                       tion requires a new governance dynamics: it aims to mobilize and

                                                                                                                        public, shaping public policy, improving coordination between existing                     coordinate public, private and associative bodies around concerted
                                                                                                                        programs, and starting new programs, mapping and publicizing local                         actions. The project is innovative because it is not only for consulta-

    THE MUNICIPALITY WITH                                                                                               food resources; creating new transit routes to connect underserved                         tion and classic participation but to involve stakeholders from the
                                                                                                                        areas with full-service grocery stores; persuading government agen-                        food sector to achieve a truly collective and individual work together,

     Neither the European Commission, nor the URBACT Secretariat, nor any person acting on their behalf are responsible for the
                                                                                                                        cies to purchase from local farmers; organizing community gardens                          to achieve shared objectives commitment, namely development of
                                                                                                                        and farmers’ markets, etc.                                                                 economic sectors related to the environment and the creation of

                                                                                                                                                                                                                   quality jobs.

     use which might be made of the following information. The views expressed in this publication are the sole responsibility of the
     authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the European Commission.

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Handbook CREATING SPACE FOR SUSTAINABLE FOOD SYSTEMS IN URBAN COMMUNITIES - Practical approaches and examples for cities
                                                                                                                                                        AUTHORITY IN THIS AREA.

     A word from the lead partner                                                                     food journey, as it enabled Brussels and
                                                                                                      its partner cities to learn from each other, to
                                                                                                      discover new initiatives and different ways
                          by Stephanie Mantell, Brussels Environment                                  of tackling sustainable food. Beyond the
              the environment & energy administration of the Brussels Capital Region                  consolidation and dissemination of practical
                                                                                                      knowledge drawn from this transnational
    Brussels Environment initiated the               environmental and sustainability criteria        networking, stakeholders started to work
    URBACT Thematic Network “Sustainable             (certification), promoting self-production       together within each city to develop Local
    Food in Urban Communities” (2012-                (fruit & vegetable gardens, use of derelict      Action Plans and improve local policies.
    2015) to develop low-carbon and                  lands), and preventing waste (food and its
    resource-efficient urban food systems,           packaging).                                      Now and beyond the lifetime of our project
    joining efforts and thinking with other cities                                                    we wish to reach out and communicate
    in Europe, namely Amersfoort (NL), Athens        The Brussels Capital Region has                  with other cities and stakeholders that are
    (GR), Bristol (UK), Messina (IT), Gothenburg     substantial experience in sustainable food       engaging in the process of making their food
    (SE), Lyon (FR), Ourense (ES), Vaslui (RO),      research and actions and the political           system more sustainable, to continue the
    and Oslo (NO).                                   commitment is to go further and learn            journey we started.
                                                     from others, for instance, to work both on
    The environmental impact of food is one          supply and on perceptions of the general
    of the drivers of cities’ growing interest       public towards sustainable food choices
    in the topic and a primary concern for us        among audiences not yet reached, finding
    as environment administration. Indeed,           new approaches and tools adapted to
    according to the FAO, the food sector            them. An upcoming strategic transversal
    alone accounts for over 20% of global            plan on sustainable food will go further
    greenhouse gas emissions worldwide.              to facilitate the transition of existing local
    Moreover, around 1/3 of the food produced        market actors towards shorter supply
    for human consumption is wasted or lost.         chains and greater sustainability and
    Making our urban food systems more               encourage the emergence of new actors
    sustainable can thus yield major benefits        - not only to reduce CO2 emissions and
    in terms of carbon intensity and resource        overall environmental impacts, but also to
    efficiency. It involves notably the use of       secure and create long term local jobs and
    local and seasonal products (short supply        strengthen urban communities.
    chains), improving diets (reducing the
    share of animal protein and processed            Being part of this URBACT II network
    foods), using products that meet                 has been one step on our sustainable

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Handbook CREATING SPACE FOR SUSTAINABLE FOOD SYSTEMS IN URBAN COMMUNITIES - Practical approaches and examples for cities
    INTRODUCTION                                    9   - The resilience test

    Purpose of this handbook                       12   Case study                                     28   almost 50% organic meals in public                    - Fairtrade City, Gothenburg
                                                        - Feed Bristol Project & Sims Hill Shared           canteens, Gothenburg                                  - Sabores De Ourense & “Come Ourense”
    Who should read this handbook?                 13   Harvest, Bristol                                    - Geitmyra Culinary Centre for children, Oslo         award
                                                        - Pré Santy inclusion garden, Lyon                  - Eleonas’ Urban Farm project, Athens
    1. Background                                  14   - New market gardening farmer, Vaslui               - Social and solidarity grocery shop, Lyon            5. Food governance and the city
    - The Project and the Partners                      - Eemstad boerderij, Amersfoort                                                                           agenda
    - Finding a way to view the urban food              - “Gardens bank”: recovering food                   4. Food literacy and resilience                  50   - Emerging food-oriented city leadership   69
    system and sustainability                           production areas in the outskirts of Ourense        - Re-engaging the population with food                - Food-oriented urban development
    - Finding a pragmatic approach to low               - Faro Doc from the cuppari high school,            - Ensuring a food education and a positive            - City food identity and labels
    carbon and resource efficiency                      Messina                                             canteen experience
    - Finding an action-focused framework for           - Landwinkels, Shops at the farm gate,              - Reducing food poverty among the low-                governance-questioning tools
    sustainable food in cities                          Amersfoort                                          income population                                     - Evil projection                          74
                                                        - Super-halle, Lyon                                                                                       - Local action plan crash test
    Case studIES                                   18                                                       community building tools                         56
    - Herligheten Allotment Gardens, Oslo               3. Sustainable food-related                         - Speed presentation evenings
    - Slowfood Valdemone, Messina                       entrepreneurship                               34   - Visioning                                           Case studIES
    - Educational Vegetable Gardens, Ourense            - Growing in the city                                                                                     - Household resilience, Vaslui             78
    - “Collective Kitchen” Embraced By Athens           - Urban food businesses                             Case studIES                                     60   - Albatros Foundation, Food schools
    Municipality                                        - New shopping scenes                               - Job creation policies in urban agriculture &        promoting regional food, Messina
    - “My Urban Kitchen Garden” Grow-Your-                                                                  sustainable food businesses, Brussels                 - Organic Farmers’ Markets, Athens
    Own-Kit, Brussels                                   entrepreneurship enhancing                          - Bristol Food Policy
    - Majobo, Oslo                                      tools                                          40   Council                                               Conclusions
                                                        - Micro-consulting                                  - Sustainable meals in canteens, Gothenburg           References & useful links                  81
    2. What can cities do?                         23   - Business Launch Pad                               - Sustainable food in schools, Brussels               Acknowledgements                           82
    - Getting started                                                                                       - ‘Who feeds Bristol?’ Report                         Photo credits                              84
                                                        Case studIES                                   44   - Food Market Program in Vaslui / Central                                                        87
    tools to assess the local food                      - The Square Food Foundation Cookery                Market, Vaslui
    situation                                      24   School And Kitchen, Bristol                         - Digital Urban Farming Map, Amersfoort
    - Getting started on the food journey check-        - Food Challenge for families, Brussels
    list                                                - Lundby local administration is serving            - Lyon Fair and Sustainable City Label
                                                                                                            - Amersfoort “Capital of Taste 2012”

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Handbook CREATING SPACE FOR SUSTAINABLE FOOD SYSTEMS IN URBAN COMMUNITIES - Practical approaches and examples for cities
                             by Professor Kevin Morgan, Cardiff University

    “The 10 cities that participated in the           Until recently, the food system barely
    URBACT project [Sustainable Food in               registered on the mainstream political
    urban Communities] have collectively              agenda in the global north because
    generated a body of knowledge about               of the widely held belief that it had
    sustainable food systems that will be of          delivered all that was asked of it. Slowly
    enormous value to their urban peers in            but surely, however, the hidden costs
    the global north and the global south.”           of the conventional food system began
    (Kevin Morgan, January 2015)                      to resonate in the public domain. While
                                                      there is no single reason why the food
    Embracing a wide array of activities              system has moved from the margins to
    associated with the production and                the mainstream, the escalating costs of
    consumption of food, the project highlights       diet-related diseases and environmental
    one of the most important developments            degradation loom large in any explanation.
    in the history of food policy and practice,       If anything it is the multifunctional
    namely the rise of the city as a transition       character of food that makes it such a
    space for the design and delivery of              unique political phenomenon because the
    sustainable urban food strategies. The            food system is heavily implicated in so
    great merit of this handbook is that it seeks     many public policy arenas.
    to capture the knowledge gained in 10
    different cities and puts it at the disposal of   The political significance of the food
    cities that wish to begin their own journey       system stems from the combined effect of
    towards sustainability by learning from           the following trends:
    what others have achieved. Mayors and
    civic society groups can learn much from          - Food security is now perceived as a
    their counterparts in other cities so long as     national security issue following the urban
    they appreciate that every urban context is       riots that erupted in many countries after
    unique.                                           the food price hikes of 2007/08;
                                                      - The food chain accounts for some 31%

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Handbook CREATING SPACE FOR SUSTAINABLE FOOD SYSTEMS IN URBAN COMMUNITIES - Practical approaches and examples for cities
of GHG emissions in the European Union,         the urban food question is viewed and           of other under-utilised public and private
     making the food system a crucial target of      valued by politicians and their civil society   space; discourage food waste and
     policies to counter climate change;             interlocutors.                                  promote more socially and ecologically
     - The epidemic of obesity and other diet-                                                       benign ways of recycling it; and create
     related diseases makes the food system a        Food policy has been dominated for so           jobs and income for producers who
     prime target of campaigners;                    long by national and international levels of    need access to the “footfall” of urban
     - Food poverty is increasingly visible in the   policy-making, it is sometimes suggested        consumers..
     cities of the global north, as we can see       that cities have little or no capacity to
     from the explosive growth of food banks,        shape the food system because they lack         Finally, there is the power of partnering,
     making food a social justice issue as well      the powers to do so. However, within the        where city governments enter into mutually
     as a human health issue;                        urban food policy repertoire three powers       beneficial collaborative partnerships with
     - The food system is now perceived as           merit special attention because, taken          local businesses, social enterprises and
     a prism through which planners seek to          together, they can help to reform the urban     civil society groups to achieve in concert
     promote more sustainable natural resource       foodscape.                                      what they could not hope to achieve alone.
     management and eco-system services;
     - A quality food revolution is underway as      Perhaps the most powerful food policy
     people re-discover the pleasures of good        that cities have at their disposal is their
     food and its associations with place and        very own procurement policy. The power
     provenance.                                     of purchase has been shown to be very
                                                     effective when it is part of a healthy public
     Over the past decade, municipalities in         food provisioning programme.
     many countries have struggled with the          Another power that cities could deploy
     question of how to incorporate food policy      in more imaginative ways is planning
     into their strategies and structures. In        policy, which is often used to frustrate
     political terms this question generates two     development rather than foster it. Although
     intensely practical issues – who should         planners have neglected the food system
     assume the leadership role for food policy      in the past, they are now beginning to
     and in which department should this role        address the urban foodscape so as to:
     be located? The experience of municipal         protect and increase the diversity of food
     food politics in Europe, North America          retail outlets so that they are accessible
     and Africa suggests that the answer to          by foot or public transport; promote
     this question very much depends on the          urban agriculture in and around the city
     way food policy is framed; that is to say,      by expanding access to allotments,
     it depends on the prism through which           community growing spaces and a range

10                                                                                                                                                11
Handbook CREATING SPACE FOR SUSTAINABLE FOOD SYSTEMS IN URBAN COMMUNITIES - Practical approaches and examples for cities
PURPOSE OF THIS HANDBOOK                                                                            WHO SHOULD READ THIS
     This handbook draws on some of the 130
     examples of promising local practices
                                                     We have selected content derived from
                                                     hands-on robust experiences emerging
     shared by the ten participating partner         from practitioners, practical information,
     cities, as well as on the policy evidence       and evidence-based implementation.            - This Handbook provides a range different     - A series of key learnings and practical
     reported and on the strategies and              As it is impossible to include everything     types of materials organised to provide        tools for practitioners and actors who
     structure of the Local Action Plans they are    in this handbook links are provided to        different entry points and ways of reading     would like to start a similar process in their
     developing as a result of this work.            more detailed material in three Thematic      and to be accessible to different interests.   own cities
     We wish to share some of what we have           Reports, online articles and video            Its focus is on nine key topics that have
     learnt during the three years of exchanges      presentations with examples of promising      emerged from the exchanges between the         - A rich and varied set of case studies for
     and experiences in our network; to make         local practices from our own cities.2         partner cities and on which the cities have    a wider circle of interested readers that
     it available to other cities and stimulate                                                    sufficient joint experience to report.         illustrate ways in which sustainable food
     them to start a similar journey towards a       It is our hope that we can inspire other                                                     initiatives can change daily life in the city.
     sustainable local food system.                  cities to put food on their agenda and that   - Three main categories of information are
                                                     cities across the world will make concrete    provided aimed at three main audiences :
     The handbook is written, not from an            changes that jointly generate positive
     academic or advocacy perspective but            impacts and drive a sustainable food          - Insights for city policy makers on the
     from the pragmatic and practical outlook of     system reform.                                importance for cities to build a sustainable
     people who work in cities and deal with the                                                   and more localised food system
     complex issues of urban life and the food
     system on a daily basis. It is therefore not
     complete, nor definitive, nor perfect, but
     is instead based on what is possible. We
     have selected examples of what we have
     found inspirational, many achieved through
     creativity, vision and commitment, despite
     limited resources.
     Rather than a final report, we have therefore
     opted for an easy-to-follow and accessible
     handbook that outlines the key learning
     emerging from the ten partner cities.

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Handbook CREATING SPACE FOR SUSTAINABLE FOOD SYSTEMS IN URBAN COMMUNITIES - Practical approaches and examples for cities
     1.1 The Project and its Partners                  partners to approach the complexity of
                                                       the food system more simply, and to find
     The URBACT II thematic network                    a way to organize the many vibrant and
     Sustainable Food in Urban Communities             heterogeneous experiences of the ten
     - Developing low-carbon and resource-             cities. The three themes were used to
     efficient urban food systems (URBACT,             collect and review practical case studies of
     2012-2015) brings together ten European           existing work in each city.
     cities looking for joint, effective and           The theme of “Growing” explores all
     sustainable solutions to develop low-             possible ways to grow food near or in the
     carbon and resource-efficient urban food          city. The theme of “Delivering” explores
     systems.                                          ways to distribute, share and procure food
     The URBACT process involved regular               within the city. The theme of “Enjoying”
     transnational exchanges between the ten           explores how people in the city can
     cities over a period of three years and           embrace a sustainable, happy, healthy
     provided a framework for each city to             and vibrant food culture in canteens and
     establish a Local Support Group of key            households.
     stakeholders in order to collaboratively          In addition, project partners addressed
     build sustainable food governance and a           three cross-cutting issues:
     related local action plan.                        ‘Governance, synergies & local system’;
     The cities of our network offer a fascinating     ‘Social Inclusion, jobs & economics’;
     variety in terms of i) demographics               ‘Carbon emissions and resource
     and scale of urbanisation; ii) land and           efficiency’.                                   The URBACT thematic network Sustainable Food in Urban Communities is a 3 years exchange
     territory; iii) food culture; and iv) levels of                                                  and collaboration project between 10 European cities including Brussels Environment of the
     engagement in food system sustainability.         1.3 Finding a pragmatic approach to low        Brussels Capital Region (Lead Partner), the Bristol City Council, City of Messina, the Municipality of
                                                       carbon and resource efficiency                 Amersfoort, the City of Lyon, the City of Gothenburg, Vaslui Municipality, Ourense City Council, City of
                                                                                                      Oslo and Athens development and destination management agency sa.
     1.2 Finding angles to view the urban
     food system and sustainability                    Existing research suggests that the main       The Lead expert of the project is François Jégou, Strategic Design Scenarios, ENSAV, La Cambre
                                                       ways in which urban communities can            Belgium. Thematic experts are Joy Carey, Independent Consultant on sustainable food systems
     Three themes of ‘Growing’, ‘Delivering’           contribute to reducing CO2 emissions in        planning & UK, Kevin Morgan, School of Planning and Geography, Cardiff University, UK and
     and ‘Enjoying’ were selected by project           the food system is by eating less meat         Frédérique Sonnet, independent consultant, France.

14                                                                                                                                                                                                               15
Handbook CREATING SPACE FOR SUSTAINABLE FOOD SYSTEMS IN URBAN COMMUNITIES - Practical approaches and examples for cities
and more plants; reducing food waste and       1.4 Finding an action-focused                  in everyday life of more resilient citizens;                                These action themes are discussed in
     by making fresh seasonal food from the         framework for sustainable food in cities       - Creating space for food in the governance                                 more detail in the following sections with
     surrounding regions available to everyone.                                                    of the municipality with traditionally limited                              illustrative examples from the ten partner
     To lessen the impact, food should be           Initiatives that address the need for          authority in this area.                                                     cities.
     produced using less fossil-fuel derived        sustainable food in cities can contribute
     inputs like fertilisers and pesticides. Food   to supporting a lively and diverse local
     meeting organic certification standards        economy (jobs and skills), to creating                                                                             City food identity a
     is produced with an emphasis on animal         a better environment (green spaces,                                                                                                          els
     welfare and harmony with nature.               urban design, reduced greenhouse gas                                                                                 velopment
                                                                                                                                                                    an de
     Project partners explored a range of           emissions), and to supporting more health                                                      d             urb
     practical approaches to low-carbon and         and wellbeing amongst the population                                                     iente
     resource efficiency in an urban context        (inspiring behaviour change, making it                                                 or               -oriented city lead
                                                                                                                                         d-            food                    ers
     by reviewing innovative case studies and       easier for people to make better choices).                                                      ng                            hip


     in specific workshop discussions with          In order to achieve these kinds of benefits,                                                er             INA BLE F OO
                                                                                                                                                           STA               D
                                                                                                                                                         SU OVERNANCE

     external organisations. Encouraging city       food has to be put firmly on the city
     residents to eat less meat and more fruit      governance agenda. For that reason, over
     & vegetables requires a focus on fresh         the course of the project the focus on
     seasonal food and a range of fun activities    ‘Growing’, ‘Delivering’ and ‘Enjoying’ has

                                                                                                                                                                                                 E U R S HIP
     that engage the public through interesting     gradually shifted towards more an action-

                                                                                                         R e -e n g a gin
     inspiring challenge with tangible results.     oriented and organisation-based focus of

                                                                                                         F O O D LIT IE

                                                                                                                                                                                                 O OD-
                                                                                                            AND RE
     With regard to business-led actions,           ‘Sustainable entrepreneurship’, ‘Citizen’s


                                                                                                                E n s u ri
     there are many opportunities for new           resilience’ and ‘Food governance’ (see

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        in e ss
                                                                                                                                                                                        TR L E F
     and innovative low-carbon and resource-        figure on the next page).

                                                                                                                        ER N

     efficient urban food businesses that create    Creating space for sustainable food

                                                                                                                           ng a

                                                                                                                            g fo
                                                                                                                                                            C Y                         AI


     jobs. Labelling and recognition schemes        systems is a practical and physical                                                                                                T


                                                                                                                                                                                 SUS D E



     can work but need to be simple, also           challenge in terms of finding available




                                                                                                                                                                                RE L A


     aimed at the non-green audiences and           land within the city and its outskirts, and


                                                                                                                                                      w                                                 g


                                                                                                                                                          it h

     help people to make a small shift. Cities      is also about creating space for food in                                                                     fo o                       ow


                                                                                                                                   tio                                                    Gr


     can use recognition schemes to inspire         the broader economic, legal, cultural and                                            n

     and encourage collective action around                                                                                                       dc

                                                    lifestyle context:

                                                                                                                           th              an

     fresh seasonal and local food; reducing        - Creating space for emerging economic                                   e                te e
                                                                                                                                 lo                n ex p
     food waste and encouraging the circular        activities and food-related sustainable                                        w-                     e ri e n c e
     economy.                                       entrepreneurship in the city;                                                       om
                                                    - Creating space for good and healthy food                                               opu

16                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                17
Handbook CREATING SPACE FOR SUSTAINABLE FOOD SYSTEMS IN URBAN COMMUNITIES - Practical approaches and examples for cities
CASE STUDY                                                                                                                                                                            CASE STUDY

        HERLIGHETEN   Herligheten allotment gardens were born as an art initiative       SLOWFOOD VALDEMONE,                              EDUCATIONAL VEGETABLE
                      inspired by the Victory Gardens food growing initiative of
        ALLOTMENT     American artist Amy Franceschini in front of San Francisco         MESSINA                                          GARDENS, OURENSE
        GARDENS,      Capitol. The place chosen in Oslo, Loallmenningen in Bjørvika
                      is probably the most contrasting location place both on the
        OSLO          waterfront near the brand new opera house and one of the                                                            First pilot project of the city pooling unused
                      most disparate urban development areas squeezed between a                                                           land for gardening with a demonstration
                      high speed lane and railways. 100 micro-orchards in wooden         SlowFood promotes a good, fresh and              goal: demonstrating urban orchards are
                      boxes and 250 m2 of grain field just popped up, surprising         flavoursome seasonal diet; clean food            available for production.
                      even the promoters of the project. When asked if it is a one-off   production and consumption that does             Located in a working class area called
                      initiative, the answer is that the next project could be to “dig   not harm the environment; fair accessible        “Mariñamansa”, the initiative started
                      in the green” and grow food instead of useless grass in public     prices for consumers and fair pay                over a land area of 2,262 m2. It includes
                      spaces.                                                            conditions for small-scale producers. For        18 orchard/gardens for citizen´s use, 2
                                                                                         instance; SlowFood has developed original        for people with reduced mobility and 2
                                                                                         activities such as the Spoken Menu,              integrated orchard/gardens strictly focused
                                                                                         telling the story of traditional dishes before   on educational activities, intended for
                                                                                         serving them; Taste Ateliers are educational     school learning activities for small kids
                                                                                         sensory journeys with a tasting session          to improve their knowledge about how to
                                                                                         of different products; Presidi are rescue        cultivate a garden and grow organic food.
                                                                                         operations of traditional specialities or        This initiative based on public and urban
                                                                                         products that tend not to be produced or         lands, is managed by the Educational
                                                                                         prepared anymore. All these activities are       Department of the City Council. During
                                                                                         raising interest and capacities in healthy,      the first 3 months, users first farmed
                                                                                         fair and quality food among the population.      vegetables, fruits and flowers. Two years
                                                                                                                                          and a half later, UNICEF has awarded it as
                                                                                                                                          “Best practice on local policies”.

18                                                                                                                                                                                            19
CASE STUDY                                                                                                                                                        CASE STUDY

        “COLLECTIVE    Collective kitchens have originated in Greece as a response
                       to the economic and humanistic crisis that ensued in 2010.
                                                                                         “MY URBAN    Brussels Environment set up a program of different actions
                                                                                                      to encourage residents to grow their own vegetables in the
        KITCHEN”       They reflect the informal actions by civil society, aiming at     KITCHEN      city and raise awareness about eating more fresh, local and
                                                                                                      seasonal products.
        EMBRACED       the satisfaction of fellow citizens’ need for food. Within a
                       couple of years, collective kitchens transcended the “need        GARDEN”      About 80% of citizens have a small space to grow herbs, fruits
        BY ATHENS      for food” context and emerged as an opportunity to promote        GROW-YOUR-   or vegetables at home (balcony, small garden, terrace...), but
                                                                                                      many lack knowledge or time to do so, according to a recent
                       Greek gastronomy, producers and products, and create
        MUNICIPALITY   both economic and social value. The Municipality of Athens        OWN-KIT,     study conducted by Brussels Environment. Based on this

                       recognised the importance of collective kitchens for purposes                  finding, different tools were developed to help people to grow
                       such as social cohesion through the various food cultures                      their own food:
                       present in Athens and raising awareness for sustainable food.                  - Free training sessions about kitchen gardening
                       “Athens, Metropolis of Taste” was the first event to take place                - A network of gardening experts who give advice and
                       under the auspices of Athens municipality on 27 June 2014                      organise some activities
                       with the participation of the chef-team, the Afghan refugee                    - A free Helpdesk to answer
                       community and the Nigerian women community.                                    specific questions of

                                                                                                      To help residents set up
                                                                                                      their own urban kitchen
                                                                                                      garden (in open soil, on a
                                                                                                      balcony, terrace, or in pots),
                                                                                                      Brussels Environment also
                                                                                                      developed the grow-your-
                                                                                                      own kit: a cardboard box
                                                                                                      with seeds and guidance
                                                                                                      supported by a monthly
                                                                                                      newsletter to help anyone
                                                                                                      interested set up an
                                                                                                      environmentally friendly
                                                                                                      kitchen garden in the heart
                                                                                                      of the city.

20                                                                                                                                                                        21

        MAJOBO, OSLO
                                                                                                       2. WHAT CAN CITIES DO?
                       MAJOBO (meaning literally “food and soil where you live”)
                       is a Norwegian grassroots network of local and organic food
                       production and urban farming by citizens. It focuses on
                       spreading ideas, inspiration and information. The activities,
                       which are centred in Oslo, include communicating through
                       social media, pilot projects, documentary screenings and          Getting started
                       network meetings to showcase local initiatives as well as                                                       A good first step is to develop better
                       hands-on beginners’ courses with hundreds of participants.        The question is how can a city positively     understanding and establish dialogue.
                       Through the networking activities, MAJOBO has triggered           influence its food system?                    This can then feed into a longer-term
                       a range of other food-related projects by showcasing                                                            ‘sustainable food planning process’
                       possibilities and providing platforms where like-minded people    ‘To reform the food system in this way has    which may take several years or indeed
                       meet. MAJOBO also acts as a voice for lobbying on behalf of       not been built into any local government      be adopted as part of an ongoing food
                       urban agriculture to local and national political institutions.   policy and strategy, nor could a local        strategy and policy agenda. There are
                                                                                         government achieve such changes alone.        many different ways of getting started.
                                                                                         It requires the commitment and pro-active     Bristol commissioned a baseline audit
                                                                                         buy-in from a wide range of city and city     study called ‘Who Feeds Bristol?’
                                                                                         region stakeholders.                          Stakeholder meetings, organised public
                                                                                         The first step is to understand how the       events and discussions and participatory
                                                                                         city and city region’s food supply system     scenario exercises all help to stimulate
                                                                                         operates and how the different elements       debate and establish a new ‘sustainable
                                                                                         of the system are interconnected. The         food conversation’. The most important
                                                                                         second is to understand strengths and         point is that it has to be both a process
                                                                                         vulnerabilities in relation to food system    and a partnership approach.
                                                                                         sustainability and longer-term resilience.’
                                                                                         (Who Feeds Bristol? Towards a resilient
                                                                                         food plan; 2011)

22                                                                                                                                                                                 23
The URBACT partners used a simple case study approach to review what was already happening in             resources; ‘Who feeds your city?’ report       independent grocery shops, organic
     each of the cities and established local support groups to help drive a process of developing an action   baseline audits)?                              supermarkets, etc.)?
     plan. While working together and sharing our experiences we have developed some simple tools to           - Does your city have a view on the            - What is the level of engagement of the
     help ourselves and now other cities to get started. Understanding what is already happening is an         economic significance of the food sector       population in food production and cooking
     important place to begin.
                                                                                                               and a clear analysis of who the businesses     (i.e. proportion of the population involved
                                                                                                               are?                                           with food growing; proportion of food

       TOOL / ‘Getting started on the food journey check-list’                                                 - Does your city have an organised food
                                                                                                               stakeholder process (i.e. ‘Match-making’/
                                                                                                               meet the buyer events; ’Stakeholder
                                                                                                                                                              eaten in the home that is home cooked/
                                                                                                                                                              cooked from scratch)?
                                                                                                                                                              - Is information/education on sustainable
                                   An early qualitative diagnostic tool                                        forum’, a food network that meets              food provided in your city (i.e. educational
                                                                                                               regularly)?                                    programs at schools; local food centre for
     The tool is based on key lessons learned              political agenda, in different positions            - Does your city recognise the diversity       professionals and amateurs; etc.)?
     from the experience of partner cities. It             debated, etc.)?                                     of the food system stakeholders and            - Does your city have any organised
     consists of a series of questions aimed at            - Do your public food procurement                   actively ensure that this diversity is         communication on sustainable food (i.e.
     helping cities to investigate their process           contracts include environmental /                   included in discussions or events (i.e.        accessible newsletter; website platform;
     of building local governance to implement             sustainable criteria (i.e. organic; seasonal;       public/private; food producers, processors     awareness raising campaigns; etc.)?
     a more sustainable food system.                       fresh; sustainably fished, fairly traded, high      or ‘transformers’, distributors, retailers,    - Does your city reach the general public to
                                                           animal welfare standards etc.)?                     caterers; sustainable/conventional; etc.)?     make them aware of sustainable food (i.e.
     Governance                                            - Is your city taking action against food           - Is the health sector in your city involved   cooking courses; information in purchase
                                                           poverty (i.e. supporting social and                 in work on sustainable food (i.e. integrated   points; etc.)?
     - Does your city have a clear and agreed              solidarity initiatives; facilitating improved       policy; joint financing; etc.)?                Does your city make land readily available
     rationale for why it is important to address          food accessibility in terms of distance and                                                        to citizens who want to grow their own
     food system reform and improved                       price; etc.)?                                       Accessibility and public awareness             food?
     sustainability?’                                      - Is your city involved at the national level
     Is the topic of a sustainable food system             to be a voice on the subject of sustainable         - Is quality sustainable food available at
     represented within the governance of your             food (i.e. taking part in a national                a walking distance in all neighbourhoods
     city (i.e. ‘Food Policy Council’ / elected            sustainable food network; active in national        of your city (i.e. street farmer markets,
     representative in charge of the topic)?               food policy, etc.)?
     - Has food been explicitly included in the
     official authority (competences) of the city          Stakeholder involvement
     (i.e. specific budget line; organisational and
     operational facilitation; etc.)?                      - Does your city have a good inventory
     - Is the subject of food present in the               or mapping of food initiatives present
     political debate in your city (i.e. on the            within its territory/boundaries (i.e. mapping

24                                                                                                                                                                                                           25
TOOL / ‘The Resilience Test ’
                   Raising awareness about food system vulnerabilities of the city

     Purpose                                          threaten food supply… How does the city        future following the progress in food policy
     The aim of the Resilience Test tool is           react?                                         that has been achieved as a result of the
     first to raise awareness among local             - Junk food kills! Proven by medical           URBACT project.
     stakeholders about strengths/weaknesses          studies. Demonstrations in the street
     of their city’s food system and, more            against health-damaging food… How does         Outcomes
     importantly, to enable a collective              the city react?                                Each subgroup presents in plenary
     acknowledgment of these strengths/               - Repeated cuts in public budgets: no          the result of their discussions. The
     weaknesses.                                      more subsidies for agriculture, school         presentations may be videotaped and
                                                      canteens and food banks… How does the          contextualized to give more strength and
     Example                                          city react?                                    impact to the awareness raising process.
     In Gothenburg, a series of pertinent                                                            The challenges allow stakeholders to
     challenges – crisis situations –for the city’s   Process                                        explore the limits of the current food
     food system are prepared in advance with         During a meeting of the local stakeholder      system. The results of this test help to
     local stakeholders.                              group including non-for-profit organizations   raise collective awareness of the potential
     - A huge strike blocks all outside               from social and business sectors, elected      lack of resilience at a city level. It also
     supplies for 2 weeks. Food is missing in         representatives and civil servants all         sets the basis for identifying a first set
     supermarkets and shops… How does the             focused on the issues of increasing food       of actions to draft a Local Action Plan
     city react?                                      sustainability in the city. Subgroups of       enlarging the point of view beyond the
     - Deepening of the food crisis on                participants each receive one challenge        current situation.
     international markets: prices boom! First        and a ‘strengths / weaknesses’ mind-map
     food riots... How does the city react?           to complete. They first discuss the current
     - Oil peak and energy price booming: costs       situation. In a second step they imagine
     of fertilizers, mechanised agriculture, and      what would happen if the same crisis
     food transport increase dramatically and         situation were to occur 10 years in the

26                                                                                                                                                  27

        FEED BRISTOL   Situated in the outskirts of north Bristol on a 7-acre piece of
                       land, the educational wildlife-friendly food growing project
        PROJECT &      ‘Feed Bristol’ is twinned with ‘Sims Hill Shared Harvest’.
        SIMS HILL      Feed Bristol provides opportunities for volunteers to grow
                       food and care for wildlife. Sims Hill is a community supported
        SHARED         agriculture scheme with 65 members divided in 3 categories:
                       growing members, vegetable sharing members and supporting
        HARVEST,       members. The second category is particularly interesting:
        BRISTOL        engaging people with nature and food is not always easy
                       when they do not have time to take care of their own individual   PRÉ SANTY INCLUSION                          NEW MARKET GARDENING
                       allotment. Vegetable sharing members help for 4 hours a week
                       during 6 months and in exchange get access to vegetables          GARDEN, LYON                                 FARMER, VASLUI
                       year round.

                                                                                         The “Pré Santy” is a vegetable garden        Marius Gorcea has been presented
                                                                                         aimed mainly at improving social inclusion   as one of the most outstanding
                                                                                         in a difficult social housing area in the    representatives of the 4000 farmers
                                                                                         South-East of Lyon. The gardening            registered in Vaslui City. Formerly a
                                                                                         activities are more a pretext than an        driver, he decided a couple years ago
                                                                                         aim, but it is an interesting example of     to set up a small market gardening
                                                                                         promoting sustainable food amongst an        business. Supported by EU subsidies for
                                                                                         underprivileged population. The garden       young farmers, he managed to pool 5000
                                                                                         occupies a small piece of land surrounding   m2 of land from 14 different owners.
                                                                                         a parking lot but it is large enough to      With hardly any prior skills in agriculture
                                                                                         enable 20 families to experience eating      he set up a vegetable production with
                                                                                         the vegetables they produce from time        better efficiency compared to family
                                                                                         to time and to organize more than 20         gardening and traditional small farms (i.e.
                                                                                         neighbourhood events around self-grown       larger land plots, irrigation, limited variety
                                                                                         food per year.                               of vegetables to match the demand…)
                                                                                                                                      but still keeping the fundamental assets
                                                                                                                                      of traditional quality food gardening.

                                                                                                                                                                                  CASE STUDY
28                                                                                                                                                                                        29
CASE STUDY                                                                                                                                                                     CASE STUDY

        EEMSTAD      This project shows one example for growing food on                      “GARDENS BANK”:       Since 2009, Ourense city council has been encouraging
                     temporarily unused land of the city. About 8 hectares (ha) are                                different projects pooling unused land for gardening. The
        BOERDERIJ,   now used for farming, ½ ha for potatoes, ¼ ha for pumpkins,             RECOVERING            organisation of such an innovative project, called “gardens
        AMERSFOORT   1 ha for lupines, 2,5 ha for cereals and 4 ha for hay. Products
                     find their way to the consumers in the city thanks to direct
                                                                                             FOOD                  bank”, relies on cooperation between landowners (in particular
                                                                                                                   people who moved away from these areas or elderly people
                     sales and sales to local farm stores and food purchasing                PRODUCTION            who cannot take care of their land and therefore generate risk
                     groups. Moreover, groups of people are invited to help with                                   of fire) with potential producers (in particular young people
                     harvesting their own produce, which they have to pay for.               AREAS IN THE          suffering from high levels of unemployment). The municipality
                     School classes are invited to help harvesting too.
                                                                                             OUTSKIRTS OF          proposed to relieve the landowners of the fire fines if they
                                                                                                                   lend the land they do not use for market gardening to young
                                                                                             OURENSE               entrepreneurs.
                                                                                                                   In order to ensure market access and boost this suburban
                                                                                                                   food production the municipality focuses on the rehabilitation
                                                                                                                   of two traditional markets as ‘food hubs’ for the population
                                                                                                                   of the city, developing social life around the traditional
                                                                                                                   markets, enhancing local food use among the small bars and
                                                                                                                   restaurants around these markets, and offering free public
                                                                                                                   transport access for sellers and entrepreneurs coming to offer
                                                                                                                   their horticulture products at the local markets.
                                                                                       “Gardens Bank”:   RecoveringLikewise,
                                                                                                                     food production
                                                                                                                               the municipalityin  the outskirts
                                                                                                                                                attempts               of
                                                                                                                                                          to promote self-
                                                                                       Ourense                     consumption in sectors of the population with low incomes,
                                                                                                                   especially among producers themselves.
                                                                                                                   Today, Ourense has twelve orchards on production and a
                                                                                                                   waiting list of 24 citizens!

30                                                                                                                                                                                     31

                                                                                                     SUPER HALLE,   The Super Halle is an innovative concept of a grocery shop
                                                                                                                    based on sustainable food. It combines in one place: an
                                                                                                     LYON           organic shop, a producer shop (fresh produce direct their
                                                                                                                    farms), a restaurant and a food supply/distribution hub.
                                                                                                                    Those businesses, run by 4 independent companies or
                                                                                                                    cooperatives, are supporting each other. The restaurant and
                                                                                                                    organic shop are supplied by the producers, who also do
                                                                                                                    shifts at the shared cash desk. The organic shop doesn’t
                                                                                                                    sell what is available at the producer shop, instead offering
        FARO DOC FROM THE                           LANDWINKELS, SHOPS AT THE                                       complementary foodstuffs. This multifunctional system,

        CUPPARI HIGH SCHOOL,                        FARM GATE, AMERSFOORT                                           based on innovative cooperation and coordination schemes,
                                                                                                                    provides an interesting new business model and a unique
        MESSINA                                                                                                     shopping experience for their customers.

                                                    Marius Gorcea has been presented
        Passionate staff from the Agricultural      as one of the most outstanding
        Institute “Cuppari” devised a strategy      representatives of the 4000 farmers
        to address the school budget shortage:      registered in Vaslui City. Formerly a
        from teaching wine production they have     driver, he decided a couple years ago
        now extended their activities to produce    to set up a small market gardening
        quality wine and have recently launched     business. Supported by EU subsidies for
        a new faro DOC (of controlled origin) “S.   young farmers, he managed to pool 5000
        Placido” high quality wine with the first   m2 of land from 14 different owners.
        12000 bottles sold in 2014. They have       With hardly any prior skills in agriculture
        also opened a local wine tasting area and   he set up a vegetable production with
        plan to offer direct access for tourists    better efficiency compared to family
        from cruise ships passing through the       gardening and traditional small farms (i.e.
        Messina strait.                             larger land plots, irrigation, limited variety
                                                    of vegetables to match the demand…)
                                                    but still keeping the fundamental assets
                                                    of traditional quality food gardening.

32                                                                                                                                                                                          33
                                                                                                   citizens with food growing in a natural            not more than the actual quantities of food
                                                                                                   environment seems to provide solutions.            produced by urban agriculture initiatives.
                                                                                                   In particular, the experience of growing           Within a city the benefits of growing food

                                                                                                   food for oneself can be life-changing.             should be assessed taking in consideration
                                                                                                   Therefore, participating cities acknowledge        the whole urban system and accounting
                                                                                                   the indirect social and economic benefits          for indirect and collateral positive effects
                                                                                                   of recreational, educational or even               as well as direct contributions in terms of
                                                                                                   symbolic urban food gardening as much, if          effective agriculture production.
     For the participating cities, creating         of peri-urban farming to reinforce local
     space for food relates firstly to enabling     supply (see case studies p 21, 29, 30).        Insights for cities
     emerging economic activities and food-         The ‘Feed Bristol’ project combines both       - Promote all food growing initiatives ranging from food production, social inclusion, food
     related sustainable entrepreneurship. This     growing food and caring for wildlife (see      education, sustainable regeneration or artistic projects;
     includes:                                      case study p 28). It may also start as an      - Encourage enrichment of each initiative towards multi-purpose solutions and economy of
     - securing urban land/space to enable          arts project (see Herligheten Allotment        scope, when possible;
     growing food in the city;                      Gardens, Oslo), an educational initiative,     - Foster connections between them, exchanges and cross-fertilisation;
     - fostering the emergence of new urban         a pretext for new social connections or        - Provide greater visibility for such local food production initiatives, through events, signs,
     food businesses with innovative income         an activity facilitating social inclusion of   land made available in public areas, mapping.
     generation models;                             marginalised groups as for instance the
     - facilitating the development of a new        Prés Senty project in Lyon (see case study
                                                                                                                                                      Spanish region of Galicia promotes an
     shopping scene with innovative models          p 29). These different motivations tend
                                                                                                   3.2 Urban food businesses                          interesting project built around short food
     of intermediation between local food           to blur and most growing initiatives are
                                                                                                                                                      circuits (see case study p 31) fostering
     producers and city dwellers.                   multipurpose.
                                                                                                   New entrepreneurship related to                    both supply and demand at the same
                                                    This multipurpose characteristic is
                                                                                                   sustainable food in partner cities and in          time: the municipality facilitates the
     3.1 Growing food in the city                   fundamental to understanding the value of
                                                                                                   nearby suburban areas gives rise to new            emergence of youth entrepreneurship in
                                                    food gardening in cities, which is clearly
                                                                                                   and innovative income generation or                market gardening in nine villages around
     The trend of reclaiming urban space to         limited in terms of scale and volumes
                                                                                                   value creation models based on hybrid              the city generating jobs and suburban local
     grow food, observed in participating cities,   of food produced. Challenges include
                                                                                                   partnerships. It often involves a creative         food supply. In parallel, the municipality
     often involves initiatives born from very      re-engaging disadvantaged population
                                                                                                   mix of social innovation, public-private           encourages customer demand through the
     different motivations.                         groups in cooking fresh food from scratch
                                                                                                   partnerships, shared and collaborative             refurbishment of the old traditional markets
     Urban gardening might start as a               instead of living on more expensive
                                                                                                   economy beyond the classical social                of the city as an attractive fresh food hub
     production enterprise or a recreational        industrialised ready-made food, or shifting
                                                                                                   contract between public authorities, civil         with cafés and small restaurants.
     activity to engage people with food.           from overconsumption of junk food to
                                                                                                   society, businesses and citizens.                  The Cuppari agriculture high school in
     Several cities, encourage the development      more healthy choices. Reconnecting urban
                                                                                                   The city of Ourense for instance in the            Messina (see case study p 32) is a good

34                                                                                                                                                                                                   35
example of an even more complex and               income generation and value creation             The hybrid and multifunctional                 market with different producers serving
     interwoven multifunctional model. The             models requires cities to find space - not       nature of new sustainable food urban           on a weekly rota arrangement, an organic
     school’s integrated economic strategy             only physical space to establish the new         entrepreneurship induces a renewal of the      restaurant and take away and a vegetable
     promotes high quality regional food and           production businesses but also a widened         shopping scene in the partner cities. This     box scheme delivery point (see case study
     increased job opportunities. It connects          understanding of the public authorities’         concretely leads to a disintermediation        p 33).
     the use of winery teaching equipment of           role and administrative culture. The             (cutting out the middle man) between           In some partner cities an increasing
     the school to produce premium wine, the           municipality operates as a broker in the         producers and users and to a growing           number of vegetable basket or online
     development of a side business of selling         city to facilitate partnerships, to experiment   level of customer involvement in the quality   order schemes compete in flexibility and
     wine to compensate public school budget           with them and to secure public equity, fair      control and delivery of the services.          attractiveness for consumer attention,
     shortages, the promotion of regional              exchanges and forms of co-responsibility         This new shopping scene ranges from            providing information about the local
     products creating a wine tasting area in the      between involved players (Jégou &                well-known and developing forms of             producers to create a human connection.
     school to increase local tourism and the          Bonneau, 2014).                                  bulk food purchasing groups (GASAP in          This emerging shopping scene is
     enrichment of students’ experiences and                                                            Brussels, AMAP in Lyon, GAS in Messina,        changing food distribution opportunities
     skills.                                           3.3 New shopping scenes                          etc.) to a change in the traditional model     in the partner cities. Short circuits, direct
     Promoting these new multi-stakeholder                                                              of supermarkets, adapted by new                purchase by the producers, sales of
                                                                                                        entrepreneurs to welcome small local           organic or traditional farming products
                                                                                                        producers and ensure affordable quality        tend to increase the average food quality
                                                                                                        food (i.e. Plus Supermarket in Amersfoort).    and reduce packaging waste. However,
     Insights for cities                                                                                Half way between these extremes,               this kind of localised delivery in the city
     - Generate opportunities for stakeholders likely to take part in work on sustainable urban         suburban producers also create their           tends to be less optimised. The customer
     food to meet and liaise. Give preference to open events where unusual suspects are likely to       own distribution models to nearby urban        logistics (the duration and routes followed
     come rather than closed meetings where only official representatives are invited;                  areas. The Landwinkels’ network of shops       by individuals to visit different shops,
     - Adopt an active brokering role and seek out any promising partnerships. Dare to support          at the farm gate in the Netherlands (see       collect their purchase and bring them
     experimentations of new value creation models between public, private players and citizen          case study p 32) have developed a local        home) can be more complex and thus
     participation;                                                                                     co-operative brand supporting farmers in       potentially reduce the environmental
     - Let public actors take on an active role in fostering new sustainable food businesses            setting up professional shops to sell their    benefits.
     through ambitious calls for projects (i.e. open to citizens or new players in the food field),     products directly on site.
     mixes of funding opportunities (i.e. Public-Private Partnerships, crowd funding, etc.) and         An example of a new hybrid form of retail
     original partnerships (i.e. co-operative enterprise such as French SCIC société coopérative        is La Superhalle in Lyon combining several
     d’intérêt collectif, etc.);                                                                        related businesses in a former storage
     - Provide coaching and training according to the needs of entrepreneurs who wish to set up         building of on 800 m2 within an industrial
     a new sustainable food business (e.g. GreenTech Brussels) and existing food businesses             neighbourhood in the outskirts of the city:
     who wish to integrate sustainability aspects in their activities or acquire an environmental       an organic grocery area furnished with
     label to increase financial viability and environmental benefits.                                  shelves and bulk dispensers, a farmers’

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