Hiroshi TERADA Probing Proto- /Exo-Planetary Atmosphere with RAVEN/IRCS - (I) Organic Molecules in Protoplanetary Disks

 
Hiroshi TERADA Probing Proto- /Exo-Planetary Atmosphere with RAVEN/IRCS - (I) Organic Molecules in Protoplanetary Disks
Probing	
  Proto-­‐/Exo-­‐Planetary	
  
    Atmosphere	
  with	
  RAVEN/IRCS
              Hiroshi TERADA
           (Subaru Telescope, NAOJ)

     (I) Organic Molecules in Protoplanetary Disks
(II) Exo-Planetary Atmosphere in Transiting Systems
Hiroshi TERADA Probing Proto- /Exo-Planetary Atmosphere with RAVEN/IRCS - (I) Organic Molecules in Protoplanetary Disks
Basic	
  Concept
                                  ~	
  Mul&plicity	
  vs.	
  Simultaneity	
  ~
             ✓-­‐-­‐>	
  More	
  efficient	
  “survey	
  capability”
                       	
  Mul%ple	
  Observa%on

                    =>	
  Very	
  important	
  towards	
  
                    	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  more	
  mul%plicity	
  than	
  “2”	
  
                    	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  (30-­‐m	
  class	
  MOAO).

             ✓         	
  Simultaneous	
  Observa%on
                    	
  -­‐-­‐>	
  Simultaneity	
  could	
  be	
  essen%al	
  for	
  
                    	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  some	
  science	
  cases.
                    	
  =>	
  Should	
  be	
  unique	
  even	
  with	
  
                    	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  “2”	
  science	
  paths.
RAVEN 2nd Science Meeting @ Waikoloa on 2013/07/25                                 Hiroshi TERADA ( Subaru Telescope )
Hiroshi TERADA Probing Proto- /Exo-Planetary Atmosphere with RAVEN/IRCS - (I) Organic Molecules in Protoplanetary Disks
Advantage	
  of	
  RAVEN:
                                                         “Simultaneity”
                         Keyword:	
  Atmospheric	
  Calibra%on	
  at	
  IR
         1

       0.9
                                                                                  For	
  atmospheric	
  correc%on,
       0.8
                                                                                  a	
  reference	
  star	
  is	
  observed
                                                                                 with	
  similar	
  airmass,	
  loca%on	
  
                     J
       0.7

       0.6
                                                                                   on	
  the	
  sky,	
  and	
  close	
  %me	
  
                             H                                                                    interval.
                                          K
       0.5

       0.4
                                                                                 Simultaneous	
  observa%on	
  of
       0.3
                                                                                 the	
  reference	
  star	
  is	
  ul%mate
       0.2
                                                         L                         methodology	
  for	
  perfect	
  
       0.1
                                                                    M                    cancella%on	
  of	
  the	
  
         0
             0.951         1.5        2       2.5    3   3.5   4   4.5   5 5.5      atmosphere	
  condi%on..
RAVEN 2nd Science Meeting @ Waikoloa on 2013/07/25                                                      Hiroshi TERADA ( Subaru Telescope )
Hiroshi TERADA Probing Proto- /Exo-Planetary Atmosphere with RAVEN/IRCS - (I) Organic Molecules in Protoplanetary Disks
(I)	
  Organic	
  Molecules	
  in
  Protoplanetary	
  Disks
Annu. Rev. Astro. Astrophys. 2010.48:205-239. Downloaded from www
                         by KOKURITSU-TENMONDAI LIBRARY on 09/19/10. For pers
                                                                                                                   large dynamic range that is involved: the outer radius of a protoplanetary disk can be anywhere
                                                                                                                   from a few tens of astronomical units up to 1,000 AU or more, whereas the inner disk radius is
                               (I)	
  Organic	
  Molecule	
  in	
  Protoplanetary	
  Disks                         typically just a few stellar radii, i.e., of the order of 0.02 AU. This spans a factor of 104 –105 in
                                                                                                                   spatial scale. For each orbit of the outer disk, we have up to ten million orbits of the inner edge

                                       General	
  View	
  of	
  Protoplanetary	
  Disks                                                                                                ALMA
                                                                                                                                                                          Direct imaging (HST or 8-meter ground-based)
                                                                                                                                         Diffrac%on	
  Limits	
  (1-­‐-­‐3um)
                                                                                                                                                                                                 (sub-)mm: continuum
                           Nearest	
  High-­‐maa	
  starforming	
  region	
  (Orion)                                                                                                           + molecular rotation lines
            Nearby	
  molecular	
  cloud	
  (ex.	
  Taurus,	
  
                                                         Near-IRρ	
  Ointerferometry
                                                                        ph,,,)
                                                                                                                                                                                                  cu l a r	
   regi on
      Nearest	
  starforming	
  region	
  (ex.	
  TW	
  Hya)                                                                                                                                  ol e
                                                                                                                                                                                 Warm	
  M
                                                                                                                                      Mid-IR interferometry
                                                                                             Magnetospheric
                                                                                               accretion
                                                                                                              Pure gas disk        Dust inner rim
                                                                                                                                                         Planet-forming      Cold	
  mid-­‐plane Outer disk
                                                                                                                                                         region                                      (mass reservoir)
                                                                                                                                                                                     (Ice)
                                                                                                       0.03AU
                                                                                                       0.03 AU        0.1--1AU
                                                                                                                     0.1 .. 1 AU

                                                                                                                Near IR: continuum
                                                                                                                                                              10 AU
                                                                                                                                                              10AU
                                                                                             UV continuum, + atomic andNear-IR
                                                                                                                         molecular
                                                                                                                               dust lines
                                                                                          H-recombination lines         continuum
                                                                                                          Near-IR continuum                   Mid IR: continuum Mid-IR:                 (Sub)millimeter:
                                                                                                         (origin unclear so far)                            dust continuum
                                                                                                                                              + molecular lines                         dust continuum          100 AU
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 100AU
                IRCS + AO188 [NGS]                                                                      @ + atomic
                                                                                                              Orionlines (Br–γ)                            + molecular lines          + molecular rot-lines
                                                                                                        + occasional molecular                               (H2O, CO2, ... )
                                                                                                           lines (H2O, CO, OH)                       N
                 J,H,K’                                                                                            L’                            E
                                                                                                                                                                   Ground-­‐based	
  AO	
  works	
  well
                                                                                         Figure 1
                                                                                                                                                                                       in	
  
                                                                                         Pictogram of the structure and spatial scales of a protoplanetary disk. Note that the radial scale onN IR	
  
                                                                                                                                                                                               the     r
                                                                                                                                                                                                   x-axisegion.
                                                                                                                                                                                                          is not linear. Above the
                                                                                         pictogram shows which techniques can spatially resolve which scales. Below shows which kind of emission arises from which parts of
                                                                                         the disk.
                                                                                                                                                                  =>	
  Spectro-­‐Astrometry	
  w/	
  AO	
  
                                                                                                            206    Dullemond · Monnier
                                                                                                                                                                     is	
  a	
  hope	
  to	
  probe	
  the	
  inner	
  
                                                                                                                     0”.2 (88AU)                                                              region..
                                                                                                                               Terada+	
  2012
RAVEN 2nd Science Meeting @ Waikoloa on 2013/07/25                                                                                                                                                  Hiroshi TERADA ( Subaru Telescope )
direct Hubble Space Telescope images of such objects in silhouette against the background light in

                                                                                                    (I)	
  Organic	
  Molecule	
  in	
  Protoplanetary	
  Disks
                                                                                                                          the Orion Nebula (McCaughrean & O’Dell 1996), the observational and theoretical study of these
                                                                                                                          planetary birthplaces has experienced an enormous thrust, leading to a much better understanding
                                                                                                                          of what they are, what they look like, how they evolve, how they are formed, and how they are
                                                                                                                       Previous	
  Detec%ons
                                                                                                                          eventually dissipated. Although none of these aspects has yet been firmly understood in detail,
                                                                                                                          there is a consensus on the big picture. It is clear that protoplanetary disks are the remnants of
                                                                                                                                              Spitzer
                                                                                                                          the star-formation process. Excess angular momentum of the original parent cloud has to be shed Herschel
                                                                                                                          before most matter can assemble into a “tiny” object such as a star. Protostellar accretion disks (see
                                                                                                                                                    H2 HI   NeII           C2H2 HCN   OH    CO2

                                                                                                                          e.g., Hartmann 2009, for a review) are the most natural medium by which this angular momentum
      Keck	
  NIRSPEC
            Annu. Rev. Astro. Astrophys. 2010.48:205-239. Downloaded from www.annualreviews.org

                                                                                                                          can be extracted from the infalling material. When the star is mostly “finished” and makes its way
                                                                                                                                                              DK Tau

                                                                                                                          toward the main sequence, the remainder of this protostellar accretion disk is what constitutes a
                by KOKURITSU-TENMONDAI LIBRARY on 09/19/10. For personal use only.

                                                                                                                          protoplanetary disk: the cradle of a future planetary system.
                                                                                                                                                              RW Aur / 2

                                                                                                                             Protoplanetary disks have a rich structure, with very different physics playing a role in different
                                                                                                                                                              GI Tau

                                                                                                                          regions of the disk. A pictographic representation is shown in Figure 1. One can see the strikingly
                                                                                                                                                              BP Tau

                                                                                                                          large dynamic range that is involved: the outer radius of a protoplanetary disk can be anywhere
                                                                                                                                                              AA Tau

                                                                                                                          from a few tens of astronomical units up to 1,000 AU or more, whereas the inner disk radius is
                                                                                                                                                              GK Tau

                                                                                                                          typically just a few stellar radii, i.e., of the order of 0.02 AU. This spans a factor of 104 –105 in
                                                                                                                          spatial scale. For each orbit of the outer disk, we have up to ten million orbits of the inner edge
                                                                                                                                                              UY Aur

                                                                                                                                                              DO Tau

                                                                                                                                                              DG Tau / 2
                                                                                                                                                                                                           ALMA
                                                                                                                                                                                           Direct imaging (HST or 8-meter ground-based)Hogerheijde+	
  2011
                                                                                                                                                              V1331 Cyg

                                                                                                                                                              AS 353A

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      (sub-)mm: continuum
                                                                                                                                                                                      Carr+	
  2011                 + molecular rotation lines
                                                                                                                             Near-IR interferometry
                                                                                                                     Salyk+	
  2008
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            u l a r	
   regi on
                                                                                                                                             Mid-IR interferometry
                                                                                                                                                                                                            a rm 	
   M olec
                                                                                                    Magnetospheric
                                                                                                                                                                                                      W
                                                                                                      accretion
                                                                                                                     Pure gas disk        Dust inner rim
                                                                                                                                                                   Planet-forming                 Cold	
  mid-­‐plane Outer disk
                                                                                                                                                                   region                                                     (mass reservoir)
                                                                                                                                                                                                          (Ice)
                                                                                                             0.03 AU
                                                                                                             0.03AU         0.1 .. 1 AU
                                                                                                                             0.1--1AU

                                                                                                                        Near IR: continuum
                                                                                                                                                                             10 AU
                                                                                                                                                                             10AU
                                                                                                     UV continuum, + atomic andNear-IR
                                                                                                                                 molecular
                                                                                                                                       dust lines
                                                                                                  H-recombination lines         continuum
                                Near-IR continuum                                                                                                     Mid IR: continuum Mid-IR:                              (Sub)millimeter:
                               (origin unclear so far)                                                                                                              dust continuum
                                                                                                                                                      + molecular lines                                      dust continuum          100AU
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    100 AU
RAVEN 2nd Science Meeting @ Waikoloa  on 2013/07/25
                                + atomic lines (Br–γ)                                                                                                              + molecular lines                       + molecular rot-lines   Hiroshi TERADA ( Subaru Telescope )
(I)	
  Organic	
  Molecule	
  in	
  Protoplanetary	
  Disks:
                                   Near	
  IR	
  (~3um)	
  Wavelengths

                                        Example of a Single IRCS Echelle Setting

                                                                                     Suitable for tracing
                                                                                   warm molecular volatile
                                                                                           gases.

                                                                                   Sensitive for temperature
                                                                                          (100--100K)
                                                                                     ==>
(I)	
  Organic	
  Molecule	
  in	
  Protoplanetary	
  Disks:
                                        Difficul%es	
  in	
  Detec%on

                                                                                          DR Tau - NIRSPEC
                                                                     Sect. 1
                                                                                   0.10

                                                                                           Tell. Mod. x 1/33
                                                                                   0.05

                                                                      Flux (Jy)
                                                                                   0.00
                                                                                                     Final Resids
                                                                                                     1-sigma Noise
                                                                                  -0.05

                                                                                                      2.950           2.955                     2.960               2.965

                                                                                                                              Wavelength (µm)

                                                                     Sect. 2
                                                                                  0.10

                                                                                                                                                             H2O, 900 K Combined Model
                                                                                  0.05                                                                       OH, 900 K

                                                                      Flux (Jy)
                                                                                                                                                             HCN, 900 K
                                                                                                                                                             C2H2, 900 K

                                                                                  0.00

                                                                                  -0.05

                                                                                                  2.970              2.975                       2.980                      2.985

                                                                                                                              Wavelength (µm)

                                                                                                                                                        Mandell+	
  2012
                                                     Gibb+	
  2007

RAVEN 2nd Science Meeting @ Waikoloa on 2013/07/25                                                                                 Hiroshi TERADA ( Subaru Telescope )
(I)	
  Organic	
  Molecule	
  in	
  Protoplanetary	
  Disks:
                                       Example	
  of	
  IRCS	
  Result

                                                      (b) PDS 144N

  PDS 144N                                             1

                                                           2006-02-07-UT

                                                           2008-02-18-UT

                                                     0.5
                                                           2008-06-12-UT

                                                                  3        3.2   3.4      3.6     3.8      4

                                                                                   Terada+	
  2013	
  in	
  prep.	
  
RAVEN 2nd Science Meeting @ Waikoloa on 2013/07/25                                     Hiroshi TERADA ( Subaru Telescope )
(I)	
  Organic	
  Molecule	
  in	
  Protoplanetary	
  Disks:
                                         Concept	
  for	
  Detec%on
                             On-sky
                                   NGS                                     IRCS Slit (Echelle)

                                                     4”
                                                          4”
                                                                                      4”          4”
                                                               •      Simultaneous	
  spectroscopy
                                              NGS              • PA	
  can	
  be	
  selected	
  independently
             NGS                                               •  Foreground	
  contribu%on	
  can	
  be	
  
                                                               excluded	
  when	
  the	
  reference	
  is	
  in	
  the	
  
                                                                               same	
  cloud....
                               3.’5
RAVEN 2nd Science Meeting @ Waikoloa on 2013/07/25                                             Hiroshi TERADA ( Subaru Telescope )
(I)	
  Organic	
  Molecule	
  in	
  Protoplanetary	
  Disks:
                                    Example	
  of	
  Actual	
  Target

        d294-606                                     R~8.15@58”

                  1”.28 x 1”.28                                                R~6.41@64”

                                                                                                 Several	
  more
                                                                                                  targets	
  are
                                                                                                  available	
  in	
  
      HST / ACS          F658N

                  2”.06x 2”.06
                                                                                                 this	
  region!!
                                                                  R~9.47@22”

      IRCS+AO188             K’
                                                                               VISTA	
  J,H,Ks

RAVEN 2nd Science Meeting @ Waikoloa on 2013/07/25                                                Hiroshi TERADA ( Subaru Telescope )
(I)	
  Organic	
  Molecule	
  in	
  Protoplanetary	
  Disks:
                                                 Resolving	
  the	
  wavelength	
  issue...

    RAVEN	
  1st	
  Science	
  Mee>ng	
  @	
  Tohoku	
  University                                                                                         • CaF2	
  Exit	
  relay	
  lens
                                                                                                                                                            designed/fabricated
                                (I),Organic,Molecule,in,Protoplanetary,Disks:
                                            Issues!to!be!considered
                                                                                                                                                               Thanks,	
  Olivier!!
                                                                                                                                                           • Switch	
  the	
  relay	
  lens	
  
                   RAVEN is not designed forthermal infrared bands (> 3.0um)                                                                                 only	
  when	
  thermal	
  
                                                           # ,while IRCS covers 0.9--5.5um.

                                       Table 1. Top Level Raven Requirements
                                                                                                      Transmittance and emissivity
                                                                                                                                                              observa%ons	
  are	
  
              Parameter
              AO System
              Calibration System
                                              Requirement
                                              MOAO operation with tomographic reconstructor
                                              Capable of testing MOAO during daytime and in lab
                                                                                                        around 3.0um: unknown
                                                                                                                                                                     planned.	
  
                                                                                                                                                           • S%ll	
  needs	
  to	
  be	
  
              Science Instrument
                                              Capable of feeding IRCS in imaging, grism and       Might be worthy of trying observations
                                              Echelle modes
              Science spectral range          0.9-2.5 microns
                                                                                                         at these wavelengths....
              # of science channels           2

                                                                                                                                                              confirmed	
  for	
  the	
  
              # of WFS                        3 NGS + 1 on-axis LGS
              Field of Regard                 3.5 arcminutes diameter
              Science Field of View           4 arcseconds diameter per science pick-off

                                                                                                                                                              thermal	
  infrared	
  
              Delievered EE                   >30% in 140mas in H-band for r0=15 cm
                                              >0.32 in H-band, telescope and IRCS excluded (80%
              Throughput
                                              of AO188 throughput)                                 Only!hot!water!
              Image rotation                  Ability to align each source to the IRCS slit          emission

                                                                                                                                                           performance	
  because	
  
              Zenith angle
(II)	
  Exo-­‐Planetary	
  
   Atmosphere	
  in	
  
Transi^ng	
  Systems	
  
(II)	
  Exo-­‐Planetary	
  Atmosphere	
  in	
  Transi^ng	
  System:	
  
                                         Theory	
  for	
  Detec%on

                   Star

                                    Transiting Planet
 Molecular Atmosphere
    around Planet
                                                        Required	
  Precision	
  ~	
  10(-­‐4)

RAVEN 2nd Science Meeting @ Waikoloa on 2013/07/25                          Hiroshi TERADA ( Subaru Telescope )
(II)	
  Exo-­‐Planetary	
  Atmosphere	
  in	
  Transi^ng	
  System:	
  
                                     Observa%onal	
  Achievements	
  
             First	
  detec>on	
  w/	
  HST	
  STIS
                     NaD	
  line:	
  HD	
  209458

                                                        Ground-­‐based	
  detec>on	
  
                                                             w/	
  VLT	
  FORS
                                                            Op^cal	
  Spectroscopy
                                                                GJ	
  1214b

                                 Charbonneau+	
  2002                                               Bean+	
  2010
RAVEN 2nd Science Meeting @ Waikoloa on 2013/07/25                                       Hiroshi TERADA ( Subaru Telescope )
(II)	
  Exo-­‐Planetary	
  Atmosphere	
  in	
  Transi^ng	
  System:	
  
                                       Ground-­‐based	
  Trial	
  in	
  IR	
  

                  Ground-­‐based	
  IR	
  detec>on	
  
                    w/	
  Magellan	
  +	
  MMIRS
                   Infrared	
  K-­‐band	
  Spectroscopy
                                 GJ	
  1214b

                                                                                  Bean+	
  2011
RAVEN 2nd Science Meeting @ Waikoloa on 2013/07/25                     Hiroshi TERADA ( Subaru Telescope )
(II)	
  Exo-­‐Planetary	
  Atmosphere	
  in	
  Transi^ng	
  System:	
  
                                       Ground-­‐based	
  Trial	
  in	
  IR	
  

                                                     Miller-­‐Ricci	
  Kempton,	
  Zahnle,	
  Fortney	
  2012
RAVEN 2nd Science Meeting @ Waikoloa on 2013/07/25                                        Hiroshi TERADA ( Subaru Telescope )
(II)	
  Exo-­‐Planetary	
  Atmosphere	
  in	
  Transi^ng	
  System:	
  
                                       Keys	
  to	
  Achieve	
  “10(-­‐4)”	
  	
  

                              Especially for IR, it’s so difficult..

     a.            S%ck	
  the	
  target	
  exactly	
  at	
  the	
  same	
  loca%on	
  of	
  
                                         the	
  detector.
          =>	
  Uncertainty	
  of	
  “ununiform	
  sensi%vity”	
  in	
  the	
  infrared	
  
                         detector	
  has	
  to	
  be	
  eliminated.
     b. Increase	
  the	
  S/N	
  using	
  over-­‐sampling	
  of	
  the	
  object.
                    =>	
  Usually	
  defocused	
  image	
  is	
  used.
     c.           “Simultaneously”	
  observe	
  the	
  reference.
          =>	
  Eliminate	
  variability	
  of	
  atmospheric	
  absorp%on

RAVEN 2nd Science Meeting @ Waikoloa on 2013/07/25                             Hiroshi TERADA ( Subaru Telescope )
(II)	
  Exo-­‐Planetary	
  Atmosphere	
  in	
  Transi^ng	
  System:	
  
                                        Concept	
  for	
  Detec%on

1. Use AO to keep the star very effectively
   at the same location of the infrared array.
    => atmospheric dispersion correction (software should be enough)
2. Too sharp image should lose S/N. +
   Defocused image before the slit will lose the photon.
    => IRCS Prism is used.
    => After the slit, the photon will distribute over wider area of the array.

                                                                                K

                                                                                      ~50pix
                                                                                L
                                                Takato	
  &	
  Terada	
  2006
RAVEN 2nd Science Meeting @ Waikoloa on 2013/07/25                                  Hiroshi TERADA ( Subaru Telescope )
(II)	
  Exo-­‐Planetary	
  Atmosphere	
  in	
  Transi^ng	
  System:	
  
                                       Example	
  of	
  Actual	
  Target
          CoRoT-1b

              R~13.3@67”

                                                     R~13.04@34”
                             R~12.21@30”
                                                                              Many	
  targets	
  should	
  
                                                                              be	
  able	
  to	
  be	
  found
                                                            2MASS	
  J,H,Ks
RAVEN 2nd Science Meeting @ Waikoloa on 2013/07/25                                          Hiroshi TERADA ( Subaru Telescope )
(II)	
  Exo-­‐Planetary	
  Atmosphere	
  in	
  Transi^ng	
  System:	
  
                                              S%ll	
  Require	
  Feasibility	
  Studies

    RAVEN	
  1st	
  Science	
  Mee>ng	
  @	
  Tohoku	
  University
                                                                                            Currently	
  checking	
         •
              (II),Exo7Planetary,Atmosphere,in,Transi[ng,System:,
                                                                                         CoRoT-­‐1b	
  data.	
  In	
  one	
  
                             Issues!and!Feasibility!Studies
                                                                                          month,	
  first	
  es%mate	
  
             No one has achieved yet such a high precision ~10(-4)
                              measurement in IR...                                                will	
  come.
      ✴ Method!should!be!examined
                                             I tried the feasibility study by using      •    HIP-­‐HIP	
  binary	
  
            !!w/!on0sky!tes%ng
                                             Hipparcos binary on Nov.17th, but
                                               terrible weather prevented from            tes%ng	
  w/	
  the	
  Prism	
  
                                         the successful testing.... Trial will continue.
      ✴ Close!(
(II)	
  Exo-­‐Planetary	
  Atmosphere	
  in	
  Transi^ng	
  System:	
  
                                     S%ll	
  Require	
  Feasibility	
  Studies
 CoRoT-1b

                    R~12.21@30”

RAVEN 2nd Science Meeting @ Waikoloa on 2013/07/25                    Hiroshi TERADA ( Subaru Telescope )
Summary

         ✓Simultaneity:	
  A	
  key	
  for	
  showing	
  RAVEN’s	
  
                unique	
  science!
         ✓	
  To	
  detect	
  “Organic	
  Molecule	
  in	
  
                Protoplanetary	
  Disks”:	
  Wavelength	
  
                limita%ons	
  should	
  be	
  s%ll	
  carefully	
  inspected.
         ✓        	
  “Exo-­‐Planetary	
  Atmosphere	
  in	
  Transit”:	
  
                Feasibility	
  study	
  is	
  definitely	
  required.

RAVEN 2nd Science Meeting @ Waikoloa on 2013/07/25             Hiroshi TERADA ( Subaru Telescope )
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