Inquiry-based learning in the university context: A systematic review* - Revista ...

Page created by Nicole Yang
Inquiry-based learning in the university context:
                    A systematic review*
        El aprendizaje basado en la investigación en el
        contexto universitario: una revisión sistemática
Lidia E. SANTANA-VEGA, PhD. Professor. Universidad de La Laguna (
Arminda SUÁREZ-PERDOMO, PhD. Assistant Professor. Universidad de La Laguna (
Luis FELICIANO-GARCÍA, PhD. Associate Professor. Universidad de La Laguna (

Abstract:                                                      2) engaging students in self-learning, and 3)
    Inquiry-Based Learning (IBL) is a method-                  increasing critical thinking. Its weaknesses
ology that enhances learning through a                         include: 1) the inability to meet learning ex-

                                                                                                                             year 78, n. 277, September-December 2020, 519-537
knowledge construction process. The aim                        pectations, and 2) the reluctance of university
of this study is to establish how IBL is used                  hierarchies to embrace IBL. The potential of
and what effects it has on university students                 IBL as a teaching strategy at university lev-
from social sciences and health sciences. This                 el is discussed as it allows deep knowledge
study follows the PRISMA guidelines for con-                   construction, increased learning motivation,
ducting systematic reviews. It comprises an                    and development of students’ research skills
analysis of 31 studies extracted from four                     as well as their self-learning, self-confidence,

                                                                                                                                                   revista española de pedagogía
electronic databases and reference lists on                    critical thinking, and academic performance.
the topic, published in English between 1998-                  IBL favours meaningful learning by university
2019. The results show that the strengths of                   students by offering a space for the creation of
IBL are: 1) promoting cooperative learning,                    knowledge stimulated by the inquiry process.

* This work is part of a larger project funded by the European Commission (Education, Audiovisual and Culture Executive
Agency, EACEA), REFLECT LAB: Supporting lecturers in applying inquiry based learning (2016-DE01-KA203-002891).
Erasmus+ Strategic Partnerships in the field of higher education. This publication reflects the views only of the authors,
and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein.

Revision accepted: 2020-06-22.
This is the English version of an article originally printed in Spanish in issue 277 of the revista española de pedagogía.
For this reason, the abbreviation EV has been added to the page numbers. Please, cite this article as follows: Santana-
Vega, L. E., Suárez-Perdomo, A., Feliciano-García, L. (2020). El aprendizaje basado en la investigación en el contexto
universitario: una revisión sistemática | Inquiry-based learning in the university context: A systematic review. Revista
Española de Pedagogía, 78 (277), 519-537. doi:                                               ISSN: 0034-9461 (Print), 2174-0909 (Online)

                                                                                                                             519 EV

                                                    Keywords: inquiry-based learning, college         autoaprendizaje, y 3) el aumento de un pen-
                                                    students, teaching methods, active learning,      samiento crítico. Entre sus debilidades se se-
                                                    systematic review, PRISMA.                        ñalan:1) la incapacidad de cubrir las expec-
                                                                                                      tativas de aprendizaje, y 2) las reticencias de
                                                                                                      las estructuras universitarias hacia el ABI. A
                                                    Resumen:                                          partir de estos resultados se discute el valor
                                                        El aprendizaje basado en la investigación     del ABI como estrategia didáctica en la uni-
                                                    (ABI) es una metodología que potencia los         versidad, en la medida en que permite pro-
                                                    aprendizajes mediante un proceso de cons-         fundizar en la construcción del conocimiento,
                                                    trucción del conocimiento. La finalidad del       incrementar la motivación de aprendizaje, de-
                                                    estudio era conocer cómo se está aplicando        sarrollar las habilidades de investigación, el
                                                    el ABI y sus efectos en estudiantes univer-       autoaprendizaje, la autoconfianza, el pensa-
                                                    sitarios de ciencias sociales y de la salud. El   miento crítico, y el rendimiento académico. El
                                                    método para realizar la revisión sistemáti-       ABI favorece el aprendizaje significativo en el
                                                    ca ha seguido las directrices de la declara-      alumnado universitario al ofrecer un espacio
                                                    ción PRISMA. Se analizaron un total de 31         de creación de conocimiento estimulado por
                                                    estudios extraídos de cuatro bases de datos       el proceso de indagación.
                                                    electrónicas y listas de referencias sobre el
                                                    tópico, publicados en inglés entre 1998-2019.     Descriptores: aprendizaje basado en la in-
year 78, n. 277, September-December 2020, 519-537

                                                    Los resultados mostraron como fortalezas del      vestigación, alumnado universitario, métodos
                                                    ABI: 1) la promoción del aprendizaje coope-       de enseñanza, aprendizaje activo, revisión sis-
                                                    rativo; 2) el compromiso del alumnado en su       temática, PRISMA.

                                                    1. Introduction
revista española de pedagogía

                                                                                                      Angelo, Matthews, O’Steen, & Robertson
                                                        Inquiry-based learning (IBL) encom-           2007). IBL is a promising approach for
                                                    passes a variety of teaching focuses de-          improving teaching and learning process-
                                                    riving from the perspectives of Dewey             es in universities.
                                                    and Bruner (Herman & Pinard, 2015)
                                                    who argue that inquiry is at the centre               IBL promotes a pedagogy centred
                                                    of tasks, the use of resources, and learn-        on the student as an agent who actively
                                                    ing instructions. IBL sets students chal-         seeks out and constructs knowledge (Hea-
                                                    lenges that: a) catalyse their engagement         ley & Jenkins, 2009; Justice, Rice, & War-
                                                    and participation, b) promote experien-           ry, 2009; Sproken-Smith & Walker, 2010).
                                                    tial learning, and c) stimulate exploration       The importance of inquiry-based pedago-
                                                    and the search for solutions (Aditomo,            gies resides in fostering students’ capac-
                                                    Goodyear, Bliuc, & Ellis, 2013; Levy, Ai-         ity to adopt learning strategies that use
                                                    yegbayo, & Little, 2009; Oliver, 2008;            inquiry techniques and tools, allowing
                                                    Prince & Felder, 2007; Spronken-Smith,            them to construct their own knowledge
520 EV
Inquiry-based learning in the university context: A systematic review

in greater depth (Levy & Petrulis, 2012).        how the link between teaching and re-
In IBL: a) scientific enquiry is built into      search is built:
the teaching-learning process; b) teach-
ing focusses on the learner; c) learning         a) Research-led. The curriculum is domi-
is stimulated by inquiry when questions             nated by the interests of teaching staff
or doubts arise; d) teaching staff play a           who set the information transmission
role as knowledge facilitators; e) learning         model. Students learn about the re-
is the outcome of a knowledge construc-             sults of research.
tion process that fosters cognition and
metacognition; f) self-directed learning is      b) Research-oriented. Teachers attempt
stimulated (Aditomo et al., 2013; Levy &            to create a research ethic through
Petrulis, 2012; Spronken-Smith & Walk-              teaching; the curriculum emphasises
er, 2010; Justice et al., 2007; Kahn &              knowledge-production processes and
O’Rourke, 2004).                                    the learning achieved. Students learn
                                                    through the research process.
    IBL provides students with a broad
social scaffolding and guidance for man-         c) Research-based. The division between
aging their inquiry (Hmelo-Silver, Dun-             the roles of student and teacher is mi-
can, & Chinn, 2007); it promotes active             nimised. The curriculum is largely de-

                                                                                               year 78, n. 277, September-December 2020, 519-537
learning with positive effects on students’         signed around inquiry-based activities.
achievements and their attitudes towards            Students learn as researchers.
research (Maass & Engeln, 2018); it stim-
ulates their problem-solving capacity,           d) Research-tutored. Students learn on
critical thinking, and reflection on learn-         the basis of the results of research,
ing (Bruder & Prescott, 2013; Minner,               formulated in small discussion groups
Levy, & Century, 2010); it fosters uni-             with a teacher who facilitates the pro-

                                                                                                                     revista española de pedagogía
versity students’ research competence               cess.
and training, improving the quality of
what they learn and the process of peer              According to Healey (2005), the cur-
collaboration (Bevins & Price, 2016); it         riculum must be redesigned to make the
promotes better understanding of sub-            research-teaching nexus practical, plan-
jects among students, as they accept the         ning a teaching process centred on stu-
challenges their academic training in-           dents as the authors of their own learn-
volves (Åkerlind, 2008; Brew, 2003; Hea-         ing. IBL has mainly been implemented in
ley & Jenkins, 2009; Hunter, Laursen,            science subjects such as maths, physics,
& Seymour, 2007); and it increases their         and biology. Systematic review studies
academic writing skills (Justice, Rice, &        of the application of IBL with university
Warry, 2009).                                    students from social and/or healthcare
                                                 courses are rare. In order to estab-
   Griffiths (2004) and Healey (2005)            lish how IBL is applied in these cours-
identify four IBL modes depending on             es, we performed a study following the
                                                                                               521 EV

                                                    guidelines from the PRISMA statement           tence-Based Learning” are excluded; b)
                                                    for performing systematic reviews and          the study population must be university
                                                    meta-analyses (Liberati et al., 2009).         students; studies focussing on non-uni-
                                                    The objectives of this study are:              versity students are rejected; c) the date
                                                                                                   range of the publications included in the
                                                    1. To identify the duration, source, and       review must be 1998-2019; articles pub-
                                                       methodological characteristics of the       lished before then are excluded; d) the
                                                       studies analysed.                           selected publications must be limited to
                                                                                                   the fields of social sciences (education,
                                                    2. To examine the type of IBL mode used.       psychology, anthropology, social work,
                                                                                                   etc.) and health sciences (medicine,
                                                    3. To analyse the objectives of the studies    nursing, physiotherapy, etc.); articles fo-
                                                       on the implementation of IBL and its        cussing on qualifications from other ar-
                                                       effects on social science and health sci-   eas of knowledge are excluded; e) the ar-
                                                       ence students.                              ticles must be written in English; those
                                                                                                   written in other languages are excluded.
                                                    4. To analyse the limitations of the stud-
                                                       ies.                                            The systematic review was carried out
                                                                                                   using various online databases: ERIC,
year 78, n. 277, September-December 2020, 519-537

                                                                                                   Web of Science, Current Contents Con-
                                                    2. Method                                      nect, MEDLINE, PsycArticles, Academ-
                                                    2.1. Search and eligibility criteria           ic Search Complete, and PsycInfo. These
                                                       To search for publications about the        databases were selected for their rele-
                                                    use of IBL with university students            vance as they contain scientific articles
                                                    from the social sciences and health            published in indexed journals. To identify
                                                    sciences, we proposed a series of inclu-       the search terms relating to the topic to be
revista española de pedagogía

                                                    sion and exclusion criteria: a) articles       studied, we performed a preliminary liter-
                                                    must specifically state the use of active      ature search and consulted experts in IBL.
                                                    methodologies such as IBL; articles            We performed an iterative search in each
                                                    that only mention “Research Teaching           database, combining the two sets of terms
                                                    Nexus”, “Learning Strategies”, ”Compe-         shown in Graph 1.

                                                                               Graph 1. Truncated search strategy.

                                                    Source: Own elaboration.
522 EV
Inquiry-based learning in the university context: A systematic review

   We used thesaurus terms (Graph 2) in the       entries with the exact terms, according to the
databases that offer this search option to find   inclusion criteria established in the study.

                        Graph 2. Thesaurus terms search strategy.

Source: Own elaboration.

2.2. Data collection and analysis proce-              specifying: the reference of the study;
dure                                                  the reason for selection; title and/or
   The steps in this search were:                     abstract (university population, social
                                                      sciences or health sciences, IBL); year
1. Establishing truncated search terms                of publication. Finally, their suitabil-
   and thesaurus terms to limit the search-           ity was determined for subsequent

                                                                                                   year 78, n. 277, September-December 2020, 519-537
   es in accordance with the objectives of            analysis.
   the study.
                                                  6. Verifying the degree of accuracy of the
2. Searching for entries in the selected             data extracted in the selection of ar-
   databases.                                        ticles.

3. Ordering the entries obtained by rele-             After a preliminary search in each da-

                                                                                                                         revista española de pedagogía
   vance. When the number of search re-           tabase, we found that PsycArticle, Aca-
   sults exceeded 100 entries, we used the        demic Search Complete, and PsycInfo did
   following filters to reduce the number:        not return results that fitted what we
   works subjected to double blind review;        wanted, and so we decided to eliminate
   full texts with links; works from the          them from the study. The search of the
   1998-2019 period; works published in           four remaining databases gave a total of
   English in academic journals.                  679,478 entries (Graph 3). After adjust-
                                                  ing the search on the basis of the filters
4. Carrying out a second selection of the en-     described in step 3, the number of entries
   tries retrieved, using the title and/or abs-   was reduced to 2,230. Of these entries,
   tract as the criteria and excluding ones       2,189 were rejected as they did not match
   that do not match the thematic area.           the inclusion criteria. Once we had car-
                                                  ried out the selection, we reviewed the
5. Making a data extraction sheet for             complete texts of the 41 remaining stud-
   each article with the inclusion criteria       ies. Of these, 29 met the inclusion cri-
                                                                                                   523 EV

                                                    teria. After reviewing the references in        Each of the selected articles was ana-
                                                    the selected articles, we decided to add 4   lysed based on the following questions:
                                                    more works to the study as they fulfilled
                                                    these criteria. Finally, in the systematic   1. What are the origin, duration, and method-
                                                    review we analysed 31 articles describing       ological characteristics of the studies?
                                                    the application of IBL in social science
                                                    and health science courses.                  2. What IBL mode do they use?

                                                                           Graph 3. Systematic Search Procedure.
year 78, n. 277, September-December 2020, 519-537
revista española de pedagogía

                                                    Source: Own elaboration.

524 EV
Inquiry-based learning in the university context: A systematic review

3. What type of objectives are set and           evaluating students’ progress, starting
   what are the effects on the students?         with a conventional methodology and
                                                 gradually introducing the IBL method-
4. What are the limitations of the studies       ology (Zafra-Gómez, Román-Martínez,
   analysed?                                     & Gómez-Miranda, 2015). Kienzler and
                                                 Fontanesi (2017) propose a step-by-step
                                                 study in which: 1) small groups of students
3. Results and discussion                        were created who formulated a well-struc-
3.1. Duration, origin, and methodologi-          tured research challenge relating to KTE
cal characteristics of the studies               (Knowledge, Translation and Exchange)
    Of the studies analysed, 16% were            with the aim of breaching the “knowledge
carried out over one semester, 22% over          to action” barrier; 2) the students present-
an academic year, 25% in a few sessions          ed their challenges to the working groups
or months, 12% over several years, and           for critical discussion; 3) they chose the
25% did not state the duration of the in-        challenges to continue to investigate; 4)
tervention. Regarding the country where          the challenges were discussed in a work-
the studies were performed, 29% were car-        shop; 5) the learning process was evaluat-
ried out in England, 19% in the USA, 12%         ed using a feedback form halfway through
in Australia, 9% in Spain, another 9% in         the course and at the end of it.

                                                                                                year 78, n. 277, September-December 2020, 519-537
Turkey, and the remaining 22% in China,
Thailand, Canada, Iran, New Zealand, In-             b) Qualitative studies. Of these, 50%
donesia, and Saudi Arabia, with only one         were descriptive, 22% were single-case
study from each of these countries. Re-          studies, 14% ethnographic, and 14% were
garding the main methodological charac-          interpretative. The main characteristic of
teristics of the studies, 36% used a quan-       the qualitative studies was the time dedi-
titative methodology, 48% were qualitative       cated to the teaching programme or pro-

                                                                                                                      revista española de pedagogía
studies, and 16% used a mixed methodol-          cess (Barbera, García, & Fuertes-Alpiste
ogy (Table 1).                                   2017; Ghahremani-Ghajar, Mohammadi
                                                 Doostdar, & Sadegh Mirhosseini, 2012;
    a) Quantitative studies. Of these, 84%       Levy & Petrulis, 2012; Tatar, 2015). For
are experimental, 8% quasi-experimen-            example, the aim of the study by Justice
tal, and 8% descriptive. The quantitative        et al. (2009) was to investigate the use
studies are generally: 1) experimental,          of IBL at McMaster University (Cana-
with a control group and an experimen-           da) since 1979; the informants were the
tal group, using pretest-posttest analy-         teaching staff, administrative staff, and
sis with standardised questionnaires in a        instructors who were interviewed to es-
limited experimentation time (Irwanto,           tablish first-hand the experience of adapt-
Saputro, & Prodjosantoso, 2018; Konok-           ing IBL. Barbera et al. (2017) and Levy
man & Yelken, 2016; Piyayodilokchai,             et al. (2009) carried out single-case stud-
Panjaburee, Laosinchai, Ketpichainarong,         ies, focussed on the information obtained
& Ruenwongsa, 2013); 2) longitudinal,            from key respondents through interviews.
                                                                                                525 EV
revista española de pedagogía
                            year 78, n. 277, September-December 2020, 519-537

526 EV
                                       Table 1. Methodological characteristics, country, and duration of the studies analysed.
              Authors                 IBL mode            Research         Methodology    Participants                           University/Country           Duration
         1    Aditomo et al.          Research-Based      Experimental     Quantitative   224 Teachers from Various Disci-       Sandstone, Unitech, and      Not Specified
              (2013)                                                                      plines (62% from Soc. Sci.)            Gumtree, Australia
         2    Akgul (2006)*           Research-Oriented   Descriptive      Qualitative    35 Primary Education Degree            Medipol, Turkey              Spring 2001
         3    Azer et al. (2013)      Research-Tutored    Experimental     Quantitative   981 Students Faculty of Medicine       King Saud, Saudi Arabia      Not Specified
         4    Barbera et al. (2017)   Research-Led        Single Case      Qualitative    2 Volunteer Students, 1 Teacher        Oberta de Catalunya, Spain   1 Academic Year
                                                                                          Online Tourism Degree
         5    Bolton et al. (2009)    Research-Based      Experimental;    Mixed          90 Students (Business Admin.; Fami-    Florida, USA                 4 months
                                                          Descriptive                     ly, Youth, & Community Sciences)
         6    Brown (2010)*           Research-Oriented   Experimental     Quantitative   217 Students Medical Chemistry         East Tennessee State, USA    Autumn 2007
         7    Bugarci et al. (2012)   Research-Oriented   Experimental     Quantitative   120 Students Biomedical Sciences       Queensland, Australia        One Semester
         8    Deignam (2009)          Research-Oriented   Single Case;     Mixed          16 Tutors, 9 Students from 8 Higher    Manchester, England          Not Specified
                                                          Experimental                    Education Centres
         9    Ghahremani-Ghajar       Research-Oriented   Ethnographic     Qualitative    120 Third-Semester Medicine            University of Tehran, Iran   2002-2006
              et al. (2012)                                                               Students
         10   Gros and López          Research-Led        Exploratory      Quantitative   6 Lecturers from Different Faculties   Oberta de Catalunya and      Not Specified
              (2016)*                                                                                                            Barcelona, Spain
         11   Healey et al. (2010)*   Research-Based      Single Case;     Mixed          200 Students                           Gloucestershire, England     Not Specified
         12   Horne et al. (2007)     Research-Led        Descriptive      Qualitative    15 Nursing Educators / 121 Students    Manchester, England          15 Weeks
         13   Hosein and Rao          Research-Oriented   Interpretative   Qualitative    16 Students Education Faculty          Liverpool Hope, England      1 Academic Year
         14   Irwanto et al. (2018)   Research-Tutored    Quasi-Experi-    Quantitative   48 2nd-Year Students                   Muhammadiyah Ponorogo,       One Semester
                                                          mental                                                                 Indonesia
         15   Ji and Bo (2017)        Research-Oriented   Experimental     Quantitative   53 Students                            Hubei University, China      One Semester
                                                                                                                                                                                Lidia E. SANTANA-VEGA, Arminda SUÁREZ-PERDOMO and Luis FELICIANO-GARCÍA

         16   Justice et al. (2009)   Research-Led/       Descriptive      Qualitative    Soc. Sci., Health Sci., and Humani-    McMaster, Canada             Since 1979
                                      Based                                               ties Students
17   Kienzler and Fonta-   Not Specified       Experimental          Quantitative   22 3rd-Year Degree Students            Washington, USA             10 Weeks
              nesi (2017)
         18   Kirwan and Adams      Research-Led        Descriptive           Qualitative    8 Mentors for Nursing Students         Anglia Ruskin, England      Not Specified
         19   Konokman and          Research-Led        Quasi-Experimen-      Mixed          50 Future Early-Years Teachers         Mersin University, Turkey   2013–2014 Aca-
              Yelken (2016)                             tal and Descriptive                                                                                     demic Year
         20   Levy et al. (2009)    Research-Based      Single Case           Qualitative    12 Members of Academic Staff,          Sheffield, England          2006–2007 Aca-
                                                                                             Faculty of Arts and Soc. Sci.                                      demic Year
         21   Levy and Petrulis     Research-Tutored    Descriptive           Qualitative    1st-Year Students Arts, Humanities,    Sheffield, England          Three or Four
              (2012)                                                                         Soc. Science                                                       Full Years
         22   Luke (2006)           Research-Based      Descriptive           Qualitative    17 Students, 1 Research Assistant, 1   Ball State, USA             Fourth Semester
                                                                                             Research Professor
         23   Magnussen et al.      Research-Tutored    Experimental          Quantitative   257 Nursing Students                   Hawaii, USA                 1991–1995
         24   McLean and Baker      Research-Led        Descriptive           Qualitative    History Students                       Various Universities,       January–June
              (2004)                                                                                                                England                     2002
         25   Morris and Turnbull   Research-Tutored    Ethnographic          Qualitative    240 Nursing Students                   Anglia Polytechnic Uni.,    4 Months
              (2004)                                                                                                                England
         26   Oliver (2008)         Research-Oriented   Experimental          Quantitative   263 Students                           Edith Cowan, Australia      12 Weeks
         27   Ortlieb and Lu        Research-Led/       Interpretative        Qualitative    Education Students                     Texas, USA                  Not Specified
              (2011)                Based
         28   Piyayodilokchai et    Research-Based      Experimental          Quantitative   95 Students                            Mahidol, Thailand           2 Sessions; 3
              al. (2013)                                                                                                                                        Hours Each
         29   Spronken-Smith and    Not Specified       Single Case and       Mixed          3 Students                             Otago, New Zealand          Not Specified
              Walker (2010)                             Checklist
         30   Tatar (2015)          Research-Led        Single Case           Qualitative    41 Primary Teaching Students           Cumhuriyet, Turkey          2007–2008
                                                                                                                                                                                  Inquiry-based learning in the university context: A systematic review

         31   Zafra-Gómez et al.    Research-Tutored    Experimental          Quantitative   Business Admin. and Management         Granada, Spain              2009–2010
              (2015)                                                                         Students
         * Works found through the reference lists of the studies included in the review.
         Source: Own elaboration.

                             year 78, n. 277, September-December 2020, 519-537
                                                   revista española de pedagogía

527 EV

                                                    Hosein and Rao (2017), Levy and Petru-       students feedback on the progress they
                                                    lis (2012), McLean and Barker (2004), and    make.
                                                    Ortlieb and Lu (2011) carried out descrip-
                                                    tive and interpretative studies in which         After identifying the modes in each of
                                                    they analysed reflective essays and inter-   the studies analysed, the question arose
                                                    views using the ATLAS.ti program.            of whether they all conceptualised the
                                                                                                 IBL methodology in the same way. Many
                                                        c) Mixed methodologies. Of these, 20%    authors regard the IBL methodology as a
                                                    combine an experimental and interpreta-      constructivist teaching method that con-
                                                    tive method; 40% a single-case study and     nects students with learning, enabling
                                                    an experimental study; 20% a quasi-ex-       them to explore research and knowledge
                                                    perimental study and an interpretative       creation from different perspectives (Hea-
                                                    study; and 20% a single-case study and a     ley, Jordan, Pell, & Short, 2010; Levy &
                                                    checklist to extract quantitative data. In   Petrulis, 2012; Spronken-Smith & Walker,
                                                    the study by Spronken-Smith and Walk-        2010; Zafra-Gómez et al., 2015).
                                                    er (2010), three lecturers who used the
                                                    IBL methodology were given a checklist           Although the terms used to describe
                                                    about the focus of the inquiry, they were    the four IBL modes vary, they do all de-
                                                    observed during class sessions, and they     scribe the students’ participation in an
year 78, n. 277, September-December 2020, 519-537

                                                    were interviewed about the processes and     inductive way in which they are encour-
                                                    the results obtained.                        aged to take responsibility for their own
                                                                                                 learning and knowledge exchange when
                                                    3.2. IBL Mode                                working in groups. Some authors iden-
                                                       The studies display the four IBL modes    tify the IBL methodology with the prob-
                                                    described by Griffiths (2004) and Healey     lem-based learning methodology without
                                                    (2005) (see Table 1). Of the studies an-     distinguishing between them; both are re-
revista española de pedagogía

                                                    alysed, 29% used the research-led mode,      garded as part of a common philosophical
                                                    emphasising the elaboration of a knowl-      approach to achieving inductive learning
                                                    edge-construction process dominated by       (Azer, Hasanato, Al-Nassar, Somily, & Al-
                                                    the interests of the institution; 26% of     Saadi, 2013; Deignan, 2009; Horne et al.,
                                                    the studies used the research-oriented       2007; Kirwan & Adams, 2009; Morris &
                                                    mode, centring the students’ learning        Turnbull, 2004).
                                                    process on research and on how knowl-
                                                    edge is created; 26% of the studies used         According to Ghahremani-Ghajar et
                                                    the research-based mode, as the teaching     al. (2012), IBL starts from a broad teach-
                                                    process focussed on the active role of the   ing–learning focus as it derives from a
                                                    student in this process, minimising the      variety of interpretations and practices
                                                    role of lecturers; and 19% were based on     rooted in problem-based learning (PBL)
                                                    the research-tutored mode, as the teach-     that were originally proposed in medi-
                                                    ing process focusses on small discussion     cal education. Aditomo et al. (2013) note
                                                    groups guided by the lecturers who offer     that IBL is based on pedagogical focuses
528 EV
Inquiry-based learning in the university context: A systematic review

aimed at achieving learning based on in-                   ing process; and b) it offers multiple ben-
quiry; in this case, it is applied through                 efits in the training of future education
problem-based learning strategies, pro-                    and health professionals (Hosein & Rao,
ject-based learning, and case-based learn-                 2017; Ji & Bo, 2017; Magnussen, Ishida,
ing. Although there are differences with                   & Itano, 2000; Oliver, 2008).
how IBL is conceptualised, including
whether or not it is combined with oth-                    3.3. Student objectives and effects on
er pedagogical focuses, all of the authors                 students of using IBL
identify their methodology as an opportu-                      In the studies analysed, five objectives
nity to achieve inductive learning, as: a) it              in the implementation of IBL were identi-
enables responsibility-taking in learning                  fied, as well as the effects this methodol-
and in actively contributing to the teach-                 ogy had on university students (Table 2).

                               Table 2. Effects on students of using IBL.
                               Increase in   Search               Self-Con-     Self-                  Critical
         Authors and Year                               Perfor-                          Motivation
                               Knowledge      Skills               fidence    Learning                Thinking

 1    Aditomo et al. (2013)       Yes         Yes         -           -         Yes         Yes         Yes

                                                                                                                  year 78, n. 277, September-December 2020, 519-537
 2    Akgul (2006)                Yes         Yes         -           -         Yes          -            -
 3    Azer et al. (2013)          Yes         Yes        Yes        Yes         Yes         Yes           -
 4    Barbera et al. (2017)       Yes           -         -           -         Yes         Yes           -
 5    Bolton et al. (2009)        Yes           -         -           -         Yes         Yes         Yes
 6    Brown (2010)                Yes         Yes         -         Yes          -           -          Yes
 7    Bugarci et al. (2012)       Yes         Yes         -           -         Yes          -            -
 8    Deignam (2009)              Yes         Yes        Yes          -         Yes         Yes           -

                                                                                                                                        revista española de pedagogía
 9    Ghahremani-Ghajar et        Yes           -         -           -         Yes          -          Yes
      al. (2012)
 10   Gros and López (2016)       Yes           -         -           -         Yes          -            -
 11   Healey et al. (2010)*       Yes         Yes         -           -         Yes         Yes           -
 12   Horne et al. (2007)         Yes         Yes         -         Yes          -          Yes         Yes
 13   Hosein and Rao (2017)       Yes         Yes         -         Yes         Yes         Yes           -
 14   Irwanto et al. (2018)       Yes         Yes        Yes          -         Yes          -          Yes
 15   Ji and Bo (2017)            Yes         Yes         -           -         Yes         Yes           -
 16   Justice et al. (2009)       Yes           -        Yes          -         Yes         Yes           -
 17   Kienzler and Fontanesi      Yes         Yes         -         Yes         Yes         Yes         Yes
 18   Kirwan and Adams            Yes           -         -         Yes         Yes         Yes           -
 19   Konokman and Yelken         Yes         Yes        Yes          -         Yes         Yes           -
 20   Levy et al. (2009)          Yes         Yes         -           -         Yes         Yes           -

                                                                                                                  529 EV

                                                    21   Levy and Petrulis         Yes    -        Yes      Yes       Yes      Yes       Yes
                                                    22   Luke (2006)               Yes    -        Yes       -        Yes        -        -
                                                    23   Magnussen et al. (2000)   Yes    -         -        -         -       Yes       Yes
                                                    24   McLean and Baker          Yes    -         -        -        Yes      Yes       Yes
                                                    25   Morris and Turnbull       Yes    -         -       Yes       Yes      Yes        -
                                                    26   Oliver (2008)             Yes   Yes        -       Yes       Yes      Yes        -
                                                    27   Ortlieb and Lu (2011)     Yes   Yes        -       Yes       Yes      Yes       Yes
                                                    28   Piyayodilokchai et al.    Yes   Yes       Yes       -        Yes      Yes        -
                                                    29   Spronken-Smith and        Yes   Yes        -        -        Yes      Yes        -
                                                         Walker (2010)
                                                    30   Tatar (2015)              Yes   Yes        -        -        Yes      Yes        -
                                                    31   Zafra-Gómez et al.        Yes    -        Yes      Yes       Yes      Yes       Yes
                                                    Source: Own elaboration.

                                                        Objective 1. Examining the effect of us-    in their academic performance (Azer et al.,
                                                    ing the IBL methodology in the teaching-        2013; Konokman & Yelken, 2016; Justice
year 78, n. 277, September-December 2020, 519-537

                                                    learning process. Of the studies, 33% set       et al., 2009). The results of the study by
                                                    out to evaluate what the main effects of        Levy et al. (2009) show the great potential
                                                    implementing the IBL methodology were.          of the IBL methodology, as it offers oppor-
                                                    For example, analysing students’ misgiv-        tunities for reflection and discussion that
                                                    ings about the implementation of IBL            foster a high degree of empowerment; to
                                                    for preparing digital stories, or the use of    do this, teaching staff need to have access
                                                    alternative measures taking Pierce’s tri-       to a wide range of IBL experiences, some
revista española de pedagogía

                                                    adic model of inference as a starting point     structured and others led by the students.
                                                    (Konokman & Yelken, 2016; Ortlieb & Lu,
                                                    2011); observing how students accept in-            The students identified the need to take
                                                    formation about the current economic and        the social aspect of IBL into account, as
                                                    financial situation after working on the        they learnt from the efforts of their class-
                                                    topic (Zafra-Gómez et al., 2015); examin-       mates as well as their own efforts. Although
                                                    ing possible departmental resistance to         they were aware of a possible increase in
                                                    the implementation of IBL and the ben-          anxiety and stress in the learning process,
                                                    efits it provides for graduates (Justice et     they viewed it positively owing to the bene-
                                                    al., 2009). The studies showed: 1) positive     fits for their learning (Deignan, 2009; Ji &
                                                    effects in the adoption of the IBL method-      Bo, 2017; Luke, 2006). Healey et al. (2010)
                                                    ology, so long as the process is appropri-      observed that IBL fosters students’ interest
                                                    ately structured; 2) a significant increase     in curriculum content and increases their
                                                    in students’ knowledge and skills in the        motivation as they believe that pursuing
                                                    short and long term; 3) an improvement          postgraduate study is practical.
530 EV
Inquiry-based learning in the university context: A systematic review

    Objective 2. Evaluating the develop-         inquiry-based literature, inquiry-based
ment of research competences in students.        discussion, applied research, simulated ap-
Of these studies, 11% set out to examine         plied research, implementing practice, and
students’ own awareness of the develop-          role playing. After implementing IBL, a
ment of their research competences when          wide range of educational objectives were
writing reflective essays (Hosein & Rao,         achieved that involved cognitive, metacog-
2017), and to evaluate how the inquiry           nitive, affective, social, and epistemologi-
based teaching process is understood and         cal aspects.
experienced, relating it to the students’
epistemological construction (Levy &                 Objective 4. Exploring the development
Petrulis, 2012). These studies showed a          of critical thinking. Of these studies, 19%
growing enthusiasm among students for            set out to explore what the students’ crit-
research learning, as they see the poten-        ical perspectives were when a research
tial of a student-centred methodology for        challenge was posed in language learn-
their future training (Hosein & Rao, 2017;       ing (Ghahremani-Ghajar et al., 2012), or
Levy & Petrulis, 2012). Akgul (2006) ob-         to examine changes in students’ critical
served that students regarded science as         thinking after implementing IBL, com-
a process of finding more truths or facts,       paring their opinion at the start of their
and that their levels of learning depended       course with their opinion at the end of it

                                                                                                  year 78, n. 277, September-December 2020, 519-537
on their involvement and commitment.             (Magnussen et al., 2000; Tatar, 2015). It
                                                 was apparent that if the IBL methodolo-
   Objective 3. Promoting learning tasks         gy was well structured and implemented
or results by implementing IBL. Of these         in small groups, it provided benefits for
studies, 22% use IBL as a way of intro-          university students, and a significant
ducing values related to volunteering in         impact on critical thinking and problem-
a non-profit organisation (Bolton, Bren-         solving skills was also noted (Irwanto et al.,

                                                                                                                        revista española de pedagogía
nan, & Terry, 2009), or of investigating         2018; Ghahremani-Ghajar et al., 2012; Ta-
students’ achievement when a cyclical            tar, 2015; Gros & López, 2016). Bugarcic,
learning model is assumed that is comple-        Zimbardi, Macaranas, and Thorn (2012)
mented by multimedia resources (Piyay-           observed that using IBL promotes mean-
odilokchai et al., 2013). We observed that       ingful learning and encourages students
this methodology is effective for inverting      to approach ideas and critically evaluate
the role of the student as a mere passive        what they encounter in a “real” research
receptor; students were able to learn how        setting, while at the same time obtaining
learning is managed, they accepted chal-         a high level of detailed knowledge of the
lenges, and their self-confidence increased      content.
(Bolton et al., 2009; Kienzler & Fontanesi,
2017). Aditomo et al. (2013) identify eight         Objective 5. Promoting personal skills
research tasks for achieving satisfacto-         and competences for self-learning. Of the
ry learning outcomes after applying IBL:         studies, 15% had the aim of examining
academic research, simplified research,          whether using IBL has an impact on mo-
                                                                                                  531 EV

                                                    tivation, self-confidence, self-learning,      students; although a snapshot of the stu-
                                                    scientific attitudes, and engagement in        dents’ experience and of facilitator per-
                                                    participation (Ji & Bo, 2017; Oliver, 2008;    spectives in a given context was obtained,
                                                    Brown, 2016), or examining students’           the application of IBL with other samples
                                                    capacity for autonomy in their learning,       should be explored to consider generalising
                                                    positively and/or negatively, and their re-    the results (Horne et al., 2007; Spronken-
                                                    actions and interpretations in the face of     Smith & Walker, 2010).
                                                    cyclical research (Luke, 2006). The stu-
                                                    dents reported that the IBL methodolo-            2) In some studies, the limitations de-
                                                    gy stimulated their desire for knowledge,      rive from the university structures, as
                                                    stimulated their enthusiasm for self-learn-    there can be resistance in departments as
                                                    ing, and strengthened their self-efficacy      they do not see obvious benefits in the im-
                                                    and motivation.                                plementation of IBL or they believe that it
                                                                                                   might alter existing power structures and
                                                       In general, studies identify: a) in-        how resources are assigned (Justice, Rice,
                                                    creased student motivation, b) improved        Roy, Hudspith, & Jenkins, 2009).
                                                    understanding of subjects and of their
                                                    relevance to society, c) increased collab-         3) Other limitations derive from the
                                                    oration between students when working          research method used; using a qualitative
year 78, n. 277, September-December 2020, 519-537

                                                    together to achieve a common goal, d) an       method risks biasing students’ responses
                                                    increase in joint responsibility in carrying   towards an excessively optimistic focus on
                                                    out tasks, e) improved interpersonal skills    IBL if the interviews are carried out by the
                                                    and skills in performing work roles (Brud-     principal researcher (Luke, 2006). The use
                                                    er & Prescott, 2013; Frezell, 2018). One       of focus groups can influence results as
                                                    hundred per cent of the studies showed         students who enjoyed the class or interact-
                                                    that using IBL fostered increased knowl-       ed with the teacher-researcher sometimes
revista española de pedagogía

                                                    edge by students; 61% demonstrated a de-       talk more (Luke, 2006; Morris & Turnbull,
                                                    velopment of research skills; 29% showed       2004). Regarding the quantitative method-
                                                    an increase in academic performance; 36%       ology, standardised measurement instru-
                                                    an increase in students’ self-confidence;      ments can bypass the experiences and
                                                    90% an increase in students’ self-learning;    emotions generated in the process by only
                                                    70% enhanced motivation for learning;          offering students closed answers (Magnus-
                                                    and 40% an increase in critical thinking.      sen et al., 2000).

                                                    3.4. Some limitations of the studies
                                                        This section sets out some limitations     4. Conclusions
                                                    of the studies:                                   This systematic review identified 31
                                                                                                   articles on IBL experiences in social sci-
                                                       1) The research in the articles was car-    ence and health science courses. These
                                                    ried out on the basis of a particular IBL      experiences were not limited to a single
                                                    model and with very specific groups of         country and they approached the appli-
532 EV
Inquiry-based learning in the university context: A systematic review

cation of IBL from different research            sonal research skills, joint responsibility
perspectives (quantitative, qualitative,         in completing tasks, and the capacity for
and mixed). The objectives identified in         reflection in learning situations (Bruder &
the studies not only focus on establish-         Prescott, 2013; Frezell, 2018; Hmelo-Sil-
ing the possibility of implementing IBL          ver et al., 2007).
in the classroom but also on understand-
ing what the main effects are on the                 In essence, IBL provides a learning
teaching process, what research compe-           process that: a) fosters the development
tences the students acquire, how learn-          of research competences in a student co-
ing results are promoted, how critical           hort that accepts the challenge of their
thinking is developed, and how personal          self-learning; b) provides a space for
skills and competences are fostered. To          knowledge creation stimulated by inquiry;
discover whether this methodology can            and c) fosters students’ interest in and
be beneficial for the teaching–learning          commitment to their learning process and
process and the development of students’         doing work of high academic quality.
research competences, the authors ap-
plied different IBL modes and deter-                 This study’s main limitations are that
mined their strengths and weaknesses.            it restricted its search to: 1) articles on IBL
As strengths, the authors identified: ex-        written in English, 2) articles that applied

                                                                                                        year 78, n. 277, September-December 2020, 519-537
ploring knowledge in greater depth, pro-         this methodology to qualifications from
moting cooperative learning, students’           the social sciences and health sciences in
commitment in their self-learning, and           a university setting. In future research, it
increased critical thinking. Among the           will be necessary to expand the search cri-
weaknesses, the following were noted:            teria to include works written in Spanish
the inability to cover the students’ learn-      and works that cover other fields of knowl-
ing expectations and university hierar-          edge and educational stages. Nonetheless,

                                                                                                                              revista española de pedagogía
chies’ misgivings about IBL.                     this study provides valuable information
                                                 for identifying possibilities for implement-
    IBL favours meaningful learning by           ing IBL in qualifications that educate fu-
university students by involving them in a       ture professionals in the fields of the social
process of doing research and it strength-       sciences and health sciences.
ens the inquiry-teaching bond so long as
the process allows agents to express their
experiences and emotions. To carry out           References
IBL processes, it is necessary to emphasise      Aditomo, A., Goodyear, P., Bliuc, A. M., & Ellis, R.
to students the need to construct knowl-             A. (2013). Inquiry-based learning in higher
edge and strengthen their responsibility             education: principal forms, educational objec-
                                                     tives, and disciplinary variations. Studies in
in the teaching-learning process (Healey,
                                                     Higher Education, 38 (9), 1239-1258. doi:
2005; Levy & Petrulis, 2012). The IBL      
methodology provides a strong social scaf-       Åkerlind, G. S. (2008). An academic perspec-
folding and active learning, fostering per-          tive on research and being a researcher: an
                                                                                                        533 EV

                                                        integration of the literature. Studies in High-          foundation‐level undergraduate laboratory
                                                        er Education, 33 (1), 17-31. doi: https://doi.           that enhances student understanding of basic
                                                        org/10.1080/03075070701794775                            cellular concepts and scientific experimental
                                                    Akgul, E. M. (2006). Teaching science in an in-              design. Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
                                                        quiry-based learning environment: What it                Education, 40 (3), 174-180. doi: https://doi.
                                                        means for pre-service elementary science teach-          org/10.1002/bmb.20587
                                                        ers. Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science         Deignan, T. (2009). Enquiry-Based Learning:
                                                        and Technology Education, 2 (1), 71-81. doi:             Perspectives on practice. Teaching in High-
                                                                  er Education, 14 (1), 13-28. doi: https://doi.
                                                    Azer, S. A., Hasanato, R., Al-Nassar, S., Somily,            org/10.1080/13562510802602467
                                                        A., & AlSaadi, M. M. (2013). Introducing inte-       Frezell, D. (2018). Impact of Inquiry Based Learn-
                                                        grated laboratory classes in a PBL curriculum:           ing on Students’ Motivation, Engagement
                                                        impact on student’s learning and satisfaction.           and Attitude in Science. Electronic The-
                                                        BMC Medical Education, 13 (1), 71. doi: ht-              ses and Dissertations, 7356. Retrieved from
                                                        tps://           (Consul-
                                                    Barbera, E., García, I., & Fuertes-Alpiste, M.               ted on 2019-11-18).
                                                        (2017). A Co-Design Process Microanalysis:           Ghahremani-Ghajar, S. S., Mohammadi Doostdar,
                                                        Stages and Facilitators of an Inquiry-Based              H., & Sadegh Mirhosseini, S. M. (2012). We
                                                        and Technology-Enhanced Learning Scenario.               have been living with this pain: Enquiry-based
                                                        The International Review of Research in Open             language learning in Iranian higher education.
                                                        and Distributed Learning, 18 (6), 105-125. doi:          Teaching in Higher Education, 17 (3), 269-281.
                                                    Bevins, S., & Price, G. (2016). Reconceptualising            864
year 78, n. 277, September-December 2020, 519-537

                                                        inquiry in science education. International          Griffiths, R. (2004). Knowledge production and
                                                        Journal of Science Education, 38 (1), 17-29. doi:        the research–teaching nexus: The case of the
                                                          built environment disciplines. Studies in Hig-
                                                    Bolton, E. B., Brennan, M. A., & Terry, B. D. (2009).        her Education, 29 (6), 709-726. doi: https://doi.
                                                        Students Learn How Nonprofits Utilize Volun-             org/10.1080/0307507042000287212
                                                        teers through Inquiry-Based Learning. Inter-         Gros, B., & López, M. (2016). Students as co-
                                                        national Journal of Teaching and Learning in             creators of technology-rich learning activities
                                                        Higher Education, 21 (3), 285-294.                       in higher education. International Journal of
                                                    Brew, A. (2003). Teaching and research: New                  Educational Technology in Higher Education,
revista española de pedagogía

                                                        relationships and their implications for in-             13 (1), 28. doi:
                                                        quiry-based teaching and learning in higher              016-0026-x
                                                        education. Higher Education Research &               Healey, M. (2005). Linking research and teach-
                                                        Development, 22 (1), 3-18. doi: https://doi.             ing exploring disciplinary spaces and the
                                                        org/10.1080/0729436032000056571                          role of inquiry-based learning. In R. Barnett
                                                    Brown, J. A. (2016). Evaluating the effectiveness            (Coord.), Reshaping the university: New rela-
                                                        of a practical inquiry based learning bioinfor-          tionships between research, scholarship and
                                                        matics module on undergraduate student en-               teaching (pp. 67-78). Buckingham: Open Uni-
                                                        gagement and applied skills. Biochemistry and            versity Press.
                                                        molecular biology education, 44 (3), 304-313.        Healey, M., & Jenkins., A. (2009). Developing un-
                                                        doi:                   dergraduate research and inquiry. Research
                                                    Bruder, R., & Prescott, A. (2013). Research evi-             Report to the Higher Education Academy. York:
                                                        dence on the benefits of IBL. ZDM Mathe-                 Higher Education Academy.
                                                        matics Education, 45 (6), 811-822. https://doi.      Healey, M., Jordan, F., Pell, B., & Short, C. (2010).
                                                        org/10.1007/s11858-013-0542-2                            The research-teaching nexus: a case study of
                                                    Bugarcic, A., Zimbardi, K., Macaranas, J., & Thorn,          students' awareness, experiences and percep-
                                                        P. (2012). An inquiry based practical for a large,       tions of research. Innovations in Education and
534 EV
Inquiry-based learning in the university context: A systematic review

    Teaching International, 47 (2), 235-246. doi:            riculum. Higher Education, 58 (6), 841. doi: ht-                tps://
Herman, W. E., & Pinard, M. R. (2015). Critical-         Justice, C., Rice, J., & Warry, W. (2009). Developing
    ly Examining inquiry-based learning: John                Useful and Transferable Skills: Course Design
    Dewey in theory, history, and practice. In In-           to Prepare Students for a Life of Learning. Inter-
    quiry-Based Learning For Multidisciplinary               national Journal for the Scholarship of Teach-
    Programs: A Conceptual and Practical Re-                 ing and Learning, 3 (2), 1-19. doi: https://doi.
    source for Educators (pp. 43-62). Bingley, York-         org/10.20429/ijsotl.2009.030209
    shire: Emerald Group Publishing Limited.             Justice, C., Rice, J., Warry, W., Inglis, S., Miller, S.,
Hmelo-Silver, C. E., Duncan, R. G., & Chinn, C. A.           & Sammon, S. (2007). Inquiry in higher educa-
    (2007). Scaffolding and achievement in pro-              tion: Reflections and directions on course de-
    blem-based and inquiry learning: a response              sign and teaching methods. Innovative Higher
    to Kirschner, Sweller, and Clark. Educational            Education, 31 (4), 201-214. doi: https://doi.
    Psychologist, 42 (2), 99-107. doi: https://doi.          org/10.1007/s10755-006-9021-9
    org/10.1080/00461520701263368                        Kahn, P. y O’Rourke, K. (2004). Guide to curricu-
Horne, M., Woodhead, K., Morgan, L., Smithies, L.,           lum design: Enquiry-based learning. Retrieved
    Megson, D., & Lyte, G. (2007). Using enquiry in          from
    learning: From vision to reality in higher edu-          de_to_Curriculum_Design_Enquiry-Based_
    cation. Nurse Education Today, 27 (2), 103-112.          Learning (Consulted on 2019-11-26).
    doi:      Kienzler, H., & Fontanesi, C. (2017). Learning
Hosein, A., & Rao, N. (2017). Students’ reflective           through inquiry: A global health hackathon.
    essays as insights into student centred-pedago-          Teaching in Higher Education, 22 (2), 129-142.
    gies within the undergraduate research meth-             doi:

                                                                                                                     year 78, n. 277, September-December 2020, 519-537
    ods curriculum. Teaching in Higher Education,            1805
    22 (1), 109-125. doi:    Kirwan, A., & Adams, J. (2009). Students’ views
    62517.2016.1221804                                       of enquiry-based learning in a continuing pro-
Hunter, A. B., Laursen, S. L., & Seymour, E. (2007).         fessional development module. Nurse Edu-
    Becoming a scientist: The role of undergradu-            cation Today, 29 (4), 448-455. doi: https://doi.
    ate research in students' cognitive, personal,           org/10.1016/j.nedt.2008.09.003
    and professional development. Science Educa-         Konokman, Y., & Yelken, T. (2016). Preparing
    tion, 91 (1), 36-74. doi:       Digital Stories through the Inquiry-Based
    sce.20173                                                Learning Approach: Its Effect on Prospec-

                                                                                                                                           revista española de pedagogía
Irwanto, S., Saputro, A. D., & Prodjosantoso, A. K.          tive Teachers' Resistive Behaviors toward
    (2018). Promoting Critical Thinking and Prob-            Research and Technology-Based Instruction.
    lem Solving Skills of Preservice Elementary              Educational Sciences: Theory and Practice, 16
    Teachers through Process-Oriented Guided-In-             (6), 2141-2165. doi:
    quiry Learning (POGIL). International Jour-              estp.2016.6.0410
    nal of Instruction, 11 (4), 777-794. doi: https://   Levy, P., Aiyegbayo, O., & Little, S. (2009). De-                         signing for inquiry based learning with the
Ji, F., & Bo, H. (2017). Function Design for In-             Learning Activity Management System. Jour-
    quiry-Based Learning Platform Based on a                 nal of Computer Assisted Learning, 25 (3),
    Computer Network. International Journal of               238-251. doi:
    Emerging Technologies in Learning (iJET),                2729.2008.00309.x
    12 (02), 40-51. doi:   Levy, P., & Petrulis, R. (2012). How do first-year
    v12i02.6043                                              university students experience inquiry and re-
Justice, C., Rice, J., Roy, D., Hudspith, B., & Jen-         search, and what are the implications for the
    kins, H. (2009). Inquiry-based learning in high-         practice of inquiry-based learning? Studies in
    er education: administrators’ perspectives               Higher Education, 37 (1), 85-101. doi: https://
    on integrating inquiry pedagogy into the cur-  
                                                                                                                     535 EV

                                                    Liberati, A., Altman, D. G., Tetzlaff, J., Mulrow,          International Education Studies, 4 (3), 41-46.
                                                        C., Gøtzsche, P. C., Ioannidis, J. P., .... & Mo-       doi:
                                                        her, D. (2009). The PRISMA statement for re-        Piyayodilokchai, H., Panjaburee, P., Laosinchai,
                                                        porting systematic reviews and meta-analy-              P., Ketpichainarong, W., & Ruenwongsa,
                                                        ses of studies that evaluate health care                P. (2013). A 5E Learning Cycle Approach-
                                                        interventions: explanation and elaboration.             Based, Multimedia-Supplemented Instructional
                                                        PLoS medicine, 6 (7), e1000100. doi: https://           Unit for Structured Query Language. Jour-
                                                                  nal of Educational Technology & Society, 16
                                                    Luke, C. L. (2006). Fostering Learner Autonomy              (4), 146-159.
                                                        in a Technology Enhanced, Inquiry Based             Prince, M., & Felder, R. (2007). The many faces
                                                        Foreign Language Classroom. Foreign Lan-                of inductive teaching and learning. Journal
                                                        guage Annals, 39 (1), 71-86. doi: https://doi.          of College Science Teaching, 36 (5), 14.
                                                        org/10.1111/j.1944-9720.2006.tb02250.x              Spronken-Smith, R., Angelo, T., Matthews, H.,
                                                    Maass, K., & Engeln, K. (2018). Effects of Scaled-          O’Steen, B., & Robertson, J. (2007). How
                                                        up Professional Development Courses About               effective is inquiry-based learning in linking
                                                        Inquiry-Based Learning on Teachers. Jour-               teaching and research. In An International
                                                        nal of Education and Training Studies, 6                Colloquium on International Policies and
                                                        (4), 1-16. doi:          Practices for Academic Enquiry (pp. 19-21).
                                                        v6i4.3083                                               Winchester, UK: Marwell.
                                                    Magnussen, L., Ishida, D., & Itano, J. (2000). The      Spronken-Smith, R., & Walker, R. (2010).
                                                        impact of the use of inquiry-based learning             Can inquiry based learning strengthen
                                                        as a teaching methodology on the develop-               the links between teaching and disci-
                                                        ment of critical thinking. Journal of Nursing           plinary research? Studies in Higher Edu-
year 78, n. 277, September-December 2020, 519-537

                                                        Education, 39 (8), 360-364. doi: https://doi.           cation, 35 (6), 723-740. doi: https://doi.
                                                        org/10.3928/0148-4834-20001101-07                       org/10.1080/03075070903315502
                                                    McLean, M., & Barker, H. (2004). Students               Tatar, N. (2015). Pre-service teachers’ beliefs
                                                        making progress and the ‘research‐teach-                about the image of a science teacher and
                                                        ing nexus’ debate. Teaching in Higher                   science teaching. Journal of Baltic Science
                                                        Education, 9 (4), 407-419. doi: https://doi.            Education, 14 (1), 34-44.
                                                        org/10.1080/1356251042000252354                     Zafra-Gómez, J. L., Román-Martínez, I., & Gó-
                                                    Minner, D. D., Levy, A. J., & Century, J. (2010).           mez-Miranda, M. E. (2015). Measuring the
                                                        Inquiry based science instruction—what is it            impact of inquiry-based learning on out-
revista española de pedagogía

                                                        and does it matter? Results from a research             comes and student satisfaction. Assessment
                                                        synthesis years 1984 to 2002. Journal of                & Evaluation in Higher Education, 40 (8),
                                                        Research in Science Teaching: The Official              1050-1069. doi:
                                                        Journal of the National Association for Re-             2938.2014.963836
                                                        search in Science Teaching, 47 (4), 474-496.
                                                        doi:              Authors’ biographies
                                                    Morris, D., & Turnbull, P. (2004). Using student
                                                                                                               Lidia E. Santana-Vega has a doc-
                                                        nurses as teachers in inquiry-based learn-
                                                        ing. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 45 (2),           torate in Philosophy and Educational
                                                        136-144. doi:       Science and a degree in Psychology. She
                                                        2648.2003.02875.x                                   holds a university chair in the Depart-
                                                    Oliver, R. (2008). Engaging first year students         ment of Teaching and Educational Re-
                                                        using a web-supported inquiry-based learning
                                                                                                            search at the Universidad de La Laguna.
                                                        setting. Higher Education, 55 (3), 285-301. doi:
                                                         She is coordinator of the GIOES con-
                                                    Ortlieb, E., & Lu, L. (2011). Improving teacher         solidated research group. Her research
                                                        education through inquiry-based learning.           interests focus on attention/support for
536 EV
Inquiry-based learning in the university context: A systematic review

students, the life design of young people        the academic performance of university
at risk of social exclusion, and decision        students.
making and gender.
                                                    Luis Feliciano-García has a doctor-
   Arminda Suárez-Perdomo has a                  ate in Philosophy and Educational Sci-
doctorate in Educational Psychology              ences, and is Associate Professor in the
and is Assistant Professor in the Depart-        Department of Teaching and Educational
ment of the Family, School, and Society          Research at the Universidad de La Lagu-
at the Universidad Internacional de la           na. He is a member of the GIOES research
Rioja (UNIR). Her research focusses on           group. His research focusses on active
fostering positive parenting in virtual          methodologies and academic-employment
experiential learning situations and on          decision making.
parents’ digital competence, as well as
on the influence of procrastination on       

                                                                                               year 78, n. 277, September-December 2020, 519-537
                                                                                                                     revista española de pedagogía

                                                                                               537 EV
revista española de pedagogía
                    año 78, n.º 277, septiembre-diciembre 2020
                                   Spanish Journal of Pedagogy
                            year 78, n. 277, September-December 2020

                    Table of Contents
Mastering time and                                                    Rosa Ana Alonso Ruiz, Magdalena Sáenz de Jubera
personal and social                                                   Ocón, & Eva Sanz Arazuri
development                                                           Shared time between grandparents and
Dominio del tiempo y desarrollo                                       grandchildren: A time for personal development
personal y social                                                     Tiempos compartidos entre abuelos y nietos, tiempos de
                                                                      desarrollo personal                                           415
Guest editors: Ana Ponce de León Elizondo, & M.ª
Ángeles Valdemoros San Emeterio                                       Nuria Codina, Rafael Valenzuela, & José Vicente
Editoras invitadas: Ana Ponce de León Elizondo y M.ª Ángeles          Pestana
Valdemoros San Emeterio                                               From the perception to the uses of time: Time
                                                                      perspective and procrastination among adults in Spain
Ana Ponce de León Elizondo, & M.ª Ángeles                             De la percepción a los usos del tiempo: perspectiva temporal y
Valdemoros San Emeterio                                               procrastinación de adultos en España                          435
Introduction: Mastering time and personal and social
development                                                           José Manuel Muñoz-Rodríguez, Patricia Torrijos Fincias,
Presentación: Dominio del tiempo y desarrollo personal y social 373   Sara Serrate González, & Alicia Murciano Hueso
                                                                      Digital environments, connectivity and education:
Antonio Bernal Guerrero, M.ª Ángeles Valdemoros San                   Time perception and management in the construction
Emeterio, & Alfredo Jiménez Eguizábal                                 of young people’s digital identity
Time, power, and education. Rethinking the                            Entornos digitales, conectividad y educación. Percepción y
construction of personal identity and educational                     gestión del tiempo en la construcción de la identidad digital de
policy decisions                                                      la juventud                                                   457
Tiempo, poder y educación. Repensando la construcción de la
                                                                      Ángel De-Juanas Oliva, Francisco Javier García-
identidad personal y las decisiones de la política educativa   377
                                                                      Castilla, & Ana Ponce de León Elizondo
José Antonio Caride                                                   The time of young people in social difficulties: Use,
To educate and educate ourselves in time, pedagogically               management, and socio-educational actions
and socially                                                          El tiempo de los jóvenes en dificultad social: utilización,
Educar y educarnos a tiempo, pedagógica y socialmente 395             gestión y acciones socioeducativas                            477
You can also read