Page created by Carolyn Nelson
Next Generation Space Defense

                                                   January 2023

Cover image is courtesy of
Intelsat General Corporation
Publishing Operations                              Table of Contents                                                                                          Advertisers

Silvano Payne, Publisher + Executive Writer        Dispatches: Raytheon I&S.........................................................................4         Advantech Wireless Technologies.......3

Simon Payne, Chief Technical Officer               Future Look: Fairwinds Technologies .......................................................5
                                                                                                                                                              AvL Technologies...............................11
Hartley G. Lesser, Editorial Director              Future Look: Intelsat................................................................................6
Pattie Lesser, Executive Editor                    Dispatches: CACI.......................................................................................6   Bartington Instruments......................9
Donald McGee, Production Manager
                                                   Dispatches: Space Systems Command......................................................7
Teresa Sanderson, Operations Director
                                                                                                                                                              CPI SATCOM Products..........................7
                                                   Dispatches: Norway + Netherlands...........................................................8
Sean Payne, Business Development Manager

Dan Makinster, Technical Advisor                   Future Look: Hughes.................................................................................9
                                                                                                                                                              EM Solutions.......................................5
Chris Forrester, Senior Columnist                  Demystifying Complex Comms................................................................ 10
                                                     Author: Macy W. Summers
This issue’s authors...                                                                                                                                       SmallSat Symposium........................20
                                                   Government Satellite Report: General Dickinson Examines The Path....... 14
Rick Lober                                         To U.S. Space Superiority
                                                      Author: David Pesgraves
                                                                                                                                                              Space Symposium 2023.................... 13
Dave Micah
                                                   Dispatches: Innoflight............................................................................ 16
David Pesgraves
                                                   Dispatches: Euroconsult......................................................................... 17        XipLink............................................... 1
Lt. Col. Jonathan Shea
                                                   Space Test Program (STP) Enables Space Technical Enhancement.......... 18
James Sprungle                                       Author: Lt. Col. Jonathan Shea

Macy W. Summers

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  MilsatMagazine                                                                               Page 2                                                                                        January 2023
                       Raytheon Intelligence & Space’s contract with U.S. Space Force
                                     for missile track custody system

 Raytheon Intelligence &              Ground Evolution Mission            Raytheon Intelligence &               Persistent Infrared mission
 Space has been awarded               Data Processing Application         Space’s mission payload, which        area. “Lockheed Martin
 a prime contract to                  Framework (FORGE MDPAF).            passed critical design review         will leverage a full suite of
 develop a prototype                                                      in November of 2022, will be          digital engineering tools to
 Missile Track Custody                Raytheon’s FORGE MDPAF is           integrated onto the LM400             produce satellites that are
 (MTC) system for the U.S.            a ground system framework           satellite bus that includes           dramatically more responsive
 Space Force. MTC is the              that collects and processes         SmartSat,™ software-defined           and flexible, at a fraction of
 service’s first Medium               data from satellites, including     satellite capabilities that           the cost and delivery time for
 Earth Orbit (MEO) missile            Overhead Persistent Infrared        allow it to adapt to changing         our customers.”
 tracking system.                     (OPIR) space vehicle data           mission needs and deploy new
                                      from Space Force’s Space-           capabilities to stay ahead of         The team plans to complete
 Under this contract, Raytheon        Based Infrared System               evolving threats.                     a system critical design
 Intelligence & Space will serve as   (SBIRS) constellation and                                                 review in 2023, followed by
 the prime contractor, developing     the future Next-Generation          “Lockheed Martin is excited           a build, integration, and test
 and delivering a space vehicle,      OPIR constellation.                 to provide our mid-sized,             campaign to deliver capability
 hosting a state-of-the-art missile                                       rapidly-producible LM400              to orbit by 2026.
 tracking mission payload and         “This is an advanced solution       bus to Raytheon, supporting
 ground-based command                 to counter emerging missile         our customer’s mission to             Work for this program will
 and control and mission-data         threats facing our country,” said   deliver initial warfighting           be executed in El Segundo,
 processing elements.                 Roger Cole, executive director,     capability with Missile Track         California, and Aurora, Colorado.
                                      Strategic Systems programs,         Custody Epoch 1,” said Mike
 This system was developed            Raytheon Intelligence & Space.      Corriea, vice president,
 using model-based systems            “From its MEO perch, our            Lockheed Martin’s Overhead
 engineering that significantly       system will enable Space Force
 increased the speed of               to accurately detect and track
 development, all the while           adversarial hypersonic weapons
 reducing cost.                       with precision accuracy.”  

 The company will also deliver        Lockheed Martin is providing
 the command and control (C&C)        its mid-sized LM 400 bus to
 and real-time mission-data           host a Raytheon IR sensor
 processing elements for MTC.         payload for this U.S. Space
                                      Force mission. The rapidly
 The ground system will use the       producible LM 400 supports           Lockheed Martin is providing its mid-sized LM 400 bus
 Future Operationally Resilient       the mission to accelerate a U.S.    to host a Raytheon IR sensor payload for the U.S. Space
                                      layered missile defense system.         Force’s first missile tracking capability at MEO.

MilsatMagazine                                                       Page 4                                                         January 2023
Fairwinds Technologies has grown significantly since the
 firm’s founding in 2016 and the expectation is that the
 company’s size, sales and offerings will to continue to
 increase into 2023, with projected revenue growth more
 than 55%.

 In 2022, Fairwinds was awarded its first program of record — an
 integration contract — and we expect additional contracts in 2023.

 In addition, Fairwinds Technologies anticipates large satellite
 equipment deals in the new year, solicited via the company’s
 GTACS II and NASA SEWP prime contracts.

 We also predict significant growth for our professional services
 business with several opportunities now tracking. March will note
 the launch of our first product, a significant advancement in the
 area of ground technology, developed in-house. Global Link is a
 multi-modem, antenna management system that allows the warfighter
 to route any modem to any antenna, as well as quickly add or change       Further, Global Link enables multiple, simultaneous frequencies and
 modems and antennas.                                                      connections over LEO, MEO and GEO satellites. In the year ahead,
                                                                           Fairwinds foresees the award of R&D contracts, enabling us to go to
                                                                           market with even more revolutionary products.

                                                                           Author James Sprungle leads the team at Fairwinds
                                                                           Technologies as Chief Executive Officer. As one of the
                                                                           founding members of the company, Jim previously
                                                                           led all sales and business development efforts and
                                                                           was instrumental in directing company strategy.
                                                                           Prior to Fairwinds, Jim was a Senior Vice President at
                                                                           TeleCommunication Systems (TCS). Jim is a graduate
                                                                           of the United States Naval Academy and has an MBA
                                                                           from Loyola University.

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MilsatMagazine                                                         Page 5                                                        January 2023
Governments and their militaries are experimenting                        with no single point of failure,
 more and moving faster to stay ahead of adversaries                       better performance, and lower
 and rapidly shifting geopolitical changes.                                cost per Megabyte.

 For example, the U.S. defense agencies, such as the Defense               As the importance of space-
 Innovation Unit, Air Force Research Laboratory, and the United            based communications
 States Space Force, are accelerating the testing and procurement          for military applications
 of advanced technology that gives warfighters an edge.                    continues to grow, it is vital to
                                                                           implement security measures
 At Intelsat, we believe in collaborations and that satellite              to counter threats to critical
 connectivity can no longer function on networks operating on              space infrastructure from adversaries, space debris, solar storms,
 bespoke hardware or standards — only integrated systems can               and weather events.  
 keep up with the rapid pace of change.
 Interoperability can provide seamless transitions between the             In the coming decades, multi-layer satellite-based satellite
 multiple layers of connectivity, networks, and terminals and is the       communications systems will continuously adapt to enhance military
 future of meeting demand needs.                                           communications for mission success.

 Intelsat and our partners are building a unified network to               We believe we can achieve this through our next-generation unified
 seamlessly extend global telecoms and cloud infrastructure                network, which is a step-change transformation in the delivery of
 capabilities that enable easy-to-deploy managed services across           satellite connectivity.
 satellite and ground technologies, embracing various open
 standards and architectures.                                                   Author Dave Micha is the President of
                                                                                Intelsat General Communications.
 We are moving to all-domain resilient communications that are
 multi-layer, multi-orbit, and multi-band, using RF and 5G, for
 example, to create combined/blended, surge-capable bandwidth

   A $2.25 billion win                                                                                                     Work will be performed
         for CACI                                                                                                          in all 50 states,
                                                                                                                           Washington, D.C., and
 CACI International Inc.                                                                                                   all commonwealths and
 (NYSE: CACI) has been                                                                                                     U.S. Trust Territories.
 awarded the Defense
 Counterintelligence and                                                                                                  CACI’s approximately
 Security Agency (DCSA)                                                                                                   22,000 talented
 Background Investigation                                                                                                 employees are vigilant
 Fieldwork Services                                                                                                       in providing the
 Contract, a five-year single-                                                                                            unique expertise and
 award indefinite delivery/                                                                                               distinctive technology
 indefinite quantity contract                                                                                             that address our
 valued at $2.25 billion,                                                                                                 customers’ greatest
 to provide background                                                                                                    enterprise and mission
 investigation capabilities                                                                                               challenges. The
 to the DCSA.                                                                                                             company’s culture
                                                                                                                          of good character,
 CACI has a long-standing                                                                                                 innovation, and
 partnership with the DCSA                                                                                                excellence drives the
 and has supported national                                                                                               firm’s success and earns
 security by performing                                                                                                   CACI recognition as a
 security clearance background                                                                                            Fortune World’s Most
 investigations for three             Under this enterprise                investigations to DCSA.                      Admired Company.
 previous, consecutive iterations     technology contract,                 Our tenured background
 of the contract.                     more than 1,000 of CACI’s            investigators are the first            
                                      background investigators             line of defense in identifying
 DCSA is currently responsible        will conduct these initial           threats to our national security
 for conducting more than             investigations and periodic re-      and preventing infiltration
 two million background               investigations nationwide.           of our government facilities.
 investigations per year on                                                CACI’s support is crucial to
 civilian and military applicants     John Mengucci, CACI                  securing the trustworthiness
 and Federal employees or             President and Chief Executive        and integrity of the U.S.
 employees of Government              Officer, said, “CACI brings more     Government’s workforce.”
 contractors and consultants to       than 17 years of experience
 Federal programs.                    in conducting background

MilsatMagazine                                                         Page 6                                                          January 2023
    Space Systems Command’s EWS tech demo
         smallsat launched by SpaceX

 Space Systems Command              General Atomics
 successfully launched the          Electromagnetic Systems
 organization’s Electro-            Group will deliver the second
 Optical/Infrared (EO/              prototype by 2025.
 IR) Weather Systems
 (EWS) cubesat technical
 demonstration onboard
 the SpaceX Transporter-6
 mission at 9:56 a.m.
 (Eastern, 6:56 a.m. Pacific)
 from Cape Canaveral Space
 Force Station, Florida on
 January 3, 2023.
 This one-year EWS cubesat tech     This launch satisfies the
 demo will prove out emerging,      FY20 National Defense
 space-based, EO/IR radiometric     Authorization Act (NDAA)
 imaging technology, using a        Congressional mandate
 smaller sensor to provide timely   to launch a weather EO/IR
 weather imagery data from LEO.     pathfinder prototype by FY23.

 In February of 2002, the           The program expects the first
 EWS program competitively          transmittal of data early in 2023.
 selected two vendors to
 develop and launch two             “The EWS cubesat technical
 separate, sensor prototypes.       demonstration effort represents
                                    SSC’s continued commitment
 Orion Space Solutions, a           to working with non-traditional
 non-traditional government         partners to broaden the
 contractor, delivered the          competitive industrial base. If
 cubesat for this demonstration.    successful, this will provide an
                                    innovative option to deliver
                                    Space-Based Environmental
                                    Monitoring data to the
                                    warfighter at an operationally
                                    relevant speed,” said Lt. Col.
                                    Joe Maguadog, EWS Materiel
                                    Leader and Program Manager.
                                    “This demonstration will inform
                                    our transition toward a more
                                    affordable, scalable, and resilient
                                    EO/IR weather constellation.”

MilsatMagazine                                                      Page 7   January 2023
                       Norwegian-Dutch MilSpace2 smallsats successfully launched

 Two Norwegian-Dutch               The defence organization is        are elements of the bilateral
 smallsats were successfully       very dependent on satellites for   agreement between the
 launched on January 3,            navigation and communication       ministries of defence of the
 2023 — Birkeland and              systems, among other needs.        Netherlands and Norway.
 Huygens were placed into
 orbit by SpaceX via the           This is the second time that       The project team that is
 Transporter-6 mission.            the Netherlands Ministry of        acting on behalf of the two
                                   Defence has launched satellites    ministries consists of the
 MilSpace2 is a cooperation        and is, therefore, implementing    Norwegian Defence Research
 project between the               Defence Vision 2035.               Establishment (FFI), the Royal
 Netherlands Ministry of                                              Netherlands Aerospace Centre
 Defence, the Norwegian            The satellites, each of which      (NLR) and the Netherlands
 Ministry of Defence,              is not much larger than six,       Organisation for Applied
 the Norwegian Defence             one-liter cartons of milk, each    Scientific Research (TNO).
 Research Establishment            measuring approximately
 (FFI), the Netherlands            30x20x10 cm, are named after
 Aerospace Center (NLR)            Norwegian physicist Kristian
 and the Netherlands               Olaf Birkeland and the Dutch
 Organisation for Applied          astronomer, Christiaan Huygens.
 Scientific Research (TNO).
                                   Strategic mutual assistance
 Defence Vision 2035 states        in research and technology
 that space has become a crucial   (SMART), military use of space
 link in the information-driven    (MilSpace) and cooperation
 operations of the armed forces.   in science and technology

MilsatMagazine                                                   Page 8                                December 2022
In 2023, we will see more Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellite                    Many companies are looking for the satellite industry’s Holy Grail:
 implementations as these constellations come online and                      a single antenna that can connect simultaneously with multiple
 begin delivering bandwidth for low-latency applications.                     satellites in different orbital planes. While the antenna problem
                                                                              may not be solved in 2023, steps have been taken by the DoD to
 We’ll get a better sense of how the new LEO constellations can be            develop a contracting method that makes it easy for the DoD to
 integrated with existing military networks, such as the Protected Tactical   use LEO satellite capacity.
 Enterprise Service running on the DoD’s WGS constellation. We
 will also see more announcements of plans to launch 5G-ready                 The best solution will be a managed service model that defines
 constellations that can connect with 5G cellphones on the ground.            the amount of data, location of use, duration of use and quality of
                                                                              service necessary for the application. With this approach, the DoD
 Since 2018, Hughes has been working with Boeing on the U.S.                  can save the cost and complexity of setting up their own systems
 Air Force’s Protected Tactical Enterprise Service (PTES)                     (as they do with GEO) while accessing the reach, resiliency, low
 to demonstrate anti-jam SATCOM capability. This past year, we                latency, and security of LEO systems.
 showed that PTES will enable secure operations over the military’s
 WGS constellation and in the future, the processed PTS satellites.           For the DoD to fully embrace the capabilities of the LEO
                                                                              constellations, the commercial operators will need enough
 The next challenge will be that similar results can be achieved if           experience and enough satellites to confidently promise the
 the military were to integrate commercial GEO satellites into its            high quality of service expected by the military Delivering
 networks and possibly run DoD-specific waveforms similar to this             “best efforts” service is not good enough. LEO satellite
 on MEO and LEO satellites. In 2023, we could also take further               technology is evolving quickly and can be combined with
 steps toward having 5G connections in space. This would require              ground and other satellite resources into hybrid networks with
 a constellation of interconnected satellites built with 5G capability,       capabilities never before available.
 essentially cellphone towers in the sky.
                                                                              The challenge will be delivering the capacity and
 When 5G is finally available, it could finally help solve the DoD’s          network management techniques in in a way that
 problem of having so many ground terminals incompatible with one             fits smoothly into the DoD existing networks and
 another. A ruggedized 5G cellphone would be a simple solution                existing procurement procedures.
 to solving the problem and could be an adjunct to the current
 3G-based MUOS system.                                                        Author Rick Lober is the vice president and general
                                                                              manager of the Defense & Intelligence Systems
 We will also start seeing more stand-alone ground networks using 5G          Division at Hughes.
 technology—such as the stand-alone, 5G network Hughes has deployed
 at Whidbey Island Naval Air Station in Washington state to support
 flightline operations, aircraft maintenance and flight traffic management.

MilsatMagazine                                                            Page 9                                                    December 2022
 Complex Comms
 The impetus behind
 delivering battlefield

   Author: Macy W. Summers,
   President and
   Chief Executive Officer,
   Blu Wireless Technology Inc.

 Effective battlefield intelligence,          Partnering this year with the Department       and difficult to share data directly between
 with the ability to share data               of Defense Office of the Under Secretary       domains such as air and navy?
 between a country’s military                 of Defense for Research and Engineering
 services is vital for truly effective,       on an investment of $12 million, the NSF       Too often, technology and networks
 tactical communications.                     selected 16 multidisciplinary teams for        are used within forces that were initially
                                              the Convergence Accelerator program            developed for low level data, meaning that
 This is not just about a country’s own       2022 cohort for the research topic —           the available technology and bandwidth
 services, but also interoperability with     Track: Securely Operating Through 5G           is no longer right for huge data usage
 partner or coalition nations in order to     Infrastructure.                                involving video, high-definition sensor
 enable critical operational data to be                                                      data and mega-pixel imagery. Such legacy
 shared across Command and Control (C2)       This builds on the Department of Defense       systems and siloed ways of working
 structures from those in the field as well   (DoD)’s 5G initiative to assess and mitigate   pose complex challenges when ensuring
 as those in fixed, C2 facilities.            5G vulnerabilities, inform 5G standards        overwhelming military advantage with near-
                                              and policies through rigorous research as      peer adversaries.
 While this has long been the                 well as promote technology development
 requirement, we are now seeing military      to advance communications for the U.S.         The DoD, through the agency’s Joint All-
 forces starting to bring 5G capabilities     military and Federal Government.               Domain Command and Control (JADC2)
 into the tactical environment — indeed,                                                     initiative is also working to overcome such
 this is seen as so crucial that the U.S.           Old Problems, New Tricks?                challenges. JADC2 aims to produce a more
 National Science Foundation is                                                              resilient communications network that will
 accelerating 5G solutions to assist the      Is this a new dawn, or something we’ve         ensure a quicker response to threats.
 U.S. Government (USG) and critical           seen before, where different technologies
 infrastructure operators to communicate      and systems for sharing information have       JADC2 also looks to ensure a co-ordinated
 securely, anywhere and at anytime.           been developed with the specific needs of      approach that will allow data-sharing across
                                              each service, making them incompatible         military services, enabling parity of access
                                                                                             to information and reliable communications
                                                                                             across command-and-control structures.

MilsatMagazine                                                 Page 10                                                      January 2023
In a regional conflict, the bandwidth          5G Private Networks solutions are available
                                                  and power of the small number of LEO           today in several industrial and public
                                                  satellites overhead could be easily            applications — but how applicable are they
                                                  overwhelmed or, at the very least, be          to military use?
                                                  limited to high priority communications.
                                                                                                 First of all, private wireless gigabit
                                                  Is there another option? Terrestrial IEEE 5G   networks differ greatly from 5G wireless
                                                  mmWave networks are proving to be a key        consumer services. Many functions (e.g.,
                                                  element in providing resilient networking,     billing, etc.) in the carrier-grade consumer
                                                  particularly at the tactical edge.             networks are simply not needed. Private
                                                                                                 networks often bring their own spectrum or
                                                  Comprised of multiple points called            wish to use unlicensed airwaves to reduce
                                                  “nodes,” these radio devices,                  CAPEX (capital expenses).
                                                  communicating with one another, create an
                                                  overlapping, multi-Gbps, Low Probability       A key consideration to answering the
                                                  of Intercept/Low Probability of Detection      military’s communication challenges could
                                                  (LPI/LPD) mesh networks that do not rely       well be found in the IEEE 5G mmWave-
  Photo of a roof mounted, Blu Wireless node.
                                                  on a central hub, allowing for quick and       based systems. The IEEE protocols can be
            Integrated Systems                    efficient data routing.                        configured to a distributed mesh network
                                                                                                 rather than a centralized core, meaning
 For commanders looking to communicate            Self-sufficient and self-managed, they         there is no single point of failure.
 through a fully integrated system, it is         find the most reliable paths, even if
 vital that data can be shared in different       those are “daisy-chained” along the            In recent military trials the 5G mmWave
 formats that are in place, but this can be       communications route.                          technology was deployed on tactical land
 challenging and difficult.                                                                      vehicles in simulated complex scenarios.
                                                  Built to connect multiple systems, and to      The objective was to provide coverage to
 Communication technologies currently in use      work in tandem with existing technologies,     effectively deliver gigabit communication
 in the military domain typically date back 20    mesh networking creates a holistic system,     links between the vehicles. The trials saw
 or more years and are, therefore, only capable   delivering a reliable transmission of huge     the capability tested over a wide range
 of supporting low data rates — usually for       amounts of data.                               of conditions, including traveling at high
 voice and limited data rate transmission.                                                       speed, over rough terrain, at the halt
                                                  Today, IEEE 5G solutions can provide           and in RF congested environments. The
 This is, in part, driven by the need for         gigabit bandwidths up to 3 Gbps per            beamformed mmWave systems were
 high levels of security combined with            link, growing to 30+ Gbps plus in the          effectively able to deliver the connectivity
 the traditional slow moving procurement          next generation.                               required to maintain a reliable gigabit
 process (for example the UK’s BOWMAN                                                            network across all scenarios.
 tactical communication system where the          When connected to a LEO WLAN, IEEE
 highest data rate supported by BOWMAN            5G mmWave mesh networks can connect            Military forces need robust, secure
 terminals is low – typically 500 kbps).          a tactical edge network to higher echelon,     capabilities when communicating and
                                                  C2, fiber optic networks.                      sharing vital data, otherwise the impact on
 What is needed, therefore, is an increase                                                       forces and operations could be dire.
 in the adoption of commercial-off-the-           Budget constraints, however, are important,
 shelf (COTS) technologies, such as 5G, to        with even the military having to evidence      While questions remain as to how to
 meet the specific needs of intelligence and      value for money to the public when             deliver these capabilities to the field,
 military applications.                           upgrading communication system.                IEEE 5G mmWave mesh networks,
                                                                                                 coupled to LEO satellite systems, offer a
 To share tactical data across multiple           Upgrading legacy technology and ensuring       proven, reliable, cost-effective solution
 platforms, technology must be capable of         interoperability provides clear benefits       that holds the key for connecting
 managing the needs of forces operating           for the safety of military personnel,          essential, two-way communications
 across complex environments, through             maintaining a tactical advantage against       capabilities at the tactical edge to
 soldiers navigating different terrains in the    near-peer adversaries.                         strategic forces and military commands.
 Middle East, to pilots looking for up-to-the-
 minute surveillance data from the ground,                    COTS Vs. Bespoke                   
 or naval platforms.
                                                  We are now seeing a growing adoption
 The use of satellite systems, particularly Low   of COTS technologies in the defense
 Earth Orbit (LEO) satellites with their lower    community, which is solving some budget
 latency compared to GEO satellites, is one       constraints, as COTS technology doesn’t
 potential answer.                                need to be developed from scratch.
                                                                                                   Author Macy W. Summers
 However due to size, weight, and power           Typical examples would be taking                 is the President and Chief
 (SWaP) constraints, the power and                commercial smartphones and adding                Executive Officer of Blu
 bandwidth of satellites is limited and           software to improve security or using IP         Wireless Technology, Inc.
 therefore a precious commodity.                  (Internet Protocol) networking products with
                                                  software that adapts to meet military needs.
 Additionally, the power and bandwidth of
 a LEO satellite is focused on a relatively       The question now is what technology the
 small, geographic area, hence the need for       military should be using going forward
 hundreds or thousands of LEO satellites to       and how quickly such can be deployed to
 provide global coverage.                         ensure the sharing of data and battlefield
                                                  intelligence between our country’s military
                                                  as well as those of our coalition partners.

MilsatMagazine                                                      Page 12                                                      January 2023
Government Satellite Report (GSR)
                        General Dickinson examines the path to U.S. space superiority
                                 Author: David Pesgraves, Government Satellite Report (GSR)

 Last November, General James H.         During the event, Gen. Dickinson              When space superiority is achieved, it
 Dickinson, Commander of the U.S.        discussed what is required in order for       means that freedom of action exists
 Space Command (SPACECOM),               the U.S. to gain and maintain space           in the domain, while simultaneously
                                         superiority, the distinction between space    denying dynamic freedom of action to
                                         situational awareness and space domain        the adversary. It is designed to give us
                                         awareness, and how the future transition      a strategic, operational, and tactical
                                         of space traffic management to the U.S.       advantage. Space superiority requires
                                         Department of Commerce (DoC) will             coordinated offensive and defensive
                                         enhance the Department of Defense’s           operations... importantly, offensive and
                                         (DoD) deterrence and defense capabilities     defensive operations are conducted
                                         in the arena.                                 across all three segments of the space
                                                                                       architecture: ground, link, and space.”
                                                  What Is Space Power?
                                                                                       Gen. Dickinson then touched on the fact
                                         Gen. Dickinson started the forum by           that achieving and maintaining space
                                         outlining the definition of space power. He   superiority requires the presence and
                                         explained, “Military space power exists       support from SPACECOM’s joint allies and
                                         to preserve freedom of, access to, and        partners in the domain.
                                         freedom of action in space.” According
                                         to Gen. Dickinson, these are the priorities   “Our coalition approach affords us
                                         of all joint and combined space forces in     redundant capability and creates dilemmas
                                         the U.S. military. And this freedom in the    for our adversaries,” he said. “In this way,
                                         domain is only gained and maintained          space superiority is a critical component of
 joined the Mitchell Institute for a     through space superiority, which is the       integrated deterrence. Threats to U.S. and
 special Schriever Spacepower forum      primary objective of space warfare.           allied interests in space are substantial and
 dedicated to examining the current                                                    — I think we can all agree — growing.”
 status of U.S. superiority and domain
 awareness in space.                                                                   He explained that U.S. adversaries are prepared
                                                                                       and ready to contest the space domain.

MilsatMagazine                                             Page 14                                                      January 2023
Gen. Dickinson pointed to China and                control,” said Gen. Dickinson. “Compare          SFB, there is a commercial operations cell
 Russia as prime examples of near-peer              that to space domain awareness, that’s           that supports the Joint Task Force-Space
 competitors that are rapidly developing            a couple of steps beyond that, in terms          Defense (JTF-SD), enabling it with real-time
 and demonstrating space and counterspace           of being able to identify characteristics        synergy and information exchange between
 capabilities that can deny the U.S. and its’       more closely, more accurately…and                owner-operators and tactical users.
 allies the advantages derived from space.          understanding the characterization of
                                                    what’s happening on-orbit.”                      “This information exchange ensures that
 “In response to the rapidly changing                                                                our industry partners and our operators
 strategic environment, U.S. Space Command          Gen. Dickinson explained that in 2019, the       can rapidly and accurately respond to
 is leveraging today’s space power in new           DoD tracked nearly 25,000 pieces of debris       anomalies on-orbit, share valuable lessons,
 ways to achieve greater effects,” said             objects on-orbit. These included old and         and improve our overall readiness,” said
 Gen. Dickinson. “Because of the speed of           defunct satellites, rocket bodies, etc. Today,   Gen. Dickinson.
 competition with China and Russia, I cannot        there are about 48,000 pieces of debris.
 wait for new capabilities over the next five                                                          To watch the Mitchell Institute’s entire
 years. I’m looking for what is good enough         “You can deduce very easily how                       discussion with Gen. Dickinson,
 today, that I can use right now.”                  complicated [space traffic] has become,                   select this direct link...
                                                    how congested it has become. So we are
        Situational Awareness Vs.                   open arms, welcoming, working hand-in-
            Domain Awareness                        hand with Department of Commerce…on
                                                    space traffic management.”
 Gen. Dickinson then pivoted to the
 recent memorandum of agreement                            Commercial Partnerships
 (MoA) between the U.S. Departments of                        Within SPACECOM
 Commerce and Defense on space traffic
 management. This MoA is the first step in          As Commander of SPACECOM, Gen.
 transitioning space situational awareness          Dickinson is responsible for meeting
 and traffic management missions from the           capacity and capability challenges in order
 DoD to the DoC.                                    to deter and defeat any adversaries that
                                                    pose the U.S. and its allies harm.
 As a result, SPACECOM will be able to
 focus its resources on enhanced space              “And we don’t have the luxury to wait
 domain awareness for space superiority.            for capabilities…I think we all agree our
 What exactly is the difference between             strategic competitors are not waiting for
 space situational awareness (SSA) and              that,” said Gen. Dickinson.                      This article first appeared in Government Satellite
 space domain awareness (SDA)?                                                                            Report and is republished with permission
                                                    He then explained how critical commercial                 of GSR and SES Space & Defense.
 According to Gen. Dickinson, situational           mission partners are to the DoD’s mission
 awareness in space is the high-level               of deterring and defending space assets
 proliferation tracking of on-orbit satellites      in the domain, hence why the DoD has                              Author David Presgraves is a
 and other space assets. Domain awareness           two commercial integration cells: one at                          Staff Writer for GovSat Report,
                                                                                                                       in addition to several other
 in space involves a more granular, strategic       Vandenberg Space Force Base and one                                online publications dedicated
 scrutiny of assets that are of interest to         at Schriever Space Force Base.                                    to defense, military, and
 SPACECOM and the DoD.                              At Vandenberg SFB, commercial entities                            federal government
                                                    have operations consoles that are side-by-                        agency technologies.
 “If I had to use an analogy, space situational     side with military operators, exchanging
 awareness is a little bit like doing air traffic   information in near real-time. At Schriever

MilsatMagazine                                                         Page 15                                                          January 2023
                              Innoflight’s multi-million government contracts to
                              radiation-harden and cyber-harden sensor payloads

 Innoflight was awarded             A key element of Innoflight’s       CyberDog actively protects         event as an attack or anomaly.
 more than $5 million in            space qualification is a            all communications between         CyberDog will meet the attack
 government contracts               systems-engineering focused,        the spacecraft and external        based on threat condition,
 to radiation-harden and            multi-layer mitigation of natural   entities, including Internet       programmed rulesets, or
 cyber-harden advanced              and man-made threats to             Protocol (IP) traffic.             updates from an external
 terrestrial sensor payloads        the payload’s electronics and                                          command and control node.
 for space.                         embedded systems.                   For IP traffic, CyberDog
                                                                        selectively calls upon Intrusion   These contracts will produce
 Within Department of Defense       The largest of the government       Detection System (IDS) routines    prototype hardware that has
 (DoD) space programs,              contracts emphasizes the            to quarantine dangerous data or    completed qualification testing
 there is a significant interest    requirement to harden against       suspicious outbound traffic for    and ready for on-orbit demo.
 in leveraging affordable,          cyber threats.                      further analysis.
 advanced, and low size, weight                                                                            “Innoflight has built upon its
 and power (SWaP) avionics                                              The CyberDog algorithm can be      breadth and depth in radiation
 systems for use in proliferated                                                    tuned to provide       mitigation of advanced secure
 Low Earth Orbit (pLEO)                                                             high-assurance         communications, networking
 space sensors and seekers on                                                       encryption             and processing solutions for
 aerospace vehicles.                                                                services to            responsive space; furthermore,
                                                                                    protect sensitive      we have taken our expertise
 This approach allows the DoD                                                       mission data.          and experience in information
 to rapidly adopt advanced                                                          Finally, CyberDog      assurance through multiple
 software-defined and                                                               monitors the           U.S. Government Information
 reconfigurable sensor payloads                                                     internal behavior      Assurance cryptographic
 to respond to emerging threats.                                                    of the system          solution certification programs
                                                                                    in real‑time.          to build a comprehensive cyber
 Innoflight’s contracts cover the                                                                          capability called CyberDog,”
 entire scope of these payloads,                                                        The proprietary    said Jeff Janicik, Innoflight
 including the sensor, read-out                                                         algorithm will     President and CEO.
 electronics, edge processing                                                           monitor for
 and power electronics and will                                                         sudden changes
 leverage Innoflight’s expertise                                                        in the behavior
 to space qualify Commercial                                                            of the system
 Off-The-Shelf (COTS)                                                                   and rapidly
 technologies for mechanical,                                                           discriminate
 thermal, electromagnetic and       Innoflight CFC-500P GPU-based Processor in the 3U   the change
 radiation requirements.                          SpaceVPX Form Factor

MilsatMagazine                                                    Page 16                                                    January 2023
  Report reveals rising government space defense spendings anticipated by investments in
                             space security and early warning
                                                                          On the civil side, government        Euroconsult’s 22nd edition
                                                                          expenditures are increasingly        of “Government Space
                                                                          driven by Human Spaceflight          Programs” provides a
                                                                          missions, which now attracts more    comprehensive assessment of
                                                                          and more new entrants that have      countries and organizations
                                                                          been encouraged by the socio-        investing in space.
                                                                          economic benefits and prestige
                                                                          brought by these programs.           The report is available
                                                                                                               on Euroconsult’s Digital
                                                                          While civil expenditures have        Platform, enabling customers
                                                                          historically always been higher      to easily sort, compare,
                                                                          than defense spendings,              customize and visualize
                                                                          the gap between the two              datasets of their choice.
                                                                          continues to decrease and
                                                                          is expected to reach 50/50           Premium users can access
                                                                          parity by 2031, according to         thousands of data points
                                                                          Euroconsult’s projections.           included in the database to
                                                                                                               create customized datasets for
                                                                          In terms of national rankings,       their specific needs.
                                                                          the U.S. remains, by far, the
                                                                          largest investor worldwide.          For detailed profiles on all
                                                                                                               government players and an
                                                                          However, its share of global         accurate map to help navigate
                                                                          spending has been reduced,           the international space
                                                                          from 76% in 2000 to 60%              investments and priorities, access
                                                                          in 2022 as more and more             the company’s online platform.
                                                                          countries join the sector.

                                                                          In 2022, Euroconsult counted
                                                                          more than 86 countries invested
                                                                          in space activities.

                                                                          Some regions have shown a
                                                                          particular dynamism over the
                                                                          past few years, notably in the
                                                                          Middle East, with countries such
                                                                          as Saudi Arabia, the UAE, Qatar
                                                                          and Oman accelerating their
 The new edition                     Despite the recent pandemic          development in the sector.
 of Euroconsult’s                    crisis, governments have
 “Government Space                   increased their investments in       Charlotte Croison, Senior
 Programs” report provides           the sector to further support        Consultant at Euroconsult,
 detailed insight into               the development of their industry    said, “The new edition of the
 rising government space             and sustain their ambitions.         Government Space Programs
 budgets in civilian and                                                  report confirms the growing
 defense applications                This growth is notably significant   interest of countries in the space
 for the decade ahead,               in the defense area, reaching        sector, notably in the defense
 highlighting spending               16% in 2022 and topping a new        area where space militarization
 patterns and specific areas         record at $48 billion.               has never been stronger.”
 of investment from nations
 around the globe.                   Current geopolitical tensions
                                     have confirmed space as a
 Euroconsult’s report reveals a      strategic operational theater
 continued increase in global        for hybrid warfare tactics,
 governments’ space budgets.         pushing governments to
                                     sustain their investments in
 This year has seen a cumulative     ‘traditional’ space applications,
 spend of $103 billion in 2022,      such as Telecommunications,
 a 9% increase since last year       Navigation and Earth
 and a record high for the sector.   Observation (EO), but also
                                     more prominently in Space
                                     Security and Early Warning
                                     systems to further protect their
                                     space assets.

MilsatMagazine                                                      Page 17                                                        January 2023
Space Test Program (STP) Enables
                       Space Technical Enhancement
                                          Author: Lt. Col. Jonathan Shea, Director of the DoD Space Test Program

 Every great technological advancement                       A Critical Component of                               Competitive Access to Space
 starts with prototypes and                                     National Security
 experimental designs that are tested,                                                                    The cornerstone for this success is STP’s
 refined and further developed.                    Overall, STP is a critical component                   facilitation of the DoD Space Experiment
                                                   of national security as it is one of the               Review Board (SERB), which evaluates and
 For space technology, the U.S.                    only ways that the DoD can mature                      ranks space-borne experiments from across
 Department of Defense (DoD) Space                 advanced technologies in the space                     the DoD that are requesting STP launch
 Test Program (STP) is one of the oldest           domain; if unsuccessful, the US will fall              support services.
 and largest facilitators of the kinds of          steadily behind our adversaries in the
 experiments that lead to tomorrow’s               technological competition.                             Due to STP’s unique ability to facilitate
 innovative space technology.                                                                             access to space for multiple experiments,
                                                   One of the main challenges facing the                  the SERB evaluations are an extremely
 STP provides mission design, spacecraft           USSF is how the new service can maintain               competitive process.
 acquisition, integration, launch and              its technological advantage in the space
 operations support to facilitate                  warfighting domain. The DoD STP is a key               In many ways, it mirrors a “Shark Tank”
 experimental payload access to the                component of that answer.                              format, wherein experimenters brief the
 space domain.                                                                                            evaluators on their payload’s military
                                                   Headquartered at New Mexico’s                          relevance, mission requirements,
 These experimental payloads demonstrate           Kirtland Air Force Base, and managed                   technology transition plans and
 technologies that accelerate the                  by the Innovation and Prototyping                      experiment quality.
 development of war-winning space                  Acquisition Delta within the USSF Space
 capabilities for the joint warfighter.            Systems Command (SSC), STP provides a                  Once the SERB approves an experiment,
                                                   series of unique services to facilitate access         STP will then apportion resources to secure
 As the primary agent for science and              to space for experimental space payloads               space flight opportunities.
 technology (S&T) payloads on multi-manifest       that exhibit potential military utility.
 missions flown on U.S. Space Force (USSF)                                                                This process is critical as it ensures significant
 and commercially procured launch vehicles,        Created in 1965, the STP is one of the                 cost savings for many of the laboratories and
 STP significantly expands U.S. space access       longest continuously running programs                  research and development centers that do
 and demonstrates cutting-edge technology          in the DoD. In its 57-year history, this               not have the funding required to procure
 to rapidly integrate DoD space power into         organization has executed more than 300                their own launch capability.
 national, joint and international operations.     missions. Its recent past demonstrates the
                                                   strength of experience — in 2021, STP                  The SERB list currently boasts more than
 At the same time, STP answered General            successfully integrated payloads on six                80 ranked candidate missions and STP
 John “Jay” Raymond’s (former Chief                separate rocket launches.                              is working diligently to get them all into
 of Space Operations for the USSF) call                                                                   outer space using its core integration
 for more cooperation by using its unique          STP’s services enable the advancement of               services: large launch vehicle integration,
 set of services to forge partnerships with        scientific knowledge and capability, which             small launch vehicle integration,
 commercial entities and international allies.     is foundational to ensuring continuous U.S.            International Space Station (ISS)
                                                   advantage in the space domain.                         integration and payload-to-bus integration.

MilsatMagazine                                                          Page 18                                                              January 2023
First, STP boasts the ability to acquire a             In spite of the technical, political and            with NASA’s ISS team at Johnson Space
    dedicated Atlas, Vulcan, Falcon 9 or Falcon            bureaucratic difficulties this presented,           Center (JSC) in Houston, Texas.
    Heavy launch on a four-year cadence.                   the STP team flawlessly ensured that the
                                                           mission got all assets integrated so that the       STP has a team permanently located on-
    A recent example is the STP-3 launch on                Atlas launch vehicle could take them into           site at JSC and is designated, per DoD
    an Atlas 551 and its flagship vehicle, STP             their intended orbits.                              mandate, as the “single manager for all
    Satellite-6 (STP Sat-6).                                                                                   DoD payloads on the ISS, future manned
                                                           Another way that STP manifests payloads             and unmanned NASA launch vehicles…”
    The STPSat-6 spacecraft hosted nine                    is by using their capability to obtain a
    payloads, including a NASA laser                       dedicated series of small launch vehicles           The Houston team developed a modular
    communications mission called the Laser                every two years, as showcased in the                platform that integrates seamlessly into the
    Communications Relay Demonstration                     successful STP-S28A mission.                        ISS, enabling multiple experiments that use
    (LCRD) and a National Nuclear Security                                                                     the orbiting station as their host platform.
    Agency (NNSA) nuclear detection                        For this mission, the USSF and SSC teamed
    payload, as well as seven DoD SERB-                    up with Virgin Orbit National Systems, a            Experiments onboard the ISS benefit
    ranked experiments.                                    US-incorporated, wholly owned subsidiary            from substantial subsidies provided by
                                                           to Virgin Orbit, to launch multiple DoD             NASA; accordingly, manifesting on the ISS
                                                           satellites from the Mojave Air and Space            becomes an extremely cost-effective option
                                                           Port in California.                                 for many SERB payloads.

                                                                                                                     Expanding Access to Space
                                                                                                                           in the Future
                                                                                                               STP is investing in an organic contract to
                                                                                                               build standard space vehicles (aka “buses”)
                                                                                                               for mounting experimental payloads prior
                                                                                                               to placing them on the rocket.

                                                                                                               This initiative, known as the Space Test
                                                                                                               Experimentation Platform 2.0 (STEP 2.0,)
                                                                                                               will give STP customers increased flexibility
                                                                                                               to integrate their payloads onto busses that
                                                           This mission launched seven, SERB satellites        are specifically tailored to match the STP
                                                           from multiple DoD agencies using the                launch rhythm.
 The LCRD payload is attached to the LCRD support          Virgin Orbit National Systems Space
  assembly flight (LSAF), depicted in this illustration.   “LauncherOne” system.                               Once on contract, the STEP 2.0 contract
     The LSAF serves as the backbone for LCRD’s                                                                will enable STP to reach out to other
components. Attached to the LSAF are a star tracker        In addition to getting SERB payloads                organizations seeking busses and initiate
  and two optical modules (left), which generate the       into space, the STP-S28A mission also               collaborative partnerships, which will in turn
 infrared lasers that transmit data to and from Earth.     demonstrated commercially available                 increase the synergy between the DoD’s
Other LCRD components, including the modems that           solutions for placing USSF satellite capabilities   myriad space agencies.
  encode data into laser signals, are attached to the      on-orbit from non-traditional locations.
                   back of the LSAF.                                                                           As the primary agent for S&T payloads
    Credits: NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center             International Cooperation with Allies              across the entire DoD, STP is pivotal to
                                                                                                               expanding space access and demonstrating
                                                           STP is rising to the challenge by realizing         next-generation technology.
    The STP-3 mission was one of the most                  the Chief of Space Operations’ International
    complicated missions ever executed by                  Cooperation initiative through participation in     Further, STP is leading the charge for
    the USSF.                                              the Responsive Space Capabilities MOU (RSC          more cooperation in the space domain by
                                                           MOU), an international agreement between            using its multi-faceted suite of services to
    STP Sat-6 was the primary payload on a                 13 countries that supports RDT&E cooperative        forge DoD, commercial and international
    co-manifested mission, along with the Long             efforts related to responsive space capabilities.   partnerships.
    Duration Propulsive ESPA 1 (LDPE-1)
    mission, which is a modular, ring-shaped               Specifically, STP is integral to the success        STP is a critical component of national
    vehicle that manifested multiple payloads              of the Responsive Launch and Range                  security as it is one of the only ways that the
    of its own.                                            Project Arrangement in providing access             DoD can mature advanced technologies in
                                                           to space for experiments from participating         the space domain, which in turn ensures a
                                                           members. STP chairs the International Space         future of continued space dominance for
                                                           Access Review Board (ISARB), a venue for            the United States and its allies.
                                                           international partners to gain access to
                                                           U.S. launches. The ISARB has successfully             Lt. Col. Jonathan Shea
                                                           approved a total of nine experiments for              is the current Director
                                                           launch since its inception in 2019.                   of the DoD Space Test
                                                                                                                 Program and is the
                                                           STP is currently sponsoring three                     first director to come
                                                           experiments from Australia, Germany and               from the USSF. His
                                                           the United Kingdom slated to launch in late           background includes
   The Long Duration Propulsive ESPA (LDPE)-2              2023. This mission will solidify the USSF’s           satellite acquisition,
spacecraft on this mission consisted of an ESPAStar        ability to partner with international allies in       experimental operations,
  satellite. Image is courtesy of Lockheed Martin.         the research and development arena.                   and nuclear maintenance. He deployed
                                                                                                                 in support of OPERATION RESOLUTE
    Altogether, the STP-3 mission featured two             The next element of STP’s ability to                  SUPPORT and is a graduate of the Air
    space vehicles and 12 distinct payloads, all           enable research & development (R&D)                   Force’s School of Advanced Air and
    with different sponsoring organizations.               experimentation is the ironclad partnership           Space Studies.

  MilsatMagazine                                                               Page 19                                                          January 2023
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