IOT 4.0I M2M - OPC UNIFIED ARCHITECTURE - OPC FOUNDATION
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1 OPC Unified Architecture Interoperability for Industrie 4.0 and the Internet of Things Version 08 // June 2018 IoT 4.0 Industrie M2M
2 Welcome to the OPC Foundation! As the international standard for vertical and horizontal communication, OPC UA provides semantic interoper- ability for the smart world of connect- ed systems. Thomas J. Burke President and Executive Director OPC Foundation OPC Unified Architecture (OPC UA) is the data ex- OPC UA is an IEC standard and therefore ideally change standard for safe, reliable, manufacturer- suited for cooperation with other organizations. and platform-independent industrial communication. As a global non-profit organization, the OPC Foun- It enables data exchange between products from dation coordinates the further development of the different manufacturers and across operating sys- OPC standard in collaboration with users, manufac- tems. The OPC UA standard is based on specifica- turers and researchers. Activities include: tions that were developed in close cooperation be- tween manufacturers, users, research institutes and ➞ Development and maintenance of specifications consortia, in order to enable safe information ex- ➞ Certification and compliance tests of change in heterogeneous systems. implementations ➞ Cooperation with other standards organizations OPC has been very popular in the industry and also becoming more popular in other markets like the This brochure provides an overview of IoT, M2M Internet of Things (IoT). With the introduction of Ser- (Machine to Machine) and Industrie 4.0 requirements vice-Oriented-Architecture (SOA) in industrial auto- and illustrates solutions, technical details and imple- mation systems in 2007, OPC UA started to offer a mentations based on OPC UA. scalable, platform-independent solution which com- The broad approval among representatives from re- bines the benefits of web services and integrated search, industry and associations indicates OPC UA security with a consistent data model. to be a key ingredient of data and information ex- change standards. Regards, Thomas J. Burke President and Executive Director OPC Foundation firstname.lastname@example.org www.opcfoundation.org
3 Contents 4 OPC UA: INDUSTRIAL INTEROPERABILITY COLLABORATIONS FOR IOT 34 Collaborations Overview 35 VDMA – Machine Assosiation 6 OPC UA – PIONEER FOR INDUSTRIE 4.0 36 MDIS – Offshore Oil & Gas 37 O PEN-SCS – OPC UA in Pharmaceutical Industry INDUSTRIE 4.0 REQUIREMENTS – 7 38 PLCopen – Client and server in controller OPC UA SOLUTION 39 AIM-D – RFID and other AutoID systems 40 AutomationML – OPC UA for engineering 8 USA: OPC UA IN TESTBEDS 41 FDI – OPC UA in Process Automation JAPAN: IVI INITIATIVE OPC UA SOLUTIONS 9 CHINA: MADE IN CHINA 2025 42 HORIZONTAL: 10 KOREA: MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY OPC UA ENABLES M2M AND IIOT INNOVATION 3.0 Silvio Merz, Joint Water and Wastewater Authority, Vogtland 11 OPC FOUNDATION – ORGANIZATION 43 SCALABILITY: QUOTES OPC UA IN SENSOR 12 Global Players Alexandre Felt, AREVA GmbH 13 OPC UA in the industry 14 Pioneers in automation 44 ENSURING THE AVAILABILITY: 15 Global Players in the Industry OPC UA IN A TUNNEL PROJECT 16 Cooperations with organizations Bernhard Reichl, ETM 17 Thought Leaders from R&D and Science 45 SMART METERING: 18 OPC UA AT A GLANCE CONSUMPTION INFORMATION FROM THE METER RIGHT UP TO IT ACCOUNTING 20 OPC UA TECHNOLOGY EXTENSIONS SYSTEMS Karl-Heinz Deiretsbacher, Siemens AG Carsten Lorenz, Honeywell 27 SECURITY CHECK BY GERMAN FEDERAL 46 VERTICAL: OFFICE FOR INFORMATION SECURITY OPC UA FROM PRODUCTION RIGHT INTO SAP OPC UA TECHNOLOGY IN DETAIL Rüdiger Fritz, SAP 28 Extending the communication methods Roland Essmann, Elster GmbH 29 Deterministic message delivery 47 CLOUD: OPC FOUNDATION RESOURCES OPC UA FOR IOT UP INTO THE CLOUD 30 Specifications and information Clemens Vasters, Microsoft Corporation 31 Source code and certification 32 Laboratory – Certification 33 Integration – Toolkits and Books
4 OPC UA: Industrial Interoperability for the IoT Digitalization is an important and highly attractive els, usage statistics, and alarm messages for the growth market. The goal is to foster the integration of machine owners to best supply and maintain their IT Technologies with products, systems, solutions assets. The business models resulting from this are and services across the complete value chain which mainly around logistics and maintenance as well as stretches from design and production to mainte- special condition monitoring and preventive mainte- nance. Once implemented, digitalization opens the nance. For example in the industrial environment, doors to new business opportunities like the digitali- airplane turbines deployed at airports around the zation of products and systems, new and enhanced world can be constantly monitored to ensure re- software solutions, and new digital services. placement parts are sent just in time to reduce the The Internet of Things (IoT) brings together a broad maintenance times and unplanned down-times. range of technologies that have traditionally not been connected via today’s near ubiquitous IP-based net- INTERNET works. While Ethernet provides the ability for things At its base, the IoT calls for remote device access as to ‘reach’ each other, they still need a common way well. Hence, while M2M is a part of the IoT, the IoT is to communicate. Standardized data connectivity not limited to the exchange of data between intelli- and interoperability addresses this need. In simple gent devices. It also includes data from simple sen- terms, with standardized data connectivity at its sors and actuators (i.e wearable fitness solutions in core, the Industrial IoT (IIoT) can be looked at from the consumer space, safety sensors like gas and two perspectives: horizontal and vertical data con- proximity detectors in industrial settings) that will be nectivity. An example of horizontal communications first aggregated and processed locally then sent via is Machine to Machine (M2M) data connectivity be- gateways (a smart phone) to central systems in the tween shop floor systems. cloud. Within IoT, complex networks of intelligent An example of vertical communications is device-to- systems are emerging. A similar development can be cloud data transfer. In both cases, the OPC UA stan- observed for industrial solutions where shop floor dard from the OPC Foundation provides a secure, machines and field devices are not just connected to reliable foundation robust enough to facilitate stan- networks sending raw data. Instead, they increas- dards based data connectivity and interoperability. ingly process and combine data from other devices For years the OPC Foundation has worked with due to the increasing computing power of these de- many companies and associations to make this a vices. They can consume and provide information reality and will keep doing so as it continues to ex- from/to other field devices to create new value for the pand its collaboration activities. user. Ultimately, such machine collaboration enables individual machines to provide technicians with MACHINE INTERACTION maintenance strategies and on-demand mainte- M2M typically defines the communication between nance history. A far cry from raw sensor data only two machines or the data transfer between a more systems. or less intelligent device and a central computer. The communication media is either a cable modem or COMMUNICATION wireless modem. In more modern devices – for ex- Communication requirements between ‘things’ and ample vending machines – data communications are services in the IoT era are far broader than what is increasingly established over cell networks via SIM seen in today’s established infrastructures. For ex- cards embedded directly into the vending machine. ample, rather than query individual sensors and de- This point-to-point connection allows the dedicated vices directly via point-to-point communications, on-board computer to send key data like stock lev- broader systems will subscribe to the data these
5 sub-components publish via publish-subscribe nection oriented client/server communication model (PubSub) protocols. This will simultaneously facilitate to handle bi-directional communication that allows high scalability and improve security. Typically these sending control commands to actors. Furthermore things and systems will communicate via IP-Net- information must be accompanied by a semantic works between each other and with cloud based meta-data-model that describes the data and its big-data applications. The customer benefits created purpose to help best use the data directly and espe- by the combination of these intelligent devices and cially when it is pooled together with data from a di- systems with services that operators and vendors verse eco system of other third party systems. As provide to their customers will serve as the founda- information is aggregated across multiple system tion for realizing the massive benefits the IoT prom- layers, increasing amounts of meta-data are brought isses to deliver. together. This makes using a common standard for preserving the context critical to ensure the value of OPC UA INTEROPERABILITY the overall-data is preserved. The vision of IoT can only be realized, if the underly- ing communication between central components is Scalability and the possibility of integration across all based on a global communication standard that can layers is required as well as platform and vendor in- fulfill a wide range of complex requirements. For ex- dependence. The OPC UA standard offers a com- ample, while a publish/subscribe model for the low- plete solution for all of theses requirements across resource, one-to-many communication is needed for vertical layers for remote device access. scalability and speed; it still requires a secure con- IoT 4.0 Industrie M2M OPC UA serves as the common data connectivity and collaboration standard for local and remote device access in IoT, M2M, and Industrie4.0 settings.
6 OPC UA – pioneer for Industrie 4.0 CHALLENGE reconfigure and optimize themselves and are ex- In order to maintain the competitiveness of modern pandable (plug-and-produce) without engineering industrial countries it is necessary to meet the chal- intervention or manual installation. Virtual images are lenges of increasing efficiency with ever shorter carried throughout the production, product life time product cycles through more effective use of energy and value creation chain within the produced goods and resources, of reducing time to market by pro- and always represent the current state of the actual ducing more complex products faster with high in- product. Such “smart” products are networked with novative cycles, and of increasing flexibility through each other in the Internet of Things and respond to individualized mass production. internal and external events with learned behavior patterns. VISION The 4th industrial revolution (Industrie 4.0) is driven REQUESTS Source: www.zvei.org, July 2015 by advanced information and communication tech- Considerable effort is required for implementing the nologies (ICT), which are becoming increasingly vision of Industrie 4.0 successfully, since demands prevalent in industrial automation. In distributed, in- vary considerably. In order to reduce the complexity, telligent systems physical, real systems and virtual, comprehensive modularization, wide-ranging stan- digital data merge into cyber physical systems (CPS). dardization and consistent digitization is required. These CPS are networked and form “smart” objects These demands are not new. They are not revolu- that can be assembled into “smart factories”. With tionary either, but the result of continous develop- increasing processing power and communication ment. capacity, production units are able to organize them- This evolution is a long-standing process that started selves and become self-contained. They have all the a long time ago. Solutions for many of the require- information they need or can obtain it independently. ments outlined below already exist. They are the The systems are networked and autonomous, they foundation of Industrie 4.0. OPC UA COVERS THE COMMUNICATION AND INFORMATION LAYER IN RAMI4.0 Product properties 2017 for the criteria for Industrie 4.0 products ➞ Criteria 2: Industrie 4.0 communication Mandatory: Product addressable online via TCP/UDP&IP with at least the information model from OPC UA ➞ Criteria 5: Industrie 4.0 services and conditions Optional: Information such as statuses, error messages, warnings, etc. available via OPC UA information model in accordance with an industry standard Source: www.zvei.org, April 2017 Copyright © ZVEI, SG2
7 Industrie 4.0 requirements – OPC UA solution Industrie 4.0 requirements OPC UA solution Independence of the communication The OPC Foundation is a vendor-independent non-profit organization. Membership is not required technology from manufacturer, for using the OPC UA technology or for developing OPC UA products. OPC is widely used in auto- sector, operating system, program- mation but is technologically sector-neutral. OPC UA runs on all operating systems – there are even ming language chip layer implementations without an operating system. OPC UA can be implemented in all lan- guages – currently stacks in Ansi C/C++, .NET and Java are available. Scalability for integrated networking OPC UA scales from 15 kB footprint (Fraunhofer Lemgo) through to single- and multi-core hardware including the smallest sensors, with a wide range of CPU architectures (Intel, ARM, PPC, etc.) OPC UA is used in embedded field embedded devices and PLC devices such as RFID readers, protocol converters etc. and in virtually all controllers and SCADA/ controllers, PCs, smartphones, HMI products as well as MES/ERP systems. Projects have already been successfully realized in mainframes and cloud applications. Amazon and Microsoft Azure Cloud. Horizontal and vertical communica- tion across all layers. Secure transfer and authentication at OPC UA uses X.509 certificates, Kerberos or user/password for authentication of the application. user and application level Signed and encrypted transfer, as well as a rights concept at data point level with audit functionality is available in the stack. SOA, transport via established OPC UA is independent of the transport method. Currently two protocol bindings are available: op- standards such as TCP/IP for timized TCP-based binary protocol for high-performance applications and HTTP/HTTPS web ser- exchanging live and historic data, vice with binary or XML coded messages. Additionally Publish/Subscribe communication model can commands and events (event/ be integrated. The stacks guarantee consistent transport of all data. Besides live and real time data callback) also historical data and their mathematical aggregation are standardized in OPC UA. Furthermore method calls with complex arguments are possible, but also alarm and eventing via token based mechanism (late polling). Mapping of information content with OPC UA provides a fully networked concept for an object oriented address space (not only hierarchi- any degree of complexity for cal but full-meshed network), including metadata and object description. Object structures can be modeling of virtual objects to generated via referencing of the instances among each other and their types and a type model that represent the actual products and can be extended through inheritance. Since servers carry their instance and type system, clients can their production steps. navigate through this network and obtain all the information they need, even for types that were unknown to them before. This is a base requirement for Plug-and-Produce functionality without prior configuration of the devices. Unplanned, ad hoc communication OPC UA defines different “discovery” mechanisms for identification and notification of OPC UA- for plug-and-produce function with capable devices and their functions within a network. OPC UA participants can be located local description of the access data and (on the same host), in a subnet or global (within enterprise). Aggregation across subnets and intelli- the offered function (services) for gent, configuration-less procedure (e.g. Zeroconf) are used to identify and address network partici- self-organized (also autonomous) pants. participation in “smart” networked orchestration/combination of components Integration into engineering and The OPC Foundation already collaborates successfully with other organizations (PLCopen, BACnet, semantic extension FDI, AIM, etc.) and is currently expanding its cooperation activities, e.g. MES-DACH, ISA95, MDIS (oil and gas industry), etc. A new cooperation initiative is with AutomationML, with the aim of optimiz- ing interoperability between engineering tools. Verification of conformity with the OPC UA is already an IEC standard (IEC 62541), and tools and test laboratories for testing and defined standard certifying conformity are available. Additional test events (e.g. Plugfest) enhance the quality and en- sure compatibility. Expanded tests are required for extensions/amendments (companion standards, semantics). Additionally various validations regarding data security and functional safety are per- formed by external test and certification bodies.
8 One the major goals of the “Industrial Internet Consortium” (IIC) is the creation of industry use cases and testbeds for real-world applications. The testbeds create recommendations for the reference architecture and frameworks necessary for interoperability. OPC UA is the enabling technology for SoA interoperability and thus part of the IIC Connectivity Framework published in February 2017. Testbeds with OPC UA involved 1. SMART MANUFACTURING CONNECTIVITY chines over a single, standard Ethernet network, sup- FOR BROWN-FIELD SENSORS porting multi-vendor interoperability and integration. This testbed implements an alternative solution by sub- OPC UA over TSN uses standard IT infrastructure for stituting IO-modules that connect the sensors with the controller to controller communication between de- real-time automation system by a gateway that extracts vices from different vendors. The Industrial Internet of Things the sensor data and transfers them to the IT system Volume G5: Connectivity Framework IIC:PUB:G5:V1.0:PB:20170228 through an additional communication channel via OPC 3. SMART FACTORY WEB TESTBED UA (IEC 62541). Secure Plug & Work techniques based on the stan- dards AutomationML and OPC UA are applied to adapt 2. TIME SENSITIVE NETWORKING (TSN) factories on-the-fly by inserting new manufacturing as- TESTBED sets into the factory production with a minimum of en- The TSN technology will be used to support real-time gineering effort. Source: www.iiconsortium.org control and synchronization of high performance ma- tual and practical requirements of factories. In con- Industrial sideration of the Industrial Value Chain Reference Value Chain Initiative Architecture (IVRA), those requirements are de- scribed in a form of smart manufacturing scenario, which shows a current situation as well as a desired INDUSTRIAL VALUE CHAIN INITIATIVE (IVI) goal of the factory. While the scenarios are evaluated »OPC UA is a key enabler for connected manufactur- in the test-bed factory, an IVI platform performs and ing, where huge variety of factory-floor operations OPC UA can give a reasonable way of implementa- are connected both through the cyber and physical tion for secure and concrete connections. Further- ways. The Industrial Value Chain Initiative (IVI) is an more, as an open standard specification, OPC UA is organization providing win-win cooperation opportu- meaningful for the IVI platform ecosystem, where ap- nities for enterprises moving toward the next era of plication suppliers, IoT device vendors, data infra- connected industries. Since most of the members structure and software tool providers are involved to are manufacturers, IVI is especially focusing on ac- enhance the value of the platforms.« Prof. Dr. Yasuyuki Nishioka, President, Industrial Value Chain Initiative
9 Chinese government puts forward Made In China 2025 plan in order to facilitate China’s transformation from a manufacturing giant with a focus on quantity to one with qualitative edge. The main attack direction of Made In China 2025 is Intelligent Manufacturing, which is based on deep integration of new-generation information technology and advanced manufacturing technology, and is the effective means to achieve goals of shorten- ing product development cycle, increasing production efficiency and product quality, and reducing operation cost and energy consumption. Intelligent Manufacturing requires horizontal integration and vertical integration of all information systems, in- cluding IT system and OT system in factory/plant,which means communication is not only pure data trans- mission but also semantic-based information exchange. OPC UA, adopting semantic-based and services- oriented architecture (SOA), defining communication services and information models, is a natural fit for the integration of interconnected networks in digital factory/plant and implements semantic interoperability. Therefore, SAC/TC124 has organized to transfer OPC UA specifications to Chinese recommended national standard. China: Made in China 2025 OPC UA parts 1 – 12 are Chinese National Standard »Industrial IoT can be viewed as the convergence of »In 2015, ITEI undertook 7 Intelligent Manufacturing ICT and OT in the various industrial verticals.The re- Projects issued from MIIT, in which basic and common sulting technology innovation has created an inflec- standards regarding to intelligent manufacturing body tion point that will change how we think of, partici- will be set. One project is “Industrial control networks pate in and benefit from the industrial sector. In standard research and verification platform”, and one response to this inflection point, there is an emerging task of this project is to draft a national standard named ecosystem that includes standards, best practices “OPC UA-based unified architecture for interconnected and reference architectures. This ecosystem in- networks in digital plant”, which will provide a unified cludes both industry stakeholders and government solution for interconnecting the networks among de- initiatives across geographies and verticals. OPC vice level, control and management level in digital plant. Foundation is an essential part of that emerging eco- This standard will promote, that the device manufactu- system. It defines OPC UA, a standard that is funda- rers should provide OPC UA servers for their produced mental to linking the ICT an OT environments in a devices directly, and the software vendors should bet- way that is both secure and forward looking, thus ter to embed OPC UA clients. Therefore, for the device enabling new innovations such as real time manufac- manufacturers and the software vendors, it is only nee- turing, digital manufacturing and low latency/time ded to invest and develop once, while for the manufac- sensitive industrial systems.« turing enterprises and the system integrators, it will avoid case-by-case solutions, which will decrease inte- Wael William Diab, Senior Director, Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. grating costs and cycles greatly.« Jinsong Ouyang, President, Instrumentation Technology & Economy Institute, P.R.China (ITEI) Vice chairman of the committee, National TC124 On Industrial Process Measurement, Control And Automation Of Sac
10 South Korea is pursuing smart factory based on “Manufacturing Industry Innovation 3.0 (MII3.0)” in response to the paradigm shift of the 4th Industrial Revolution. MII3.0 is aiming 3 achievements (High productivity, High flexibility, High resource awareness) through 3 technologies (Automation, Production, and ICT). By 2020, it is working as a practical goal to spread smart factory technology to 10,000 enterprises in cooperation with major domestic and foreign companies. Especially, OPC UA will be used as an industrial standard to connect between OT (Operational Technology) and IT (Information Technology). (IIoT) deployments. In IoT environments, we see OPC UA as a critical standard for ensuring interope- rability between a broad set of manufacturing pro- cesses and equipment. KETI is developing IIoS framework for information networking and applica- tions and standard IIoT framework for field level inter- working to support automatic recognition and con- nection between various factory-things in factory »KETI is committed to technology development rela- through OPC UA.« ted to standards and interoperability in IoT. This is particularly important for industrial Internet of Things Byunghun Song, The head of Smart Factory ICT Center, KETI Korea: Manufacturing Industry Innovation 3.0 »The true potential of Industrial IoT will be realized with »OPC UA enables application integration, modeling, solutions that guarantee interoperability across busi- reunion and data exchange in a simple and consis- ness domains, where are independent from vendors tent standardized way while maintaining high perfor- and platforms on the market. As one of the largest ma- mance and stability. nufacturing companies in the world, Samsung Electro- With OPC UA, LG CNS can develop products that nics sees its great value proposition of the OPC Found- are ultimately going to be deployed to extend across ation in terms of protocol interoperability that enables facility control and the MES domain via a standard- seamless Industrial IoT services. Especially, the OPC ized and consistent approach for smart factory. It will Foundation delivers the promising solutions of the OPC be used in the integrated engineering business by UA framework in terms of not only specifications, but providing device modeling and meta information ex- also the reliable open source implementations, which change function on the server side, as well as basic guarantees the OPC UA Certifications. This will help us data collection, monitoring, analysis and control to accelerate Samsung‘s efforts in deploying the intero- functions on the client side.« perable Industrial IoT edge platform for our manufactu- Charlie Cho, The leader of Smart Factory Solution Team, LG CNS ring infrastructures.« Kyeongwoon Lee, Senior Vice President, Samsung
OPC FOUNDATION 11 OPC Foundation – organization 33 % NORTH AMERICA OPC 48 % EUROPE Organization Members 6 % JAPAN 5 % CHINA 8 % OTHER With more than 540 members, the OPC Foundation MEMBER DISTRIBUTION is the world‘s leading organization for interoperability Although the head office is in Phoenix, Arizona, most solutions based on the OPC specifications. members (almost 50 %) are based in Europe. Around All members, including corporate members, end us- one third of the members are based in North Ameri- ers and non-voting members, are committed to inte- ca. All main German manufacturers of automation grated, compatible communication between soft- technology are members of the OPC Foundation ware-driven devices, including CPS, in industrial and already offer OPC technologies in their products. automation environments. The OPC Foundation offers a marketing program in- MEMBERSHIP BENEFITS cluding a newsletter, website and various training Members of the OPC Foundation have full access to and information events aimed at manufacturers of the latest OPC specifications and preliminary ver- automation solutions and providers of OPC technol- sions. They can take part in all working groups and ogy. Member companies offer events and training contribute requirements and solution proposals. programs for end users of the OPC technology. The Members have free access to core implementations cooperation of developers and users in working and sample code. In addition, script-based test and groups is crucial to ensure that practical require- analysis tools are provided. ments and user feedback are taken into account in Manufacturers of OPC-capable products can have the specifications. these certified in accredited test laboratories. The developer and user community meets at events for INDEPENDENCE exchange of information and networking. Three The OPC Foundation is a non-profit organization that times each year, a week-long interoperability work- is independent of individual manufacturers or special shop (IOP) is held, at which the latest products and technologies. The members of the working groups their interaction are tested. are provided by the member companies on a volun- tary basis. The organization is financed entirely from membership fees and receives no government grants. The organization operates worldwide and has regional contacts on all continents. All members have identical voting rights, irrespective of their size.
12 QUOTES – MARKET LEADERS FROM IT AND INDUSTRY »OPC UA is an essential component of the connect- »Manufacturing in the digital world requires a highly ed products that manufacturing customers need to- connected and intelligent approach to provide high day, and it is increasingly seen as an important part responsiveness to individualized customer demands, of enterprise IoT scenarios and business models. In to enable flexible manufacturing processes and to keeping with our commitment to openness and col- fully empower production workers. In order to laboration, Microsoft is fully committed to supporting achieve this SAP is using and supporting standards OPC UA and its evolution.« like OPC UA to ensure simple, scalable and safe in- formation exchange with the shop floor.« Matt Vasey, Director of IoT Business Development, Microsoft, OPC board member Veronika Schmid-Lutz, Chief Product Owner Manufacturing, SAP AG, OPC board member Global Players »Our goal at Cisco is to drive data into actionable information. With OPC UA we are able to securely and easily access data and move it across the deci- sion making value chain, with our customers and partners.« »Rockwell Automation is embracing OPC UA to en- hance the connectivity for the FactoryTalk® visualiza- Bryan Tantzen, General Manager, Cisco Industries Product Group (IPG) Connected Industry and Manufacturing BU tion and information software portfolio. FactoryTalk® Linx provides a scalable communications solution from a single computer to large high-volume distrib- »The main challenges facing manufacturers and uted systems that, since its inception, has supported plant operators today continue to be safety, efficien- OPC communications. Extensions to FactoryTalk cy, reliability, productivity and security. By harness- Linx communications software provide OPC UA cli- ing the power of digitization in the Industrie4.0 and ent functionality to enable FactoryTalk software to IIoT era, Honeywell helps customers address these access information from third-party systems. Fur- challenges in new ways by leveraging the incredible thermore, the addition of OPC UA server capabilities value hidden in the vast amounts of data being pro- in FactoryTalk® Linx Gateway enables third-party duced by our customers’ facilities. OPC UA plays a software to access the robust data model of the key strategic role in Honeywell solutions by providing Logix5000™ controller family. OPC UA is a natural fit secure, reliable access to context rich 3rd party data for Rockwell Automation as it expands its reach of which helps unlock the full potential analytics has to The Connected Enterprise to support a broader offer.« range of hardware and software.« Vimal Kapur, President Honeywell Process Solution Ron Bliss, Communication Software Product Manager, Rockwell Automation
13 »One of the principal ideas of the Industrial Internet of »ABB is offering a classic OPC interface for most of Things (IIoT) is to connect industrial systems that its products or uses classic OPC to integrate data. communicate data analytics and actions to improve As OPC UA does not only allow data exchange but performance and efficiency. The implementation of provides information modeling capabilities and com- IIoT will require a paradigm change in the way organ munication in a secure, platform-independent way izations design and expand industrial systems. we see a high potential and are fully committed to it. Therefore, the integration with existing or third-party Our customers will benefit from reduced integration automation devices through standard, secure com- efforts and new application scenarios by utilizing the munication protocols is paramount. OPC UA stands possibilities of OPC UA.« up to this challenge by providing a widely adopted Thoralf Schulz, Global Technology Manager for Control Technologies, ABB and secure industry standard for interoperability be- tween dissimilar processing elements and IT devices on the factory floor. NI has adopted OPC UA in its portfolio of embedded devices to help drive the inter- connectivity of Cyber Physical Systems (CPS) in the evolutionary process of IIoT.« James Smith, Director for Embedded Systems Product Marketing, National Instruments OPC UA in the industry »Yokogawa has been a member of OPC Foundation »OPC UA will provide a common layer of technical since its establishment and has made a major contri- and semantic inoperability for M2M and M2H bution to the development of the OPC specifications, (Machine to Human) communications that is critical from OPC Classic to OPC UA. Yokogawa has also for enabling the Industrial Internet. By establishing released many OPC-compatible products and incor- interoperability standards together as an industry, we porates these in the many solutions that it provides will provide a scalable, reliable platform for GE and to its customers. Yokogawa is fully committed to others to build out the Industrial Internet and expand OPC UA and will continue to play a role in its devel- the value and capabilities we can provide for our opment.« customers.« Shinji Oda, Yokogawa, President OPC Council Japan, OPC board member Danielle Merfeld, Global Research Technology Director, General Electric
14 QUOTES – INDUSTRIAL SUPPLIERS AND USERS »With OPC UA a future proven and manufacturer-in- »OPC UA has the potential for an immediate cross- dependent communication standard is offered to the vendor implementation of Industrie 4.0 and the nec- industry. Its scalability allows horizontal and vertical essary internet based services. networking of systems, machines and processes. The adoption of this open standard is an opportunity Bosch Rexroth consistently uses this internationally for vendors and users. Proprietary solutions will not accepted open standard as a key technology and generate an adequate value.« offers extensive services and semantic information Dr.-Ing. Reinhold Achatz, Head of Corporate Function Technology, models for its products. We develop the functiona- Innovation & Sustainability, ThyssenKrupp AG lity continuously, so that our customers are able to ideally integrate Rexroth products in their automati- on environment – for the optimal implementation of Industrie 4.0.« Dr. Thomas Bürger, Vice President Engineering Automation Systems, Bosch Rexroth AG Pioneers in automation »Siemens is a global technology powerhouse and the world market leader in the area of automation systems. We‘re seeing digitalization of all sectors of industry and we‘re playing an active role in shaping it. As a founder member of the OPC Foundation, Sie- mens is keen to drive the development of automa- tion and optimize the interoperability of technologies from different system providers. And this commit- »Industrie 4.0 links the world of automation with the ment is already bearing fruit: OPC standards are IT and Internet world and will enable the resulting used in many of our innovations, such as the Sinema synergies to be leveraged. Networking means com- Server network management solution, the Simatic munication, communication requires languages and HMI (Human Machine Interface) and the flexible, associated functions and services. OPC UA offers a modular Simocode pro motor management sys- very powerful and adaptable standard basis that is tem. OPC UA is an implementation that we regard accepted worldwide.« as particularly relevant and key element for Industrie 4.0. This is why we have always been very active in Hans Beckhoff, Managing Director, Beckhoff Automation GmbH this area right from the start and are among the first companies whose products are certified.« Thomas Hahn, Siemens AG, OPC board member
15 »Schneider Electric sees the advent of the Industrial »In the production of the future, standardized inter- Internet of Things as an “evolution”, not a “revoluti- faces like OPC UA will be essential for the communi- on”. In a world where our smart connected products cation and connection of intelligent components and systems operate as part of larger systems of which are ready for Plug and Produce. Thereby we systems, consistency when moving data is impor- will be able to connect modular and scalable produc- tant. Even more important is putting data into con- tion facilities much easier to superordinate systems text. With OPC UA we can efficiently and effectively like MES or ERP. At the OPC Day Europe in 2014 we deliver systems and applications that do just that – already showed an OPC UA test implementation in and thus help our customers fully realize the potenti- our production. Also the innovative transport system al of Industrie 4.0.« Multi-Carrier-System and the automation platform CPX both have an OPC UA interface for integration John Conway, VP Strategy & Partnerships, Schneider Electric into Industrie 4.0 HOST environments.« Prof. Dr. Peter Post, Leiter Corporate Research and Technology, FESTO Global Players in the Industry »OPC UA proves to be ideal for implementing the »One main challenge of Digital Factory is the horizon- functionality required for Industrie 4.0, in terms of tal and vertical communication among with all sys- communication within automation systems, and in- tems and devices. For example, a MES system teroperability between Industrie 4.0 components via needs to fetch data from each PLC in a production defined objects and semantics. Due to the interna- line, which means huge costs. Fortunately, OPC UA tional support of different automation solution provid- connects but also reduces costs for this effort. It pro- ers, the protocol already finds a use in numerous vides a secured standardized interface for device devices, from the sensor level to Manufacturing Ex- data and their meaning. Therefore, we developed ecution Systems (MES) to Enterprise Resource Plan- Industry Real-time DB product suite, AicVision, com- ning systems (ERP). Acceptance and a future-orient- pletely based on OPC UA, and provide comprehen- ed technological basis will result in the development sive data integration solutions for Digital Factory.« of an international and evolving standard – OPC UA Peizhe Wang, CEO AIC provides this basis.« Roland Bent, Managing Director, Phoenix Contact
16 QUOTES – ASSOCIATIONS AND ORGANIZATIONS »OPC UA represents an essential step forward in tru- »Communication is not about data. Communication ly open communications standards, without which is about information and access to that in an there can be no Industrie 4.0 or industrial Internet of easy and secure way. This is what the cooperation Things. OPC UA is consistent with OMAC’s most im- PLCopen and OPC Foundation is all about. OPC UA portant initiatives, combining standards with functio- technology creates the possibility for a transparent nality to bridge the persistent gap between machi- communication independent of the network, which nes, control platforms, and management systems.« is the foundation for a new communication age in industrial control.« John Kowal, Board member OMAC & PMMI (B&R Industrial Automation Corp) Eelco van der Wal, Managing Director PLCopen Cooperations with organizations »The implementation of future concepts like the In- ternet of Things and Industrie 4.0 requires reliable data about the trace of moving objects in manufac- »The complexity of industrial systems is continuously turing and logistics. In order to achieve such data increasing. To manage this complexity within design systems identifying objects automatically, sensors and application methods and technologies are re- recording environmental data and real-time locating quired enabling modularity and consequent structur- systems must be installed increasingly. OPC UA pro- ing. The OPC technology and its newest representa- vides the right architecture to integrate such systems tive OPC UA have been proven to be successfully with the existing IT landscape in the enterprises. The applicable in this field. It is wide spread applied and OPC AIM Companion Specification will substantially can be regarded as entry point for the combination facilitate these tasks.« of engineering and application as intended in the In- Peter Altes, Managing Director, AIM-D dustrie 4.0 approach.« Germany – Austria – Switzerland Prof. Dr.- Ing. habil. Arndt Lüder, Otto-v.-Guericke University Magdeburg, Fakulty Mechanical Engineering, AutomationML e.V. Board of Directors
QUOTES – ASSOCIATIONS AND ORGANIZATIONS 17 »BACnet and OPC UA are already cooperating in „OPC UA offers a secure, reliable, interoperable and the exploration of new opportunities for integration platform-independent basis for the MDIS information between industrial and building automation: Energy model. The simplified communication connections data are semantically defined through BACnet and and increasing data quality offer the oil & gas opera- can conveniently and interoperably be made avail- tors a real value-add.“ able to enterprise systems via OPC UA: An ideal Paul Hunkar, DS Interoperability, OPC Consultant of the MDIS Network standardization from sensor right up to IT billing sys- tems.« Frank Schubert, member of the BACnet Interest Group Europe advisory board Science & Research »As process automation field devices as system have increased in complexity, device integration with automation systems has become cumbersome. FieldComm Group and OPC Foundation worked to- gether to create the FDI specification and information »The paradigm of Industrie 4.0 requires standards on model for Field Devices based on the OPC UA spec- various levels, to enable an organization of modular ification, Future systems and field devices that con- plug&play capable production lines. OPC UA is an form to the FDI standard will be dramatically simpler important standard, helping us to establish com- to configure, integrate, and maintain.« munications between plant components in a vendor independent and secure fashion. Because of the in- Ted Masters, President and CEO – FieldComm Group dustry driven standardization process, we’re seeing a high acceptance among industrial users of OPC UA as a platform across all levels of the automation pyramid. Furthermore, OPC UA’s information models represents a basis for the realization of a semantic inoperability.« Prof. Dr. Dr. Detlef Zühlke, Scientific Director Innovative Factory Systems (IFS), DFKI Kaiserslautern
18 OPC UA AT A GLANCE OPC UA at a glance – secure, reliable and platform-independent exchange of information SECURE, RELIABLE AND PLATFORM- are also optionally supported. Additional protocol INDEPENDENT EXCHANGE OF INFORMATION bindings like Multicast or Message-Queuing can be OPC UA is the latest technology generation from integrated easily without breaking exsiting communi- the OPC Foundation for the secure, reliable and cation concepts. The integrated encryption mecha- vendor-independent transport of raw data and nisms ensure secure communication over the Inter- pre-processed information from sensor and field net. level up to the control system and into production planning systems. SERVICE-ORIENTED ARCHITECTURE With OPC UA every type of information is available OPC UA defines generic services and in doing so anytime and anywhere for every authorized use and follows the design paradigm of service-oriented ar- to every authorized person. chitecture (SOA), with which a service provider receives requests, processes them and sends the PLATFORM AND VENDOR-INDEPENDENT results back with the response. OPC UA is independent of the vendor or system In contrast to classic Web services that describe supplier that produces or supplies the respective ap- their services over a WSDL and can thus be different plication. The communication is independent of the with each service provider, generic services are al- programming language in which the respective soft- ready defined with OPC UA. ware was programmed and it is independent of the A WSDL is thus not required, because the services operating system on which the application runs. It is are standardized. As a result they are compatible an open standard without any dependence on, and interoperable, without the caller needing to have or bind to proprietary technologies or individual any special knowledge about the structure or behav- vendors. ior of a special service. OPC UA defines various groups of services for different functions (read- STANDARDIZED COMMUNICATION VIA ing/writing/signaling/execution, navigation/search- INTERNET & FIREWALLS ing, connection/session/security). The flexibility re- OPC UA extends the preceding OPC industry stan- sults from the OPC UA information model. Building dard by several important functions such as platform on a basic model, any desired complex, object-ori- independence, scalability, high availability and Inter- ented extensions can be made without impairing the net capability. OPC UA is no longer based on Micro- interoperability in the process. soft’s DCOM technology; it has been reconceived on the basis of service-oriented architecture (SOA). PROTECTION AGAINST OPC UA is thus very simple to adapt. Today OPC UA UNAUTHORIZED ACCESS already connects the enterprise level right down to OPC UA technology uses proven security concepts the embedded systems of the automation compo- that offer protection against unauthorized access, nents – independent of Microsoft, UNIX or any other against sabotage, the modification of process data operating system. OPC UA uses a TCP based, opti- and against careless operation. The OPC UA secu- mized, binary protocol for data exchange over a port rity concepts contain user and application 4840 registered with IANA. Web service and HTTP authentication, the signing of messages and the
19 Uniform OPC UA object OPC UA Object Method Variables Methods Service Set Attribute (Programs) _____ _____( ) Service Set _____ _____( ) (Data Access, _____ _____( ) Historical Data Access) Events N N Subscription N Service Set (Alarms & Conditions) encryption of the transmitted data itself. OPC UA procedures and systems in uniform object- security is based on recognized standards that are oriented components. Information consumers that also used for secure communication in the Internet, only support the basic rules can process the data such as SSL, TLS and AES. The safety mechanisms even without knowledge of the interrelationships of are part of the standard and are obligatory for ven- the complex structures of a server. dors. The user may combine the various security functions according to his case of use; thus scalable AREAS OF APPLICATION security results in relation to the specific application. The universal applicability of OPC UA technology en- ables the implementation of entirely new vertical inte- ACCESSIBILITY AND RELIABILITY gration concepts. The information is transported se- OPC UA defines a robust architecture with reliable curely and reliably from the production level into the communication mechanisms, configurable timeouts ERP system by cascading OPC UA components. and automatic error detection. Embedded OPC UA servers at field device level and The error elimination mechanisms automatically re- integrated OPC UA clients in ERP systems at enter- store the communication connection between the prise level are directly connected with one another. OPC UA client and the OPC UA server without loss The respective OPC UA components can be geo- of data. OPC UA offers redundancy functions that graphically distributed and separated from one an- are integrable in both client and server applications other by firewalls. OPC UA enables other standard- and thus enable the implementation of high-availa- ization organizations to use the OPC UA services as bility systems with maximum reliability. a transport mechanism for their own information models. The OPC Foundation already cooperates SIMPLIFICATION BY UNIFICATION today with many different groups from different in- OPC UA defines an integrated address space and an dustries, including PLCopen, AIM, BACnet, ISA and information model in which process data, alarms and FDI. Additional specifications are compiled that con- historical data can be represented together with tain common, semantic definitions of information function calls. OPC UA combines all classic OPC models. functionalities and allows the description of complex
20 OPC UA TECHNOLOGY IN DETAIL OPC UA technology in detail Industrie 4.0 communication is not only based on DESIGN OBJECTIVES pure data, but on the exchange of semantic informa- OPC UA was designed to support a wide range of tion. In addition, transmission integrity is a key factor. systems, ranging from PLC’s in production to enter- These tasks are essential aspects of the OPC Unified prise servers. These systems are characterized by Architecture. OPC UA contains a comprehensive de- their diversity in terms of size, performance, plat- scription language and the communication services forms and functional capabilities. required for information models and is therefore uni- In order to meet these objectives, the following basic versally usable. functionalities were specified for OPC UA: ➞T ransport – for the data exchange mechanisms Karl-Heinz Deiretsbacher, INTRODUCTION between OPC UA applications. Different transport Technology&Innovation, Siemens AG The trend in automation is towards inclusion of com- protocols exist for different requirements (opti- Director of the OPC UA Technical munication data semantics in the standardization. mized for speed and throughput = UA TCP with Advisory Board Standards such as ISA 88 (also IEC 61512, batch UA Binary; firewall-friendly = HTTP + Soap). processing), ISA 95 (also IEC 62264, MES layer) ➞M eta model – specifies the rules and basic com- or the Common Information Model (CIM) with ponents for publishing an information model via IEC 61970 for energy management and IEC 61968 OPC UA. It also includes various basic nodes and for energy distribution define the semantics of the basic types. data in domains addressed by them. Initially this ➞S ervices – they constitute the interface between a takes place independent of the data transfer specifi- server as information provider and clients as users cation. of this information. OPC UA – also published as IEC 62541 – enables Information models follow a layered approach. Each exchange of information models of any complexity – high-order type is based on certain basic rules. In both instances and types (metadata). It thus comple- this way clients that only know and implement the ments the standards referred to above and enables basic rules can nevertheless process complex infor- interoperability at the semantic level. mation models. Dr. Wolfgang Mahnke, Although they don’t understand the deeper relation- Software Architect R&D Fieldbus ABB Automation GmbH ships, they can navigate through the address space and read or write data variables. Binary Hybrid Web services Vendor Specific Extensions UA Binary UA XML Collaboration Models UA Secure WS Secure Conversation Conversation DA AC HA Prg UA TCP SOAP Base Services HTTPS HTTP Transport Meta Model TCP / IP 4840 443 443 80 OPC UA layer model OPC UA transport profiles
21 INTEGRATED ADDRESS SPACE MODEL The OPC UA address space is structured hierarchi- The object model enables production data, alarms, cally, to foster the interoperability of clients and serv- events and historic data to be integrated in a single ers. The top levels are standardized for all servers. All OPC UA server. This allows, for example to represent nodes in the address space can be reached via the a temperature measuring device as an object with its hierarchy. They can have additional references temperature value, alarm parameters and corre- among each other, so that the address space forms sponding alarm limits. a cohesive network of nodes. OPC UA integrates and standardizes the different The OPC UA address space not only contains in- address spaces and the services, so that OPC UA stances (instance space), but also the instance types applications only require a single interface for naviga- (type space). tion. Root Field Bus Sensor Bus Areas “Located In” reference Pressure Valve Temp Area 1 Xmitter Xmitter Area 2 Current Value Hi Limit Lo Limit Area 3 Hi Alarm Lo Alarm Consistent address space
22 OPC UA TECHNOLOGY IN DETAIL INTEGRATED SERVICES ➞ NodeManagement service set OPC UA defines the services required to navigate These services provide an interface for the con- through the namespace, read or write variables, or figuration of servers. It allows clients to add, mod- subscribing for data modifications and events. ify, and delete nodes in the address space. The OPC UA services are organized in logical group- ings, so-called service sets. Service request and re- ➞ View service set sponse are transmitted through exchange of mes- The view service set allows clients to discover sages between clients and servers. nodes by browsing. Browsing allows clients to OPC UA messages are exchanged either via an navigate up and down the hierarchy, or to follow OPC-specific binary protocol on TCP/IP or as a web references between nodes. This enables the cli- service. Applications will usually provide both proto- ent to explore the structure of the address space. col types, so that the system operator can choose the best option. ➞ Attribute service set OPC UA provides a total of 9 basic service sets. The The attribute service set is used to read and write individual sets are briefly described below. Profiles attribute values. Attributes are primitive charac- allow specifying a subset of all services which a serv- teristics of nodes that are defined by OPC UA. er supports. Profiles are not discussed in detail here. ➞ Method service set ➞ SecureChannel service set Methods represent the function calls of objects. This set includes services to determine the secu- They are invoked and return after completion. rity configuration of a server and establish a com- The method service set defines the means to in- munication channel in which the confidentiality voke methods. and completeness (integrity) of the exchanged messages is guaranteed. These services are not ➞ MonitoredItem service set implemented directly in the OPC UA application This service can be used to determine which at- but are provided by the communication stack tributes from the address space should be moni- used. tored for changes by a client, or which events the client is interested in. ➞ Session service set This service set defines services used to establish ➞ Subscription service set an application-layer connection (a session) on be- Can be used to generate, modify or delete mes- half of a specific user. sages for MonitoredItems. ➞ Query service set These services enable the client to select nodes from the address space based on certain filter cri- teria.
23 PLATFORM-INDEPENDENCE PERFORMANCE Unlike “Classic OPC”, which is based on DCOM The OPC UA services can be mapped to different technology and is therefore inevitably linked to the technologies. Currently there are essentially two Windows platform and the languages supported mappings: UA-TCP and HTTPS. The use of UA-TCP there, OPC UA was designed for application on arbi- on top of advanced Ethernet technologies ensures trary platforms using arbitrary program languages. high performance. The services themselves are also designed for high data throughput. An individual read call can access Tool or API thousands of values, for example. Subscriptions ser- Language Dependent vices enable notification when values are changed Proxy / (e.g. .NET) Stubs and exceed configured thresholds Services Binding INFORMATION MODELS WITH OPC UA Abstract UA Model Specification THE OPC UA META MODEL ➞ Important: The OPC UA model describes Services are independent of the model how clients access information on the serv- er. It does not specify how this information ➞ At the lowest level are the abstract OPC UA should be organized on the server. It could model and the services, including the whole ad- be stored in a subordinate device or a data- dress space model, different object and variable base, for example. structures, alarms and more. ➞ The next level (Services Binding) is used to The OPC UA object model defines a set of standard- specify how the services are to be mapped to cer- ized node types, which can be used to represent tain protocols. Currently mappings for TCP (UA- objects in the address space. This model represents TCP) and for HTTP (OPC UA WebServices) are objects with their variables (data/properties), meth- available. In the future – once new technologies ods, events and their relationships with other ob- become established – further mappings can be jects. specified without having to change the OPC UA The node properties are described through attributes model and the services. The mappings are en- defined by OPC UA. Attributes are the only elements tirely based on standardized basic protocols, of a server that have data values. The data types of which already exist on all known platforms. the attributes can be simple or complex. OPC UA enables modeling of any object and variable ➞ The following levels are realizations for dedi- types and the relationships between them. The se- cated platforms and languages. The OPC Foun- mantics is indicated by the server in the address dation itself offers three such realizations, namely space and can be picked up by clients (during navi- for Java, .NET and AnsiC/C++. gation). Type definitions can be standardized or ven- The last option contains a platform adaptation dor-specific. Each type is identified by the organiza- layer. tion that is responsible for its definition.
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