RealTimes 2021 - Stronger together - ETAS

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RealTimes 2021 - Stronger together - ETAS
RealTimes                                        2021

Stronger together
Evolution, revolution, or out-of-the-box? p. 6
Cybersecurity included p. 18
New Board of Management at ETAS p. 55
RealTimes 2021 - Stronger together - ETAS
Dear Readers,
                                                       Those of you familiar with ETAS will undoubtedly have spotted           We already offer an extensive portfolio of promising solu-
                                                       three new faces when you opened this issue of RealTimes.                tions to help you develop automotive software, and we have
                                                       ETAS GmbH reorganized its Board of Management at the                    plenty of other sustainable approaches in the pipeline. Agile
                                                       start of 2021, and we would like to use this opportunity to             methods, cloud-based solutions, and perfectly harmonized
                                                       introduce ourselves. On page 55, you can find out more about            development solutions are the key to success. To find out
                                                       us, our backgrounds, and how we intend to meet the new and              more, check out our articles on work methodologies of the
                                                       exciting challenges that lie ahead.                                     future starting on page 6.

                                                       Challenges are something that have dominated our lives                  This issue also includes fascinating insights into exciting
                                                       since early last year. The pandemic has turned the world up-            customer projects from around the world, such as model-
                                                       side down, creating huge difficulties for healthcare systems.           based development at Nissan, the use of EHANDBOOK at
                                                       The automotive industry, too, has been hit by numerous                  Audi, and the use of ETAS ASCMO-MOCA at Hyundai Motors.
                                                       challenges. ETAS has been affected along with many other                We also reveal how measurement data can replace human
                                                       companies in the sector, for example by the current parts               senses and explain how to successfully master the testing
                                                       shortages.                                                              and validation of fuel cell ECUs.

                                                       We were compelled to find new ways of working together.                 Perhaps you want to take a look behind the scenes at ETAS?
                                                       Physical distancing and working from home were important                This issue includes a report on how ETAS hardware is tested
                                                       from the outset, but we also focused more than ever on the              in production and how this contributes to the high quality
                                                       idea of being stronger together. Of course, the automotive              of ETAS products. And we also invite you to join us on a brief
                                                       industry is also facing many other challenges, from auto-               journey through the history of INCA.
                                                       mated driving and e-mobility to connectivity and new busi-
                                                       ness models. New methods are required to continuously                   We hope you enjoy reading this year‘s issue of RealTimes.
                                                       improve automotive software and bring it to market much                 We look forward to working together with you, our customers
                                                       faster, all without compromising safety. Teamwork is essen-             and partners, to meet the new challenges. And we intend
                                                       tial here – just like it is in activities such as whitewater rafting.   to continue to provide the very best support for your current
                                                       Successfully navigating a river is something that can only              and future projects. Many thanks for the trust you have
                                                       be done as a team. If the boat tips over, life jackets ensure           placed in us. Stay healthy!
                                                       that nobody goes down, so everyone can get back on board
                                                       and keep moving forward.                                                Christoph Hartung        Günter Gromeier        Götz Nigge

                 Left to right:
                 Günter Gromeier
                 Executive Vice President Sales
                 Christoph Hartung
                 Götz Nigge
                 Executive Vice President Operations

02   Editorial                                                                                                                                                             Editorial        03
RealTimes 2021 - Stronger together - ETAS
     Methodologies of the future

     06   Evolution, revolution, or out-of-the-box?            34   Complex engine simulation using LACBAR-MODEL
          Is the automotive industry ready for its encounter        Tata Motors’ experience on how ETAS LABCAR-
          with IT?                                                  MODEL-VVTB and LABCAR-MODEL-ICE helped validate
                                                                    various features of an engine management system
     10   Embedded meets IT
          Developing automotive embedded software using        37   Embedded Artificial Intelligence
          agile methodologies and SAFe                              New capabilities in engine controls development

     14   Introduction of SAFe at ETAS                         40   Automated optimization of ECU function calibration
          Interview with Günter Gromeier and Adrian Hanussek        Hyundai Motor’s successful approach to automating
                                                                    and optimizing calibrations
     16   Successful together!
          Coordinated development solutions are the key        42   Replacing human senses with measurement data
          to success                                                Scalable measurement data acquisition for ADAS
     18   Cybersecurity included
          Security for AUTOSAR Adaptive architectures          46   A journey of discovery through ECU software
                                                                    How EHANDBOOK makes calibration more efficient
     22   Developing low-emission powertrains with AI
          and the cloud                                        50   Defining new paradigms of collaboration
          Huge efficiency gains from cloud-based simulation         Realizing solutions with INCA & beyond for vehicle
                                                                    fleet management

     Successful with ETAS                                      ETAS Insights

     26   Next generation large scale prototyping              52   Transforming a vision into success
          ETAS comprehensively supports Nissan’s model-based        A journey through the history of INCA
                                                               55   New Board of Management at ETAS
     30   The challenge to develop the powertrain of the            Interview with Christoph Hartung, Günter Gromeier
          future                                                    and Götz Nigge
          Successfully mastering the testing and validation
          of fuel cell ECUs                                    58   Nothing left to chance
                                                                    Testing highly complex ETAS hardware during

                                                               61   Locations and Imprint

04                                                                                                                       05
RealTimes 2021 - Stronger together - ETAS
Evolution, revolution,   Is the automotive industry ready for its encounter with IT?

                         Automated driving, connectivity, and new business models pose a challenge to software developers. They need new

or out-of-the-box?
                         methods that will allow them to continuously improve functions and bring them to market much faster, all without com-
                         promising safety. Are we up to meeting these challenges?

                                                                                           So what does this have to do with the future of automotive
                                                                                           electronics? At ETAS, we believe that optimizing today’s
                         At the 1968 Summer Olympics in Mexico, US high jumper Dick        development methods will no longer be sufficient to achieve
                         Fosbury’s new jumping technique was initially met with a skep-    the required improvements in performance. The way in which
                         tical reaction – yet he ended up winning gold and setting a       the automotive industry develops automotive software is
                         new Olympic record. Instead of the front of his body facing the   currently geared primarily toward safety and long-term re-
                         bar, Fosbury used a “back-first” technique. Now known as the      leases. In light of such rapid increases in complexity, however,
                         “Fosbury Flop,” this is the standard method used by today’s       the software requirements of connected automated vehicles
                         high jumpers.                                                     can only be met by fundamentally changing the methodology.
                         It has enabled top female athletes to jump almost 2.10 meters     Just like the high jumpers 50 years ago, the automotive soft-
                         – and top male athletes to clear over 2.40 meters.                ware development needs to take a new approach.

                                                                                                                 Methodologies of the future            07
RealTimes 2021 - Stronger together - ETAS
We need to reinvent ourselves                                             Validation is carried out in an automated, object-oriented                   We are also gradually aligning our portfolio to the contin-            Figure 2: In the case of a simultaneous development process in the
Connected vehicle systems require continuous software devel-              approach (Fig. 2). This ContinuousX parallelization of develop-              uous development methodology. Our co-simulation and inte-              cloud, automated validation and parallel development reduce lead times
opment and delivery, both for security and other reasons. This            ment and testing makes the process faster – especially when it               gration platform COSYM already allows engineers to take                and increase added value.
continuous delivery process extends over the vehicle’s entire             covers the entire chain from the Tiers to the OEMs and has an                a continuous approach to working on MiL, SiL, and HiL plat-
life cycle, even after the vehicle and its ECUs have rolled off           impact that extends far beyond the start of series production.               forms – even in the cloud. We are setting new standards for                                                     E2
the assembly line. This is especially true in cases where new                                                                                          calibrating large volumes of data with the cloud integration
E/E architectures are taken on board. Developers using power-             Collaboration should not stop at the company’s boundaries.                   of our systems for data logging and the ETAS Analytics Tool-
ful, microprocessor-based vehicle computers can place func-               Instead, all the partners work together on an equal footing                  box (EATB). And RTA-VRTE offers an AUTOSAR Adaptive plat-
tions anywhere they choose, even when different Automotive                and are authorized to integrate and test their current version.              form software framework for future microprocessor-based
Safety Integrity Levels (ASILs) are involved. Increasing inter-           Open source plays an important role, too, because speed and                  vehicle computers that will run software from a wide variety                 E1                                                             E3
action between individual functions causes domains to merge.              interactions are key priorities.                                             of sources.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   V                                         V
This means we must also consider functional safety, robust-
ness, and security from an overall system perspective – and               Access to the development platform and many of the devel-                    Raising the bar
that requires a new management and corporate culture.                     opment tools is provided through a hosted cloud platform.                    Just like in the world of IT, success depends on continuous
                                                                          Teams work on this platform to develop solutions that reflect                monitoring of robust key performance indicators (KPIs). It is
Virtualization and front-loading are important starting points.           the selected business model and meet customers’ needs.                       important that the indicators measured are uniform and trans-
But the breakthrough we need cannot be achieved solely                    Consistency between the real and virtual world is essential                  parent for all those involved. The performance of the overall
by shifting existing process steps into the virtual world. Only           to ensuring this approach works efficiently. The only question               solution takes priority over that of individual components.                                        V                           V
by combining this with parallelization, automation, and agile             is whether this brave new agile world can withstand a reality                This ensures that everyone involved is united in a common
methods can we gain the traction we need to successfully                  in which people entrust their lives to our software.                         effort to prioritize the benefits for the customer. All the key
develop automated and connected vehicles.                                                                                                              stakeholders must be included for this approach to work.                                   E5                                        E4

                                                                          Figure 1: Traditional development methods tie up resources
                                                                                                                                                       Vehicles are high-value purchases with a long service life.
                                                                          during the transition to the next step.
                                                                                                                                                       They will continue to be subject to restrictions in the future          Ex        Development step with added value
                                                                                                                                                       with regard to storage, performance, costs, environmental                V        Continuous automated validation for quality assurance

   E1                 P1                E2        P2                 E3                 P3                  E4             P4                E5        influences, and long operating lives. Security and IP must be                     Volume of software grows continuously
                                                                                                                                                       guaranteed in the vehicle over long periods of time. For this
                                                                                                                                                       reason, development approaches from the IT world cannot be
                                                                                                                                                       transferred 1:1 to meeting our requirements, especially since          Our portfolio already includes many promising solutions, and
                                                                                                                                                       there is also a need for legal clarification. It will therefore take   further sustainable approaches are in the pipeline. We look
                                                                                                                                                       some time to achieve the goal of continuously connected,               forward to achieving new levels of efficiency and performance
 Ex     Development step with added value         P    Test step for quality assurance purposes without added value               Volume of software   virtualized, and agile development processes for automotive            in collaboration with our customers and partners. Our hope is
                                                                                                                                                       software. Yet our positive experiences so far show that we             to create the same kind of enthusiasm among our customers
                                                                                                                                                       are on the right track.                                                as Dick Fosbury did in 1968 with his new jumping technique.
Forging new paths                                                         Our experience
In projects that involve cooperation between multiple partners,           At ETAS, we have spent several years implementing many                       Summary
traditional software development invests significant time and             of the approaches outlined above. We are gradually replacing                 There is an urgent need for action. The challenge we all face
energy in validating previous steps in the development process.           traditional organizational structures with Scrum teams that                  is how to apply the innovative power and performance of tra-                 Authors
In many cases, a new step only begins once the previous step              use agile methods (see page 10). Development is shifting                     ditional IT methods to the development of vehicle software.
has been completed (Fig. 1). Mistrust in the results delivered by         to the cloud, where our experts work together with suppliers                 New approaches are required that take into account vehicle                   Christoph Hartung is President and Chairman of the
others costs money without adding value for end customers.                and enjoy easy access to measurement and development                         safety requirements and service life as well as cost pressures               ETAS Board of Management. Günter Gromeier is Execu-
                                                                          data as well as the latest development tools. Their focus is                 in the automotive industry. This course is now being set.                    tive Vice President Sales at ETAS GmbH. Jürgen Crepin
Continuous, end-to-end virtualization and integration take a              entirely on the functionality of the software.                                                                                                            is Senior Marketing and Communications Manager at
different approach, with all the DevOps partners working with                                                                                          Will this require evolution, revolution, or new out-of-the-box               ETAS GmbH.
the latest model and software version along the entire value              Immediate verification on delivery builds trust and reduces                  thinking? We believe that all three variants are necessary:
chain. Quickly and easily created Minimum Viable Products (MVPs)          costs. Overall, the changes are having a very positive impact.               evolution of our high safety requirements, a revolution in
enable fast feedback. Customer and development teams rec-                 Our customers confirm that we have become better and                         vehicle architectures, and systematic out-of-the-box thinking
ognize errors but also opportunities for improvement at an                faster in the relevant areas of our business. They appreciate                about development methodologies for automotive software
early stage and can immediately apply the findings to series              our ability to offer significantly more cross-functional solu-               that will control innovative connected and self-driving cars
development.                                                              tions that provide them with real added value.                               in the future.

08           Methodologies of the future                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Methodologies of the future          09
RealTimes 2021 - Stronger together - ETAS
In the case of complex problems, the relationship between

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        cause and effect can often only be understood in retrospect –
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        it cannot be fully described at the start of the project. When
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        introducing new technologies, developers therefore proceed

                                                                                                                                        Conditions at the beginning of the task
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        experimentally in short cycles. This incremental approach with
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        agile working methods and SAFe is becoming a popular choice
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        in development projects for autonomous, connected vehicles.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        The final level in Snowden’s framework is that of chaotic
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        problems. If the relationship between cause and effect is not
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        discernible, developers have to proceed by trial and error, con-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        tinuously adjusting their methods to get the situation under
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        control. This is the approach taken in a crisis.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Summing up this aspect, the question of which approach will
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        achieve the goal fastest depends primarily on the type of

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        problem. In the real world, tasks change and technological
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        expertise increases steadily, so the chosen methods need to
                                                                                                                                                                                  Known      Technology at the beginning of the task        Unknown
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        be flexible enough to ensure the focus remains on the goal.

Embedded meets IT
                                                                                                                                               n Chaotic                                           n Complex         n Complicated        n Simple      Focus on the goal
                                                                                                                                                                                  Lean start-up      Scrum, SAFe        V-model             Waterfall   When it comes to developing complex vehicle systems with
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        unknown technologies, agile methodologies make it possible
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        to work toward the development goal in incremental steps.

Developing automotive embedded software using agile                                                                                            Figure 1: The Stacey Matrix created by Ralph Douglas Stacey                                              Throughout this process, it is important not to lose sight of the
                                                                                                                                               classifies problems according to the complexity of the requirements                                      overall goal and the planned milestones. The decisive factor at
methodologies and SAFe                                                                                                                         and knowledge of the technology.                                                                         all stages is the added value for the customer.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        The incremental approach and immediate review and approval
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        of prototypes by the customer make it possible to change
The traditional V-model development process has worked well for a long time. But projects based on this                                                                                                                                                 course whenever necessary. All decisions are made within the
approach reach their limits when it comes to complex software systems for autonomous, connected driving.                                                                                                                                                team, including the distribution and prioritization of all tasks.
So is this approach completely wrong now? The answer is both yes and no.                                                                                                                                                                                Maximum transparency and mutual trust are therefore essen-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        tial in order to plan projects efficiently, prioritize tasks correctly
Software for connected, autonomous vehicles is never finished.      The right tool                                                                Figure 2: The Cynefin Framework shows how different problems                                          and ultimately come up with the best technical solution.
It is continuously updated over the air. This has consequences      There is no one “right way” of doing things in software devel-                require different approaches.
for the development. It is very difficult to assess project com-    opment. The less that is known about the requirements and
plexity in advance. Even creating a detailed specification of the   technology at the start of a project, the more important it is to
development goal can be challenging in some fields. Develop-        have flexible tools. Nobody would reach for a hammer if they                                                                                                                                              Complicated – good practice
                                                                                                                                                                                                    Complex – emergent practice
ment teams are essentially “driving by sight” and if they come      were still unsure whether they would be dealing with nails or                                                             The relationship between cause and effect                                The relationship between cause and effect
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  requires analysis or some other form of investigation
up against technical difficulties or new aspects when using         screws. The same applies to development methods: their use-                                                                  can only be perceived in retrospect.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      and/or the application of expert knowledge.
traditional methods, they often have to move a few steps back       fulness only becomes clear once the task is known (Fig. 1).
                                                                                                                                                                                                    Approach: probe, sense, respond
in the process – and that means taking their colleagues and                                                                                                                                                                                                                Approach: sense, analyze, respond
suppliers back with them.                                           Dave Snowden’s Cynefin Framework (Fig. 2) helps project plan-
                                                                    ners make an initial assessment. For simple tasks, where the
Faced with similar dilemmas, the world of IT resorts to agile       relationship between cause and effect is obvious, planners can
methodologies: prototypes are created in short sprints and im-      let themselves be guided by the “best practice” approach.                                                                           Chaotic – novel practice                                                Simple – best practice
mediately reviewed and approved by the customer. The Scaled         In contrast, complicated tasks require analyses of the principles                                                         The relationship between cause and effect                                     The relationship between cause
Agile Framework (SAFe) provides a methodology toolbox for           of cause and effect or the application of expert knowledge                                                                     is not discernible at system level.                                        and effect is obvious to all.

scaling agile working methods across all levels of product de-      in order to find a “good practice” approach. This good practice
                                                                                                                                                                                                     Approach: act, sense, respond                                        Approach: sense, categorize, respond
velopment. The only question is whether this also works for         approach has become the standard method for automotive
the high safety requirements in the automotive sector.              development projects based on the V-model.

10         Methodologies of the future                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Methodologies of the future               11
RealTimes 2021 - Stronger together - ETAS
The Scaled Agile Framework (SAFe) is a set of organization and        One of the keys to the new methodology’s success was that                                                                                  SAFe rollout
                                                                                                                                                                                                         - 80 % development in SAFe
workflow patterns that support agile development methodolo-           the heads of the various groups and departments supported
                                                                                                                                                                                                - Solution trains cover business development
gies, including Kanban, DevOps, Scrum and customer/user-cen-          and actively promoted it right from the start. Yet there were                                                          - Service organization integrated in solution trains
tricity as well as Big Room or Product Increment (PI) planning.       also challenges. The pilot groups soon realized that there
This latter method offers everyone involved the opportunity           was no longer any intrinsically right or wrong approach. The
to bring together all their ideas and visions in one (virtual) room   most promising method for each specific problem had to be
in order to agree on a common route forward that best aligns          reassessed in each individual case. The Stacey Matrix and the
                                                                                                                                                   Organizational setup and leadership                                                                DevOps
with these ideas and visions. This approach serves to dovetail        Cynefin Framework provided useful assistance in this context,                                - Organizational setup                                                             - Test duration reduced > 80 %
product management and development.                                   making it easier to classify the problems and reach a shared                                    - Role of leadership                                                            - Deployment duration reduced > 90 %
                                                                      understanding. Heated discussions about the right method to                     - Leadership mindset for agile roles                                                            - Build execution time reduced > 55 %
Experience gained during implementation                               choose belonged to the past.
                                                                                                                                                                                                          holistic transformation
ETAS has been using agile methodologies of software devel-
opment for almost a decade. Their gradual introduction was            Initially, the teams sought their own individual ways of cre-                          Lean portfolio management                                                                Digitization
driven by the adoption of new technologies.                           ating and optimizing solutions, which led to redundancies in                   - Introduction on zonal management                                                               - Business intelligence center for operations
                                                                                                                                                      - Innovation management and SAFe                                                                - Tooling for agile scaling
The first teams began working with the new approach in 2011           the portfolio: components with similar functionalities were
                                                                                                                                                                 - Lean start-up and SAFe                                                             - Requirement and document management
following an initial heatmap-based analysis of benefits. They         developed and brought to market multiple times, which prompt-
quickly understood and adopted the agile methodologies and            ed confusion among customers, pushed up maintenance costs,
the number of successful projects steadily increased.                 and hindered product interoperability. To remedy this, ETAS
In 2014, agile methodologies were implemented by additional           developed the Solutions principle in 2014. ETAS defines Solu-
teams in the fields of embedded systems and hardware devel-           tions as functionalities that are based on the interplay be-                                                                      Requirement management
                                                                                                                                                                                                - Model-based software engineering (MBSE)
opment.                                                               tween multiple products and components. Each Solution solves                                                               - Requirement engineering process in SAFe
Since 2017, ETAS has also been using SAFe for the step-by-            at least one customer problem. Interoperability of the individual     Figure 4: Numerous areas are involved                        - Maturity model for MBSE
step scaling of cross-team collaboration and the coordination         products is essential. PI planning meetings proved to be an           in organizational development.
of development work.                                                  indispensable part of implementing this principle, leading to a
                                                                      strong focus on common goals and prompting tangible changes
                                                                      in working methods and a significant boost in motivation.             Further important findings                                                   Summary: a positive outcome
Figure 3: The two basic structures in an organization                                                                                       In addition to the technical complexity, there was a consider-               Ten years after the introduction of agile working methods, the
can be compared to a skeleton and muscles.                                                                                                  able need for coordination between the projects, which have                  outcome has been positive. Planning reliability and customer
                                                                                                                                            to take into account a multitude of dependencies and inter-                  satisfaction have noticeably improved. Using the new working
                                                                                                                                            actions between products in the ETAS portfolio. Interoperability             model, we are continuing to meet essential safety require-

                                                                                                                     €                      creates added value for customers, so the decision was taken
                                                                                                                                            to make these dependencies easier to manage and control.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                         ments as required by ASPICE and ISO 26262. Increased pro-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                         ductivity, higher associate satisfaction, and greater reliability
                                                                                                                             $              This requires optimum embedding of agile working methods                     confirm that we are on the right track. Our approach is seen as
                                                                                                                                            within the organizational framework. The DevOps automation                   setting a pioneering course within the Bosch Group and in the
                                                                                                                                            approach is ideally suited to achieve this: it uses shared in-               world of SAFe. And the fact that we are putting our agile meth-
                                                                                                                                            centives, processes, and development tools to facilitate more                odology into practice is additionally attractive in the highly
                                                                                                          Muscles = operational structure   effective collaboration between the Development, IT Admin-                   competitive market for skilled workers. This benefit offers
                                                                                                                                            istration (Operation), and Quality Assurance (QA) teams.                     further encouragement to hold our course as we make our agile
                                                                                                             Business, development, SAFe,
Skeleton = organizational structure                                                                                      value generation                                                                                way into the connected future.
                                                                                                                                            Process optimization and process digitization are closely inter-
Hierarchy, line management,                                                                                                                 linked. The operational organization that creates value – includ-
reporting, leadership
                                                                                                                                            ing value for the customer – and the supporting organizational
                                                                                                                                            structure are inseparably linked, much like the muscles and
                                                                                                                                            bones that comprise the human musculoskeletal system (Fig.                      Richard Mutschler is Chief Chapter Lead Agile Leadership
                                                                                                                                            3). The introduction of agile methodologies therefore sets in                   and Head of Lean Agile Center of Competence & Solution
                                                                                                                                            motion a holistic transformation (Fig. 4). This is by no means                  Train Engineer at ETAS GmbH. Oliver Trost is Chief Chap-
                                                                                                                                            an automatic process. One tried-and-tested way to help counter                  ter Lead in the field of product management at ETAS
                                                                                                                                            frustration and doubts is by assigning well-connected associ-                   GmbH. Jürgen Crepin is Senior Marketing and Communica-
                                                                                                                                            ates as facilitators. A clear commitment from management and                    tions Manager at ETAS GmbH.
                                                                                                                                            defining clear responsibilities are also essential prerequisites.

12           Methodologies of the future                                                                                                                                                                                                            Methodologies of the future                 13
RealTimes 2021 - Stronger together - ETAS
Introduction of SAFe
Interview with Günter Gromeier and Adrian Hanussek

ETAS recently launched the Scaled Agile Framework (SAFe) for the two application fields Measurement, Calibration,
and Diagnostics (MCD) and Software Engineering (SE). RealTimes met with Günter Gromeier, Executive Vice President
Sales, and Adrian Hanussek, Vice President Engineering, to take a look behind the scenes.

Is SAFe primarily a development topic?                              How do Chapters and Trains work together?
Günter Gromeier: With SAFe, there is no fixed dividing line         Adrian Hanussek: Chapters bring together all the people who
between product management and development and both                 possess similar skills and perform similar roles and tasks. The
areas were equally involved in the launch of this project.          projects draw resources from this pool, organizing them into
Our respective roles in portfolio management* and engineering       Agile Release Trains. They define the goals for projects and
management complement one another, and we’re working                solutions and set priorities and budgets.
together closely.                                                   We hope this structure will enable us to achieve greater moti-
                                                                    vation and associate satisfaction as well as improving collab-
What are the key changes?                                           oration, planning, transparency, and organizational alignment
Adrian Hanussek: Our goal is to make ETAS fit for the future        with our corporate strategy.
by systematically applying agile organizational principles.                                                                                                     Günter Gromeier (left) and
We asked ourselves how our organization should be structured        How were associates prepared for these changes?                                             Adrian Hanussek (right).

to best grow our business. Prior to this project, our organiza-     Günter Gromeier: We took a transparent approach to allocating
tional structure had been a traditional one with associates         the new roles and held various workshops and training courses.
assigned to groups and departments. We saw conflicts arise          This gave us the solid foundations we needed to develop the
from overlapping responsibilities and roles, which was an           new organizational structure. We also worked closely with man-
unnecessary waste of our time and energy. We also found             agement, human resources, and the works council right from
it difficult to adapt the size of the Scrum team organization       the start.
which already existed in some areas.
                                                                    Have we already reached our goal?
We needed a new structure to strengthen our organizational          Adrian Hanussek: It takes time for such big changes to be-
alignment and improve responsiveness and efficiency by              come established, but we’re confident we will be successful
simplifying communication and synchronization. The structure
should also enable associates to develop their skills in a mod-
ern, supportive environment.
                                                                    on the path we’ve chosen. The feedback we’ve received from
                                                                    customers also shows we’re heading in the right direction.                “We’re confident we will be
What are the biggest changes that come from introducing
                                                                    Thank you for these insights into the new ETAS world.
                                                                                                                                              successful on the path we’ve
Günter Gromeier: The most obvious change is the division
of our organization into an operational structure (Trains) and
an organizational structure (Chapters). We’re also adapting
our style of collaboration to take advantage of all the poten-
tial benefits of SAFe. Decisions will no longer be made by
                                                                                                                                              Adrian Hanussek
individuals within a hierarchy. Instead, responsibilities will be   * At the time of the interview, Günter Gromeier was Vice President Mar-
distributed across a range of different roles.                      keting, Business Strategy, and Portfolio Management at ETAS GmbH.

14         Methodologies of the future                                                                                                                                                       Methodologies of the future   15
RealTimes 2021 - Stronger together - ETAS
Successful together!
Coordinated development solutions are the key to success

Transition, change, transformation, and uncertainty are probably the best words to describe the current situation in
the automotive industry. E-mobility, connectivity, (partially) automated driving, mobility services, automotive apps …
The list of technical challenges goes on and on. What will be launched onto the market – and how quickly? No one knows
exactly. However, they have one thing in common: software plays the leading role in most innovations.

The pressure to change is enormous. Major players from the
world of IT are forcing their way into the market. New mobility
business models for vehicles in the field are growing in impor-
tance. Many software projects are developed separately from
the hardware. In addition, the very highest safety and security    This will enable OEMs and their suppliers to concentrate on the
requirements apply for automotive software – especially in the     functionality of the application that actually sets it apart as a
field of ADAS/AD. Therefore, the challenge is to launch inno-      USP – and reach their objectives quickly. To ensure success, it is
vative software quickly, safely, and economically onto the mar-    imperative that the middleware, security solutions, and develop-
ket before continuously updating it in the field. Agile develop-   ment tools are coordinated with one another. This is the only
ment methods, virtual validation, and continuous integration       way for development partners to add value to their solutions
and deployment (CI/CD) are all prerequisites for success.          and achieve their goals.
                                                                                                                                        ESCRYPT security solutions                                                                                                 Coordinated middleware,
If we take a closer look at the development process, we can        We believe that ETAS is an important enabler for our customers’
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   security solutions, and develop-
identify four important areas (see picture). These include func-   success in these very challenging market conditions, whether
                                                                                                                                                                                              ETAS tools                                                           ment tools enable efficient
tional application software, middleware for microcontroller-       it is about development efficiency, software optimization, com-                                                                             De
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    liv                                            CI/CD development processes.
and microprocessor-based hardware, holistic solutions for          prehensive middleware, or holistic cybersecurity.                                                                   ,



cybersecurity, and development tools for the secure and effi-                                                                                                                              OEM-specific and


                                                                                                                                                                                           third-party tools

cient development of complex systems with high data volumes        The speed and scope of the changes in automotive software

that enable the fastest possible development cycles, whether       development have never been as significant as they are today.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      ment (CI/CD)
in a traditional developer workspace or in the cloud.              Positive, close cooperation and partnerships are more impor-
                                                                   tant than ever for this. The time for pure isolated solutions is
While the application software offers great differentiation po-    definitely over. We are ready!
tential for the OEMs, middleware, security, and tools have great
potential in terms of standardization and common development
platforms. Alongside synergy effects, this also offers a higher                                                                                                                            ETAS middleware
degree of safety and security. After all, the effort involved in
verifying functional safety and in the measures for consistent        Günter Gromeier is Executive Vice President Sales
security increase disproportionately to the software’s com-           at ETAS GmbH. Jürgen Crepin is Senior Marketing and
plexity, degree of connectivity, and update frequency. Only by        Communications Manager at ETAS GmbH.
acting together can this challenge be overcome.

16         Methodologies of the future                                                                                                                                                                                                               Methodologies of the future             17
RealTimes 2021 - Stronger together - ETAS
security functions that developers can use to address the                         AUTOSAR Adaptive manages access to system resources such
                                                                                                                                    shifting quantitative and qualitative protection requirements                     as persistent memory, communication channels, and crypto-
                                                                                                                                    of connected, automated vehicle systems. Given that distribut-                    graphic keys. The AUTOSAR Identity & Access Management
                                                                                                                                    ed, software-based E/E architectures drive up data loads under                    module provides a gatekeeper that allows only explicitly autho-
                                                                                                                                    real-time conditions, security measures must be designed to                       rized applications to access the respective resource. Access
                                                                                                                                    perform better. This is why the following security functions                      rights can be configured as required and updated at any time.
                                                                                                                                    have been integrated into AUTOSAR Adaptive (Fig. 2).
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Secure update and trusted platform
                                                                                                                                    Cryptography as a “key component”                                                 The secure update function in AUTOSAR Adaptive helps to
                                                                                                                                    Many security use cases rely on cryptographic primitives to,                      fix detected vulnerabilities, for instance found by IDS (Intrusion
                                                                                                                                    for example, encrypt confidential data or verify the signature                    Detection System). It receives and processes security updates
                                                                                                                                    of software updates. The cryptographic keys and certificates                      for individual applications or even for the entire platform. The
                                                                                                                                    required to do so must be stored securely, managed by an                          individual Update Blobs are signed by the back end so that only
                                                                                                                                    authorized application, and sometimes even synchronized                           updates from a trusted source are executed.
                                                                                                                                    across several ECUs. In AUTOSAR Adaptive, these primitives
                                                                                                                                    are provided through the cryptography functional cluster (also                    In addition to updates, ECU and VC applications must also be
                                                                                                                                    called crypto API). It offers an abstraction of the interfaces                    verified at regular intervals. This calls for either secure boot or
                                                                                                                                    provided and thus increases overall software portability.                         the trusted platform function in AUTOSAR Adaptive, which, as
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      a trust anchor, verifies all applications as well as the platform
                                                                                                                                    To ensure secure data exchange, AUTOSAR Adaptive follows                          itself. By maintaining the trust chain from boot to platform to
                                                                                                                                    the latest standards, including TCP/IP communication via                          application, only trusted software is executed.
                                                                                                                                    Ethernet. Using TLS and IPSec – the established protocols
                                                                                                                                    within the world of IT – it is possible to set up secure channels
                                                                                                                                    for communication within the vehicle and with external in-
                                                                                                                                    stances that are impervious to manipulation or eavesdropping.                     Figure 1: While AUTOSAR Classic supports systems with fixed
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      real-time requirements, AUTOSAR Adaptive distinguishes itself as
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      the standard for dynamic applications.

Cybersecurity included                                                                                                                                      Classic applications

                                                                                                                                                 Clearly defined                Clearly defined               Flexible
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Over-the-air applications and services

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Flexible                         No
Security for AUTOSAR Adaptive architectures                                                                                                     functional safety              functional safety          functional safety             functional safety            ASIL classification

AUTOSAR Adaptive paves the way to an intelligently connected vehicle. To provide reliable protection against cyber-
                                                                                                                                                      RTE                            RTE                        ARA                           ARA                        Different APIs
attacks, this standard features security functions that can be integrated today into tomorrow’s E/E architectures.

E/E architectures with signal-based connectivity and function-     nection with a POSIX-based operating system, such as Linux
                                                                                                                                                Classic platform               Classic platform           Adaptive platform             Adaptive platform                Linux platform
ally partitioned ECUs are reaching their limits when it comes      (Fig. 1). To ensure that software from different vendors and
to connected and highly automated vehicles. Calls for auton-       of different ASIL categories run safely on the VC, hypervisors
omy and connectivity lead to centralized high-performance          are used to preconfigure partitioning.
vehicle computers (VCs) and domain controllers (DCUs) making
strategic decisions, and sensor and actuator ECUs simply exe-      Cybersecurity management
cuting the commands.                                               Smart connected vehicles cannot be secured with individual
                                                                   measures., but only with integrated concepts based on risk        platform          μC
                                                                                                                                                       μC                                                        μP                           HSM

The AUTOSAR Adaptive platform provides the framework for           analyses of the entire vehicle architecture. These concepts
these new E/E architectures. It makes it possible to dynamically   must be broken down to the security requirements of indi-
adapt application software and uses the AUTOSAR Runtime            vidual components, ECUs, and their logical partitions. Accord-   RTE = Runtime Environment            ARA = AUTOSAR Runtime for Adaptive Applications          API = Application Programming Interface
for Adaptive Applications (ARA) interface to establish a con-      ingly, AUTOSAR Adaptive features an integrated basic set of      μC = Microcontroller                 μP = Microprocessor                                      HSM = Hardware Security Module

18         Methodologies of the future                                                                                                                                                                                                          Methodologies of the future                  19
Security components in AUTOSAR Adaptive
                                                                                                                                   – Crypto stack for managing key material and access to
                                                                                                                                       crypto primitives                                                                                                       Hardware security module                                                              Security back end services
                                                                                                                                   – Secure communication via established protocols TLS and                                                                  Hardware-aided trust anchor for                                                     Embedded intrusion detection (IDS)
                                                                                                                                       IPSec                                                                                                                        critical applications                                                      Security operations center (Vehicle SOC)
                                                                                                                                   – Access protection for sensitive resources (e.g., keys 		                                                                                                                                                      Secure firmware updates (FOTA)
                                                                                                                                       through the Identity and Access Management module
                                                                                                                                   – Secure updates for everything from individual applications
                                                                                                                                       to the complete platform
                                                                                                                                   – Authentic software thanks to continuing the secure-boot
                                                                                                                                       trust chain as part of the “trusted platform”

Figure 2: Central security components in AUTOSAR Adaptive.

RTA-VRTE: platform software framework for AUTOSAR                                                            Levels 1 and 2 contain the infrastructure software for the
Adaptive                                                                                                     hardware used (e.g., device drivers) and a POSIX-compliant
For future users of AUTOSAR Adaptive, it is crucial to become                                                operating system. Level 2 also provides platform-specific ele-
familiar with the new architecture today. The Vehicle Run-                                                   ments that derive from the AUTOSAR Adaptive specifications
time Environment (RTA-VRTE) platform software framework                                                      – first and foremost execution management. This manages                                                                Figure 4: Integrated automotive cybersecurity with the hardware security module as a trust anchor in the microcontroller
is the ideal basis for integrating and implementing security                                                 the dynamically assigned applications, ensures that they are                                                           and vehicle security monitoring throughout the entire vehicle life cycle.
functions as well as for all other AUTOSAR Adaptive-compli-                                                  started and stopped correctly, and monitors adherence to the
ant processes.                                                                                               assigned resource and execution limits. Execution manage-
                                                                                                             ment is thus a key function in IT security, providing the trusted                                                      In addition, the level 3 communication middleware ensures                        establish the development methodology of next-generation
RTA-VRTE contains all the important middleware elements                                                      platform and verifying the integrity and authenticity of Adap-                                                         that the dynamic, flexible Adaptive applications and the other                   hybrid E/E architectures while implementing the security
for microprocessor-based vehicle computers. The platform                                                     tive applications. In this way, possible manipulation or damage                                                        software applications can be integrated into the system.                         components already available through AUTOSAR Adaptive.
software framework enables the function of virtual ECUs                                                      is detected in advance.                                                                                                As a core component in RTA-VRTE, communication manage-
to be simulated on conventional desktop PCs and networked                                                                                                                                                                           ment controls and regulates the interaction between the                          Beyond these security modules, what is required are truly
via Ethernet. RTA-VRTE creates a virtual machine consisting                                                                                                                                                                         levels and guarantees the smooth operation of the encap-                         comprehensive cybersecurity concepts for connected, auto-
of four layers of basic software architecture, with the fifth                                                                                                                                                                       sulated software including the ECU- and vehicle-dependent                        mated vehicles. This starts with hardware security modules
layer then containing the vehicle-specific platform services                                                                 Figure 3: The RTA-VRTE five-level model supports the important                                         platform services on levels 4 and 5. In securing end-to-end                      (HSMs) as trust anchors to physically encapsulate crypto-
(Fig. 3).                                                                                                                    software functions and requirements for VCs.                                                           communication between services offered by authenticated                          graphic key material in VC microcontrollers or in ECUs. And it
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    applications, this function is also highly relevant to cyber-                    extends to fleet-wide vehicle protection over the entire life
                        Application services                                                                                                                                                                                        security.                                                                        cycle together with embedded in-vehicle attack detection,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     a vehicle security operation center (VSOC) in the back end,
                        Basic application services/semantic middleware
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    RTA-VRTE communication management together with ECU-                             and firmware over-the-air (FOTA) security updates (Fig. 4).
                        Level 5
                                                                                life cycle
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    specific services on level 4 provides application developers
                                                                                manager             client         broker
                        platform services                                                                                                                                                                                           with a versatile framework for automotive applications. To                       The RTA-VRTE platform software framework enables de-
                        Level 4
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    provide security, this level also features an update and config-                 velopers to bring AUTOSAR Adaptive-based E/E architectures
                                                           Software                                                            ECU                           ECU
                                                                          Software                           Life cycle                       IO                          Security
                        ECU-specific                       lockstep
                                                                                                                                                                          services                                                  uration manager (UCM), which supports authenticated up-                          to life in a virtual setting today. In so doing, it expands the
                        platform services
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    dates of individual applications and coordinates them across                     basis for comprehensive protection against cyberattacks,
                        Level 3                                                                                                                                          ­Quality
                                                                                                                                                                                      E2E         E2E      Service
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    the entire platform. On level 5 of RTA-VRTE, the AUTOSAR++                       which in the vehicles of the future will have to extend from
                        (Service-oriented)                                                                                                     Gateway       Firewall       of
                                                                                                                                                                                     safety     security   broker
                        communication middleware
                                                                                                                                                                          service                                                   aspect allows the integration of whole-vehicle and even fleet-                   the microcontroller to the in-vehicle network and to lifelong,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    wide functionality, providing robust over-the-air (OTA) up-                      fleet-wide monitoring.
                        Level 2
                                                                                                                                                                 Communication Stack(s)::Protocols
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     acceleration   dates of the RTA-VRTE AUTOSAR Adaptive application set.
                        infrastructure software

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Outlook: comprehensive security beyond AUTOSAR
                                                             OS        Driver
                                                                                                 moni-        Security
                                                                                                                                                IPC        IVC     INC      CAN      LIN      FLX    ETH     OTA
                        Level 1                                                      test        toring
                        infrastructure software
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    In 2020, RTA-VRTE began to be used around the world in                              Dr. Michael Peter Schneider is Project Manager
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    projects aiming to bring AUTOSAR Adaptive vehicle platforms                         AUTOSAR Security at ESCRYPT GmbH. Dr. Stuart Mitchell
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    to production. In addition, ETAS and ESCRYPT offer an Early                         is RTA-VRTE Senior Product Manager at ETAS GmbH.
                        Hardware, microcontroller, microprocessor, hardware acceleration
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Access Program (EAP) that enables OEMs and suppliers to

20          Methodologies of the future                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Methodologies of the future                 21
low-emission powertrains
with AI and in the cloud
Huge efficiency gains from cloud-based simulation

The adoption of real-world driving emissions in vehicle emissions legislation has introduced a new measure of complexity
to powertrain development, which was already a costly and complex process. To prevent further escalation of the time
and cost involved, ETAS is pushing ahead with the virtualization of road and bench testing. Combined with cloud-based
simulation and artificial intelligence (AI), a new development landscape is opening up that will raise the legally compliant
design of low-emission powertrains to a whole new level of efficiency.

The development of modern vehicles is a highly complex process,                       driving behavior, and other parameters are constantly
especially in powertrain development, where thousands of func-                        changing, and no two drives are identical. Therefore, studying
tions interact. With hundreds of developers working in parallel                       the impact of system changes in real-world tests is unreliable
across departmental and company boundaries on engine com-                             and inefficient, especially with a limited supply of test vehicles   Systematically driving ahead with virtualization
ponents, ancillary components, and ECU functions, any change                          and skilled personnel. What is more, tests in cold regions or at     ETAS recognized the potential of virtualization early on and
could potentially have an impact on everyone else’s work.                             high altitudes often necessitate long journeys.                      has spent years building up a portfolio of solutions for the         There are clear benefits to the availability of such a realistic
Test benches and road tests are used to detect and measure                            Virtualization is regarded as the key to reproducible test           simulation of individual components and entire vehicles. In the      simulation environment: the number of costly vehicle proto-
the impact on driving behavior, functional safety, and emis-                          results, faster development cycles, and managing complexity          current situation, in which increasingly complex powertrains         types can be reduced, time-consuming preparatory steps –
sions, involving very expensive prototypes and costly measur-                         in the development process. In the optimum case, the use             in a rising number of variants must be tailored to the Euro          such as stabilizing the vehicle’s temperature, calibrating mea-
ing equipment. Yet this poses a problem: real-world test-drives                       of real-world tests and measurements can be limited to simply        6d-Temp and Euro 7 emissions standards, this groundwork is           suring instruments, and resetting ECUs – are no longer neces-
are not reproducible because the traffic, weather conditions,                         verifying simulations.                                               now proving to be a way out of this complexity dilemma.              sary, and schedules can no longer be thrown off course by
                                                                                                                                                           Emissions measurements must be carried out in real driving           measurement errors or loose cables. This makes planning
Figure 1: Time spent on vehicle validation – past and present.                                                                                             cycles. Real driving emissions (RDE) are measured using por-         more reliable in the validation phase.
                                                                                                                                                           table emission measurement systems (PEMS), and a statisti-
     New European Driving Cycle (NEDC)                     Testing under road testing conditions                         Testing of variants               cal analysis of several measurements is performed to ensure          Cloud opens up new potential for efficiency and quality
                (~ 1 hour)                                            (>1,000 hours)                                      (>>1,000 hours)                  compliance. The nature of this analysis threatens to increase        As strange as it may sound, reality is actually the biggest
                                                                                                                                                           the test and validation workload to unmanageable levels.             hurdle in the transition to measuring real driving emissions.
                                                                                                                                                           This is where simulation can help! With realistic driver and plant   Reality prevents identically reproducible test-drives, poses
                                                          Driver       Route      Traffic     Ambient                                                      models, vehicles can be simulated successfully – including the       the risk of measurement errors, and makes time-saving test
                                                                                                                                                           functions of the engine, ancillary components, chassis, tires,       parallelization almost impossible. This is compounded by the
                                                                                                                                                           and even exhaust gas treatment, as well as the interaction           time and effort required for tests under different climatic and
                                                                 Altitude      Load         Tires                                                          between vehicle domains under a wide range of environmental          topographic conditions. In addition, financial and organiza-
                                                                                                                                                           conditions – and the testing workload decreases dramatically.        tional factors place a limit on how many test-drivers can be

22          Methodologies of the future                                                                                                                                                                                                               Methodologies of the future            23
used for RDE measurements. Obtaining full test data cover-                                       model of real-world driving is a new development that makes            With the ability to perform thousands of simulations in parallel                     ing a small number of non-reproducible test-drives done by
age in the development process therefore depends on expe-                                        use of AI. This development is based on an extensive data-             in the cloud, powertrain developers gain access to a highly                          just a few drivers, this new method of powertrain design
rienced experts designing precisely defined test-drives in                                       base of GPS data from real drives that has been enriched with          efficient solution that allows RDE tests to be performed with                        involves thousands of test-drives running in parallel in a virtual
advance. Yet, as the amount of testing increases, uncertain-                                     map information. It also incorporates numerous drives used             a much more comprehensive database than would be realistic                           environment. Thanks to AI, these cover the full diversity of
ties and bottlenecks will also occur here.                                                       to record measurements – involving a variety of demonstrator           or financially viable with real test-drives. This database enables                   traffic conditions in statistically relevant trajectories.
In contrast, high-quality simulation, based on corresponding                                     vehicles, drivers, route profiles, weather conditions, and traffic     developers to more easily prepare real-world tests to validate                       This makes it possible to achieve the realistic testing required
models, allows virtual test-drives to be performed in parallel                                   conditions – which developers have used to derive a highly             the virtual RDE measurements.                                                        in the RDE cycle via the indirect route of virtualization.
hundreds of thousands of times and reproduced as often as                                        variable model of real driving with the help of AI. The realistic      Obviously, this kind of solution stands and falls by its usability.
required. To achieve optimum workflows, ETAS, Bosch, and                                         trajectories generated in this way – such as speed, gradient,          Prior to running the full cloud simulation, developers can access                    ETAS is continuously improving the vehicle, plant, and driver
ESCRYPT have joined forces to merge the available simula-                                        and gearshift profiles – serve as a basis for the tests that can       the entire system on their local workstation to verify proper                        models used in this new approach and developing them into
tion platforms, tools, and models in the cloud. With the aid of                                  be performed in parallel using virtual vehicles in the cloud as        functionality of the model. In addition, tailored data analytics                     a complete tool chain for cloud-based simulation. This fully
artificial intelligence and cutting-edge IT security, they are                                   often as required.                                                     support efficient test evaluation. Thus, this new solution offers                    virtualized development method is now available for customers
creating a scalable and secure simulation environment.                                                                                                                  a fast, plannable route to obtaining the statistically relevant                      to work with. The next step is to make the cloud-based solu-
Thanks to the computing power of the cloud, powertrain de-                                       Making virtual vehicles available in the cloud                         driving data that is required for the legally compliant and fully                    tion available for more efficient collaborative processes and
velopers can run thousands of test-drives in parallel, moni-                                     With the ETAS virtualization tool kit (see Fig. 3) ready for           secure design of a powertrain control system.                                        train AI algorithms to evaluate the virtualized tests. ETAS is
toring and validating changes in the powertrain and ECU soft-                                    use, the next goal was to allow users to make productive use                                                                                                already working on it!
ware through detailed, model-based analyses and regression                                       of the new all-in-one solution within the ETAS cloud services.         Summary and outlook                                                                  At the end of the day, what is at stake is nothing less than a
testing. This improves quality as well as increases efficiency.                                  The steps to achieve this included a thorough risk analysis            With its cloud-based simulation based on realistic driving tra-                      new state-of-the-art in powertrain development.
                                                                                                                                                                        jectories and vehicle models, ETAS provides an elegant and
                                                                                                                                                                        innovative solution to the increasing variety of drives and the
                                                                         Cloud-based simulation environment                                                             RDE regulations. But that is not all: this new approach also
                                                                                                                                                                        promises significant improvements in quality. Instead of offer-
     Model of real-world driving                                   Virtual vehicle (comprehensive closed-loop simulation)                            Tailored data
                                                                                                                                                       analytics                                                                                                Dr. Nils Tietze is a Solution Manager in the field of mea-
                                                                                                        Exhaust gas sensors, actuators
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                surement, calibration, and diagnostics at ETAS GmbH.
                                                                                                                                                                        Figure 3: Modular, freely scalable solution for the
                                                                                     vECU                                                                               development of a virtual vehicle.
      Driver      Route     Traffic      Velocity,                       Pedal              Actuators                State              m, p, T
                                          slope                                                                    variables           emission

                                                                         Engine speed
     Ambient     Altitude   Load
                                                                                        Torque                                                                                                 Model simulator
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               LABCAR models
                                                                                                                                                                                 Enables massive parallelization
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Base vehicle and engine model
                                                                                                                                                                                   of simulations and reporting

     Virtualization services: Customized                                         Software services by ETAS: Scaling cloud simulation                  AI approach
     virtualization of emission-capable powertrain                               to enable fast development iterations. AI-based generation
     system models (virtual vehicle).                                            of statistically representative drive cycles.                        Physical models            Model of real-world driving*                                                                                  EGT models*
                                                                                                                                                                                Enables creation of statistically                                                                              Advanced exhaust gas
Figure 2: Cloud-based development environment.                                                                                                                                      representative drive cycles                                                                                treatment models

Cloud-based platforms have the potential to take cross-depart-                                   by ESCRYPT, which produced a comprehensive security concept                                                                                     ETAS portfolio
                                                                                                                                                                                                         COSYM                                                                                 ETAS ASCMO-MOCA
mental and cross-company collaboration between powertrain                                        to protect the highly sensitive processed development data.                    Enables integration of vECU and                              for virtual calibration                           Enables efficient parameterization
developers to a whole new level. However, there are still chal-                                  ISO 27001 certification is now underway.                                           plant models for simulation                                                                                of plant models

lenges ahead that now need to be tackled.                                                        Much like the Software-in-the-Loop (SiL) method, the virtual
                                                                                                 ECU is incorporated in the virtual vehicle as a functional mock-
The challenges of real-world driving                                                             up unit (FMU). It exchanges data via standard buses with the                                      ETAS ASCMO                                                                                  EATB
To obtain realistic data from test-drives with virtual vehicles,                                 models incorporated in the respective simulation. In powertrain                         Enables creation of raw                                                                               Enables report configuration for
                                                                                                                                                                                               emission models                                                                                 reporting in the cloud
the underlying scenarios need to provide a high variance of                                      projects, the virtual vehicle offers precise reproduction of ex-
driving styles, route profiles, weather conditions, and traffic                                  haust emissions from the tailpipe. To achieve this, the team                                                                          Customized individual virtualization
conditions. This task is performed by the model of real-world                                    incorporated sophisticated exhaust gas treatment models and                                                                  Service to build up the integrated system (virtual vehicle)
driving. While the vehicle model (virtual vehicle) is based on                                   a raw emissions model for the combustion engine, which were
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         * on request
commercially available solutions in the ETAS portfolio, the                                      created using ETAS ASCMO.

24             Methodologies of the future                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Methodologies of the future                 25
In addition, the AUTOSAR standard is used comprehensively                          The basic software (BSW) and OS which are not part of the
                                                                                                                                  to further improve development efficiency and significantly                        immediate project scope are designed or selected by suppliers.
                                                                                                                                  reduce development costs. Nissan is currently working with                         The automaker then creates a model of the entire ASW, called
                                                                                                                                  alliance companies such as Renault to define an AUTOSAR-                           a “template“ by combining the parts in the library. The supplier
                                                                                                                                  based Alliance Engine Management System (A-EMS), featuring                         incorporates this template model into the BSW and OS and
                                                                                                                                  a common global control software architecture and fourth-                          automatically generates serial production code.
                                                                                                                                  generation MBD process.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Develop an evaluation process
                                                                                                                                  Double V-cycle enables sharing and effective use                                   So far, there was no RCP environment for the complex entire
                                                                                                                                  of models                                                                          ASW. Hiroshi Kato, senior manager of the EMS Control Techno-
                                                                                                                                  Nissan has adopted the double V-cycle, a hierarchical devel-                       logy Development Group, Nissan Motor Corporation, explains,
                                                                                                                                  opment process that combines two MBD V-shaped cycles                               “We decided to establish an evaluation process and toolchain
                                                                                                                                  (Fig. 1).                                                                          to create an RCP-suitable engine control ASW, developing the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     fourth generation of MBD in parallel.“ If a bypass for the entire
                                                                                                                                  In the first V-cycle, a model of reusable, validated software                      ASW, called “full bypass,“ could be realized, Hardware-in-the-
                                                                                                                                  components (SWCs) is developed. This model is registered                           Loop (HiL) tests or actual device evaluation for the entire
                                                                                                                                  in a common database library and is shared in development                          ASW would be possible, resulting in a dramatic shortening
                                                                                                                                  projects within the company and among alliance companies.                          of the evaluation period and reduction of development cost.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Also, by seamlessly connecting to the “full Model-in-the-Loop
                                                                                                                                  The second V-cycle assembles the control software accord-                          (MiL)” environment for the entire ASW, consistent testing
                                                                                                                                  ing to N-EMS and A-EMS rules and processes. The application                        would become possible.
                                                                                                                                  software (ASW), which greatly affects engine performance,
                                                                                                                                  is developed independently by each automaker.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Figure 1: Nissan’s double V-cycle powertrain control development process.

Next generation
                                                                                                                                                           SE                                               Component management                                              Production order
                                                                                                                                                System requirement study

                                                                                                                                     requirement                                                                                                                 Calibration

large scale prototyping
                                                                                                                                        study                                               dev./registration                                                   and validation

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Software quality verification
                                                                                                                                       System          Plant model         System
                                                                                                                                       design         development         validation                                                  Component                     ASW

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          System validator
ETAS comprehensively supports Nissan’s model-based development                                                                                                                                                                        library (DB)

                                                                                                                                           System requirement
                                                                                                                                           statement                                                                                                              Basic SW
Model-based design/development (MBD) and Rapid Control Prototyping (RCP) are essential for developing high quality
control software with higher efficiency. However, in the case of large scale software – such as engine control – up to now,                                                                                                        Shopping                          HW
                                                                                                                                     Component                           Component
RCP could only be used for some parts of the development process. Nissan Motor Corporation and ETAS took on the chal-                  design                            verification
lenge of jointly developing an RCP environment for large scale control software models for series production projects.                                                                                                                                                    release
                                                                                                                                                                Verification                                                       Control component

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Auto coding, integration, and
                                                                                                                                                                        tool                                                          integration

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              software development
Handling increasing scale and complexity                        Recently, Nissan has redesigned its engine control software,                                                                                                                                        ASW

In order to comply with ever-increasing environmental regu-     adopting a new architecture called Nissan Engine Manage-                                                                           +

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Auto I/F check           ASW
lations, engine control software has become larger and more     ment System (N-EMS). But N-EMS still had room for improve-                             Make test                                                MiL verification
                                                                                                                                                                                              Plant model                                                         Basic SW
complex than ever before. To master this challenge, Nissan      ment, especially when it came to efficiencies across the entire
started to introduce MBD in the 1990s with the aim of cre-      alliance group. This alliance also includes Renault in France,                Software component SE                                      Software project manager                                    HW
ating an environment in which software can be developed         where the software architecture is different.                             Software components development                              Software components integration

with higher quality and in a shorter period of time.
                                                                                                                                                                           ECM project manager: whole project schedule handling, hardware development etc.
Since 2019, Nissan has been using its third-generation MBD
process in about 85 percent of the company’s projects.                                                                               Process step                    Application software                 Other software or model                    Hardware

26        Successful with ETAS                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Successful with ETAS                                 27
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