Regional Land Transport Plan 2015 2025 - REVISED JUNE 2018 - Environment Canterbury

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Regional Land Transport Plan 2015 2025 - REVISED JUNE 2018 - Environment Canterbury
Regional Land Transport
Plan 2015 - 2025
Regional Land Transport Plan 2015 2025 - REVISED JUNE 2018 - Environment Canterbury
NZTA/Helicam Pro/Jared Waddams
Regional Land Transport Plan 2015 2025 - REVISED JUNE 2018 - Environment Canterbury
      FOREWORD		                                                                    2
      INTRODUCTION                                                                  4
      STRATEGIC CONTEXT                                                             6
      ISSUES AND CHALLENGES                                                         16
      STRATEGIC RESPONSE                                                            27
      PROPOSED NEW INVESTMENT PRIORITIES                                            29
      STATEMENT OF PRIORITIES FOR 2015 TO 2025                                      40
      EXPENDITURE AND REVENUE FORECASTS                                             50
      MONITORING AND PERFORMANCE INDICATORS                                         52
      APPENDICES		                                                                  53
      Appendix 1: Regional programme details                                        53
      Appendix 2: Significance policy                                               57
      Appendix 3: Assessment of compliance with LTMA section 14                     58
      Appendix 4: Assessment of the relationship of Police activities to the RLTP   58
      Appendix 5: Summary of consultation                                           58
      Appendix 6: Legislative requirements                                          59
      Appendix 7: Glossary                                                          61

      Figure 1: The Canterbury region and key transport routes                      9
      Figure 2: Population age structure, Canterbury Regional Council area          13
      Figure 3: Mobility services                                                   16
      Figure 4: Average trip length                                                 17
      Figure 5: Annual truck kms travelled                                          18
      Figure 6: Quarterly guest nights in Canterbury                                19
      Figure 7: NZ general social survey                                            22
      Figure 8: Injury rates                                                        31
      Figure 9: Canterbury mode splits                                              32
      Figure 10: Smooth travel exposure                                             33
      Figure 11: Travel time reliability                                            34
      Figure 12: Quarterly incidents on Canterbury roads                            35
      Figure 13: Co2 emissions                                                      36
      Figure 14: Investment and strategic priorities                                38

Canterbury Regional Land Transport Plan 2015 - 2025                                      1
Regional Land Transport Plan 2015 2025 - REVISED JUNE 2018 - Environment Canterbury
    The Canterbury Regional Transport Committee is a statutory body established under the Land Transport Management
    Act 2003. The Act requires Environment Canterbury to appoint a councillor from each territorial authority to the
    Committee, as well as a representative from the New Zealand Transport Agency. Environment Canterbury chairs and
    convenes the Committee.

    The Regional Transport Committee’s principal task is to identify the key transport-related issues, objectives and
    outcomes for the Canterbury region and in this context recommend a prioritised programme of transport activities.
    The Committee does this formally through the Canterbury Regional Land Transport Plan, which sets out the investment
    priorities for the Canterbury region and the programme of transport activities which will give effect to these priorities.

    Canterbury’s transport network has been built over generations to provide us with access to economic and social
    opportunities. However, this Plan sets out a number of serious challenges that impact on the effectiveness of our
    transport network. The resilience of the network has been tested most recently by the North Canterbury earthquake
    in November 2016 and also following severe flooding in 2017. Another challenge facing the transport network is the
    expected growth in road freight travelling within Canterbury of approximately 80% between 2012 and 2042.1 In addition,
    population growth will also place pressure on the network, with Canterbury’s population of 563,000 in 2013 expected to
    expand by 36% by 2043.2

    Ongoing investment is critical to ensure that our transport system is fit-for-purpose to support our region’s growing
    population and economy, to manage the risks posed by natural hazards such as earthquakes and floods, and to minimise
    the environmental impact of transport, and to reduce the number of deaths and serious injuries on our roads. Innovation
    will also be important, and Canterbury needs to be positioned to harness the potential of new technologies so we can
    increase the attractiveness of public transport and other ride share alternatives to the single occupancy vehicles which
    congest our network.

    A core component of achieving this vision is to encourage mode optimisation: shifting freight where possible from road
    to rail and coastal shipping; and encouraging greater use of passenger and active transport to reduce reliance on single
    occupancy vehicles. A Regional Transport Scorecard has been developed to assist the Regional Transport Committee to
    monitor progress against the objectives of the Plan and to enable robust, evidence-based investment decisions.

    A key challenge faced by local government is that existing transport planning and policy settings and funding models
    inhibit the development and implementation of innovative multi-modal transport solutions. The Regional Transport
    Committee welcomes the change in direction that has been signalled by the Government through the draft Government
    Policy Statement on Land Transport, with a greater focus on rail and mode neutrality. The Committee will continue to
    advocate for positive change, specifically through advocacy on the second stage Government Policy Statement on Land

    The Committee also welcomes the opportunity to collaborate with central government, councils outside the region, our
    private sector partners, and the community to improve transport outcomes in Canterbury and across the South Island. A
    joint statement from the South Island Regional Transport Committee Chairs Group has been included in this update of the
    Regional Land Transport Plan, and highlights this need to work together. South Island-wide collaboration is particularly
    important as critical freight and visitor journeys cross regional boundaries, extending along and across the South Island,
    and connecting to both Stewart Island and the North Island.

    Finally, I would like to thank the Canterbury councils and the NZ Transport Agency (NZTA) for their assistance in reviewing
    and updating this Plan, and the Canterbury public for their input. I would also like to acknowledge the hard work of the
    Regional Transport Committee members and their staff in preparing this iteration of the Plan.

    Steve Lowndes
    Chair, Canterbury Regional Transport Committee
    1 Ministry of Transport (2014) National Freight Demand Study.
    2 Statistics New Zealand 2013 Census (forecast released December 2016).

2                                                                                Canterbury Regional Land Transport Plan 2015 - 2025
Regional Land Transport Plan 2015 2025 - REVISED JUNE 2018 - Environment Canterbury
      Recognising the interconnectedness of South Island regional economies and communities, the chairs of the seven Regional
      Transport Committees in the South Island have formed a group and agreed to a work programme to address South Island-
      wide issues. Chairs agree that they can make greater progress toward realising common goals if they work together.
      The South Island has a relatively small and dispersed population of around one million. Christchurch is the largest urban
      area and is centrally located, and there are several other main centres located throughout the island. Small communities
      are often at a significant distance from main centres, and depend on the products transported to their locality every day,
      as well as the ability to move products to be processed, distributed and exported. This makes the resilience of transport
      linkages between South Island communities of critical importance.
      The efficient movement of both goods and people is essential to the South Island’s economy, as well as the social and
      economic wellbeing of its residents. The majority of freight is moved by road, with substantial freight growth being
      projected. Freight demand in the South Island is currently driven by a mix of primary sector and export growth, as well
      as population change. There has also been significant growth in the tourism sector, with the South Island recognised as a
      tourism destination in its own right. These critical freight and tourism journeys do not stop at regional boundaries – they
      extend across the South Island.
      The South Island Regional Transport Committee Chairs Group was established with the purpose of significantly
      improving transport outcomes in the South Island, to help drive our economy and better serve our communities, through
      collaboration and integration.

      The three key collaborative priorities for the Group are to:

           Identify and facilitate integrated multi-modal (road, rail, air, sea) freight and visitor journey improvements (including
      1.   walking and cycling journeys) across the South Island.

      2. Advocate for a funding approach which enables innovative and integrated multi-modal solutions to transport
         problems, and small communities with a low ratepayer base to maintain and enhance their local transport network.

      3. Identify and assess options for improving the resilience and security of the transport network across the South
         Island, as well as vital linkages to the North Island.

Canterbury Regional Land Transport Plan 2015 - 2025                                                                                    3
Regional Land Transport Plan 2015 2025 - REVISED JUNE 2018 - Environment Canterbury
    The Regional Land Transport Plan 2015-2025 (RLTP) has been prepared by the Canterbury Regional Transport Committee,
    a joint committee of the region’s councils, as well as NZTA. The Regional Transport Committee is convened every three
    years by the regional council following local body elections, and has a membership and role prescribed by the Land
    Transport Management Act 2003.
    Developing the RLTP is the primary role of the Regional Transport Committee and is a requirement for each region’s
    Regional Transport Committee across New Zealand. It is part of the nationwide process in which local and regional
    councils work together to apply for, and receive, government investment in their land transport activities1 for the coming
    three-year period. RLTPs also include planned expenditure by the NZTA on any state highways that run through a region.
    This iteration of the Canterbury Regional Land Transport Plan 2015-2025 was published in 2018 to ensure the plan reflects
    the current state of our regional transport network, following a “mid-term” review required by the Land Transport
    Management Act 2003.
              plan                                                          2025

                                                  2018                       2021
                                                 review                      new                          2024
                                                                             plan                        review                                                                2031

    The Regional Transport Committee remains committed to the vision that:
    Canterbury has an accessible, affordable, integrated, safe, resilient and sustainable transport system.
    This vision remains the over-arching goal for the committee and will guide future relationships, and planning and
    investment, across the sector, for the next ten year.
    Accordingly, this plan:
    • outlines the economic, social and spatial context in which the transport system operates;
    • identifies regional transport issues and challenges anticipated over time;
    • describes how these challenges will be met; achieving the vision and objectives through policies, measures and
      investment priorities over time;
    • includes a regional programme of proposed land transport activities and prioritises significant activities; and
    • provides a ten-year financial forecast of anticipated investment and revenue for the region’s land transport activities.
    The strategic context, issues and challenges, and strategic response sections of this RLTP were reviewed between 2015-
    16, and changes were adopted through a variation made in May 2016 to:
    • align this RLTP with the Canterbury Regional Economic Development Strategy2; and
    • reflect sector consensus on the need to plan in a more holistic and coordinated way that best serves the wellbeing of
      Canterbury and New Zealand.
    Following extensive public consultation, the strategic context and issues and challenges were updated so that:
    • The strategic context sets out the trends and drivers in the transport sector now and into the future.
    • The issues and challenges section comprehensively presents current and future issues that are anticipated as a result
      of the strategic drivers, and the associated challenges these raise for transport providers.
    • The strategic response section sets out how the Regional Transport Committee plans to respond to these drivers,
      issues and challenges. The strategic response is not a detailed list of all the activities planned, but rather a description
      of the overall approach the Regional Transport Committee feels is necessary to meet the region’s needs into the future.
    1 These activities can include the planning and delivery of new roads, road maintenance, cycle facilities, public transport facilities and services, and so on. Typically, government meets 50-
      60% of the total cost of agreed council land transport activities, depending on the council, using an agreed methodology to establish a Funding Assistance Rate (FAR). The FAR for State
      Highway activities is 100%.
    2 See
    3 The National Land Transport Fund is a fully hypothecated (ring-fenced) transport fund made up of fuel excise duty, road user charges, a portion of the annual vehicle licensing fee, and income
      from the sale and lease of state highway property. This means that all the revenue collected from transport users is dedicated to investment in land transport. The NZTA Board has independent
      statutory responsibilities for the allocation and investment of the National Land Transport Fund, which occurs through the National Land Transport Programme.

4                                                                                                                           Canterbury Regional Land Transport Plan 2015 - 2025
Regional Land Transport Plan 2015 2025 - REVISED JUNE 2018 - Environment Canterbury
The remainder of the Plan was subsequently reviewed in accordance with guidance issued by the New Zealand Transport
      Agency, including the need to identify a small number of priority issues. The strategic response section was also updated
      to ensure it remains current.
      The comprehensive issues and challenges section informed the identification of a set of regional investment priorities
      that focus on travel time reliability, access, condition and suitability of assets, safety, resilience, and environmental
      impact. These investment priorities strike a balance between:
      • addressing the region’s most pressing needs;
      • consistency with the priorities outlined in the Government Policy Statement on Land Transport 2018; and
      • alignment with the National Land Transport Programme Investment Assessment Framework 2018-21.
      Public consultation was undertaken again in 2017/18 on the additional proposed changes, including the proposed
      regional investment priorities.
      The investment priorities established in this Plan will enable a more comprehensive and integrated approach to meeting
      regional transport challenges, as well as supporting territorial authorities to seek funding from the National Land
      Transport Fund to progress their priority projects.3 It should be noted that the final decision on whether any of the
      activities proposed in this Plan are included in the National Land Transport Programme rests with NZTA.

Canterbury Regional Land Transport Plan 2015 - 2025                                                                               5
Regional Land Transport Plan 2015 2025 - REVISED JUNE 2018 - Environment Canterbury
    This section describes the key features of the Canterbury situation relevant to the future planning of our transport
    system. It includes an explanation of our diverse rural and urban populations and economic structure, and our current
    transport system. This section also describes our relationships to the rest of New Zealand and to the rest of the world.

    Our people
    The Canterbury region is New Zealand’s largest by area, second largest by population,                                                                           KAIKŌURA DISTRICT
                                                                                                                                                                       3,640 (0.6%)
    home to 562,900 people1 and the most populous in the south island. Christchurch is
    located centrally in the region and at the 2013 census was New Zealand’s second
    largest city. The greater Christchurch area is the main population centre.                                                                   HURUNUI DISTRICT
                                                                                                                                                   12,000 (2.1%)
    The Canterbury region is composed of nine territorial local authorities2:
    yy     Kaikōura District (population 3,640, 0.6% of Canterbury)                                                                SELWYN DISTRICT
                                                                                                                                    46,700 (8.3%)
    yy     Hurunui District (12,000, 2.1%)                                                                                                                                   WAIMAKARIRI DISTRICT
                                                                                                                                                                                52,300 (9.3%)
                                                                                                             ASHBURTON DISTRICT
    yy     Waimakariri District (52,300, 9.3%)                                                                  32,300 (5.8%)
                                                                                                                                                                               CHRISTCHURCH CITY
    yy     Christchurch City (356,700, 63.6%)                                                                                                                                    356,700 (63.6%)

    yy     Selwyn District (46,700, 8.3%)
                                                                                            MACKENZIE DISTRICT
    yy     Ashburton District (32,300, 5.8%)                                                   4,300 (0.8%)

    yy     Timaru District (45,400, 8.1%)
                                                                                                                                                   TIMARU DISTRICT
    yy     Mackenzie District (4,300, 0.8%)                                                                                                          45,400 (8.1%)

    yy     Waimate District (7,810, 1.4%)
                                                                                          WAIMATE DISTRICT
    The total population of the Canterbury regional council area is                         7,810 (1.4%)
    projected to grow, on average, by 0.9 % a year between 2013 and
    2043, slightly higher than the average national growth rate of 0.8 % a year.
    But only three territorial authorities within the region will meet or exceed the national growth rate: Selwyn district (2.2
    %), Waimakariri district (1.3 %) and Ashburton district (0.9 %).
    In the remaining six areas, average annual population growth rates are projected to be between zero and 0.7 %. On this
    projection, Canterbury’s population will increase from around 560,000 to 730,000 between 2013 and 2043, with nearly
    half of that growth occurring between 2013 and 2023. Canterbury’s population growth contributes 14 per cent of the
    national growth.
    Canterbury is projected to continue to be New Zealand’s second most populous region (after Auckland), hosting 13 per
    cent of New Zealand’s total population.

    Our economy
    Canterbury’s economy expanded more than any other region (30.9%) between 2009 and 2014. This was partially due
    to strong construction and recovery activity following a series of major earthquakes in 2010 and 2011. This compares to
    22.4% growth over the same period for New Zealand as a whole. In 2014, Canterbury contributed 13.1% of national Gross
    Domestic Product (GDP) and had the second-largest GDP increase by region after Auckland (10.6%, compared to 6.7%
    for New Zealand overall). In per capita terms, GDP is currently $53,054 per year in Canterbury, compared to $48,944 per
    year for the rest of New Zealand3.
    The earthquake rebuild is currently a major driver of economic activity in Canterbury. However the underlying economy,
    which is not temporary in nature, has been growing, with some sectors outside of construction performing well despite
    the earthquake disruptions.

    1 Statistics New Zealand 30 June 2013 population estimate.
    2 Whilst the portion of Waitaki District north of the Waitaki River lies in Canterbury, for the purposes of transport planning, Waitaki District is considered part of the Otago region.
    3 Source: Statistics New Zealand, 2014 figures.

6                                                                                                                            Canterbury Regional Land Transport Plan 2015 - 2025
Regional Land Transport Plan 2015 2025 - REVISED JUNE 2018 - Environment Canterbury
Between 2008 and 2012 Canterbury's
                                                                                GDP                        2012                         DAIRY VOLUME
      agricultural economy’s real GDP grew by
      30% (from $758m to $983m) driven by                                                                  $983 M                       EXPANSION
                                                                                                                                         over the decade to 2010
      increased contributions from Ashburton,
      Selwyn, Hurunui, Timaru and Waimate                                       2008
      districts. Dairy volume expansion over the                                $758 M
      decade to 2010 was worth $590 per person
      in the Canterbury region compared to $270
      in Waikato. The estimated net farm gate
      contribution of irrigation on Canterbury’s                                The area’s agricultural economy’s                       WAIKATO 2010
      GDP increased from $335m in 2003 to
      $1,394m in 2012, driven by expansion in
                                                                                real GDP grew by 30% driven
                                                                                by increased contributions from
                                                                                                                                        $270per person
      areas with access to irrigation from 287,000                              Ashburton, Selwyn, Hurunui, Timaru                      CANTERBURY 2010
      to 444,777 hectares and an increase from                                  and Waimate districts                                   $590per person
      gross margins per hectare associated with
      access to irrigation.
      Manufacturing is also a key component of the Canterbury economy, particularly transport and machinery equipment,
      food and beverage. Christchurch is the manufacturing hub, with particular strengths in machinery and equipment
      manufacturing and chemical, minerals and metal manufacturing.
      Tourism is another key aspect of the Canterbury economy and provides a pivotal role in the wider tourism offering of
      the south island. Airfares and international tourist spend now outstrips dairying as New Zealand’s prime source of
      export earnings, quoted in Statistics New Zealand data as $13.5 billion4. In Canterbury, whilst the Christchurch industry
      continues to rebuild following the earthquakes , the remainder of the region has performed strongly and emphasises
      the need for good transport links between Christchurch and other key tourism destinations across Canterbury and in
      neighbouring regions.
      Transport plays a key role as enabler for each sector of the regional economy. Efficient and effective transport for the
      movement of inputs and outputs of these sectors, as well as for service industries and employees, plays a critical role
      in economic productivity, keeping costs down and contributing to international competitiveness. This is crucial for New
      Zealand as a trading nation some distance from our main markets.

      Canterbury is well serviced by 14,220 km of council owned and operated local roads established over generations by
      local authorities to provide access to rural land, visitor destinations and small and large settlements. These networks are
      a mix of unsealed and sealed roads, mainly with two lanes but in busier urban centres like Christchurch, Ashburton and
      Timaru, four lane roads to manage volumes efficiently and safely.

       AREA                                           % SHARE OF REGIONAL                             % SHARE OF REGIONAL ROAD   ROAD DENSITY
                                                      POPULATION                                      NETWORK BY LENGTH          (LENGTH / LAND AREA)
       Kaikōura                                       0.6                                             1.3%                       0.10
       Hurunui                                        2.1                                             9.2%                       0.17
       Waimakariri                                    9.3                                             9.8%                       0.70
       Christchurch                                   63.6                                            14.8%                      1.66
       Selwyn                                         8.3                                             15.8%                      0.39
       Ashburton                                      5.8                                             16.9%                      0.43
       Timaru                                         8.1                                             10.8%                      0.63
       Mackenzie                                      0.8                                             4.5%                       0.10
       Waimate                                        1.4                                             8.4%                       0.38
       State Highways                                 -                                               8.4%                       -

      4 Source: Tourism Industry Association and Statistics New Zealand, Tourism Satellite Account 2015.

Canterbury Regional Land Transport Plan 2015 - 2025                                                                                                                7
Regional Land Transport Plan 2015 2025 - REVISED JUNE 2018 - Environment Canterbury
Canterbury has 1,330 km of State Highways (owned and operated by the NZTA) that provide access between points
    of national significance, as well as providing inter-regional connections to Otago, West Coast and Marlborough. State
    Highway 1 runs north – south linking Picton to Bluff and in places north and south of Kaikōura is nestled between steep
    hillsides and the Pacific Ocean. The Christchurch motorways Roads of National Significance (RoNS) programme is
    underway in Christchurch and scheduled for completion by 2020. They are intended to introduce significant journey time
    reliability improvements on State Highway 1, State Highway 74 and State Highway 76.
    Public transport networks are provided in Greater Christchurch and Timaru. The greater Christchurch network was
    severely impacted by the earthquakes of 2011 and continues to be disrupted by road repairs. The network has been
    re-designed to operate in a more efficient way and better serve the changes in land use that have merged since 2011,
    however land use change and workplace dislocations are ongoing, and this has impacted on public transport patronage,
    with numbers yet to recover to pre-earthquake levels. Outside of Greater Christchurch and Timaru, rural public transport
    in the form of community vehicle trusts have emerged where scheduled buses services and taxi services are not
    sustainable. These community led initiatives make available a vehicle for booking and are partially supported, alongside
    fares, by the regional council through a local rate agreed annually by the community. Thirteen such trusts now exist
    across Canterbury and more are in various stages of development.
    In most urban areas taxi companies provide on-demand private transport services. These offer an effective private
    transport option for people who enjoy the convenience of a private vehicle but do not wish to use, or do not have, their
    own. Aside from these point to point journeys, taxis can also form part of a multi-modal journey, for example as the final
    leg of a trip made primarily by plane, bus or coach.
    The emergence of innovative shared vehicle ownership models, ride sharing, hire schemes and mobile technology
    that enables on-demand transport services may also improve the efficiency of the network and ultimately slow the
    growth in peak period journeys. Increasingly these market led solutions will compete with the markets local and central
    government serve through public transport provision and change the way publicly provided infrastructure is used by the
    public and commercial operators. It will be important that public agencies are enablers of positive change, as well as
    provide appropriate regulation where public funds, and safety and security of the travelling public are at stake.
    The region also has a Total Mobility scheme, which assists eligible people with impairments to access appropriate
    transport to enhance their community participation. This assistance is provided in the form of subsidised door-to-door
    transport services wherever scheme transport providers operate. Within Canterbury, Total Mobility services are available
    in Greater Christchurch, Ashburton, Timaru and Waimate. In each of these areas, a subsidy is currently set at 50 per cent
    of the fare up to a maximum of $35 per trip.
    A significant amount of urban roads have bicycle facilities within the same corridor, either beside traffic lanes or
    separated from them, alongside footpaths. In Christchurch, separated cycle paths have significant coverage in places,
    with a further 13 under development through a $200m programme of investment in Major Cycle Routes.

    The rail network plays an important role in transporting people and freight around the region, and from plant to port. Rail
    plays a significant part in moving large volumes of export products for key commodities within the south island.
    There is 650 km of rail network across the region, with links north to Picton and south to Dunedin and beyond. The
    midland line provides a rail link through the main divide to Greymouth and points in between. These lines are primarily
    used to move freight in the form of coal from the West Coast to the port of Lyttelton, as well as a range of other
    containerised products and logs. Passenger services operating primarily as scenic visitor experiences also operate daily
    year round between Greymouth and Christchurch; and seasonally between Picton and Christchurch. These form an
    important part of the tourism landscape in the region.

    Christchurch International Airport Limited (CIAL) is the tourism gateway to the South Island and provides a significant
    contribution to both the Canterbury region and the South Island as a whole, with the total airport operation employing
    more than 5,500 employees across a diverse range of companies.
    An economic assessment in 2012 identified that Christchurch Airport contributed to the generation of $1.8 billion in
    regional GDP, representing 7.1% of the total GDP in the Canterbury region and supported employment for 9.7% of the
    region’s workforce. CIAL is seeking to grow the economic development of both the region and the South Island, by
    pursuing growth in airlines visiting Christchurch and international passengers holidaying in the South Island and through
    being a catalyst to growing the wider South Island visitor economy.
8                                                                               Canterbury Regional Land Transport Plan 2015 - 2025
There is also a commercial airport in Timaru located 12.6km north of the city. It is the main airport in South Canterbury,
      with daily flights between Timaru and Wellington. Timaru airport has the capacity to take more flights and larger aircraft,
      including for freight.

      Lyttelton Port of Christchurch (LPC) provides handling and stevedoring services for containers and bulk cargoes. The
      container trade has grown significantly in recent years and the port handles a large proportion of the South Island’s
      imports, with Christchurch being a major distribution centre. The port is also equipped for bulk cargoes and is the
      biggest coal export port in New Zealand. The port is also a key part of the CIAL’s supply chain receiving and storing jet
      fuel that is trucked to the airport. LPC operates two inland port sites in Christchurch at Woolston and Rolleston. The port
      itself is undergoing a significant rebuild following extensive damage as a result of the earthquakes. Reconfiguration and
      expansion forms part of this rebuild, including consideration of the potential future return of cruise ships which are a key
      component of the regional tourism offering.
      Port of Timaru (PrimePort) also has significant port infrastructure including large areas and particularly cold stores.
      Container handling facilities and services in partnership with the Port of Tauranga are available. Port of Tauranga offers
      a feeder service to the extensive global services operated from Tauranga. The Port of Tauranga also operates an inland
      port at Rolleston that provides a container feeder service to the Port of Timaru. PrimePort also handles dry bulk and
      break bulk cargo, and is a key import and export gateway for bulk liquids including fuel and inputs to food processing.
      PrimePort also handles logs and timber products, as well as large volumes of exports, including ocean fish, meat, dairy
      fruit and vegetables.



                                     Aoraki/Mount Cook            Methven Rolleston        Christchurch

                                                                       Clandeboye Dairy Factory       Strategic Roads
                                                                                                      Strategic Railways

                                                                                                      Tourist destination

Canterbury Regional Land Transport Plan 2015 - 2025                                                                                  9
     Links to neighbouring South Island regions and the North Island are of major importance to South Islanders, and for the
     flow of road freight and domestic and international visitors.
     State Highway 1 provides links north to the Marlborough District and Picton; and south into the Otago region. State
     Highways 7 and 73 link Canterbury to the West Coast. State Highway 8 is also a key route linking visitors to central Otago
     and Queenstown. These routes are characterised by two lane highways with occasional passing lanes through a range of
     challenging geography that exposes them to natural and weather hazards.
     Rest and scenic lookout areas are provided in some places, recognising the role these routes play linking visitors to
     destinations across the region and beyond. There are some concerns around the movement of pedestrians in these areas
     adjacent to high speed roads, and measures such as signage, layout design and the NZTA-led Visiting Drivers Project are
     aimed at mitigating these risks to the extent possible.
     Rail transport in Christchurch consists of two main railway lines carrying largely long-haul freight, as well as two
     long-distance passenger trains. The Main North Line runs from Christchurch along the east coast and through
     Kaikōura and Blenheim to Picton, connecting with ferries from Picton to Wellington. The Main South Line runs
     from Lyttelton through Christchurch and along the east coast of the South Island to Invercargill via Dunedin.
     The ports and airports also play an important role in connecting Canterbury to other regions. LPC is a significant
     destination for rail freight and handles a large proportion of the South Island’s imports. PrimePort partners with the
     Port of Tauranga, making it part of an inter-regional integrated network that extends from Whangarei to Timaru. CIAL
     provides a gateway to the South Island for visitors and Timaru Airport provides a direct connection between South
     Canterbury and Wellington.

     New Zealand’s economy is heavily reliant on international exports, however given our distant markets, shipping costs
     form a large proportion of the total cost of export products. Our distance also introduces a time factor that is important
     for certain products, such as perishable foods, so each link in the export logistics chain needs to be efficient and effective
     to keep costs down, as well as be reliable.
     Christchurch’s airport provides the South Island’s only direct access to long haul destinations, with links to Singapore,
     China, Australia and Fiji. Increasing the number of carriers flying direct to Christchurch boosts the regional economy,
     as well as that of the rest of the South Island. Achieving this offers the dual benefit of opening up new long haul air
     cargo destinations for high value low volume time sensitive export products such as seafood, meat, fruit and flowers.
     To promote this, transport providers have a role in making the transport system a safe and attractive component of the
     overall South Island offering, and by supporting the airport to remain an attractive proposition for international carriers.
     More than 15% of international visitors hire a vehicle at some stage during their stay in New Zealand5, with increasing
     numbers from China and Japan in particular. This figure is likely to be higher in Canterbury due to the distances between
     South Island destinations. Catering for all overseas visitors by ensuring routes are safe and well sign posted, and
     supported by information, education, and appropriate infrastructure (such as public toilets and appropriate places to
     stop and take photos or look at scenery), is an essential part of delivering a world class south island experience and
     maintaining the safety of the road network.
     Christchurch and Timaru ports both have facilities to cater for international ships, however currently Lyttelton provides
     the main gateway to international ports of call. As part of the Lyttelton Port Recovery Plan, plans are underway to rebuild
     the port after much of its infrastructure was extensively damaged after the Canterbury earthquakes. Ultimately the Port
     will cater for increased land side handling and storage facilities and the capacity to handle larger ships, as is the trend
     internationally towards ships capable of carrying in excess of 15,000 TEU6. Channels to the berths will also be widened
     and deepened to accommodate larger ships.
     The Port of Timaru exports a large proportion of Canterbury’s exports goods via the Port of Tauranga. This is set to grow
     as the Port of Tauranga, New Zealand’s largest port, uses Timaru as a feeder service for its large container ships. Whilst
     smaller than Lyttelton, Timaru Port is also a major exporting contributor particularly in recent times with log exports
     and containers.

     5 International Visitor Survey: Transport. YE September 2015.
     6 TEU is the unit of measurement of the capacity of a container ship and stands for twenty foot equivalent unit, i.e. a forty foot container equals 2 TEU’s.

10                                                                                                                           Canterbury Regional Land Transport Plan 2015 - 2025
      International and domestic economy
      Economic activity is a driver of demand in the Canterbury transport system, whether it be for the local, regional, inter-
      regional, inter-island or international movement of people and goods. People moving to, from or between workplaces,
      and the movement of commodities and products are important components of the regional economy and the way in
      which these needs are met has implications for productivity and community wellbeing.
      An attractive, effective transport system can also be a key factor in attracting skilled labour to the region, both in terms of
      the overall amenity of public spaces but also the ease with which people can get around for leisure, education and work
      purposes. Canterbury’s ageing demographic profile suggests the attraction and retention of skilled labour to support
      economic growth will be an important component of the overall strategy to secure the future wellbeing of the region.
      Journeys to workplaces by private vehicle, often combined with delivering children to school, are a key driver of peak
      demand. Where demands become concentrated, such as along key corridors, longer journey times result, safety issues
      emerge, environmental impacts worsen and traveller frustration grows. The most common means of travel to work on
      the 2013 census day for people in Canterbury was driving a car, truck or van (79.8 % of people who travelled to work
      used this form of transport). More than 19 % of households in Canterbury have access to three or more motor vehicles,
      compared with a little over 16 % of all households in New Zealand7.
      The supply of inputs to businesses in the region and the delivery of their products for domestic and international
      consumption is also a key function supported by the transport system. Whilst the number of freight journeys is
      smaller than the number of trips made by people, they are an important function supporting a strong economy, which
      contributes positively to broader community wellbeing. New Zealand relies on trade with distant markets, with the
      cost of freight added to the price of our exports and imports. Canterbury is central to this, with around 13%8 of New
      Zealand’s commodity export earnings passing through CIAL and Lyttelton Port. Ensuring key journeys to and from these
      points are efficient, effective and responsive to changing circumstances is therefore important. The affordability of our
      own domestic consumption of fast moving consumer goods, durable goods and major appliances, whether produced
      domestically or overseas are also supported by an efficient and effective freight transport system.
      According to analysis completed as part of the South Island Freight Plan, overall freight activity in Canterbury is forecast
      to increase by 85%9 by 2042, with most growth occurring by 2027, driven by increases in liquid milk, manufactured
      dairy, general freight, aggregates, concrete and limestone, cement and fertiliser. Most movements (88% of tonnage)
      will begin and end within the region, which means 940,000 more 44 tonne truck trips per year based on current
      patterns of use. Currently 92% of all freight is moved by road and this is set to remain under current trends. Whilst this
      represents forecasts using best available information, international and domestic conditions will continue to shape the
      types, proportions and quantities of products the region imports and exports to and from the rest of New Zealand and
      internationally. Whilst the international demand for New Zealand dairy products in recent years has shaped Canterbury
      rural land use and created new transport demands on the network, such international trends can shift over time and
      see new land uses emerge along with new transport demands. A responsive and flexible transport system, enabled by
      appropriate and timely monitoring and planning is therefore important to ensure economic development and growth is
      supported. The strategic response section of this RLTP discusses further the need for collaboration across the sector to
      enable a responsive planning and investment framework.
      High Productivity Motor Vehicles (HPMV) and an associated permit system make available a way for higher freight
      volumes to be transported without the need for an equivalent increase in truck trips, making road transport more
      efficient, effective and productive. This initiative allows for the movement of trucks over 44 tonnes on certain parts of
      the network under a permit system, so that vehicles, roads and structures can be assessed prior to their use, ensuring
      safety is maintained and strength and maintenance implications for roads and structures are understood and addressed.
      There has been a dramatic jump in the uptake of high productivity motor vehicles across the country. As HPMV’s provide
      average productivity gains of between 14-20%, it is estimated that this level of high productivity travel has avoided
      around 10-15 million kilometres of standard heavy truck trips per quarter, providing commercial savings of between $20 -
      $30 million. So while HPMV trips are increasing, standard heavy truck trips show a corresponding decline.

      8 Source: Stats NZ : Exports for Overseas Cargo (fob NZ$): New Zealand Port by Country of Destination, Commodity (HS2) and Period
      9 Draft South Island Freight Plan, July 2015. 33 million tonnes in 2012 to 61.2 million tonnes in 2042.

Canterbury Regional Land Transport Plan 2015 - 2025                                                                                       11
Key bridges on the strategic road network are of particular concern with regard to increased truck numbers and
     weights. Whilst the HPMV system will accommodate some of the forecast growth in freight volumes, increasing heavy
     vehicle numbers over time on the road network are an inevitability. Combined with the age of some of the region’s key
     structures, and a heightened awareness of our need for resilience to natural disasters; bridge renewal, strengthening and
     improvement are a key strategic issue for the region.
     In a similar way, factors outside the transport system can drive urban land use change; such as the need for new housing,
     educational precincts, or industrial developments. However, it is important the transport implications of location choices
     are well understood and factored into decision making. In the greater Christchurch area, the Greater Christchurch Urban
     Development Strategy provides a forward view of land use change over time and enables a long term transport planning
     approach to be followed, potentially itself driving land use change by allowing for long term infrastructure developments
     to take place that achieve the multi-modal objectives sought in this Plan.

12                                                                               Canterbury Regional Land Transport Plan 2015 - 2025
Population change
        The Canterbury population is projected to grow by 166,300 people by 204310. Most growth will take place in the Greater
        Christchurch area (Waimakariri, Christchurch and Selwyn districts), with also some significant growth in the Ashburton
        District. In the remainder of the region, population growth will be very flat or in some districts marginally declining by 2043.
        Such growth will place demands on all aspects of service provision, and not least the transport system in terms of domestic
        freight growth and people movement. However, evolving technology, information provision and people’s changing attitudes
        to how they meet their travel needs will mean current approaches to meeting these needs must change.
        There is emerging evidence internationally, such as in the USA11, supported by recent trends in New Zealand around
        the age young drivers complete their journey through the graduated driver licensing system, that young people today,
        especially in urban areas, are making less use of private vehicles and instead make use of technology to access transport
        services, or even replace the need to travel.
        A key feature of the changing age profile will be the increasing numbers of people aged 65 years and over. By 2031, one in
        four of Canterbury’s residents is projected to be aged 65 and older. In eight of ten districts, the percentage is projected
        to be higher than this, with around a third of the resident population over 65+ in the Waimate, Timaru, Mackenzie and
        Kaikōura districts. Whilst these numbers are not large, in absolute terms they represent a challenge for local councils
        in terms of funding, but also a broader issue of ensuring communities remain connected and able to use the transport
        system to access their daily needs.
        Older people in the future will not be the same as the older people of today. Trends suggest they will on the whole, be
        healthier for longer into old age and still able to enjoy physical activities and be out and about. Many may also continue
        to work past the age of 65. Active travel, public transport and increased inter-peak traffic movements may all become
        important issues as we see a growing older generation, perhaps less inclined or able to continue driving but nevertheless
        assertive of their need to have independent mobility and access to all of the opportunities the rest of society enjoys.

        PROJECTION, 1996-2043 (2013-BASE)


      Number of people






                                   1996   2001   2006    2013      2018 2023 2028 2033 2038 2043
                                            0-14 yrs         15-39 yrs             40-64 yrs             65+ yrs

        10 Statistics New Zealand 30 June 2013 medium population projection.
        11 Transportation and the New Generation Why Young People Are Driving Less and What It Means for Transportation Policy. Benjamin Davis and Tony Dutzik, Frontier Group Phineas
           Baxandall, U.S. PIRG Education Fund. April 2012.

Canterbury Regional Land Transport Plan 2015 - 2025                                                                                                                                      13
International and domestic visitors
     Visitors to Canterbury declined in the immediate aftermath of the Canterbury earthquakes, but visitor numbers are
     recovering and very recently exceeded pre-earthquake levels, due mainly to an increase in domestic visitors. Visitor
     numbers are projected to increase as the rebuild of the Christchurch central city continues, including the provision of
     more visitor accommodation and attractions.
     There were 3.09 million international visitors to New Zealand in the year to November 2015, the highest ever annual
     total. The number of both domestic and international visitors is forecast to increase by over 30% to 5.72m guest nights
     by 202012.
     Tourism is an important part of the New Zealand economy, its direct contribution to GDP is 3.7%. The biggest changes
     in international visitors by country of residence between the years ended November 2014 and 2015 were in arrivals
     from: China (up 87,400 to 344,900), Australia (up 71,300 to 1.32million) and the United States (up 21,100 to 240,000).
     Australia, China, the United States and the United Kingdom were New Zealand’s biggest visitor sources, contributing
     more than two thirds of all arrivals in the November 2015 year.
     Within this there has been an increase in the number of Free Independent Travellers (FITs) touring New Zealand.
     Traditionally domestic tourists made up the bulk of FITs, however there has been a marked increase in the amount of
     international FITs who hire campervans and rental cars and drive. Based on the 2014 international Visitor Survey, driving
     in New Zealand is part of the visitor experience for 68% of visitors. CIAL is the international gateway to the South Island
     for many of these visitors.
     Christchurch is an international gateway to the South Island, providing direct access to and from major cities in Australia,
     China and Singapore. As well as Christchurch attractions, visitors use the city as a stepping stone to other parts of the
     region and the South Island. Ensuring safe and efficient links between Christchurch and the tourism offerings of the South
     Island is important.
     Meeting the self-drive and other travel needs of domestic and international tourists visiting Canterbury is an important
     contribution the transport sector makes to the regional economy by providing safe access to key attractions and
     supporting a positive overall visitor experience. As such, efforts to improve the visitor experience and increase the actual
     number of visitors is of strategic significance to the Canterbury economy. The Increasing number of visitors flying direct
     from overseas cities increases the number of wide bodied jets flying into and out of Christchurch. This, in turn, provides
     capacity to export long haul, high value, time sensitive goods, such as seafood, fresh meat, flowers and other perishables.
     NZTA’s Visiting Drivers project aims to improve road safety for domestic and international visitors, while maintaining
     New Zealand’s reputation as an attractive and safe tourist destination. The project has a focus on Otago, Southland and
     the West Coast regions where visiting drivers make up a significantly large proportion of the traffic in these major tourist
     destinations. However, many of the project initiatives especially in information provision will benefit visitors across the
     country, including in Canterbury. Where possible, the lessons learned from the Project can be used in other areas as part
     of the usual Transport Agency and local council road safety initiatives.

     12 Christchurch and Canterbury Tourism Visitor Forecasts 2014/15 to 2019/20.

14                                                                                  Canterbury Regional Land Transport Plan 2015 - 2025
Technological change
      Advances in technology are having a significant impact on the movement of people and goods.This can change the cost
      of travel and impact on transport networks, road safety and the environment. Vehicle technology is developing at an
      extremely rapid rate, through both passive and active safety features and user assist technology. History shows that
      these changes can be positive and negative, and emerge gradually over a long period of time or be disruptive, making
      existing technology redundant over a very short timeframe.
      Whilst transport providers and the Regional Transport Committee have little or no control over these emerging
      technologies, it is important their implications are understood and planned for so that local, regional and national policy
      is amended appropriately and investment is properly directed where necessary to realise the benefits. Technological
      change is largely driven by consumer demand for cheaper, new and improved products and services. National, regional
      and local bodies have a role in enabling these benefits, whilst protecting the public through regulation and enforcement.
      The following table captures some of the current emerging technological trends in general terms and outlines how these
      may drive changes in our transport system. It indicates the types of responses that will likely be needed by public bodies
      and other transport providers.

       TECHNOLOGY                                  IMPACT OF RESULTING CHANGE                     IMPLICATION FOR TRANSPORT PROVIDERS
                                                   Enhanced road safety
       Vehicle automation                                                                         Less investment required in road safety over time
                                                   Enhanced network capacity
       (e.g. takes control of vehicle in certain                                                  Transport-related industries and infrastructure needs
       situations, to varying degrees)             If fully autonomous changes the way mobility   (e.g. parking replaced with drop-off)
                                                   is achieved fundamentally
                                                   Reduced consumer costs
       Fuel efficient engines                      Reduced emissions                              Less revenue into the National Land Transport Fund
                                                   Reduced fuel excise revenue
                                                   Reduced consumer costs                         Role in EV charging / alternative fuel infrastructure
       Alternative fuel vehicles                   Reduced emissions                              Less revenue into the National Land Transport Fund
                                                   Reduced fuel excise revenue
                                                   Lower cost private transport                   Potentially less investment required in road network
       On-demand transport services                Reduced vehicle ownership                      improvements over time
                                                   Reduced fuel excise revenue                    Less revenue into the National Land Transport Fund
                                                   Consistent journey times
       Smart Motorways                                                                            Delayed or avoided investment in capacity increases
                                                   Reduce congestion
                                                                                                  Better incident management
                                                   Information changes consumer behavior
       Traveller information systems                                                              Potentially less investment required in transport
                                                                                                  improvements over time

      Vulnerability to hazards
      Cantabrians have a new understanding of the region’s exposure to natural hazards since the earthquake sequence of
      2010/11. Whilst the transport network proved to be resilient through the earthquakes in greater Christchurch, potential
      future earthquakes, floods, tsunami and land slide are all hazards that can be expected to have serious impacts on
      transport infrastructure across the region. In rural areas, where route choices are fewer, their impact may be felt more
      keenly thereby restricting the movement of people and goods to support communities more so than in the urban areas of
      the region.
      Network outages of weeks, months and even years are possible, making the need for long-term alternative arrangements
      a realistic possibility. The Canterbury Lifeline Utilities Group, in association with transport providers, undertakes
      investigations to reduce infrastructure vulnerability and improve resilience. This work can lead to physical improvements
      to infrastructure, scheduled with other work, as well as response plans in the event of natural disasters.
      Weather hazards, such as fire, snow and flood can also interrupt the normal operation of the transport system and result
      in outages for days and possibly weeks. Having response plans in place, and the ability to respond quickly, can effectively
      minimise impacts upon the community and economic wellbeing.

Canterbury Regional Land Transport Plan 2015 - 2025                                                                                                       15
       When considering transport drivers in the current regional, national and international context, a number of issues
       emerge; and with them transport challenges. These are outlined below and enable short, medium and long term
       priorities to emerge that inform the strategic response described in section 4 that follows.
       Canterbury is a diverse region with varying geography and a unique economic and demographic mix. Whilst town and
       country rely on one another for ongoing wellbeing and prosperity there are unique challenges in each that require an
       appropriate transport response at the local level. The following issues and challenges capture the key strategic factors
       facing the region into the future and where appropriate note particular urban or rural factors.

       The primary purpose of transport is to provide opportunities for the movement of people and goods. Accessibility
       refers to the potential to reach destinations and mobility represents the ability to travel freely to and from destinations.
       Most people living in Canterbury enjoy a high level of mobility, which is largely met by high levels of car ownership
       and use. This mobility enables key social and economic benefits including access to work, education and recreational
       opportunities. Market research confirms most people living in the region place a high value on their level of mobility and
       expect their future mobility needs to continue to be largely based around the motor vehicle.

       Mobility services are monitored by Environment Canterbury and these are presented in Figure 1. Trips for wheelchair
       users where a hoist is required are monitored as a subset of the mobility trips.

                                                                Quarterly mobility trips                                              In urban areas, some people choose
                          80,000                                                                                                      to access the places they need to by
                                                                                                                                      means other than private car, such
                                                                                                                                      as by walking, cycling, using public
                                                                                                                                      transport and catching a taxi. This
                                                                                                                                      can lead to conflicts between modes
     Trips per quarter

                          50,000                                                                                                      that can have profound implications
                                                                                                                                      for safety, travel time and the further
                                                                                                                                      uptake of these more sustainable
                          30,000                                                                                                      transport options. There is the
                                                                                                                                      potential for conflicts to also arise
                                                                                                                                      in rural areas, for example where
                          10,000                                                                                                      cyclists make use of state highways.
                                                                                                                                      The separation of these modes from
                              -                                                                                                       private vehicles is increasingly seen
                                   2014Q4   2015Q1   2015Q2   2015Q3   2015Q4   2016Q1   2016Q2   2016Q3   2016Q4   2017Q1   2017Q2
                                                                          Quarter                                                     as a way to support their growth and
                                                               Non-hoist trips    Hoist trips
                                                                                                                                      complement capacity upgrades to
                                                                                                                                      the roading system.

       Integration problems and conflicts can also occur between traffic in urban areas when catering for access to local
       destinations on strategic roads, such as motorways and expressways, showing that whilst access to destinations in itself
       is a positive outcome, it can have adverse implications for other road users.

                         Key challenge
                         Maintaining current levels of accessibility and mobility for most Cantabrians and enhancing accessibility for those
                         who are currently disadvantaged because of poor levels of mobility.

16                                                                                                                           Canterbury Regional Land Transport Plan 2015 - 2025
        The use of private vehicles currently dominates the way that most people meet their transport needs. As vehicle numbers
        grow in line with population and demographic changes, current travel time delays and congestion will rise overall,
        despite targeted infrastructure investment at key locations that unlock access to new development and ease chronic
        localised congestion. For the future wellbeing of the region, it is important that a range of transport options are available
        enabling people and businesses to access what they need in the way of goods, services and activities.
        Many regard improving public transport, better use of rail and increased provision of cycling and walking infrastructure
        as significant challenges facing the region. For many people, especially those in rural areas, including rural towns,
        these options are not always readily available. Low density and dispersed population centres make providing attractive
        and affordable public transport services extremely difficult, requiring innovative approaches to be explored, such as
        community vehicle trusts that provide on-demand shared transport options delivered within, and by, the community.
        Ageing communities and the need to access centralised health care facilities may open up opportunities for collaboration
        between public agencies in recognition of where the costs and benefits of travel fall.

        Trip lengths are monitored in the Ministry of Transport Household Travel Survey. The results of this are provided in Figure
        2 showing that average trip lengths in Canterbury have been increasing since 2011, likely due to increases in the private
        vehicle mode share and trip length.

                                                                       Average trip length
                                                                                                                                Some sectors of the
                                                                                                                                community are “transport
                                                                                                                                disadvantaged” in that they
                                                                                                                                are faced with a lack of
                                                                                                                                choices because they have
                                                                                                                                limited access to a car or other
                           8.0                                                                                                  transport options. Access
      Trip length (km)

                                                                                                                                to some goods and services
                           6.0                                                                                                  can be enhanced through
                                                                                                                                integrated land use measures,
                           4.0                                                                                                  changes to the way services
                                                                                                                                are provided or through
                           2.0                                                                                                  the use of communications
                                                                                                                                technology. Such initiatives
                                                                                                                                can play a significant role in
                                 2005      2006     2007      2008      2009    2010    2011   2012     2013    2014     2015   determining overall levels of
                                                                       Financial year ending                                    accessibility. Providing for
                                        Public transport (bus/train/ferry)     Active modes    Car/van/motorcycle      Total    accessibility is considered
                                                                                                                                more important than providing
                                                                                                                                for mobility.

                         Key challenge
                         Supporting, and in some cases supplying, a range of transport and non-transport options to ensure the
                         accessibility needs of all people and businesses can be met.

Canterbury Regional Land Transport Plan 2015 - 2025                                                                                                                17
        The efficient movement of goods and people is essential to support the region’s economic wellbeing. Although the
        region’s economy is expected to continue to diversify over time, industries such as agriculture and forestry that have
        significant freight requirements will continue to play major roles.
        Over the next 25 or more years, freight volumes to, through and from Canterbury are expected to almost double. Without
        intervention, the majority of freight (92%) will continue to be moved on the state highway and local roading network,
        with only 6% moving by rail and only 1.6% moving by coastal shipping. However, through this Plan multi-modal options
        will be sought where these make sense. Investigation is necessary to understand what the opportunity is for these other
        modes, whether it be for the movement of international or domestic freight within the region.
        Just increasing the number of trucks is not a sustainable option for meeting the forecast growth in freight volumes and
        managing its effects. Aside from the network impacts, driver shortages and road maintenance costs are a significant
        issue. At a system level there is the potential to consolidate freight volumes moved from rural areas by truck at strategic
        points in the network. Transporting them onward by rail or coastal shipping is then made possible so long as travel time,
        volume and distances are such that these options are financially advantageous for producers.
        Currently, the growth is partially being met by increased heavy vehicle mass and dimension limits through the new High
        Productivity Motor Vehicle (HPMV) rule. The proportion of heavy vehicles operating on HPMV permits is high and growing.
        The mass is increasing with vehicles operating at mass between 55 and 60 tonne now common place and this is likely to
        continue to increase. A resilient road network that has the capacity to cope with these HPMV mass limits and an overall
        increase in heavy vehicles is a challenge. Much of the Canterbury transport network is not designed for this increase in
        heavy vehicles and increasing failures or restrictions are resulting.
                                                           HCV annual highway VKT                                       There is a lack of integration
                                                                                                                        between the road, rail and
                                                                                                                        shipping sectors which can make
                             300                                                                                        it difficult to effectively plan
                                                                                                                        in a multi-modal way for the
     Annual VKT/1,000,000

                             250                                                                                        region’s future transport needs,
                                                                                                                        particularly in light of the forecast
                             200                                                                                        increase in freight movements.
                                                                                                                        Without intervention the majority
                                                                                                                        (92%) of freight will continue to
                                                                                                                        be moved on road networks, with
                                                                                                                        the rail share predicted to drop
                                                                                                                        from 6% currently to 5% in the
                                                                                                                        next 20 years. A key focus of the
                              -                                                                                         Regional Transport Committee
                                   2010/2011   2011/2012    2012/2013   2013/2014   2014/2015   2015/2016   2016/2017   will be to bridge the gap between
                                                              Financial year                                            sectors by bringing their views
                                               Rural Highway HCV VKT         Urban Highway HCV VKT
                                                                                                                        and knowledge together to
                                                                                                                        enable joined up planning and
                                                                                                                        investment decisions.

        The vehicle kilometers travelled by heavy commercial vehicles on Canterbury roads has increased by approximately 3%
        per annum since 2011 although there has been little change since 2014.

                            Key challenge
                            Ensuring the region’s transport system effectively supports economic development and growth in
                            freight volumes by taking a multi-modal and integrated approach.

18                                                                                                          Canterbury Regional Land Transport Plan 2015 - 2025
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