WESTERN REGIONAL COASTAL PLAN 2015-2020 - Marine and coasts
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Western Coastal Board Authorised and published by the Victorian PO Box 103, Geelong, 3220, Victoria, Australia Government, Department of Environment, Phone: (03) 5226 4008 Land, Water and Planning, 8 Nicholson Electronic copies of the draft plan are Street, East Melbourne, September 2015 available online at www.wcb.vic.gov.au. If © The State of Victoria Department of you would like printed copies or have any Environment, Land, Water and Planning questions about the draft plan, please Melbourne 2015 contact us using the details above. Members of the Western Coastal Board at the time of preparing this Regional Coastal Plan were: This work is licensed under a Creative Cr Jill Parker – Chair Commons Attribution 3.0 Australia licence. Ms Carole Reid You are free to re-use the work under that Honorary Assoc. Professor John Sherwood licence, on the condition that you credit the Mr Oliver Moles State of Victoria as author. The licence does Mr Mark Edmonds not apply to any images, photographs or Mr Raymond Page branding, including the Victorian Coat of Mr Matthew Gorman Arms and the Victorian Government logo. Mr Glenn Wallace To view a copy of this licence, visit http:// creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/au/ The Western Coastal Board proudly deed.en acknowledges Victorian Aboriginal communities and their rich culture; and pays ISBN 978-1-74146-782-6 (Print) its respects to the Traditional Owners of the ISBN 978-1-74146-783-3 (pdf ) Western coastal region. The Board also Disclaimer recognises the intrinsic connection of traditional owners to Country and This publication may be of assistance to you acknowledges their contribution in the but the State of Victoria and its employees management of land, water and do not guarantee that the publication is resources management. without flaw of any kind or is wholly appropriate for your particular purposes and therefore disclaims all liability for any error, loss or other consequence which may arise from you relying on any information in this publication. Unless stated, images sourced from the Department of Environment, Land, Water and Planning. Front Cover Top: The Great Ocean Road coastline at the Twelve Apostles. Bottom left to right: Hobie Cats at Point Roadknight, Anglesea, photo: Great Ocean Road Coast Committee. Sea Sweep schooling in the Twelve Apostles Marine National Park, photo: Parks Victoria. Great Ocean Walk, photo: Kyeong Woo Kim, Tourism Victoria. The Beach, Warrnambool, Victoria, c1920-1954. Rose Stereograph Co.
WESTERN REGIONAL COA STA L PLA N I CONTENTS Minister’s Foreword II Balanced Decision Making 16 List of Figures Chair’s Foreword II 4 Managing regional population and tourism Figure 1: The three levels of 1 Introduction 1 pressures 16 planning for coastal management 1 1.1 What is the Regional Coastal Plan? 1 4.1 Background 16 Figure 2: The Western coastal region 3 1.2 How the Regional Coastal Plan will be used 2 4.2 The Boating Coastal Action Plan 18 Figure 3: An indicative map of key 4.3 The Draft Shipwreck Coast Master Plan 19 regional social, economic and 1.3 The role of the Western Coastal Board 2 environmental values of the 1.4 Who we work with on land and water 3 4.4 Activity and recreation nodes 19 Western coastal region 9 1.5 The structure of this plan 4 4.5 Key challenges and actions 20 Figure 4: Managing visitor 5 A regional approach to foreshore management 21 satisfaction with their coastal 1.6 Priority actions for Western coastal region 4 experience – key amenity values 10 Understanding and Valuing the Coast 6 5.1 Background 21 Figure 5: Community coastal 2 Coastal values 6 5.2 Working together 23 values guide decisions in the 2.1 Environmental values 6 5.3 Key challenges and actions 24 Western coastal region 12 2.2 Aboriginal cultural values 7 6 Adapting to climate change and increased Figure 6: Visitation to regional coastal hazards 25 Victoria’s tourism destinations 2010 15 2.3 Social and historical values 8 6.1 Background 25 Figure 7: An indicative map of 2.4 Economic values 11 boating hierarchy of facilities 6.2 Adaptation planning to manage flooding 2.5 Protecting coastal values 12 and erosion 25 from the Western Boating Coastal Action Plan 2010 18 3 The dynamics of the coast 13 6.3 Port Fairy and Barwon South West Coast key projects 28 Figure 8: Indicative map of 3.1 Natural coastal processes 13 foreshore, marine park and 3.2 Climate change 13 6.4 Key challenges and actions 28 sanctuary managers 21 3.3 Connections to catchments 14 Implementation 29 Figure 9: Map indicating areas for 3.4 Demographic trends 14 7 Supporting communities caring for the coast 29 hazard assessment and adaptation planning (based on coastal 3.5 Visitation trends 15 7.1 Background 29 instability and low lying areas) 27 7.2 Actions 30 List of Tables 8 Monitoring, Evaluation and Reporting 31 Table 1: Western regional priorities 4 9 References 32 Table 2: Projected population for Appendices 33 local government areas in the Western coastal region 15
II WESTERN REGIONAL COA S TA L P L A N MINISTER’S FOREWORD CHAIR’S FOREWORD The coast is close to the hearts of the This Plan will support government The Western coastline is a spectacular sure we pass on our coast in good individuals, community groups, local many Victorians who live near it, or visit agencies, community and industry part of Victoria. The region is close to condition to future generations. This councils and agencies in February and it, and enjoy all that it has to offer. groups to work more collaboratively in the hearts of all residents and visitors Plan outlines regional priorities to March 2015. We received 52 written Communities along the coastline are managing the coast. It will help coastal from near and abroad. Its diverse address existing and emerging submissions about the draft plan: 40 deeply connected to their local managers and communities tackle coastal landscapes range from the wild concerns. It includes regional-scale focusing on the Western coastal region landscape and care about the future of challenges on the coast in their region beaches and dunes of Disaster Bay, actions to: and another 12 covering statewide the coast. more effectively, and with greater estuaries such as the Hopkins River at – protect the natural values of the issues. These submissions and the Our coastal environment is complex coordination. It will enable us to be Warrnambool, the cliffs of the world- coast; feedback from the face-to-face and constantly changing, and there are more responsive and adaptable as famous Twelve Apostles and the iconic meetings were a key part of revising pressures change over time, and our Great Ocean Road – recognised as one – systematically assess the way we use and finalising this Plan. The Board many pressures that need to be the coast; understood and managed better. As understanding of climate change of only sixteen National Landscapes in appreciates the time and effort of Minister and a Local Member of a implications improves. Australia. – better integrate and coordinate everyone who gave their thoughts and coastal area, I appreciate how The local knowledge, passion and The region supports vibrant coastal planning and management; provided input. important it is to understand, protect enthusiasm of Victoria’s coastal communities , strong regional – increase the awareness of coastal I would like to acknowledge the work and care for the things we love about managers and communities is industries and major tourist hazards, particularly with the of the Board and thank everyone who the coast. invaluable, and I look forward to destinations. It is an area where people predicted impacts of climate contributed to the development of the Victoria has a strong coastal planning working together to ensure that the live, work and relax. change, and help communities Plan. I believe this Plan will help us work and management framework, based on diverse natural, social, cultural and Many of the cultural, social and make the best choices for the future; together at a regional level to tackle the the Victorian Coastal Strategy (2014). economic values of the coast that we economic values of the Western coast and challenges we face, to make the best The Western Coastal Board has developed enjoy today remain for future rely on the coast’s natural environment use of the region’s coast and to protect – recognise and support the many this Regional Coastal Plan to build on generations. being well managed and protected. the many values that make it so special organisations and individuals that that framework and outline how the Those fortunate enough to live in the to the people who live and visit. give their time to monitor and Strategy should be put into practice. The Hon Lisa Neville MP Western coastal region understand that protect coastal values for all of us. Minister for Environment, Climate being able to continue to enjoy what Councillor Jill Parker Taking into account the perspectives, Change and Water the coast has to offer depends on us Chair, Western Coastal Board ideas and knowledge of the region’s using and managing it wisely and community and coastal managers was maintaining the natural features that a major part of developing this Plan. make such an important contribution Following an initial round of to our enjoyment. consultation in 2014, the Western Managing and protecting the coast is Regional Coastal Board released a draft not simple. There are many pressures, plan in February 2015 to prompt risks and challenges to address to make discussion. The Board met with
WESTERN REGIONAL COA STA L PLA N 1 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 What is the Regional Coastal Plan? Victorian Coastal Developed by the Sets statewide direction Victorian Coastal for coastal planners The Regional Coastal Plan for the Strategy Council and managers Western Coastal Region is a statutory Coastal Action Plan endorsed under Part 3 of the Coastal Management Act 1995. Its contents meet the requirements of section 23 of that Act. The Victorian Coastal Strategy 2014 sets Developed by Translates state-wide the broad framework for managing the Regional Regional Coastal direction by identifying Coastal Plans Boards regional values, initiatives coast and the basis for developing and management gaps regional coastal plans and coastal management plans (Figure 1). The Western Coastal Board has focussed this overarching Plan on identifying and prioritising actions that cannot be achieved more effectively at either the A diver enjoys the Coastal Developed by coastal Sets local direction and local or state level. marine environment As a statutory document, the Regional public land managers at The Arches Marine Management (eg. local municipalities develops sub-regional or issues Coastal Plan has important links with based operational plans The Regional Coastal Plan provides a Sanctuary. Plans & committees of Photo: Parks Victoria other statutory instruments. In particular, management) regional framework for planning and as outlined in the Victorian Coastal decision-making on both public and Strategy 2014 the broader land use freehold land at the local level. It also The Plan will provide the framework for planning system is important for the provides a focus for all agencies with agencies, community and industry implementation of the Strategy, Figure 1: The three levels of planning for coastal management responsibility for coastal management groups working and engaging with regional coastal plans and coastal to act together to plan and manage the decision makers on strategic regional management plans (see Appendix 1). coast by: priorities for the Western coastal region. The relationship between these policies – Interpreting and implementing the The Plan will also guide the development and plans is through: The Victorian Coastal Strategy 2014 identifies that the term ‘coast’ means: Victorian Coastal Strategy 2014 and of coastal management plans. – The State Planning Policy – the marine environment – nearshore marine environment, the seabed, and its hierarchy of principles at a The Plan’s primary audiences are local Framework which requires coastal waters out to the state limit of three nautical miles; regional scale; councils, committees of management, planning to be consistent with the – foreshores – or coastal Crown land up to 200 m from the high water mark – Facilitating integration across state government agencies and peak Strategy and relevant coastal action jurisdictions to increase efficiency bodies with coastal management plans (including this Regional – coastal hinterland – land directly influenced by the sea or directly and effectiveness; responsibilities. It also aims to provide Coastal Plan) and regional growth influencing the coastline, and with critical impacts on the foreshore and landowners, volunteer groups and plans; and nearshore environment; – Identifying regional coastal values and strategic priorities to be coastal communities with an – Sections of local planning schemes – catchments – rivers and drainage systems that affect the coastal zone, accounted for; and understanding of the framework for through Municipal Strategic including estuaries; and managing and protecting coastal Statements and Local Planning – Identifying solutions that address – atmosphere – near, around and over the coast as defined above. values in the region and how they can Policy Frameworks. systemic gaps in coastal management. contribute to that.
2 WESTERN REGIONAL COA S TA L P L A N 1.2 H ow the Regional coastal values and assets. Current 1.3 The role of the revenue streams, such as income from Coastal Plan will camping areas and caravan parks on Hierarchy of Principles Western Coastal be used? Crown land, are important. However, The Victorian Coastal Strategy 2014 Board during the consultation for this plan supports the hierarchy of principles In line with the hierarchy of principles many organisations and individuals introduced in previous strategies The Western Coastal Board is a statutory in the Victorian Coastal Strategy 2014, expressed their concerns that funding and also recognises that the planning and advisory body with this Regional Coastal Plan documents was a limiting factor for managing the foundation of coastal planning extensive experience and expertise in and describes key regional issues and coast. This is a state-wide issue raised in and management is a healthy coastal matters. Appointed by the strategic priorities. It links actions, those the Victorian Coastal Strategy 2014. coastal and marine environment. Minister for Environment, Climate accountable, the outcomes to be These principles give effect to the Change and Water, under the Coastal achieved, and it measures and reports The budgets of coastal management Management Act 1995, it provides directions in the Coastal on performance annually. agencies at state, regional and local strategic guidance for management of Management Act 1995 and are levels are expected to remain highly Victoria’s western coast. The board has The Plan will build the evidence base to included in the State Planning constrained over the next few years specific functions to: guide future planning and establish Policy Framework and in planning Hooded plover given the current economic conditions. foundations to progressively improve schemes throughout Victoria. – Develop coastal action plans Photo: Annette Hatten Therefore this Plan has been designed management decisions. This will help to set realistic expectations about what The principles are: (including this overarching Regional to better target investment, improve can be delivered and by when. The Coastal Plan); – Ensure the protection of – Liaise with, and encourage the coordination and promote best Board anticipates that some of the key – Consider and review the role of significant environmental and cooperation of, government practice. Importantly, the Board will use actions can be delivered within existing existing coastal action plans (see cultural values; departments, councils, public the Plan to work with other managers budgets of management agencies. Appendix 3); authorities, industry, community and stakeholders to increase However additional funding will be – Undertake integrated planning – Provide advice to the Minister, the groups and those involved in the understanding and appreciation of the needed to carry out further planning and provide clear direction for Victorian Coastal Council and planning and management of the coast, protect its values and further and management steps such as the future; and government on coastal development region in developing and improve management arrangements detailed coastal hazard studies and – Ensure the sustainable use of and other matters in the region; implementing strategic solutions to and outcomes. adaptation plans. Over the next five natural coastal resources. matters affecting the conservation The Board has worked with partners to years the Plan provides the framework – Prepare and publish guidelines for and use of the region’s coasts. Only when the above principles develop a range of successful coastal for Commonwealth, state, regional and coastal planning and management have been considered and More broadly, the Board seeks to be an action plans for local areas, the central local agencies and the private sector to in the region; addressed: advocate for coastal issues. It aims to and south-west sub-regions, estuaries work together on attracting funding to – Facilitate the implementation of the – Ensure development on the work with agencies, local councils and and boating. Planners and managers carry out these additional pieces of work. Victorian Coastal Strategy, coastal coast is located within existing communities in the Western coastal should continue to use these plans. As action plans and coastal guidelines modified and resilient region to shape future expectations outlined in the Board’s Coastal Action for the region; environments where the about how the coast and the way Plan Review in 2012, it is expected that The Western Coastal Board will demand for development is – Facilitate public awareness, people use it will change over time, over time most of the existing coastal participate in a review of funding evident and any impacts can consultation and involvement in the how we should respond to those action plans will transition into arrangements by the Victorian be managed sustainably. development and implementation changes, and how we should use and appropriate local and regional planning Coastal Council and the of the Victorian Coastal Strategy, manage the coast to protect its values. tools, such as coastal management plans. Department of Environment, The actions in this Western Land, Water and Planning, as coastal action plans and coastal The Regional Coastal Plan will also Regional Coastal Plan support these outlined in the Victorian Coastal guidelines; and support investment planning. Ongoing principles and work to make sure Strategy 2014. that decision making on the coast funding arrangements are essential to enable coastal managers to meet their is guided by, and consistent with, responsibilities and to better the Victorian Coastal Strategy 2014. understand, protect and manage
WESTERN REGIONAL COA STA L PLA N 3 1.4 Who we work with on land and water Just as we like to use the coast for a range of reasons, there are a number of managers responsible for managing the coast on land and water. Foreshores are managed by a range of organisations. Parks Victoria is responsible for Casterton managing national parks and other conservation areas. Others with y Hw elg significant responsibilities in the Gl en I I Western coastal region include I I I I I I committees of management, local I I I I GLENELG I I councils, catchment management I I I I Lismore authorities and port authorities. This I I Dartmoor I I I I I I I I I I I broad range of managers covers the I I I I I I y I I I I Cressy GLENELG HOPKINS Hw I I I I Glen lton I I region from the catchment to the sea, elg R ive Catchment Management Authority H ami I I I I I I r CORANGAMITE I I I I I I I I I I and extends across natural resources, I I I I I I I I I Mortlake Lake I I I I I I I I I I I I I Fit I I Portl MOYNE Corangamite I I I I I I I and zro infrastructure, uses and settlements. -N y R i ver D a r l o t C re e k Nelson els Heywood CORANGAMITE I on SURF COAST I I I E u m e r a l l a R i ve r RD a l e Creek Catchment Management Authority Winchelsea I I There are two types of statutory I Mer I S u r rey I I I Camperdown I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I Terang I I I I I I I s o n C re e k I k i n s R i ve r I I I I ver ri R I I I I waterway managers in Victoria. I mp I I I I I I I Discovery Bay I I R iv Moyne R i sd I I Dr y I Prince ive ho I r I I I i ve Coastal Park s Hw er I I I I Koroit I r y I I eek wR Waterway managers are appointed T I u Cr I Cobden I Ma r shall I I I I I I Sha Em I I I I I op I I I Narrawong Hwy I H Princes I I M o u nt I I I I I I WARRNAMBOOL I under the Marine Safety Act 2010 to I I I I C re I I I I I I Torquay I ek I I I I Portland Bay I I I I I I Colac I I I I I I I Allansford manage vessel activities and associated I Portland I Port Fairy Bay COLAC OTWAY I Anglesea I I I I I Cape Great O II City of issues (along with Marine Safety Victoria). Bridgewater Ca n Deen Maar Port Fairy Warrnambool cean R r ean Rd Aireys Inlet p e Nelso e Forrest Riv d c In the region, catchment management tO (formerly Lady Julia Percy Island) k Er s ki n e R i ie s re e ver Grea Bay of Island Timboon Tomahawk C Curd er authorities also have statutory Coastal Park R iv Lorne S ai nt d responsibilities under the Water Act 1989 G e o rg e R iver ran SETTLEMENT ROLE AND GROWTH Waterbody llib Peterborough ive r Ge to protect and enhance waterway health. Wye River am R Regional city - Warrnambool Parks & reserves Port Campbell er The Twelve R iv Kennett River Barh Apostles A number of other organisations have e Air Regional centre Softwood plantation & state forest Princetown Skenes Creek responsibilities in identifying and oin l Apollo Bay N gina d P protecting the region’s community District town Native Title determinations and settlements t Re The Blowhole coastal values; these include Traditional Settlement Other public land Ca pe Otwa y Owners, the Environment Protection Major growth Catchment Management Authority boundary Authority, Regional Development Victoria, Fisheries Victoria, water Medium growth Major roads BASS STRAIT corporations and VicRoads. Sustainable growth Council boundary 0 20 40 Many of these organisations have SOUTHERN OCEAN Source: Regional Growth Plans kilometres planning processes for their coastal management responsibilities. For example, local councils have statutory planning processes and contribute to Figure 2 The Western coastal region
4 WESTERN REGIONAL COA S TA L P L A N regional growth plans, and catchment 1.5 The structure of this 1.6 Priority actions for 1.6.2 Regional priorities These regional priorities reflect: management authorities have regional The Western Coastal Board identified – Key issues identified in the Victorian catchment and waterway strategies. plan the Western coastal five regional priorities as a focus for Coastal Strategy 2014 which are The Board aims to use this Plan to work This plan has three parts: region action: relevant for specific attention in the with these organisations to achieve the Western coastal region (see Table 1 best outcomes for the Western coast. – Chapters 2 and 3 give an overview 1. Managing and protecting coastal 1.6.1 Vision for the Western and Appendix 2); of the values of the Western coastal values; This plan helps clarify the roles and coastal region region and the key issues affecting – Issues identified as important by responsibilities for several specific The Board acts to achieve the vision 2. Managing impacts of residential and them; stakeholders during the consultation issues particularly for managing and expressed in the Victorian Coastal tourism growth to balance access – Chapters 4, 5, 6 and 7 set out the and protect natural, social, cultural process; and adapting to climate change (Chapter 6). Strategy 2014: a healthy coast It also identifies actions to clarify strategic objectives for the region appreciated by all, now and in the and economic values; – Areas where the Board can provide responsibilities for other issues which (as regional priorities) and how the future. leadership and influence. 3. Integrating coastal planning and will help to improve coordination and Board intends to work with its For the Western coastal region this management on the foreshore; The actions in this Plan apply across collaboration between managers. partner agencies and other means: 4. Adapting to climate change and both public and private land tenures. stakeholders to develop plans and Integrated Coastal Zone Management increased coastal hazards; and None of the regional priorities can be actions that will enhance the ability – Protecting regional biodiversity; (ICZM) is a principle that underpins this considered in isolation. Each action is for all of us to use and enjoy the 5. Supporting communities to Plan. ICZM is about working across a – Ensuring sustainable developments; linked; recognising these linkages will coast into the future; and contribute to protection and geographic area (land to sea), across and lead to better outcomes from the – Chapter 8 summarises how the plan management of the coast. implementation of the Regional different land tenures (public and – Identifying areas where residential private) and across organisations and will be implemented, including the Coastal Plan. process of monitoring and reporting. and tourism infrastructure are best jurisdictions (national, state, regional sited. and local). ICZM is achieved through both formal and informal collaboration The actions in this Plan will contribute VCS 2014 Key Issues Western Regional Priorities and coordination between the various to this vision by: Managing for population Chapter 4 – Managing regional population and tourism groups using and managing the coast. – Supporting the work of a range of growth pressures The Western Coastal Board helps to organisations and groups Adapting to a changing Chapter 6 – Adapting to climate change and increased achieve ICZM by coordinating action responsible for understanding, climate coastal hazards where gaps exist, or across boundaries managing and protecting the broad Managing coastal land and Chapter 5 – A regional approach to foreshore management by championing good practice and the values of the Western coast; infrastructure use of best available science to inform – Building the evidence base for Valuing the natural Chapter 2 – Coastal values decisions. The Western Victorian Boating ongoing management, particularly environment Contribute to proposed review of the Coastal Management Coastal Action Plan 2010 is one example for the way we use the coast; Integrating marine planning Act 1995, new Marine and Coastal Act, and new management of this. It provides a framework for arrangements and oversight of marine parks, coasts and bays – Improving the integration and planning and management of coordination of management; and recreational boating and associated Integration of key issues Chapter 3 – The dynamic nature of the coast facilities across tenure and – Developing approaches to Chapter 7 – Supporting communities caring for the coast management responsibilities, in close encourage sustainable development cooperation with both individuals and including better consideration of Table 1 Western regional priorities organisations affected by the plan. coastal hazards and impacts from climate change.
UNDERSTANDING AND VALUING THE COAST WESTERN REGIONAL COA STA L PLA N 5 VIS IO N 1.6.3 The Plan at a glance A healthy coast appreciated by all, now and in the future KE Y STATE WIDE COASTAL ISSUES (as identified in the Victorian Coastal Strategy 2014) Managing for Adapting to a Managing coastal land Valuing the natural Integrating marine population growth changing climate and infrastructure environment planning P RIO RIT Y REG IO NA L COA S TA L IS S UES Managing and protecting Managing regional population A regional approach to foreshore Adapting to climate change and Communities supported to coastal values and tourism pressures management increased coastal hazards care for the coast THE W ES TERN REG IO NA L COA S TA L P L A N AC T ION S CHAPTERS 2 and 3 CHAPTER 4 CHAPTER 5 CHAPTER 6 CHAPTER 7 Western Regional Coastal 1. Work with public land managers and waterway 1. Prepare guidelines for the development 1. Develop a systematic approach to 1. Work with partner organisations to Board will work with relevant managers to: of coastal management plans. prioritise areas for detailed coastal organise: organisations to improve the a. map and categorise visitation infrastructure 2. Develop a process that gets managers hazard assessments and adaptation a. biennial regional coastal understanding and throughout the region; to work together where it is sensible planning. conferences; and appreciation of coastal values b. develop a service-level hierarchy for visitation for a coastal management plan to be 2. Refine methodologies for conducting b. regular information sharing events. and processes. infrastructure; and developed across multiple land and detailed coastal hazard assessments 2. Work with statewide groups and c. document existing approaches to demand water managers. From this, local public and integrating flood studies in programs to: management (including parking fees, entrance land managers can put together coastal areas to identify high risk areas. a. support all volunteers to collect fees, camping fees, leasing arrangements, precinct or master plans. 3. Refine methodologies for local data about the coast to inform licensing arrangements and the use of 3. Work with Traditional Owners in adaptation planning, including local decision making; smart-phone apps to notify visitors to avoid preparing multi park plans that addressing barriers to practical local b. support community groups to congested areas). include coastal areas. adaptation action. better link with Traditional Owners 2. Identify priority areas for visitation demand 4. Ensure there are current coastal 4. Continue, or undertake new, detailed to work on joint coastal projects; management. In particular identify: management plans in place coastal hazard assessments and and a. resilient parts of the landscape where visitation throughout the Western coastal region. adaptation planning, particularly for c. support education programs, such can be encouraged; the priority areas identified in 1. as ‘Summer by the Sea’, to improve b. vulnerable parts of the landscape where 5. Implement identified adaptation understanding and awareness of demand might be reduced by encouraging visitors responses through local decisions, for coastal values and management. towards alternative sites; and example updating local planning 3. Promote and support the work done schemes, coastal management plans c. vulnerable parts of the landscape with sought by all local coastal and marine and emergency plans, and prioritising after visitor experiences and limited scope to community groups, including future works. reduce demand. Reefwatch, Fishcare, Seasearch and 3. Develop a Visitation Demand Framework to guide EstuaryWatch. local decisions, support investment and communicate with users.
6 WESTERN REGIONAL COA S TA L P L A N UNDERSTANDING AND VALUING THE COAST 2 COASTAL VALUES The Western coastal region provides Spectacular animals such as each year. This contributes to the the western blue devil fish, important environmental, social, cultural region’s distinct identity and supports cuttlefish and weedy and economic values for Victorians and seadragon are found in the its local amenity and economy. visitors. Understanding these values is Western Coastal region’s The Victorian Government has essential for effective decision-making. marine parks and sanctuaries. Photo: Mark Rodrigue, committed to reviewing the Coastal This broad range of values is managed Parks Victoria Management Act 1995, developing new and monitored by many different management and oversight for marine organisations such as catchment parks, coasts and bays, and establishing management authorities, Parks Victoria, South Australia through to Apollo Bay, a new Marine and Coastal Act. These local councils, committees of and the Central bioregion from Cape initiatives will be the primary mechanisms management, VicRoads, water Otway to west of Wilson’s Promontory.1 to improve the integration of marine corporations, ports authorities, Both contain many different types of and coastal planning – a key issue in Traditional Owners, the Environment marine habitats, including pelagic the Victorian Coastal Strategy 2014. Protection Authority, regional bodies habitats (the water column within the and the Department of Environment, ocean), deep rocky reefs, sub-tidal rocky 2.1.2 Foreshore ecosystems Land, Water and Planning. reefs, intertidal shorelines, including The Western coastal region’s foreshore rock platforms and sandy beaches. ecosystems are particularly important; A number of marine ecosystems are they link marine, estuarine, freshwater The Western Coastal Board will The Western coastal region’s sandy Natural values are under pressure from managed through their designation as and terrestrial areas. Foreshore habitats support and work with these beaches and their dune systems a range of processes and threats such marine national parks and sanctuaries. include the beach, dune system, organisations to improve the respond seasonally as seas alternatively as increasing use, coastal development, The marine national parks in the region headland scrub, grasslands, saltmarsh understanding, appreciation and erode and deposit sands. invasive pest plants and animals, (Discovery Bay, Twelve Apostles and areas and sedgelands. protection of the coastal values in The environmental values of the altered fire regimes, pollution, litter Point Addis) and marine sanctuaries (Merri, Unstable low-nutrient soils, made largely the Western region. Western coastal region are of national (particularly plastics) and climate change. The Arches, Marengo Reef, Eagle Rock of sands that hold little water, interact and international significance. For In general, regional planners and and Point Danger) are highly protected with wind and salt to provide the critical example, the Western coast provides managers focus their efforts on ensuring no-take areas established in 2002. influences on coastal vegetation. Plant diverse habitats for migratory and that local high value habitats can be The ‘Bonney Upwelling’ makes Victoria’s communities growing in these areas resident shorebirds, including marine protected – especially those that are have to cope with this challenging 2.1 Environmental and foreshore ecosystems for nesting, most affected by human activity. far west coast a highly productive environment. Examples include the environment. From November to May, values and reefs and intertidal areas for south-east winds result in cold nutrient- native spinifex that binds shifting sand foraging. Coastal vegetation provides 2.1.1 Marine ecosystems dunes, as well as the moonah and The Western coastal region bears the rich water ‘welling up’ from the deep critical habitat for several nationally Australia’s southern coast is by far the ocean onto the continental shelf. The sheoak trees whose narrow leaves full brunt of the Southern Ocean’s threatened species. longest south-facing expanse of nutrients trigger growth in algae (from enable them to cope with high levels of storms; it experiences some of the Coastal vegetation and sediments also temperate shoreline in the southern minute plankton to large seaweeds). salt and reduce their water needs. highest wave energy in the world. As a provide important ecosystem services hemisphere, and many of Victoria’s These plants form the building blocks result, wave attack has created a Inter-tidal habitats, including sand flats, by sequestering significant amounts of marine species, such as the seaweeds of food webs, and attract many species, dramatic nationally and internationally rocky shores and rock pools, support carbon (known as “blue carbon”) in that make up its spectacular kelp beds, including the rare and endangered significant coastal landscape that is diverse marine life and seabirds. Many seagrass meadows and intertidal occur nowhere else in the world. blue whale, seals, sea birds and sharks. constantly changing. Long-shore drift species, such as the endangered transports large quantities of sand, saltmarshes. There are two marine bioregions in the The Western coast is one of the only hooded plover, depend on these predominantly from west to east. Western coastal region – the Otway areas in Australia where whales migrate habitats for roosting, feeding and bioregion extending from Cape Jaffa in in such close proximity to the coast nesting, so it is important to protect
UNDERSTANDING AND VALUING THE COAST WESTERN REGIONAL COA STA L PLA N 7 They are highly dynamic systems that Rocky offshore reefs remain as the coast to the creation story of south west can open to the sea at some times of retreats under constant attack by the sea. Victoria and extremely important to the year and close at others. Estuaries local Aboriginal people. are important parts of the landscape. 2.2 A boriginal cultural The region includes four Indigenous They provide sites of aesthetic, cultural, values Protected Areas – Aboriginal scientific and educational significance. community owned properties. The They also provide recreation The Aboriginal cultural heritage of the Deen Maar Indigenous Protected Area opportunities and generate significant Western coastal region is extensive and (close to but distinct from the island of economic value. The Aire River and its rich. Deen Maar) is a 453 hectare mainland mouth were designated as a Heritage The Gunditjmara, Eastern Maar and property of rolling sand dunes, River under the Heritage Rivers Act 1992 Wathaurung Peoples have strong limestone ridges, river, lake and for several of these values. connections with the region: their stories wetlands. The Budj Bim National Our towns and farms have now replaced of place, and the tens of thousands of Heritage Landscape contains three much of the original habitat in some years of physical evidence of their Indigenous Protected Areas: Lake systems, and further changes in land presence, remind us of these links. Condah, Kurtonitj and Tyrendarra. These use have the potential to affect the Evidence of archaeological sites along include sites significant as traditional remnant habitats. There is much that the coast, such as shell middens, stone meeting places for the Gunditjmara The estuary of the Glenelg we can do to protect or restore these quarries and places of habitation, date people. They also contain the remains River near Nelson. habitats, while also accommodating back as far as 12,000 years. Sea levels of an elaborate aquaculture system for Photo: Jarred Obst, Glenelg 2.1.3 Hinterland ecosystems sustainable changes in land use. We have changed over this time, and farming eels and the settled Hopkins Catchment The region’s hinterland includes a range Management Authority can make use of appropriate planning traditional lands extend beyond the community the eels supported.5 of ecologically significant habitats such tools, protect local remnant vegetation, current coastline. as coastal forests, coastal heath and Today, the communities in the region manage weeds and plant shelterbelts, Aboriginal people have an ongoing and have a strong interest and role in being them. In the Western coastal region, volcanic plains. A number of nationally design stormwater treatment systems, intimate relationship with coastal and more effectively involved in coastal Discovery Bay Coastal Park protects a significant estuaries and wetlands extend fence off riverbanks and protect marine environments, with continuing management. Protection of a broad long expanse of sandy foreshore and across both foreshore and hinterland. floodplains, to name a few. social, economic, spiritual and traditional range of values and interests, including dune ecosystems; other protected These habitats are represented in national parks, state parks and reserves connection. Land and Sea Country is a cultural heritage, from inappropriate foreshore areas include Bay of Islands 2.1.4 Geological features such as the Great Otway National Park term for the whole environment, recreation or damage by coastal erosion Coastal Park, Port Campbell National The Western coast has a complex and Lower Glenelg National Park. integrating land, intertidal areas and due to storm surge and sea level rise, is Park and Great Otway National Park. geological history leaving a wide range sea, and including natural, heritage, a major concern, as is sharing the Foreshore ecosystems connect people’s Rivers, wetlands and estuaries of state of environments and features formed material and spiritual components. This responsibility for caring for country. The movements between, and provide significance occur throughout the region. from volcanic and sedimentary rocks connection is the basis for maintaining communities bring together natural access to, land and water. People are They include the Glenelg, Moyne and and mobile sands. The iconic Twelve cultural traditions and passing on and cultural values by working on able to enjoy swimming, surfing, fishing, Gellibrand estuaries.2,3 The border Apostles was created from erosion of knowledge across generations. country. diving and boating by making use of region between South Australia and Port Campbell Limestone laid down Victoria has the highest density of 10-25 million years ago.4 Dramatic cliffs The short finned eels (Kuuyang in the Registered Aboriginal Parties have foreshore access. People also enjoy wetlands in southern Australia. The occur throughout the region ranging local languages) are highly symbolic to statutory roles under the Aboriginal relaxing and walking on the foreshore. region’s estuaries link catchments to the from Capes Bridgewater, Nelson and Sir Aboriginal people of the region. It is a Heritage Act 2006, and include in the coast and the marine environment. This William Grant formed in ancient significant food resource, a focal point region: creates a diverse mix of highly volcanoes, to the sandstones of Lorne for their culture and society, and a – the Gunditj Mirring Traditional Owners productive ecosystems that support a and the mix of sandstone, limestone connection to past generations. Aboriginal Corporation for the rich and diverse range of wildlife and and clays between Anglesea and Deen Maar (formerly known as Lady coastline from Yambuk to the South vegetation communities; they also Torquay. Mobile dune sands overlay Julia Percy Island) used to be Australian border to 100m seaward support nursery areas for many animals. many features along the coast. connected to the mainland. It is central of the mean low water mark;
8 WESTERN REGIONAL COA S TA L P L A N UNDERSTANDING AND VALUING THE COAST – the Eastern Maar Aboriginal 2.3 S ocial and historical to be listed on Australia’s National Corporation for areas around the Heritage List. The Great Ocean Road is Shaw and Eumeralla Rivers and values historically significant having been built including Deen Maar. A native title The coast is important to the Western by hand by returned ex-servicemen claim and Registered Aboriginal regional community. In many areas, its from World War I. Party application process are also features are the primary attraction for Deep-water ports are rare in south east underway covering areas to the east residents and tourists. This is reflected in Australia, so the Port of Portland is an of the Shaw River to the Leigh and the strong sense of connection people asset of national significance.7 It is an Barwon river basins, and the area feel for coastal areas and the high levels export gateway for timber, livestock, from the sea in the south to the of volunteer involvement in mineral sands, grains and woodchips. Great Dividing Range in the north; monitoring, managing, protecting and Its surrounding heritage and amenity and restoring the various values of the coast. values have seen it attract cruise ships. – the Wathaurung Aboriginal Coastal areas provide extensive and The Western coastal region is endowed Corporation for the coastline from varied opportunities for recreation. with significant cultural heritage. Some the outlet of Painkalac Creek Fishing, boating, surfing, bushwalking, of these values are embodied in tangible separating Fairhaven and Aireys Inlet cycling, canoeing, snorkelling and objects, such as buildings, landscapes, to the eastern boundary of the diving are common, and many people shipwrecks, places of significance and Western coastal region and enjoy passive recreation by simply artefacts. Some cultural values, though, including three nautical miles being in the coastal environment. are intangible; they include the seaward of the coastline. Coastal areas are also a significant asset connections to traditions many people The Traditional Owner Settlement Act for research and education institutions. feel, including Aboriginal, maritime and 2010 allows for joint management of The Western coastal region has large agricultural history. Other forms of coastal parks. Ngootyoong Gunditj towns such as Warrnambool, Torquay cultural value arise from holidaying and Ngootyoong Mara (Healthy Country and Portland, that have extensive social recreational traditions. Healthy People) – South West networks associated with employment, Cultural heritage values in Warrnambool, Management Plan is being finalised by training institutions, sporting and Port Fairy and Portland, reach back to Parks Victoria in consultation with artistic life. Smaller coastal settlements Victoria’s early settlement period. The Traditional Owners. It recognises the like Apollo Bay and Port Fairy have whaling and seal industries were active Gunditjmara’s connections to country strong links to neighbourhood, family in the early 1800s, and several whaling and their role in management (also see and place. Many places along the stations were established in Portland the case study on page 17). The plan coastline represent strong, long- Bay before Victoria’s first permanent will be used to guide the management standing connections for the families European settlement at Portland in the and protection of the parks, reserves and friends that share these places. 1830s. There are still over 200 buildings and Indigenous Protected Areas of the Many features of the Western coastal from this era in Portland. area. More broadly, several groups are Top: Tower Hill, near The Great Ocean Road interested in establishing marine ranger region are of national significance. For Port Fairy, is an inactive is listed as a National This Plan describes the types of social example, the Great Ocean Road was volcano and is part of an Heritage site and is one teams to care for their sea country. important landscape of Australia’s most values most explicitly associated with recently added to the State Heritage with high cultural and popular tourist the coast. Therefore it concentrates on The Aboriginal Heritage Act 2006 and Register and has been on the National environmental values as destinations. cultural heritage values and amenity Aboriginal Heritage Regulations 2007 aim Heritage Register since 2011. It is one of seen at the Tower Hill Photo: Kyeong Woo values. This is how it will help coastal to manage and protect cultural heritage6. sixteen National Landscapes identified Visitor Centre. Kim, Tourism Victoria Photo: Worn Gundidj planners and managers work with local by Parks Australia and Tourism Australia, Aboriginal Cooperative and regional communities to articulate and the Budj Bim landscape of the the priority values they are protecting. volcanic plains was one of the first places
UNDERSTANDING AND VALUING THE COAST WESTERN REGIONAL COA STA L PLA N 9 i ve r oR nd G l enel gR Wa i ve r Casterton Wa n WILKIN nds no nR CONSERVATION f Po i ve r RESERVE oles ain o y Hamilton lg Hw n s Wa t e r h Glene Gn a r ke e t C h er i ve r Riv f o rd R Craw elg Penshurst ow Glen B r Lismore ek Dartmoor k wy Cre ee ANNYA H alt Cr y S d Mt FOREST nt Blin wy Lake Cressy He ton H Elephant H a mil Mattin rai Mt Lake n HOTSPUR hD Shadwell Gnarpurt ek a Budj Bim Mt FOREST Fi tzro nd Lake GEELONG m u C re Nelson y Mortlake Meningorot Corangamite Cundare Mt Eccles e k Co Riv B a r w o n R i ve r er er Mt Lake Pool Disc Riv LOWER GLENELG Heywood r Noorat Colongulac o i ve tE ve r NATIONAL PARK C re Me Lake rri iver yB BIG k un ns Rive r Keilambere Lake lot er R Cre e a NARRAWONG Mo RIVER S h aw Riv Camperdown la R Winchelsea Sur re y R i ve r FOREST Dar Beeac FOREST yC Lake Gnotur ne ral Terang ale sd oas oy M Dry me Lake Hw y pki Mt Torquay Colac Princes tal Pri Lake Eu DISCOVERY BAY Richmond nc Ho Bullen Merri Pa r k MARINE Narrawong es Tower Hill Lake NATIONAL PARK Lake Elingamite Jan Juc Hw Colac y Warrnambool POINT Portland Port Fairy Anglesea DANGER GRE MARINE Aireys MERRI MARINE ive r SANCTUARY AT Deen Maar ies R Inlet SANCTUARY i ve r Ba astal Cu rd dR Co (formerly Lady Julia Percy Island) y o Pa CAPE NELSON EAGLE ROCK POINT ADDIS OC f Is rk an STATE PARK Lorne MARINE MARINE ibr ds EA lan Mt Sabine E r s k i n SANCTUARY NATIONAL ell G e R i ve r N PORT CAMPBELL S ain PARK O rk t Geo R Peterborough A NATIONAL PARK Pa D rg e R i ve r al Wye River on Port Campbell y N at i Kennett River Princetown a GG rr ee aa tt OO tt ww a y THE ARCHES SOUTHE MARINE SANCTUARY Skenes Creek GREA RN OCE T OCEAN ROAD TWELVE APOSTLES Apollo Bay MARINE NATIONAL PARK AN Barham Ri ve r BAS S S Aire R i v er Port Seafood TRAIT MARENGO REEF MARINE SANCTUARY Angling Beef & Dairy Shipwrecks club Life-saving Pigs Lamb Offshore oil Ramsar club & Wool & gas site Aboriginal Caravan Hardwood Parks cultural sites Park plantation Figure 3 An indicative map of key regional social, economic and environmental values of the Western coastal region Note: Not to scale. This map is intended to give a broad indication of the range of values in the region and is not comprehensive.
10 WESTERN REGIONAL COA S TA L P L A N UNDERSTANDING AND VALUING THE COAST 2.3.1 Amenity values The coast supports a wide range of Many factors affect people’s enjoyment active and passive pursuits that Facilities Sensory Access Vegetation contribute to our health and wellbeing. of the coast and contribute to a sense of wellbeing by providing amenity values. Availability of well-maintained The ability to see and Abundant and healthy Opportunities to interact with natural hear waves, feel sand, looking vegetation (including Figure 4 describes how different facilities (chairs, playgrounds, mangroves and sea grass places encourage people to be more benches, tables, toilets, bins) taste salt and smell attributes of the coast can contribute to for general use will increase seaweed will increase beds) that supports animals active and more engaged in social the way people appreciate and value satisfaction with amenity. satisfaction with (like birds, reptiles and fish) is activities. Note the facilities must not amenity. This relates the most important factor in the coast. Some aspects of amenity are detract from the ‘naturalness’ to the naturalness at increasing satisfaction with The sense of wellbeing derived from the the beach including amenity. The exact type of tangible, such as paths and natural of the place. Proximity of vegetation that improves coast is intrinsically linked to our ability paths and access along the open space free vegetation. Others are intangible, such beach, as well as proximity to from obtrusive amenity differs for individual to maintain or enhance the quality and as open space, views, safety on the cafes and shops. The type of development. locations and needs to be the extent of natural views, native facilities expected at different understood at each location. water, links to places or people, or the Indigenous vegetation is vegetation and natural landscapes.8 The locations will vary. knowledge that wildlife is present. preferable as this has benefits built environment also contributes to for other values also. our sense of wellbeing by providing people with physical and visual access to the natural environment and its associated intangible values. Parts of Natural the built environment also contribute Safety SATISFACTION Physical Form to the heritage character of many WITH The ability to use the THE COAST Beaches with a towns in the region. coast safely is an more natural physical attractive feature for a form (including sand, The tracks, paths and boardwalks that particular beach and rock pools, dune allow people to move to, from or along can be enhanced by system, cliffs) and signage about hazards, without concrete the beach help improve amenity, while the presence of a will increase at the same time providing access to life-saving club and satisfaction with the sights and sounds of the ocean. other facilities. amenity. Similarly, picnic facilities enable people to enjoy the time they spend beside Water Quality Clean Beaches the coast. The Erskine River Pollution is identified as No litter or little litter in Amenity values are diminished by the campground provides an important part of the sea or around the presence of inappropriate or intrusive high amenity values in satisfaction with the beach will increase Lorne. beach and can affect satisfaction with amenity. development, high levels of congestion, Photo: Great Ocean use such as swimming, This is based on the poorly managed visitation, degraded Road Coast Committee boating, as well as relationship between environments, odour, litter and noise. commercial and presence of litter and recreational fishing. satisfaction with Water that is free of oils, the beach. colours, litter and smells will increase satisfaction with amenity. Figure 4 Managing visitor satisfaction with their coastal experience – key amenity values (derived from Melbourne Water) Gibson Steps near the Twelve Apostles Photo: Corangamite Shire Council
UNDERSTANDING AND VALUING THE COAST WESTERN REGIONAL COA STA L PLA N 11 2.4 Economic values Construction is a major employer in some coastal locations, accounting for 13 per The Western coast generates significant Case study – Economic cent on the Surf Coast work force and economic values and benefits from both 8.8 per cent in Warrnambool in 2011.12 benefits of the region’s commercial and non-commercial The retail, education and healthcare/ caravan and camping parks activities and features. social assistance sectors are economically The Value and Equity for Climate The commercial uses of the coast include significant and important employers. Adaptation: Caravan and Camping agriculture and commercial fishing, Park Case Study project was initiated Renewable energy production is growing manufacturing, tourism and recreation, to gain a better understanding of in the region, with wind, geothermal construction, shipping and energy non-commercial economic and and natural gas energy projects either production services and retail activity. social values of the coast to assist in operation or with planning approvals.13 Each of these has direct and flow-on with climate adaptation decisions. The emergence of new energy industries benefits to local and regional economies. in the region, such as geothermal power, It was undertaken by the Board in Dairy, sheep and beef are important for wave power and carbon capture and 2012, and the first stage surveyed agriculture in the region. Various storage (including from ‘blue carbon’) both campers and residents in five aquaculture industries as well as may offer opportunities for economic coastal towns. It generated a range commercial and recreational fishing take development, while simultaneously of new economic and social place along the coast, targeting abalone, Caravan and camping parks, such presenting new threats and pressures information, such as how people as Warrnambool’s Surfside value the beach. It showed that fin fish and rock lobster. The economic Great Ocean Road from the Princes to natural and social values. Holiday Park, deliver significant contribution of recreational fishing will Highway. Water supply and sewerage the consumer surplus (what commercial and non-commercial The coast also supports high non- be boosted by the Victorian economic benefits to the region. infrastructure is vital for towns and people are willing to pay above Photo: Warrnambool City Council commercial economic values: those for Government’s Target One Million plan communities. A wide range of other what is actually charged) across which no commercial transaction takes to improve fishing opportunities and infrastructure supports recreation, the five caravan parks was $49 per place. The environment has its own increase the number of recreational servicing and cultural opportunities. person per night, which extrapolates intrinsic value, and provides ecosystem fishers. Value-adding to primary to a $90m benefit provided to the Tourism is a significant contributor to services offering significant benefits to products by manufacturing injects a community annually from these the regional economy. The Great Ocean the community. For example, the further $4 billion into the region’s five parks alone. Road is a nationally significant tourist coastline provides storm and flood economy every year.9 destination and captures around seven protection and erosion buffers, sand The second stage of the project The region’s built infrastructure million visitors, contributes over 7000 dunes provide a sand store for beach was the development of a generates and underpins significant jobs and has a direct economic output replenishment after storms, sea grass framework which shows the reader economic value. The Port of Portland is of $1.1 billion per annum.10 It attracts beds act as nurseries for important fish how to incorporate this kind of one of Victoria’s four main commercial more than half of all international visits species (such as bream and whiting) information into existing decision trading ports, handling the bulk of to regional areas (see Section 3.5) and and coastal saltmarshes fix nutrients making processes for adaptation. It commercial trade in the region. Port more domestic tourism expenditure and carbon. steps decision makers through the Fairy, Warrnambool and Apollo Bay also than any other region in Victoria. generation of new information, support substantial ports that are Recreation also makes substantial followed by its inclusion in option tourism destinations. The extensive contributions. For example, the surf assessments and finally the road network managed by Vic Roads Turbines at Cape industry contributes $457.2m (25 per application of the information to supports economic development, Bridgewater over the cent) to the Surf Coast economy.11 the three areas of business case, Bridgewater Lakes. Coastal Management Act 1995 tourism and recreation throughout the Photo: Jarred Obst, region. It also helps to manage access Glenelg Hopkins consent and municipal planning issues, for example by providing Catchment Management approval. Authority alternative inland access routes to the
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