WESTERN REGIONAL COASTAL PLAN 2015-2020 - Marine and coasts

 
WESTERN REGIONAL COASTAL PLAN 2015-2020 - Marine and coasts
WESTERN REGIONAL
COA S TA L P L A N 2015–2020
WESTERN REGIONAL COASTAL PLAN 2015-2020 - Marine and coasts
Western Coastal Board                            Authorised and published by the Victorian
PO Box 103, Geelong, 3220, Victoria, Australia   Government, Department of Environment,
Phone: (03) 5226 4008                            Land, Water and Planning, 8 Nicholson
Electronic copies of the draft plan are          Street, East Melbourne, September 2015
available online at www.wcb.vic.gov.au. If
                                                 © The State of Victoria Department of
you would like printed copies or have any
                                                 Environment, Land, Water and Planning
questions about the draft plan, please
                                                 Melbourne 2015
contact us using the details above.
Members of the Western Coastal Board at
the time of preparing this Regional Coastal
Plan were:
                                                 This work is licensed under a Creative
Cr Jill Parker – Chair                           Commons Attribution 3.0 Australia licence.
Ms Carole Reid                                   You are free to re-use the work under that
Honorary Assoc. Professor John Sherwood          licence, on the condition that you credit the
Mr Oliver Moles                                  State of Victoria as author. The licence does
Mr Mark Edmonds                                  not apply to any images, photographs or
Mr Raymond Page                                  branding, including the Victorian Coat of
Mr Matthew Gorman                                Arms and the Victorian Government logo.
Mr Glenn Wallace                                 To view a copy of this licence, visit http://
                                                 creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/au/
The Western Coastal Board proudly
                                                 deed.en
acknowledges Victorian Aboriginal
communities and their rich culture; and pays     ISBN 978-1-74146-782-6 (Print)
its respects to the Traditional Owners of the    ISBN 978-1-74146-783-3 (pdf )
Western coastal region. The Board also
                                                 Disclaimer
recognises the intrinsic connection of
traditional owners to Country and                This publication may be of assistance to you
acknowledges their contribution in the           but the State of Victoria and its employees
management of land, water and                    do not guarantee that the publication is
resources management.                            without flaw of any kind or is wholly
                                                 appropriate for your particular purposes and
                                                 therefore disclaims all liability for any error,
                                                 loss or other consequence which may arise
                                                 from you relying on any information in this
                                                 publication.
                                                 Unless stated, images sourced from the
                                                 Department of Environment, Land, Water
                                                 and Planning.

Front Cover Top: The Great Ocean Road coastline at the Twelve Apostles.
Bottom left to right: Hobie Cats at Point Roadknight, Anglesea, photo: Great Ocean Road Coast
Committee. Sea Sweep schooling in the Twelve Apostles Marine National Park, photo: Parks
Victoria. Great Ocean Walk, photo: Kyeong Woo Kim, Tourism Victoria. The Beach,
Warrnambool, Victoria, c1920-1954. Rose Stereograph Co.
WESTERN REGIONAL
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CONTENTS
Minister’s Foreword                                     II   Balanced Decision Making                          16   List of Figures
Chair’s Foreword                                        II   4	Managing regional population and tourism            Figure 1: The three levels of
1   Introduction                                        1       pressures		                                    16   planning for coastal management         1

    1.1   What is the Regional Coastal Plan?             1       4.1   Background                              16   Figure 2: The Western coastal region 3

    1.2   How the Regional Coastal Plan will be used     2       4.2	The Boating Coastal Action Plan          18   Figure 3: An indicative map of key
                                                                 4.3	The Draft Shipwreck Coast Master Plan    19   regional social, economic and
    1.3   The role of the Western Coastal Board          2                                                          environmental values of the
    1.4   Who we work with on land and water             3       4.4   Activity and recreation nodes           19   Western coastal region                  9
    1.5   The structure of this plan                     4       4.5   Key challenges and actions              20   Figure 4: Managing visitor
                                                             5   A regional approach to foreshore management   21   satisfaction with their coastal
    1.6   Priority actions for Western coastal region    4
                                                                                                                    experience – key amenity values        10
Understanding and Valuing the Coast                     6        5.1	Background                               21
                                                                                                                    Figure 5: Community coastal
2   Coastal values                                      6        5.2   Working together                        23
                                                                                                                    values guide decisions in the
    2.1   Environmental values                           6       5.3   Key challenges and actions              24   Western coastal region                 12

    2.2   Aboriginal cultural values                     7   6	Adapting to climate change and increased            Figure 6: Visitation to regional
                                                                coastal hazards                                25   Victoria’s tourism destinations 2010 15
    2.3   Social and historical values                   8
                                                                 6.1   Background                              25   Figure 7: An indicative map of
    2.4   Economic values                               11                                                          boating hierarchy of facilities
                                                                 6.2	Adaptation planning to manage flooding
    2.5   Protecting coastal values                     12            and erosion                              25   from the Western Boating Coastal
                                                                                                                    Action Plan 2010                       18
3   The dynamics of the coast                           13       6.3	Port Fairy and Barwon South West Coast
                                                                      key projects                             28   Figure 8: Indicative map of
    3.1   Natural coastal processes                     13
                                                                                                                    foreshore, marine park and
    3.2   Climate change                                13       6.4   Key challenges and actions              28   sanctuary managers                     21
    3.3   Connections to catchments                     14   Implementation                                    29   Figure 9: Map indicating areas for
    3.4   Demographic trends                            14   7   Supporting communities caring for the coast   29   hazard assessment and adaptation
                                                                                                                    planning (based on coastal
    3.5   Visitation trends                             15       7.1   Background                              29
                                                                                                                    instability and low lying areas)   27
                                                                 7.2   Actions                                 30
                                                                                                                    List of Tables
                                                             8	Monitoring, Evaluation and Reporting           31
                                                                                                                    Table 1: Western regional priorities    4
                                                             9	References                                     32
                                                                                                                    Table 2: Projected population for
                                                             Appendices		                                      33   local government areas in the
                                                                                                                    Western coastal region                 15
II         WESTERN REGIONAL
           COA S TA L P L A N

MINISTER’S FOREWORD                                                                     CHAIR’S FOREWORD
The coast is close to the hearts of the      This Plan will support government          The Western coastline is a spectacular     sure we pass on our coast in good          individuals, community groups, local
many Victorians who live near it, or visit   agencies, community and industry           part of Victoria. The region is close to   condition to future generations. This      councils and agencies in February and
it, and enjoy all that it has to offer.      groups to work more collaboratively in     the hearts of all residents and visitors   Plan outlines regional priorities to       March 2015. We received 52 written
Communities along the coastline are          managing the coast. It will help coastal   from near and abroad. Its diverse          address existing and emerging              submissions about the draft plan: 40
deeply connected to their local              managers and communities tackle            coastal landscapes range from the wild     concerns. It includes regional-scale       focusing on the Western coastal region
landscape and care about the future of       challenges on the coast in their region    beaches and dunes of Disaster Bay,         actions to:                                and another 12 covering statewide
the coast.                                   more effectively, and with greater         estuaries such as the Hopkins River at     –	protect the natural values of the       issues. These submissions and the
Our coastal environment is complex           coordination. It will enable us to be      Warrnambool, the cliffs of the world-         coast;                                  feedback from the face-to-face
and constantly changing, and there are       more responsive and adaptable as           famous Twelve Apostles and the iconic                                                 meetings were a key part of revising
                                             pressures change over time, and our        Great Ocean Road – recognised as one       –	systematically assess the way we use    and finalising this Plan. The Board
many pressures that need to be                                                                                                        the coast;
understood and managed better. As            understanding of climate change            of only sixteen National Landscapes in                                                appreciates the time and effort of
Minister and a Local Member of a             implications improves.                     Australia.                                 –	better integrate and coordinate         everyone who gave their thoughts and
coastal area, I appreciate how               The local knowledge, passion and           The region supports vibrant                   coastal planning and management;        provided input.
important it is to understand, protect       enthusiasm of Victoria’s coastal           communities , strong regional              –	increase the awareness of coastal       I would like to acknowledge the work
and care for the things we love about        managers and communities is                industries and major tourist                  hazards, particularly with the          of the Board and thank everyone who
the coast.                                   invaluable, and I look forward to          destinations. It is an area where people      predicted impacts of climate            contributed to the development of the
Victoria has a strong coastal planning       working together to ensure that the        live, work and relax.                         change, and help communities            Plan. I believe this Plan will help us work
and management framework, based on           diverse natural, social, cultural and      Many of the cultural, social and              make the best choices for the future;   together at a regional level to tackle the
the Victorian Coastal Strategy (2014).       economic values of the coast that we       economic values of the Western coast          and                                     challenges we face, to make the best
The Western Coastal Board has developed      enjoy today remain for future              rely on the coast’s natural environment                                               use of the region’s coast and to protect
                                                                                                                                   –	recognise and support the many
this Regional Coastal Plan to build on       generations.                               being well managed and protected.                                                     the many values that make it so special
                                                                                                                                      organisations and individuals that
that framework and outline how the                                                      Those fortunate enough to live in the                                                 to the people who live and visit.
                                                                                                                                      give their time to monitor and
Strategy should be put into practice.        The Hon Lisa Neville MP                    Western coastal region understand that        protect coastal values for all of us.
                                             Minister for Environment, Climate          being able to continue to enjoy what                                                  Councillor Jill Parker
                                                                                                                                   Taking into account the perspectives,
                                             Change and Water                           the coast has to offer depends on us                                                  Chair, Western Coastal Board
                                                                                                                                   ideas and knowledge of the region’s
                                                                                        using and managing it wisely and
                                                                                                                                   community and coastal managers was
                                                                                        maintaining the natural features that
                                                                                                                                   a major part of developing this Plan.
                                                                                        make such an important contribution
                                                                                                                                   Following an initial round of
                                                                                        to our enjoyment.
                                                                                                                                   consultation in 2014, the Western
                                                                                        Managing and protecting the coast is       Regional Coastal Board released a draft
                                                                                        not simple. There are many pressures,      plan in February 2015 to prompt
                                                                                        risks and challenges to address to make    discussion. The Board met with
WESTERN REGIONAL
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1 INTRODUCTION
1.1 What is the Regional
     Coastal Plan?                                                                                                                          Victorian Coastal           Developed by the               Sets statewide direction
                                                                                                                                                                        Victorian Coastal              for coastal planners
The Regional Coastal Plan for the                                                                                                           Strategy                    Council                        and managers
Western Coastal Region is a statutory
Coastal Action Plan endorsed under
Part 3 of the Coastal Management Act
1995. Its contents meet the requirements
of section 23 of that Act.
The Victorian Coastal Strategy 2014 sets                                                                                                                                Developed by                   Translates state-wide
the broad framework for managing the                                                                                                        Regional                    Regional Coastal               direction by identifying
                                                                                                                                            Coastal Plans               Boards                         regional values, initiatives
coast and the basis for developing                                                                                                                                                                     and management gaps
regional coastal plans and coastal
management plans (Figure 1). The
Western Coastal Board has focussed this
overarching Plan on identifying and
prioritising actions that cannot be
achieved more effectively at either the     A diver enjoys the
                                                                                                                                            Coastal                     Developed by coastal
                                                                                                                                                                                                       Sets local direction and
local or state level.                       marine environment                           As a statutory document, the Regional                                          public land managers
                                            at The Arches Marine                                                                            Management                  (eg. local municipalities      develops sub-regional or issues
                                                                                         Coastal Plan has important links with                                                                         based operational plans
The Regional Coastal Plan provides a        Sanctuary.                                                                                      Plans                       & committees of
                                            Photo: Parks Victoria
                                                                                         other statutory instruments. In particular,                                    management)
regional framework for planning and                                                      as outlined in the Victorian Coastal
decision-making on both public and                                                       Strategy 2014 the broader land use
freehold land at the local level. It also   The Plan will provide the framework for      planning system is important for the
provides a focus for all agencies with      agencies, community and industry             implementation of the Strategy,               Figure 1: The three levels of planning for coastal management
responsibility for coastal management       groups working and engaging with             regional coastal plans and coastal
to act together to plan and manage the      decision makers on strategic regional        management plans (see Appendix 1).
coast by:                                   priorities for the Western coastal region.   The relationship between these policies
–	Interpreting and implementing the        The Plan will also guide the development     and plans is through:                            The Victorian Coastal Strategy 2014 identifies that the term ‘coast’ means:
   Victorian Coastal Strategy 2014 and      of coastal management plans.                 –	The State Planning Policy                     –	the marine environment – nearshore marine environment, the seabed, and
   its hierarchy of principles at a         The Plan’s primary audiences are local          Framework which requires coastal                 waters out to the state limit of three nautical miles;
   regional scale;                          councils, committees of management,             planning to be consistent with the
                                                                                                                                          –	foreshores – or coastal Crown land up to 200 m from the high water mark
–	Facilitating integration across          state government agencies and peak              Strategy and relevant coastal action
   jurisdictions to increase efficiency     bodies with coastal management                  plans (including this Regional                –	coastal hinterland – land directly influenced by the sea or directly
   and effectiveness;                       responsibilities. It also aims to provide       Coastal Plan) and regional growth                influencing the coastline, and with critical impacts on the foreshore and
                                            landowners, volunteer groups and                plans; and                                       nearshore environment;
–	Identifying regional coastal values
   and strategic priorities to be           coastal communities with an                  –	Sections of local planning schemes            –	catchments – rivers and drainage systems that affect the coastal zone,
   accounted for; and                       understanding of the framework for              through Municipal Strategic                      including estuaries; and
                                            managing and protecting coastal                 Statements and Local Planning
–	Identifying solutions that address                                                                                                     –	atmosphere – near, around and over the coast as defined above.
                                            values in the region and how they can           Policy Frameworks.
   systemic gaps in coastal management.     contribute to that.
2           WESTERN REGIONAL
            COA S TA L P L A N

1.2 H
     ow the Regional                           coastal values and assets. Current                                                   1.3 The role of the
                                                revenue streams, such as income from
    Coastal Plan will                           camping areas and caravan parks on            Hierarchy of Principles                     Western Coastal
    be used?                                    Crown land, are important. However,           The Victorian Coastal Strategy 2014         Board
                                                during the consultation for this plan         supports the hierarchy of principles
In line with the hierarchy of principles        many organisations and individuals            introduced in previous strategies      The Western Coastal Board is a statutory
in the Victorian Coastal Strategy 2014,         expressed their concerns that funding         and also recognises that the           planning and advisory body with
this Regional Coastal Plan documents            was a limiting factor for managing the        foundation of coastal planning         extensive experience and expertise in
and describes key regional issues and           coast. This is a state-wide issue raised in   and management is a healthy            coastal matters. Appointed by the
strategic priorities. It links actions, those   the Victorian Coastal Strategy 2014.          coastal and marine environment.        Minister for Environment, Climate
accountable, the outcomes to be                                                               These principles give effect to the    Change and Water, under the Coastal
achieved, and it measures and reports           The budgets of coastal management                                                    Management Act 1995, it provides
                                                                                              directions in the Coastal
on performance annually.                        agencies at state, regional and local                                                strategic guidance for management of
                                                                                              Management Act 1995 and are
                                                levels are expected to remain highly                                                 Victoria’s western coast. The board has
The Plan will build the evidence base to                                                      included in the State Planning
                                                constrained over the next few years                                                  specific functions to:
guide future planning and establish                                                           Policy Framework and in planning                                                  Hooded plover
                                                given the current economic conditions.
foundations to progressively improve                                                          schemes throughout Victoria.           –	Develop coastal action plans            Photo: Annette Hatten
                                                Therefore this Plan has been designed
management decisions. This will help            to set realistic expectations about what      The principles are:                       (including this overarching Regional
to better target investment, improve            can be delivered and by when. The                                                       Coastal Plan);
                                                                                              –	Ensure the protection of                                                       –	Liaise with, and encourage the
coordination and promote best                   Board anticipates that some of the key                                               –	Consider and review the role of
                                                                                                 significant environmental and                                                     cooperation of, government
practice. Importantly, the Board will use       actions can be delivered within existing                                                existing coastal action plans (see
                                                                                                 cultural values;                                                                  departments, councils, public
the Plan to work with other managers            budgets of management agencies.                                                         Appendix 3);                               authorities, industry, community
and stakeholders to increase                    However additional funding will be            –	Undertake integrated planning
                                                                                                                                     –	Provide advice to the Minister, the        groups and those involved in the
understanding and appreciation of the           needed to carry out further planning             and provide clear direction for
                                                                                                                                        Victorian Coastal Council and              planning and management of the
coast, protect its values and further           and management steps such as                     the future; and
                                                                                                                                        government on coastal development          region in developing and
improve management arrangements                 detailed coastal hazard studies and           –	Ensure the sustainable use of
                                                                                                                                        and other matters in the region;           implementing strategic solutions to
and outcomes.                                   adaptation plans. Over the next five             natural coastal resources.                                                        matters affecting the conservation
The Board has worked with partners to           years the Plan provides the framework                                                –	Prepare and publish guidelines for         and use of the region’s coasts.
                                                                                              Only when the above principles
develop a range of successful coastal           for Commonwealth, state, regional and                                                   coastal planning and management
                                                                                              have been considered and                                                          More broadly, the Board seeks to be an
action plans for local areas, the central       local agencies and the private sector to                                                in the region;
                                                                                              addressed:                                                                        advocate for coastal issues. It aims to
and south-west sub-regions, estuaries           work together on attracting funding to                                               –	Facilitate the implementation of the
                                                                                              –	Ensure development on the                                                      work with agencies, local councils and
and boating. Planners and managers              carry out these additional pieces of work.                                              Victorian Coastal Strategy, coastal
                                                                                                 coast is located within existing                                               communities in the Western coastal
should continue to use these plans. As                                                                                                  action plans and coastal guidelines
                                                                                                 modified and resilient                                                         region to shape future expectations
outlined in the Board’s Coastal Action                                                                                                  for the region;
                                                                                                 environments where the                                                         about how the coast and the way
Plan Review in 2012, it is expected that           The Western Coastal Board will
                                                                                                 demand for development is           –	Facilitate public awareness,            people use it will change over time,
over time most of the existing coastal             participate in a review of funding
                                                                                                 evident and any impacts can            consultation and involvement in the     how we should respond to those
action plans will transition into                  arrangements by the Victorian
                                                                                                 be managed sustainably.                development and implementation          changes, and how we should use and
appropriate local and regional planning            Coastal Council and the
                                                                                                                                        of the Victorian Coastal Strategy,      manage the coast to protect its values.
tools, such as coastal management plans.           Department of Environment,                 The actions in this Western
                                                   Land, Water and Planning, as                                                         coastal action plans and coastal
The Regional Coastal Plan will also                                                           Regional Coastal Plan support these
                                                   outlined in the Victorian Coastal                                                    guidelines; and
support investment planning. Ongoing                                                          principles and work to make sure
                                                   Strategy 2014.                             that decision making on the coast
funding arrangements are essential to
enable coastal managers to meet their                                                         is guided by, and consistent with,
responsibilities and to better                                                                the Victorian Coastal Strategy 2014.
understand, protect and manage
WESTERN REGIONAL
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1.4 Who we work with
     on land and water
Just as we like to use the coast for a
range of reasons, there are a number of
managers responsible for managing
the coast on land and water. Foreshores
are managed by a range of organisations.
Parks Victoria is responsible for                                                           Casterton

managing national parks and other
conservation areas. Others with

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to protect and enhance waterway health.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Wye River

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A number of other organisations have

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                                                                            Regional centre                                                                                                                               Softwood plantation & state forest                                                                                            Princetown                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Skenes Creek
responsibilities in identifying and                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   oin                               l                                                                                        Apollo Bay                                                                                                N
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protecting the region’s community                                           District town                                                                                                                                 Native Title determinations and settlements                                                                                                                                                                         t Re
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coastal values; these include Traditional                                   Settlement                                                                                                                                    Other public land                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Ca
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Owners, the Environment Protection
                                                                            Major growth                                                                                                                                  Catchment Management Authority boundary
Authority, Regional Development
Victoria, Fisheries Victoria, water                                         Medium growth                                                                                                                                 Major roads
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  BASS STRAIT
corporations and VicRoads.                                                  Sustainable growth                                                                                                                            Council boundary                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          0                                      20                                  40

Many of these organisations have                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  SOUTHERN OCEAN
                                                               Source: Regional Growth Plans                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 kilometres
planning processes for their coastal
management responsibilities. For
example, local councils have statutory
planning processes and contribute to          Figure 2 The Western coastal region
4          WESTERN REGIONAL
           COA S TA L P L A N

regional growth plans, and catchment        1.5 The structure of this                 1.6 Priority actions for                  1.6.2 Regional priorities                        These regional priorities reflect:
management authorities have regional                                                                                              The Western Coastal Board identified             –	Key issues identified in the Victorian
catchment and waterway strategies.               plan                                       the Western coastal                   five regional priorities as a focus for             Coastal Strategy 2014 which are
The Board aims to use this Plan to work     This plan has three parts:                      region                                action:                                             relevant for specific attention in the
with these organisations to achieve the                                                                                                                                               Western coastal region (see Table 1
best outcomes for the Western coast.        –	Chapters 2 and 3 give an overview                                                  1.	Managing and protecting coastal
                                                                                       1.6.1 Vision for the Western                                                                  and Appendix 2);
                                               of the values of the Western coastal                                                   values;
This plan helps clarify the roles and                                                         coastal region
                                               region and the key issues affecting                                                                                                 –	Issues identified as important by
responsibilities for several specific                                                  The Board acts to achieve the vision       2.	Managing impacts of residential and
                                               them;                                                                                                                                  stakeholders during the consultation
issues particularly for managing and                                                   expressed in the Victorian Coastal             tourism growth to balance access
                                            –	Chapters 4, 5, 6 and 7 set out the                                                     and protect natural, social, cultural           process; and
adapting to climate change (Chapter 6).                                                Strategy 2014: a healthy coast
It also identifies actions to clarify          strategic objectives for the region     appreciated by all, now and in the             and economic values;                         –	Areas where the Board can provide
responsibilities for other issues which        (as regional priorities) and how the    future.                                                                                        leadership and influence.
                                                                                                                                  3.	Integrating coastal planning and
will help to improve coordination and          Board intends to work with its
                                                                                       For the Western coastal region this            management on the foreshore;                 The actions in this Plan apply across
collaboration between managers.                partner agencies and other
                                                                                       means:                                     4.	Adapting to climate change and               both public and private land tenures.
                                               stakeholders to develop plans and
Integrated Coastal Zone Management                                                                                                    increased coastal hazards; and               None of the regional priorities can be
                                               actions that will enhance the ability   –	Protecting regional biodiversity;
(ICZM) is a principle that underpins this                                                                                                                                          considered in isolation. Each action is
                                               for all of us to use and enjoy the                                                 5.	Supporting communities to
Plan. ICZM is about working across a                                                   –	Ensuring sustainable developments;                                                       linked; recognising these linkages will
                                               coast into the future; and                                                             contribute to protection and
geographic area (land to sea), across                                                     and                                                                                      lead to better outcomes from the
                                            –	Chapter 8 summarises how the plan                                                      management of the coast.                     implementation of the Regional
different land tenures (public and                                                     –	Identifying areas where residential
private) and across organisations and          will be implemented, including the                                                                                                  Coastal Plan.
                                               process of monitoring and reporting.       and tourism infrastructure are best
jurisdictions (national, state, regional                                                  sited.
and local). ICZM is achieved through
both formal and informal collaboration                                                 The actions in this Plan will contribute    VCS 2014 Key Issues             Western Regional Priorities
and coordination between the various                                                   to this vision by:
                                                                                                                                   Managing for population         Chapter 4 – Managing regional population and tourism
groups using and managing the coast.                                                   –	Supporting the work of a range of        growth                          pressures
The Western Coastal Board helps to                                                        organisations and groups                 Adapting to a changing          Chapter 6 – Adapting to climate change and increased
achieve ICZM by coordinating action                                                       responsible for understanding,           climate                         coastal hazards
where gaps exist, or across boundaries                                                    managing and protecting the broad        Managing coastal land and       Chapter 5 – A regional approach to foreshore management
by championing good practice and the                                                      values of the Western coast;             infrastructure
use of best available science to inform                                                –	Building the evidence base for           Valuing the natural             Chapter 2 – Coastal values
decisions. The Western Victorian Boating                                                  ongoing management, particularly         environment                     Contribute to proposed review of the Coastal Management
Coastal Action Plan 2010 is one example                                                   for the way we use the coast;            Integrating marine planning     Act 1995, new Marine and Coastal Act, and new management
of this. It provides a framework for                                                                                                                               arrangements and oversight of marine parks, coasts and bays
                                                                                       –	Improving the integration and
planning and management of
                                                                                          coordination of management; and
recreational boating and associated                                                                                                Integration of key issues       Chapter 3 – The dynamic nature of the coast
facilities across tenure and                                                           –	Developing approaches to                                                 Chapter 7 – Supporting communities caring for the coast
management responsibilities, in close                                                     encourage sustainable development
cooperation with both individuals and                                                     including better consideration of       Table 1 Western regional priorities
organisations affected by the plan.                                                       coastal hazards and impacts from
                                                                                          climate change.
UNDERSTANDING AND VALUING THE COAST                                         WESTERN REGIONAL
                                                                                                                                                                                                          COA STA L PLA N
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                5

                                                                                                                   VIS IO N

1.6.3 The Plan at a glance                                                           A healthy coast appreciated by all, now and in the future

                                                                  KE Y STATE WIDE COASTAL ISSUES (as identified in the Victorian Coastal Strategy 2014)

            Managing for                                   Adapting to a                                 Managing coastal land                           Valuing the natural                              Integrating marine
          population growth                              changing climate                                 and infrastructure                                environment                                        planning

                                                                                               P RIO RIT Y REG IO NA L COA S TA L IS S UES

       Managing and protecting                    Managing regional population                      A regional approach to foreshore             Adapting to climate change and                       Communities supported to
           coastal values                            and tourism pressures                                   management                             increased coastal hazards                            care for the coast

                                                                                      THE W ES TERN REG IO NA L COA S TA L P L A N AC T ION S

     CHAPTERS 2 and 3                                     CHAPTER 4                                               CHAPTER 5                                      CHAPTER 6                                         CHAPTER 7
  Western Regional Coastal         1.	Work with public land managers and waterway                 1.	Prepare guidelines for the development    1.	Develop a systematic approach to             1.	Work with partner organisations to
  Board will work with relevant        managers to:                                                    of coastal management plans.                  prioritise areas for detailed coastal            organise:
  organisations to improve the         a.	map and categorise visitation infrastructure            2.	Develop a process that gets managers          hazard assessments and adaptation                a.	biennial regional coastal
  understanding and                        throughout the region;                                      to work together where it is sensible         planning.                                            conferences; and
  appreciation of coastal values       b.	develop a service-level hierarchy for visitation            for a coastal management plan to be       2.	Refine methodologies for conducting              b.	regular information sharing events.
  and processes.                           infrastructure; and                                         developed across multiple land and            detailed coastal hazard assessments          2.	Work with statewide groups and
                                       c.	document existing approaches to demand                      water managers. From this, local public       and integrating flood studies in                 programs to:
                                           management (including parking fees, entrance                land managers can put together                coastal areas to identify high risk areas.
                                                                                                                                                                                                      a.	support all volunteers to collect
                                           fees, camping fees, leasing arrangements,                   precinct or master plans.                 3.	Refine methodologies for local                       data about the coast to inform
                                           licensing arrangements and the use of                   3.	Work with Traditional Owners in               adaptation planning, including                       local decision making;
                                           smart-phone apps to notify visitors to avoid                preparing multi park plans that               addressing barriers to practical local
                                                                                                                                                                                                      b.	support community groups to
                                           congested areas).                                           include coastal areas.                        adaptation action.
                                                                                                                                                                                                          better link with Traditional Owners
                                   2.	Identify priority areas for visitation demand               4.	Ensure there are current coastal          4.	Continue, or undertake new, detailed                 to work on joint coastal projects;
                                       management. In particular identify:                             management plans in place                     coastal hazard assessments and                       and
                                       a.	resilient parts of the landscape where visitation           throughout the Western coastal region.        adaptation planning, particularly for
                                                                                                                                                                                                      c.	support education programs, such
                                           can be encouraged;                                                                                        the priority areas identified in 1.
                                                                                                                                                                                                          as ‘Summer by the Sea’, to improve
                                       b.	vulnerable parts of the landscape where                                                               5.	Implement identified adaptation                      understanding and awareness of
                                           demand might be reduced by encouraging visitors                                                           responses through local decisions, for               coastal values and management.
                                           towards alternative sites; and                                                                            example updating local planning
                                                                                                                                                                                                  3.	Promote and support the work done
                                                                                                                                                     schemes, coastal management plans
                                       c.	vulnerable parts of the landscape with sought                                                                                                              by all local coastal and marine
                                                                                                                                                     and emergency plans, and prioritising
                                           after visitor experiences and limited scope to                                                                                                             community groups, including
                                                                                                                                                     future works.
                                           reduce demand.                                                                                                                                             Reefwatch, Fishcare, Seasearch and
                                   3.	Develop a Visitation Demand Framework to guide                                                                                                                 EstuaryWatch.
                                       local decisions, support investment and
                                       communicate with users.
6          WESTERN REGIONAL
           COA S TA L P L A N
                                            UNDERSTANDING AND VALUING THE COAST

2 COASTAL VALUES
The Western coastal region provides                                                                                                  Spectacular animals such as                   each year. This contributes to the
                                                                                                                                     the western blue devil fish,
important environmental, social, cultural                                                                                                                                          region’s distinct identity and supports
                                                                                                                                     cuttlefish and weedy
and economic values for Victorians and                                                                                               seadragon are found in the                    its local amenity and economy.
visitors. Understanding these values is                                                                                              Western Coastal region’s
                                                                                                                                                                                   The Victorian Government has
essential for effective decision-making.                                                                                             marine parks and sanctuaries.
                                                                                                                                     Photo: Mark Rodrigue,                         committed to reviewing the Coastal
This broad range of values is managed                                                                                                Parks Victoria                                Management Act 1995, developing new
and monitored by many different                                                                                                                                                    management and oversight for marine
organisations such as catchment                                                                                                                                                    parks, coasts and bays, and establishing
management authorities, Parks Victoria,                                                                                              South Australia through to Apollo Bay,        a new Marine and Coastal Act. These
local councils, committees of                                                                                                        and the Central bioregion from Cape           initiatives will be the primary mechanisms
management, VicRoads, water                                                                                                          Otway to west of Wilson’s Promontory.1        to improve the integration of marine
corporations, ports authorities,                                                                                                     Both contain many different types of          and coastal planning – a key issue in
Traditional Owners, the Environment                                                                                                  marine habitats, including pelagic            the Victorian Coastal Strategy 2014.
Protection Authority, regional bodies                                                                                                habitats (the water column within the
and the Department of Environment,                                                                                                   ocean), deep rocky reefs, sub-tidal rocky     2.1.2 Foreshore ecosystems
Land, Water and Planning.                                                                                                            reefs, intertidal shorelines, including       The Western coastal region’s foreshore
                                                                                                                                     rock platforms and sandy beaches.             ecosystems are particularly important;
                                                                                                                                     A number of marine ecosystems are             they link marine, estuarine, freshwater
    The Western Coastal Board will          The Western coastal region’s sandy         Natural values are under pressure from        managed through their designation as          and terrestrial areas. Foreshore habitats
    support and work with these             beaches and their dune systems             a range of processes and threats such         marine national parks and sanctuaries.        include the beach, dune system,
    organisations to improve the            respond seasonally as seas alternatively   as increasing use, coastal development,       The marine national parks in the region       headland scrub, grasslands, saltmarsh
    understanding, appreciation and         erode and deposit sands.                   invasive pest plants and animals,             (Discovery Bay, Twelve Apostles and           areas and sedgelands.
    protection of the coastal values in     The environmental values of the            altered fire regimes, pollution, litter       Point Addis) and marine sanctuaries (Merri,   Unstable low-nutrient soils, made largely
    the Western region.                     Western coastal region are of national     (particularly plastics) and climate change.   The Arches, Marengo Reef, Eagle Rock          of sands that hold little water, interact
                                            and international significance. For        In general, regional planners and             and Point Danger) are highly protected        with wind and salt to provide the critical
                                            example, the Western coast provides        managers focus their efforts on ensuring      no-take areas established in 2002.            influences on coastal vegetation. Plant
                                            diverse habitats for migratory and         that local high value habitats can be         The ‘Bonney Upwelling’ makes Victoria’s       communities growing in these areas
                                            resident shorebirds, including marine      protected – especially those that are                                                       have to cope with this challenging
2.1 Environmental                          and foreshore ecosystems for nesting,      most affected by human activity.
                                                                                                                                     far west coast a highly productive
                                                                                                                                                                                   environment. Examples include the
                                                                                                                                     environment. From November to May,
     values                                 and reefs and intertidal areas for                                                       south-east winds result in cold nutrient-     native spinifex that binds shifting sand
                                            foraging. Coastal vegetation provides      2.1.1 Marine ecosystems                                                                     dunes, as well as the moonah and
The Western coastal region bears the                                                                                                 rich water ‘welling up’ from the deep
                                            critical habitat for several nationally    Australia’s southern coast is by far the      ocean onto the continental shelf. The         sheoak trees whose narrow leaves
full brunt of the Southern Ocean’s
                                            threatened species.                        longest south-facing expanse of               nutrients trigger growth in algae (from       enable them to cope with high levels of
storms; it experiences some of the
                                            Coastal vegetation and sediments also      temperate shoreline in the southern           minute plankton to large seaweeds).           salt and reduce their water needs.
highest wave energy in the world. As a
                                            provide important ecosystem services       hemisphere, and many of Victoria’s            These plants form the building blocks
result, wave attack has created a                                                                                                                                                  Inter-tidal habitats, including sand flats,
                                            by sequestering significant amounts of     marine species, such as the seaweeds          of food webs, and attract many species,
dramatic nationally and internationally                                                                                                                                            rocky shores and rock pools, support
                                            carbon (known as “blue carbon”) in         that make up its spectacular kelp beds,       including the rare and endangered
significant coastal landscape that is                                                                                                                                              diverse marine life and seabirds. Many
                                            seagrass meadows and intertidal            occur nowhere else in the world.              blue whale, seals, sea birds and sharks.
constantly changing. Long-shore drift                                                                                                                                              species, such as the endangered
transports large quantities of sand,        saltmarshes.                               There are two marine bioregions in the        The Western coast is one of the only          hooded plover, depend on these
predominantly from west to east.                                                       Western coastal region – the Otway            areas in Australia where whales migrate       habitats for roosting, feeding and
                                                                                       bioregion extending from Cape Jaffa in        in such close proximity to the coast          nesting, so it is important to protect
UNDERSTANDING AND VALUING THE COAST                                       WESTERN REGIONAL
                                                                                                                                                                                            COA STA L PLA N
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           7

                                                                                        They are highly dynamic systems that         Rocky offshore reefs remain as the coast      to the creation story of south west
                                                                                        can open to the sea at some times of         retreats under constant attack by the sea.    Victoria and extremely important to
                                                                                        the year and close at others. Estuaries                                                    local Aboriginal people.
                                                                                        are important parts of the landscape.        2.2 A
                                                                                                                                          boriginal cultural                      The region includes four Indigenous
                                                                                        They provide sites of aesthetic, cultural,       values                                    Protected Areas – Aboriginal
                                                                                        scientific and educational significance.                                                   community owned properties. The
                                                                                        They also provide recreation                 The Aboriginal cultural heritage of the
                                                                                                                                                                                   Deen Maar Indigenous Protected Area
                                                                                        opportunities and generate significant       Western coastal region is extensive and
                                                                                                                                                                                   (close to but distinct from the island of
                                                                                        economic value. The Aire River and its       rich.
                                                                                                                                                                                   Deen Maar) is a 453 hectare mainland
                                                                                        mouth were designated as a Heritage          The Gunditjmara, Eastern Maar and             property of rolling sand dunes,
                                                                                        River under the Heritage Rivers Act 1992     Wathaurung Peoples have strong                limestone ridges, river, lake and
                                                                                        for several of these values.                 connections with the region: their stories    wetlands. The Budj Bim National
                                                                                        Our towns and farms have now replaced        of place, and the tens of thousands of        Heritage Landscape contains three
                                                                                        much of the original habitat in some         years of physical evidence of their           Indigenous Protected Areas: Lake
                                                                                        systems, and further changes in land         presence, remind us of these links.           Condah, Kurtonitj and Tyrendarra. These
                                                                                        use have the potential to affect the         Evidence of archaeological sites along        include sites significant as traditional
                                                                                        remnant habitats. There is much that         the coast, such as shell middens, stone       meeting places for the Gunditjmara
The estuary of the Glenelg                                                              we can do to protect or restore these        quarries and places of habitation, date       people. They also contain the remains
River near Nelson.                                                                      habitats, while also accommodating           back as far as 12,000 years. Sea levels       of an elaborate aquaculture system for
Photo: Jarred Obst, Glenelg
                                            2.1.3 Hinterland ecosystems
                                                                                        sustainable changes in land use. We          have changed over this time, and              farming eels and the settled
Hopkins Catchment                           The region’s hinterland includes a range
Management Authority                                                                    can make use of appropriate planning         traditional lands extend beyond the           community the eels supported.5
                                            of ecologically significant habitats such
                                                                                        tools, protect local remnant vegetation,     current coastline.
                                            as coastal forests, coastal heath and                                                                                                  Today, the communities in the region
                                                                                        manage weeds and plant shelterbelts,         Aboriginal people have an ongoing and         have a strong interest and role in being
them. In the Western coastal region,        volcanic plains. A number of nationally
                                                                                        design stormwater treatment systems,         intimate relationship with coastal and        more effectively involved in coastal
Discovery Bay Coastal Park protects a       significant estuaries and wetlands extend
                                                                                        fence off riverbanks and protect             marine environments, with continuing          management. Protection of a broad
long expanse of sandy foreshore and         across both foreshore and hinterland.
                                                                                        floodplains, to name a few.                  social, economic, spiritual and traditional   range of values and interests, including
dune ecosystems; other protected            These habitats are represented in
                                            national parks, state parks and reserves                                                 connection. Land and Sea Country is a         cultural heritage, from inappropriate
foreshore areas include Bay of Islands                                                  2.1.4 Geological features
                                            such as the Great Otway National Park                                                    term for the whole environment,               recreation or damage by coastal erosion
Coastal Park, Port Campbell National                                                    The Western coast has a complex
                                            and Lower Glenelg National Park.                                                         integrating land, intertidal areas and        due to storm surge and sea level rise, is
Park and Great Otway National Park.                                                     geological history leaving a wide range      sea, and including natural, heritage,         a major concern, as is sharing the
Foreshore ecosystems connect people’s       Rivers, wetlands and estuaries of state     of environments and features formed          material and spiritual components. This       responsibility for caring for country. The
movements between, and provide              significance occur throughout the region.   from volcanic and sedimentary rocks          connection is the basis for maintaining       communities bring together natural
access to, land and water. People are       They include the Glenelg, Moyne and         and mobile sands. The iconic Twelve          cultural traditions and passing on            and cultural values by working on
able to enjoy swimming, surfing, fishing,   Gellibrand estuaries.2,3 The border         Apostles was created from erosion of         knowledge across generations.                 country.
diving and boating by making use of         region between South Australia and          Port Campbell Limestone laid down
                                            Victoria has the highest density of         10-25 million years ago.4 Dramatic cliffs    The short finned eels (Kuuyang in the         Registered Aboriginal Parties have
foreshore access. People also enjoy
                                            wetlands in southern Australia. The         occur throughout the region ranging          local languages) are highly symbolic to       statutory roles under the Aboriginal
relaxing and walking on the foreshore.
                                            region’s estuaries link catchments to the   from Capes Bridgewater, Nelson and Sir       Aboriginal people of the region. It is a      Heritage Act 2006, and include in the
                                            coast and the marine environment. This      William Grant formed in ancient              significant food resource, a focal point      region:
                                            creates a diverse mix of highly             volcanoes, to the sandstones of Lorne        for their culture and society, and a
                                                                                                                                                                                   –	the Gunditj Mirring Traditional Owners
                                            productive ecosystems that support a        and the mix of sandstone, limestone          connection to past generations.
                                                                                                                                                                                      Aboriginal Corporation for the
                                            rich and diverse range of wildlife and      and clays between Anglesea and               Deen Maar (formerly known as Lady                coastline from Yambuk to the South
                                            vegetation communities; they also           Torquay. Mobile dune sands overlay           Julia Percy Island) used to be                   Australian border to 100m seaward
                                            support nursery areas for many animals.     many features along the coast.               connected to the mainland. It is central         of the mean low water mark;
8         WESTERN REGIONAL
          COA S TA L P L A N
                                            UNDERSTANDING AND VALUING THE COAST

–	the Eastern Maar Aboriginal              2.3 S
                                                 ocial and historical                                                                             to be listed on Australia’s National
   Corporation for areas around the                                                                                                                Heritage List. The Great Ocean Road is
   Shaw and Eumeralla Rivers and                values                                                                                             historically significant having been built
   including Deen Maar. A native title      The coast is important to the Western                                                                  by hand by returned ex-servicemen
   claim and Registered Aboriginal          regional community. In many areas, its                                                                 from World War I.
   Party application process are also       features are the primary attraction for                                                                Deep-water ports are rare in south east
   underway covering areas to the east      residents and tourists. This is reflected in                                                           Australia, so the Port of Portland is an
   of the Shaw River to the Leigh and       the strong sense of connection people                                                                  asset of national significance.7 It is an
   Barwon river basins, and the area        feel for coastal areas and the high levels                                                             export gateway for timber, livestock,
   from the sea in the south to the         of volunteer involvement in                                                                            mineral sands, grains and woodchips.
   Great Dividing Range in the north;       monitoring, managing, protecting and                                                                   Its surrounding heritage and amenity
   and                                      restoring the various values of the coast.                                                             values have seen it attract cruise ships.
–	the Wathaurung Aboriginal                Coastal areas provide extensive and                                                                    The Western coastal region is endowed
   Corporation for the coastline from       varied opportunities for recreation.                                                                   with significant cultural heritage. Some
   the outlet of Painkalac Creek            Fishing, boating, surfing, bushwalking,                                                                of these values are embodied in tangible
   separating Fairhaven and Aireys Inlet    cycling, canoeing, snorkelling and                                                                     objects, such as buildings, landscapes,
   to the eastern boundary of the           diving are common, and many people                                                                     shipwrecks, places of significance and
   Western coastal region and               enjoy passive recreation by simply                                                                     artefacts. Some cultural values, though,
   including three nautical miles           being in the coastal environment.                                                                      are intangible; they include the
   seaward of the coastline.                Coastal areas are also a significant asset                                                             connections to traditions many people
The Traditional Owner Settlement Act        for research and education institutions.                                                               feel, including Aboriginal, maritime and
2010 allows for joint management of         The Western coastal region has large                                                                   agricultural history. Other forms of
coastal parks. Ngootyoong Gunditj           towns such as Warrnambool, Torquay                                                                     cultural value arise from holidaying and
Ngootyoong Mara (Healthy Country            and Portland, that have extensive social                                                               recreational traditions.
Healthy People) – South West                networks associated with employment,                                                                   Cultural heritage values in Warrnambool,
Management Plan is being finalised by       training institutions, sporting and                                                                    Port Fairy and Portland, reach back to
Parks Victoria in consultation with         artistic life. Smaller coastal settlements                                                             Victoria’s early settlement period. The
Traditional Owners. It recognises the       like Apollo Bay and Port Fairy have                                                                    whaling and seal industries were active
Gunditjmara’s connections to country        strong links to neighbourhood, family                                                                  in the early 1800s, and several whaling
and their role in management (also see      and place. Many places along the                                                                       stations were established in Portland
the case study on page 17). The plan        coastline represent strong, long-                                                                      Bay before Victoria’s first permanent
will be used to guide the management        standing connections for the families                                                                  European settlement at Portland in the
and protection of the parks, reserves       and friends that share these places.                                                                   1830s. There are still over 200 buildings
and Indigenous Protected Areas of the
                                            Many features of the Western coastal                                                                   from this era in Portland.
area. More broadly, several groups are                                                     Top: Tower Hill, near        The Great Ocean Road
interested in establishing marine ranger    region are of national significance. For       Port Fairy, is an inactive   is listed as a National    This Plan describes the types of social
                                            example, the Great Ocean Road was              volcano and is part of an    Heritage site and is one
teams to care for their sea country.                                                       important landscape          of Australia’s most        values most explicitly associated with
                                            recently added to the State Heritage           with high cultural and       popular tourist            the coast. Therefore it concentrates on
The Aboriginal Heritage Act 2006 and        Register and has been on the National          environmental values as      destinations.              cultural heritage values and amenity
Aboriginal Heritage Regulations 2007 aim    Heritage Register since 2011. It is one of     seen at the Tower Hill       Photo: Kyeong Woo
                                                                                                                                                   values. This is how it will help coastal
to manage and protect cultural heritage6.   sixteen National Landscapes identified         Visitor Centre.              Kim, Tourism Victoria
                                                                                           Photo: Worn Gundidj                                     planners and managers work with local
                                            by Parks Australia and Tourism Australia,      Aboriginal Cooperative                                  and regional communities to articulate
                                            and the Budj Bim landscape of the                                                                      the priority values they are protecting.
                                            volcanic plains was one of the first places
UNDERSTANDING AND VALUING THE COAST                                                                                                                                                   WESTERN REGIONAL
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             COA STA L PLA N
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       9

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                                                                                                                                                                                             THE ARCHES

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                                                                                                                                                                                           MARINE SANCTUARY
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Skenes Creek
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         GREA

                                                                                                                                      RN OCE
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    T OCEAN ROAD
                                                                                                                                                                                            TWELVE APOSTLES                                                                                                                                                                      Apollo Bay
                                                                                                                                                                                          MARINE NATIONAL PARK

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          ve r

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                        Port                                                   Seafood
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        TRAIT                                                             MARENGO REEF
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         MARINE SANCTUARY

                        Angling
                                                                               Beef & Dairy                                                                             Shipwrecks
                        club

                        Life-saving                                            Pigs Lamb                                                                                Offshore oil                                                               Ramsar
                        club                                                   & Wool                                                                                   & gas                                                                      site

                        Aboriginal                                             Caravan                                                                                  Hardwood
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Parks
                        cultural sites                                         Park                                                                                     plantation

Figure 3 An indicative map of key regional social, economic and environmental values of the Western coastal region Note: Not to scale. This map is intended to give a broad indication of the range of values in the region and is not comprehensive.
10         WESTERN REGIONAL
           COA S TA L P L A N
                                            UNDERSTANDING AND VALUING THE COAST

2.3.1 Amenity values                                                                                                                                              The coast supports a wide range of
Many factors affect people’s enjoyment                                                                                                                            active and passive pursuits that
                                                         Facilities                      Sensory Access                             Vegetation                    contribute to our health and wellbeing.
of the coast and contribute to a sense of
wellbeing by providing amenity values.          Availability of well-maintained            The ability to see and          Abundant and healthy                   Opportunities to interact with natural
                                                                                           hear waves, feel sand,          looking vegetation (including
Figure 4 describes how different
                                                facilities (chairs, playgrounds,
                                                                                                                           mangroves and sea grass
                                                                                                                                                                  places encourage people to be more
                                                benches, tables, toilets, bins)            taste salt and smell
attributes of the coast can contribute to       for general use will increase              seaweed will increase           beds) that supports animals            active and more engaged in social
the way people appreciate and value             satisfaction with amenity.                 satisfaction with               (like birds, reptiles and fish) is     activities.
                                                Note the facilities must not               amenity. This relates           the most important factor in
the coast. Some aspects of amenity are          detract from the ‘naturalness’             to the naturalness at           increasing satisfaction with           The sense of wellbeing derived from the
                                                                                           the beach including             amenity. The exact type of
tangible, such as paths and natural             of the place. Proximity of
                                                                                                                           vegetation that improves
                                                                                                                                                                  coast is intrinsically linked to our ability
                                                paths and access along the                 open space free
vegetation. Others are intangible, such         beach, as well as proximity to             from obtrusive                  amenity differs for individual         to maintain or enhance the quality and
as open space, views, safety on the             cafes and shops. The type of               development.                    locations and needs to be              the extent of natural views, native
                                                facilities expected at different                                           understood at each location.
water, links to places or people, or the                                                                                   Indigenous vegetation is               vegetation and natural landscapes.8 The
                                                locations will vary.
knowledge that wildlife is present.                                                                                        preferable as this has benefits        built environment also contributes to
                                                                                                                           for other values also.
                                                                                                                                                                  our sense of wellbeing by providing
                                                                                                                                                                  people with physical and visual access
                                                                                                                                                                  to the natural environment and its
                                                                                                                                                                  associated intangible values. Parts of
                                                                                                                                            Natural               the built environment also contribute
                                                     Safety                                   SATISFACTION
                                                                                                                                          Physical Form           to the heritage character of many
                                                                                                  WITH
                                                The ability to use the                         THE COAST                                  Beaches with a          towns in the region.
                                                coast safely is an                                                                        more natural physical
                                                attractive feature for a                                                                  form (including sand,   The tracks, paths and boardwalks that
                                                particular beach and                                                                      rock pools, dune        allow people to move to, from or along
                                                can be enhanced by                                                                        system, cliffs) and
                                                signage about hazards,                                                                    without concrete        the beach help improve amenity, while
                                                the presence of a                                                                         will increase           at the same time providing access to
                                                life-saving club and                                                                      satisfaction with       the sights and sounds of the ocean.
                                                other facilities.                                                                         amenity.
                                                                                                                                                                  Similarly, picnic facilities enable people
                                                                                                                                                                  to enjoy the time they spend beside
                                                                       Water Quality                       Clean Beaches                                          the coast.
The Erskine River                                                     Pollution is identified as          No litter or little litter in                           Amenity values are diminished by the
campground provides                                                   an important part of                the sea or around the                                   presence of inappropriate or intrusive
high amenity values in                                                satisfaction with the               beach will increase
Lorne.                                                                beach and can affect                satisfaction with amenity.                              development, high levels of congestion,
Photo: Great Ocean                                                    use such as swimming,               This is based on the                                    poorly managed visitation, degraded
Road Coast Committee                                                  boating, as well as                 relationship between                                    environments, odour, litter and noise.
                                                                      commercial and                      presence of litter and
                                                                      recreational fishing.               satisfaction with
                                                                      Water that is free of oils,         the beach.
                                                                      colours, litter and smells
                                                                      will increase satisfaction
                                                                      with amenity.

                                            Figure 4 Managing visitor satisfaction with their coastal experience – key amenity values
                                            (derived from Melbourne Water)                                                                                                                Gibson Steps near the
                                                                                                                                                                                          Twelve Apostles
                                                                                                                                                                                          Photo: Corangamite
                                                                                                                                                                                          Shire Council
UNDERSTANDING AND VALUING THE COAST                                    WESTERN REGIONAL
                                                                                                                                                                                 COA STA L PLA N
                                                                                                                                                                                                              11

2.4 Economic values                                                                                                          Construction is a major employer in some
                                                                                                                             coastal locations, accounting for 13 per
The Western coast generates significant                                                                                                                                   Case study – Economic
                                                                                                                             cent on the Surf Coast work force and
economic values and benefits from both                                                                                       8.8 per cent in Warrnambool in 2011.12       benefits of the region’s
commercial and non-commercial                                                                                                The retail, education and healthcare/        caravan and camping parks
activities and features.                                                                                                     social assistance sectors are economically   The Value and Equity for Climate
The commercial uses of the coast include                                                                                     significant and important employers.         Adaptation: Caravan and Camping
agriculture and commercial fishing,                                                                                                                                       Park Case Study project was initiated
                                                                                                                             Renewable energy production is growing
manufacturing, tourism and recreation,                                                                                                                                    to gain a better understanding of
                                                                                                                             in the region, with wind, geothermal
construction, shipping and energy                                                                                                                                         non-commercial economic and
                                                                                                                             and natural gas energy projects either
production services and retail activity.                                                                                                                                  social values of the coast to assist
                                                                                                                             in operation or with planning approvals.13
Each of these has direct and flow-on                                                                                                                                      with climate adaptation decisions.
                                                                                                                             The emergence of new energy industries
benefits to local and regional economies.                                                                                    in the region, such as geothermal power,     It was undertaken by the Board in
Dairy, sheep and beef are important for                                                                                      wave power and carbon capture and            2012, and the first stage surveyed
agriculture in the region. Various                                                                                           storage (including from ‘blue carbon’)       both campers and residents in five
aquaculture industries as well as                                                                                            may offer opportunities for economic         coastal towns. It generated a range
commercial and recreational fishing take                                                                                     development, while simultaneously            of new economic and social
place along the coast, targeting abalone,   Caravan and camping parks, such                                                  presenting new threats and pressures         information, such as how people
                                            as Warrnambool’s Surfside                                                                                                     value the beach. It showed that
fin fish and rock lobster. The economic                                         Great Ocean Road from the Princes            to natural and social values.
                                            Holiday Park, deliver significant
contribution of recreational fishing will                                       Highway. Water supply and sewerage                                                        the consumer surplus (what
                                            commercial and non-commercial                                                    The coast also supports high non-
be boosted by the Victorian                 economic benefits to the region.    infrastructure is vital for towns and                                                     people are willing to pay above
                                            Photo: Warrnambool City Council
                                                                                                                             commercial economic values: those for
Government’s Target One Million plan                                            communities. A wide range of other                                                        what is actually charged) across
                                                                                                                             which no commercial transaction takes
to improve fishing opportunities and                                            infrastructure supports recreation,                                                       the five caravan parks was $49 per
                                                                                                                             place. The environment has its own
increase the number of recreational                                             servicing and cultural opportunities.                                                     person per night, which extrapolates
                                                                                                                             intrinsic value, and provides ecosystem
fishers. Value-adding to primary                                                                                                                                          to a $90m benefit provided to the
                                                                                Tourism is a significant contributor to      services offering significant benefits to
products by manufacturing injects a                                                                                                                                       community annually from these
                                                                                the regional economy. The Great Ocean        the community. For example, the
further $4 billion into the region’s                                                                                                                                      five parks alone.
                                                                                Road is a nationally significant tourist     coastline provides storm and flood
economy every year.9                                                            destination and captures around seven        protection and erosion buffers, sand         The second stage of the project
The region’s built infrastructure                                               million visitors, contributes over 7000      dunes provide a sand store for beach         was the development of a
generates and underpins significant                                             jobs and has a direct economic output        replenishment after storms, sea grass        framework which shows the reader
economic value. The Port of Portland is                                         of $1.1 billion per annum.10 It attracts     beds act as nurseries for important fish     how to incorporate this kind of
one of Victoria’s four main commercial                                          more than half of all international visits   species (such as bream and whiting)          information into existing decision
trading ports, handling the bulk of                                             to regional areas (see Section 3.5) and      and coastal saltmarshes fix nutrients        making processes for adaptation. It
commercial trade in the region. Port                                            more domestic tourism expenditure            and carbon.                                  steps decision makers through the
Fairy, Warrnambool and Apollo Bay also                                          than any other region in Victoria.                                                        generation of new information,
support substantial ports that are                                              Recreation also makes substantial                                                         followed by its inclusion in option
tourism destinations. The extensive                                             contributions. For example, the surf                                                      assessments and finally the
road network managed by Vic Roads           Turbines at Cape                    industry contributes $457.2m (25 per                                                      application of the information to
supports economic development,              Bridgewater over the                cent) to the Surf Coast economy.11                                                        the three areas of business case,
                                            Bridgewater Lakes.                                                                                                            Coastal Management Act 1995
tourism and recreation throughout the       Photo: Jarred Obst,
region. It also helps to manage access      Glenelg Hopkins
                                                                                                                                                                          consent and municipal planning
issues, for example by providing            Catchment Management                                                                                                          approval.
                                            Authority
alternative inland access routes to the
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