GIPPSLAND REGIONAL COASTAL PLAN 2015-2020 - Marine and coasts

 
GIPPSLAND REGIONAL COASTAL PLAN 2015-2020 - Marine and coasts
GIPPSLAND REGIONAL
COA S TA L P L A N 2015–2020
GIPPSLAND REGIONAL COASTAL PLAN 2015-2020 - Marine and coasts
Gippsland Coastal Board                         Authorised and published by the Victorian
71 Hotham Street, Traralgon VIC 3844            Government, Department of Environment,
Phone: (03) 5172 2543                           Land, Water and Planning, 8 Nicholson
                                                Street, East Melbourne, September 2015
Electronic copies of the plan are available
online at www.gcb.vic.gov.au.                   © The State of Victoria Department of
If you would like printed copies or have any    Environment, Land, Water and Planning
questions about the plan, please contact us     Melbourne 2015
using the details above.
Members of the Gippsland Coastal Board at
the time of preparing this Regional Coastal
Plan were:                                      This work is licensed under a Creative
                                                Commons Attribution 3.0 Australia licence.
Cr Richard Ellis (Chair)
                                                You are free to re-use the work under that
Mr Ian Needham
                                                licence, on the condition that you credit the
Mr Peter Jennings
                                                State of Victoria as author. The licence does
Mr Paul Smith
                                                not apply to any images, photographs or
Mr Michael (Des) Sinnott OAM
                                                branding, including the Victorian Coat of
Mr Rod Thomas
                                                Arms and the Victorian Government logo.
The Gippsland Coastal Board proudly             To view a copy of this licence, visit http://
acknowledges Victorian Aboriginal               creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/au/
communities and their rich culture; and pays    deed.en
its respects to the Traditional Owners in the
                                                ISBN 978-1-74146-784-0 (Print)
Gippsland Coastal Region. The Board also
                                                ISBN 978-1-74146-785-7 (pdf )
recognises the intrinsic connection of
Traditional Owners to Country and               Disclaimer
acknowledges their contribution in the
                                                This publication may be of assistance to you
management of land, water and resources
                                                but the State of Victoria and its employees
management.
                                                do not guarantee that the publication is
                                                without flaw of any kind or is wholly
                                                appropriate for your particular purposes and
                                                therefore disclaims all liability for any error,
                                                loss or other consequence which may arise
                                                from you relying on any information in this
                                                publication.
                                                Unless stated, images sourced from the
                                                Department of Environment, Land, Water
                                                and Planning.

Front Cover Top: Cape Conran rocks. Bottom
from left: Lakes Entrance. Sailboats at Lakes
Entrance. Fishermans Landing, Lake Tyers.
Photos: Destination Gippsland.
Bottom right: Lakes Entrance, Victoria.
c1920-1954 Photo: Rose Stereograph Co.
GIPPSLAND REGIONAL COASTAL PLAN 2015-2020 - Marine and coasts
GIPPSLAND REGIONAL
                                                                                                                                   COA STA L PLA N
                                                                                                                                                                    I

CONTENTS
Minister’s Foreword                                           II   Balanced Decision Making                          18   List of Figures
Chair’s Foreword                                              II   4	Managing regional population and tourism            Figure 1: The three levels of
1   Introduction                                              1       pressures                                      18   planning for coastal management      1

    1.1   The role of the Gippsland Coastal Board              1       4.1   Background                              18   Figure 2: The Gippsland coastal
                                                                       4.2	The Boating Coastal Action Plan          19   region                               3
    1.2   What is the Regional Coastal Plan?                   1
                                                                       4.3   Activity and recreation nodes           20   Figure 3: Indicative map of the
    1.3   How the Regional Coastal Plan will be used           4                                                          key regional social, economic and
    1.4   Who we work with on land and water                   4       4.4   Key challenges and actions              21   environmental values of the
                                                                   5   A regional approach to foreshore management   22   Gippsland coastal region             8
    1.5   Priority actions for the Gippsland coastal region    5
                                                                       5.1	Background                               22   Figure 4: Managing visitor
Valuing and Understanding the Coast                           7
                                                                                                                          satisfaction with their coastal
2   Coastal values                                            7        5.2   Integrated coastal management           24
                                                                                                                          experience – key amenity values     10
    2.1   Environmental values                                 7       5.3   Key challenges and actions              25
                                                                                                                          Figure 5: Community coastal
    2.2   Social values                                        9   6	Adapting to climate change and increased            values guide decisions in the
                                                                      coastal hazards                                26   Gippsland coastal region            13
    2.3   Economic values                                     11
                                                                       6.1   Background                              26   Figure 6: Indicative map of current
    2.4   Protecting coastal values                           12                                                          boating hierarchy of facilities from
                                                                       6.2	Adaptation planning to manage flooding
3   The dynamics of the coast                                 14            and erosion                              26   the Gippsland Boating Coastal
                                                                                                                          Action Plan 2013                     19
    3.1   Coastal processes                                   14       6.3   Key challenges and actions              29
                                                                                                                          Figure 7: Indicative map of
    3.2   Climate change                                      14   Implementation                                    30   foreshore and waterway managers 23
    3.3   Connections to catchments                           16   7   Supporting communities caring for the coast   30   Figure 8: Map indicating areas for
    3.4   Demographic trends                                  16       7.1   Background                              30   hazard assessment and adaptation
    3.5   Visitation trends                                   16                                                          planning (based on coastal
                                                                       7.2   Actions                                 31
                                                                                                                          instability and low lying areas)   28
    3.6   Industrial processes                                17   8   Monitoring, Evaluation and Reporting          32
                                                                                                                          List of Tables
                                                                   9   References                                    34
                                                                                                                          Table 1: Gippsland region priorities
                                                                   Appendices                                        35   for actions                          5

Cowrie Bay
Photo: Destination
Gippsland
GIPPSLAND REGIONAL COASTAL PLAN 2015-2020 - Marine and coasts
II         GIPPSLAND REGIONAL
           COA S TA L P L A N

MINISTER’S FOREWORD                                                                     CHAIR’S FOREWORD
The coast is close to the hearts of the      This Plan will support government          Gippsland is a uniquely spectacular part     organisations that gave feedback about
many Victorians who live near it, or visit   agencies, community and industry           of Victoria, with its unspoilt wilderness,   the draft plan. These actions will help
it, and enjoy all that it has to offer.      groups to work more collaboratively in     pristine beaches and rich array of           to:
Communities along the coastline are          managing the coast. It will help coastal   wildlife on land and underwater.             –	make sure the coast continues to be
deeply connected to their local              managers and communities tackle            Alongside our coast’s pure white sandy          the place we love, while planning
landscape and care about the future of       challenges on the coast in their region    beaches, headlands and peaks are the            for more people wanting to visit and
the coast.                                   more effectively, and with greater         significant oil, gas and coal resources         settle here;
Our coastal environment is complex           coordination. It will enable us to be      that supply much of Australia’s energy.
                                             more responsive and adaptable as                                                        –	improve the way communities plan
and constantly changing, and there are                                                  For Gippsland’s residents, our coast is a       for coastal flooding so that it makes
many pressures that need to be               pressures change over time, and our
                                             understanding of climate change            source of well-being and relaxation, an         sense to them but doesn’t leave
understood and managed better. As                                                       attractive expanse to enjoy with family         future generations with a debt they
Minister and a Local Member of a             implications improves.
                                                                                        and friends.                                    can’t pay;
coastal area, I appreciate how               The local knowledge, passion and
important it is to understand, protect       enthusiasm of Victoria’s coastal           Whether it’s on a boat exploring the         –	simplify foreshore management and
and care for the things we love about        managers and communities is                Lakes network of waterways, camping             make more out of the available
the coast.                                   invaluable, and I look forward to          down the Prom or Cape Conran, surfing           resources and our joint efforts; and
                                             working together to ensure that the        on the Bass Coast or walking along the       –	continue to support and encourage
Victoria has a strong coastal planning                                                  Ninety Mile Beach, we recognise that
and management framework, based on           diverse natural, social, cultural and                                                      more community involvement in
                                             economic values of the coast that we       Gippsland is a paradise for all.                protecting those coastal values we
the Victorian Coastal Strategy (2014).
The Gippsland Coastal Board has              enjoy today remain for future              This plan acknowledges all the good             love.
developed this Regional Coastal Plan to      generations.                               work going on to identify, understand        I would like to thank the Board for their
build on that framework and outline                                                     and protect the local, regional and          work in developing the Plan. As well, I
how the Strategy should be put into                                                     statewide values of the coast and to         want to thank everyone who
                                             The Hon Lisa Neville MP                    support that work on the big issues at a
practice.                                    Minister for Environment, Climate                                                       contributed to the Plan by coming to
                                                                                        regional level.                              meetings, writing a submission and
                                             Change and Water
                                                                                        The actions outlined in this Plan are        discussing these important issues.
                                                                                        aimed at addressing the regional             These efforts mean the Plan will make a
                                                                                        priorities identified by the Board with      difference to the way we look after our
                                                                                        the help of the many people and              coast over the next five years.

                                                                                                                                     Councillor Richard A Ellis
                                                                                                                                     Chair, Gippsland Coastal Board

                                                                                                                                                          Metung
                                                                                                                                                          Photo: Roberto Seba,
                                                                                                                                                          Tourism Victoria
GIPPSLAND REGIONAL
                                                                                                                                                                                            COA STA L PLA N
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 1

1 INTRODUCTION
1.1 The role of the
     Gippsland Coastal                                                                                                              Victorian Coastal           Developed by the               Sets statewide direction
                                                                                                                                                                                               for coastal planners
     Board                                                                                                                          Strategy
                                                                                                                                                                Victorian Coastal
                                                                                                                                                                Council                        and managers

The Gippsland Lakes and Coast Regional
Coastal Board (commonly known as the
Gippsland Coastal Board) is a statutory
planning and advisory body with
extensive experience and expertise in
coastal matters. The Board provides                                                                                                                             Developed by                   Translates state-wide
strategic guidance for coastal                                                                                                      Regional                    Regional Coastal               direction by identifying
                                                                                                                                    Coastal Plans               Boards                         regional values, initiatives
management of Victoria’s Gippsland                                                                                                                                                             and management gaps
coast. It has specific functions under
the Coastal Management Act 1995.
These are to:
–	Develop coastal action plans
                                          Clinton Rocks,
   (including this overarching Regional                                                                                                                         Developed by coastal
                                          Croajingolong National                                                                    Coastal                                                    Sets local direction and
   Coastal Plan);                         Park, East Gippsland.                     1.2 What is the Regional                       Management
                                                                                                                                                                public land managers
                                                                                                                                                                (eg. local municipalities      develops sub-regional or issues
                                                                                                                                                                                               based operational plans
–	Provide advice to the Minister, the                                                   Coastal Plan?                              Plans                       & committees of
                                                                                                                                                                management)
   Victorian Coastal Council and
                                          –	Liaise with, and encourage the         The Regional Coastal Plan for the
   government on coastal development
                                             cooperation of, government             Gippsland coastal region is a statutory
   and other matters in the region;
                                             departments, councils, public          Coastal Action Plan endorsed under         Figure 1: The three levels of planning for coastal management
–	Prepare and publish guidelines for        authorities, industry, community       Part 3 of the Coastal Management Act
   coastal planning and management           groups and those involved in the       1995. Its contents meet the requirements
   in the region;                            planning and management of the         of section 23 of that Act.
–	Facilitate the implementation of the      region in developing and
                                                                                    The Victorian Coastal Strategy 2014 sets      The Victorian Coastal Strategy 2014 identifies that the term ‘coast’ means:
   Victorian Coastal Strategy, coastal       implementing strategic solutions to
                                             matters affecting the conservation     the broad framework for managing the          –	The marine environment – nearshore marine environment, the seabed,
   action plans and coastal guidelines                                              coast and the basis for developing
   for the region;                           and use of the region’s coast.                                                          and waters out to the State limit of three nautical miles
                                                                                    regional coastal plans and coastal
–	Facilitate public awareness,           More broadly, the Board seeks to be an    management plans (Figure 1). The              –	Foreshores – or coastal Crown land up to 200 m from the high water mark
   consultation and involvement in the    advocate for coastal issues. It aims to   Gippsland Coastal Board has focussed          –	Coastal hinterland – land directly influenced by the sea or directly
   development and implementation         work with agencies, local councils and    this overarching Plan on identifying and         influencing the coastline, and with critical impacts on the foreshore and
   of the Victorian Coastal Strategy,     communities in the Gippsland coastal      prioritising those management actions            nearshore environment
   coastal action plans and coastal       region to shape future expectations       that cannot be achieved more effectively
                                          about how the coast and use of the                                                      –	Catchments – rivers and drainage systems that affect the coastal zone,
   guidelines in the region; and                                                    at either the local or state level.
                                          coast will change over time, how we                                                        including estuaries and coastal wetlands
                                          should respond to those changes, and      The Regional Coastal Plan provides a
                                                                                                                                  –	Atmosphere – near, around and over the coast as defined above.
                                          how we should use and manage the          regional framework for planning and
                                          coast to protect its values.              decision-making on both public and
2          GIPPSLAND REGIONAL
           COA S TA L P L A N

freehold land at the local level. It also                                                                                   The principle of ‘Integrated Coastal Zone
provides a focus for all agencies with                                                                                      Management’ (ICZM) underpins the
responsibility for coastal management                                                                                       Gippsland Regional Coastal Plan. ICZM
to act together to plan and manage the                                                                                      is about working across a geographic
coast by:                                                                                                                   area (land to sea), across different land
–	Interpreting and implementing the                                                                                        tenures (public and private), and across
   Victorian Coastal Strategy 2014 and                                                                                      organisations and jurisdictions
   its hierarchy of principles at a                                                                                         (national, State, regional and local).
   regional scale;                                                                                                          ICZM is achieved through both formal
                                                                                                                            and informal collaboration and
–	Facilitating integration across                                                                                          coordination between the various
   jurisdictions to increase efficiency                                                                                     groups using and managing the coast.
   and effectiveness;
                                                                                                                            This plan has three parts:
–	Identifying regional coastal values
   and strategic priorities to be                                                                                           –	Chapters 2 and 3 give an overview
   accounted for; and                                                                                                          of the values of the Gippsland
                                                                                                                               coastal region and the key issues
–	Identifying solutions that address                                                                                          affecting them;
   systemic gaps in coastal management.                  Tidal River, Wilsons
                                                         Promontory              As a statutory document, the Regional      –	Chapters 4, 5, 6 and 7 set out the
The Plan will provide the framework for                  Photo: Peter Jennings                                                 strategic objectives for the region
                                                                                 Coastal Plan has important links with
agencies, community and industry                                                                                               (as regional priorities); and
                                                                                 other statutory instruments. In
groups working and engaging with
                                                                                 particular, as outlined in the Victorian   –	Chapters 7 and 8 explain how the
decision makers on emerging strategic
                                                                                 Coastal Strategy 2014, the broader land       Board intends to work with its partner
regional priorities for the Gippsland
                                                                                 use planning system is important for          agencies and other stakeholders,
coastal region. The Plan will also guide
                                                                                 the implementation of the Strategy,           and summarises how the plan will
the development of coastal
                                                                                 Regional Coastal Plans and coastal            be implemented, including the
management plans.
                                                                                 management plans (see Appendix 1).            process of monitoring and reporting.
The Plan’s primary audiences are local                                           The relationship between these policies
councils, committees of management,                                              and plans is through:
state government agencies and peak
                                                                                 –	The State Planning Policy Framework
bodies with coastal management
                                                                                    which requires coastal planning to
responsibilities. It also aims to provide   Sea urchin                              be consistent with the Strategy and
landowners, volunteer groups and
                                                                                    relevant coastal action plans
coastal communities with an
                                                                                    (including the Regional Coastal Plan)
understanding of the framework for
                                                                                    and regional growth plans; and
managing and protecting coastal
                                                         Pelicans at Metung      –	Sections of local planning schemes
values in the region and how they can                    Photo: Destination
contribute to that.                                      Gippsland                  through Municipal Strategic
                                                                                    Statements and Local Planning
                                                                                    Policy Frameworks.
GIPPSLAND REGIONAL
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          and provide clear direction for the
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          future; and
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Victoria
                                                                                    BAW BAW
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      s on                                                                                                                                          Coastal Park
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Clydebank
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       –	Ensure the sustainable use of
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          natural coastal resources.
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                                                                                                                                                    Welshpool                                 Albert
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       The actions in this Regional Coastal
                                                                        Bay
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                                                                                    Point                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              work to make sure that decision
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                                                                                                                            Darby
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       making on the coast is guided by,
                                                                                                                    Sealers
                                                                                                              Tidal Swamp
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Catchment Management Authority boundary                                                                                                                                                   Sustainable growth                                                                                          and consistent with, the Victorian
                                                                                                              River                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Coastal Strategy 2014.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Highway                                                                                                                                                                        Source: Regional Growth Plans

          Figure 2 The Gippsland coastal region.
4           GIPPSLAND REGIONAL
            COA S TA L P L A N

1.3 H
     ow the Regional                                                                                                                                                            There are two types of statutory waterway
                                                                                                                                                                                 managers in Victoria. Waterway managers
    Coastal Plan will                                                                                                                                                            are appointed under the Marine Safety
    be used                                                                                                                                                                      Act 2010 to manage vessel activities and
                                                                                                                                                                                 associated issues (along with Marine
In line with the hierarchy of principles in                                                                                                                                      Safety Victoria). In Gippsland, catchment
the Victorian Coastal Council 2014, the                                                                                                                                          management authorities have statutory
Regional Coastal Plan outlines key                                                                                                                                               responsibilities under the Water Act
regional issues and priorities and identifies                                                                                                                                    1989 to protect and enhance waterway
actions and outcomes to be achieved.                                                                                                                                             health.
The Plan will build the evidence base to                                                                                                                                         A number of other organisations have
guide future planning and establish                                                                                                                                              responsibilities in identifying and
foundations to progressively improve                                                                                                                                             protecting the Gippsland coastal region’s
management decisions. This will help                                                                                                                                             community values: these include the
to better target investment, improve                                                                                                                                             former Gippsland Lakes Ministerial
coordination and promote best                                                                                                                                                    Advisory Committee, Regional
practice. Importantly, the Board will use                                                                                                                                        Development Victoria, Fisheries Victoria,
the Plan to work with other managers            Progress Jetty, Paynesville                                                          Fairy terns                                 water corporations, regional tourism
and stakeholders to increase the                Photo: Destination Gippsland                                                         Photo: Annette Hatten                       boards and Vic Roads.
understanding and appreciation of the
coast, protect its values and further                                                                                                                                            Many of these organisations have
                                                coast. This is a state-wide issue raised in                                                                                      planning processes for their coastal
improve management arrangements                                                                                                      1.4 Who we work with                       management responsibilities. For
and outcomes.                                   the Victorian Coastal Strategy 2014.
                                                The budgets of coastal management
                                                                                                                                          on land and water                      example, local councils have statutory
Where existing Coastal Action Plans are                                                                                                                                          planning processes and contribute to
still relevant, local managers may              agencies at state, regional and local                                                Just as people use the coast for a range    regional growth plans, and catchment
continue to use these plans. It is              levels are expected to remain highly                                                 of reasons, there are a number of           management authorities have regional
expected that over time these                   constrained over the next few years                                                  managers on land and water responsible      catchment and waterway strategies.
sub-regional Coastal Action Plans               given the current economic conditions.                                               for different areas and issues. These       The Board aims to use this Plan to work
would transition into Coastal                   Therefore this Plan has been designed                                                managers cover from the catchment to        with these organisations to achieve the
Management Plans where needed.                  to set realistic expectations about what                                             the sea. Foreshores are managed by a        best outcomes for the Gippsland coast.
                                                can be delivered and by when. The                                                    range of organisations. Parks Victoria is
The Regional Coastal Plan will also                                                                                                                                              This plan helps clarify the roles and
                                                Board anticipates that most of the key                                               responsible for managing national
support investment planning and                                                                                                                                                  responsibilities for several specific
                                                actions can be delivered within existing                                             parks and other conservation areas.
decisions. Ongoing funding arrangements                                                                                                                                          issues particularly for managing and
                                                budgets of management agencies.                                                      Others with significant responsibilities
are essential in enabling coastal managers                                                                                                                                       adapting to climate change (Chapter 6).
                                                However additional funding will be            Principle                              in the Gippsland coastal region include
to meet their responsibilities and to                                                                                                                                            It also identifies actions to clarify
                                                needed to carry out some further              The Gippsland Coastal Board will       committees of management, Traditional
better understand, protect and manage                                                                                                                                            responsibilities for other issues which
                                                planning and management steps such            participate in a review of funding     Owners, catchment management
coastal values and assets. Current                                                                                                                                               will help to improve coordination and
                                                as detailed coastal hazard studies and        arrangements for coastal               authorities, Gippsland Ports and local
revenue streams, such as income from                                                                                                                                             collaboration between managers.
                                                adaptation plans. Over the next five years    management by the Victorian            councils.
camping areas and caravan parks on
                                                the Plan provides the framework for           Coastal Council and the
Crown land, are important. However,
                                                state, regional and local agencies and        Department of Environment, Land,
during the consultation for this plan
                                                the private sector to work together on        Water and Planning, as outlined in
many organisations and individuals
                                                attracting funding to carry out these         the Victorian Coastal Strategy 2014.
expressed their concerns that funding
                                                additional pieces of work.
was a limiting factor for managing the
GIPPSLAND REGIONAL
                                                                                                                                                      COA STA L PLA N
                                                                                                                                                                                       5

1.5 Priority actions for                  These regional priorities reflect:

     the Gippsland                         –	Key issues identified in the Victorian
                                              Coastal Strategy 2014 which are
     coastal region                           relevant for specific attention in the
                                              Gippsland coastal region (see Table 1
1.5.1 Regional priorities                     and Appendix 2);
The Gippsland Coastal Board identified     –	Issues identified as important by
five regional priorities:                     stakeholders during the consultation
–	Managing and protecting coastal            process; and
   values;                                 –	Areas where the Board can provide
–	Managing impacts of residential and        leadership and influence.
   tourism growth to balance access        The actions in this plan will contribute
   and protect natural, social, cultural   to these priorities by:
   and economic values;
                                           –	Supporting the work of a range of
–	Integrating coastal planning and           organisations and groups
   management on the foreshore;               responsible for understanding,           Mobile Marlo sandbanks
–	Adapting to climate change and             managing and protecting the broad
   increased coastal hazards; and             values of the Gippsland coast;
–	Supporting communities to               –	Building the evidence base for            VCS 2014 Key Issues                     Gippsland Regional Priorities
   contribute to protection and               ongoing management, particularly          Managing for population                 Chapter 4 – Managing regional population and tourism
   management of the coast.                   for the way we use the coast;             growth                                  pressures
                                           –	Improving the integration and             Adapting to a changing climate          Chapter 6 – Adapting to climate change and increased
                                              coordination of management; and                                                   coastal hazards

                                           –	Developing approaches to                  Managing coastal land and               Chapter 5 – A regional approach to foreshore
                                              encourage sustainable development         infrastructure                          management
                                              including better consideration of         Valuing the natural environment         Chapter 2 – Coastal values
                                              coastal hazards and impacts from          Integrating marine planning             Contribute to proposed: review of the Coastal
                                              climate change.                                                                   Management Act 1995, new Marine and Coastal Act, and
                                                                                                                                new management arrangements and oversight of
                                           The actions apply across both public                                                 marine parks, coasts and bays
                                           and private land tenures. None of the
                                           regional priorities can be considered in     Integration of key issues               Chapter 3 – The dynamics of the coast
                                           isolation. Each action is linked;                                                    Chapter 7 – Supporting communities caring for the
                                           recognising these linkages will lead to                                              coast
                                           better outcomes from the implementation
                                           of the Regional Coastal Plan.               Table 1: Gippsland regional priorities

Bancroft Bay at dusk.
Photo: Destination
Gippsland
6            GIPPSLAND REGIONAL
             COA S TA L P L A N

                                                                                                                      V ISION

                                                                                        A healthy coast appreciated by all, now and in the future
1.5.2 T
       he Plan at a glance

                                                                     K E Y STATE WIDE COASTAL ISSUES (as identified in the Victorian Coastal Strategy 2014)

              Managing for                                    Adapting to a                                 Managing coastal land                            Valuing the natural                            Integrating marine
            population growth                               changing climate                                 and infrastructure                                 environment                                      planning

                                                                                                 P RIO RIT Y G IP P S L A ND COA S TA L IS S UES

         Managing and protecting                     Managing regional population                             A regional approach to                 Adapting to climate change and                    Communities supported to
             coastal values                             and tourism pressures                                foreshore management                       increased coastal hazards                         care for the coast

                                                                                        THE G IP P S L A ND REG IO NA L COA S TA L P L A N AC TION S

     CHAPTERS 2 AND 3                                      CHAPTER 4                                                  CHAPTER 5                                     CHAPTER 6                                       CHAPTER 7
    The Gippsland Regional         1.	Work with partner organisations to implement actions in         1.	Prepare guidelines for the               1.	Develop a systematic approach to           1.	Work with partner organisations to
    Coastal Board will work            the Gippsland Boating Coastal Action Plan.                          development of coastal management            prioritise areas for detailed coastal          improve understanding of coastal values
    with relevant organisations    2.	Work with public land managers and waterway                         plans.                                       hazard assessments and adaptation              and processes by organising:
    to improve the                     managers to:                                                    2.	Develop a process that brings local          planning.                                      a.	a biennial regional coastal
    understanding and                  a.	map and categorise visitation infrastructure                    managers to work together where it is    2.	Refine methodologies for conducting                conference; and
    appreciation of coastal                throughout the region;                                          sensible for a coastal management            detailed coastal hazard assessments            b.	regular information sharing events
    values and processes.                                                                                  plan to be developed across multiple         to identify high risk areas, and clarify           – such as the Corner Inlet
                                       b.	develop a service-level hierarchy for visitation
                                           infrastructure; and                                             land managers. From this, local public       the role of flood studies in the hazard            Connections Partner Group and
                                                                                                           land managers can put together               assessment process.                                Gippsland coastal inter-agency
                                       c.	document and analyse effectiveness of existing
                                                                                                           precinct or master plans.                3.	Refine methodologies for local                     forums.
                                           approaches to demand management (including
                                           parking fees, entrance fees, camping fees, leasing          3.	Work with Traditional Owners                 adaptation planning, including             2.	Work with statewide community
                                           arrangements, licensing arrangements and the                    preparing multi park plans that              addressing barriers to practical local         groups and programs to:
                                           use of smart-phone apps).                                       include coastal areas.                       adaptation actions.                            a.	support all community coastal
                                   3.	Identify priority areas for visitation demand                   4.	Ensure there are current coastal         4.	Continue, or undertake new, detailed               volunteers to collect data about the
                                       management. In particular:                                          management plans (including                  coastal hazard assessments and                     coast to inform local decision-making;
                                                                                                           foreshore management plans) in place         adaptation planning, particularly for          b.	support community groups to
                                       a.	resilient parts of the landscape where visitation
                                                                                                           in the Gippsland coastal region where        the priority areas identified in 1.                better link with Traditional Owners
                                           can be encouraged;
                                                                                                           needed.                                  5.	Implement identified adaptation                    to work on joint coastal projects;
                                       b.	vulnerable parts of the landscape where demand
                                                                                                                                                        responses through local decisions, for             and
                                           might be reduced by encouraging visitors towards
                                                                                                                                                        example updating local planning                c.	attract volunteers from a broad
                                           alternative sites; and
                                                                                                                                                        schemes, coastal management plans                  range of age groups, particularly
                                       c.	vulnerable parts of the landscape with unique                                                                and emergency plans, and prioritising
                                           visitor experiences and limited scope to reduce                                                                                                                 young people.
                                                                                                                                                        future works.
                                           demand.                                                                                                                                                 3.	Promote and support the work done
                                   4.	Using the data from actions 1, 2 and 3, develop a                                                                                                               by local coastal and marine community
                                       Visitation Demand Framework to guide local                                                                                                                      groups including, but not limited to,
                                       decisions, support investment and communicate                                                                                                                   Reefwatch, Seasearch and
                                       with users.                                                                                                                                                     EstuaryWatch.
VALUING AND UNDERSTANDING THE COAST                                 GIPPSLAND REGIONAL
                                                                                                                                                                                            COA STA L PLA N
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           7

2 COASTAL VALUES
The Gippsland coastal region provides                                                                                                   in the Croajingolong National Park and     to a growing population. The Gippsland
significant environmental, cultural,                                                                                                    at Wilsons Promontory, extensive dune      Lakes Ramsar site covers an area of
social, and economic values for all                                                                                                     barriers, estuary and wetland systems in   58,824 hectares and includes Lake
Victorians (see Figure 3). The region’s                                                                                                 the Gippsland Lakes and the Ninety         Wellington, Lake Victoria, Lake King,
sandy lagoons, numerous sheltered                                                                                                       Mile Beach area, coastal embayments        Lake Bunga, Lake Tyers, Macleod Morass
inlets and spectacular stretches of                                                                                                     such as Corner Inlet, Shallow Inlet and    and Lake Reeve. The Corner Inlet
beach are unlike any other coastal                                                                                                      Andersons Inlet in South Gippsland and     Ramsar site covers 67,192 hectares
region. Understanding these values is                                                                                                   the drowned river valley of Mallacoota     including a unique system of barrier
essential for effective decision-making.                                                                                                Inlet.1,2 The region’s estuaries link      islands and tidal mudflats. It is a
This broad range of values is managed                                                                                                   catchments to the coast and the            feeding, nesting and breeding area for
and monitored by different organisations                                                                                                marine environment. This creates a         thousands of waterbirds and one of the
including catchment management                                                                                                          diverse mix of highly productive           most important areas in Victoria for
authorities, Parks Victoria, local councils,                                                                                            ecosystems that support a rich and         resident and migratory shorebirds. It
committees of management, VicRoads,                                                                                                     diverse range of wildlife, vegetation      also has the world’s most southerly
water corporations, Gippsland Ports,                                                                                                    communities and nursery areas for          population of white mangrove5. The
Traditional Owners, the Environment                                                                                                     many animals.                              Croajingolong National Park has been
Protection Authority, regional bodies                                                                                                   Coastal vegetation and sediments           internationally recognised as a
and the Department of Environment,                                                                                                      provide ecosystem services by              Biosphere Reserve since 1977; it is one
                                                                                           The Burrunan dolphin, Tursiops
                                                                                                                                                                                   of only 15 in Australia.6
Land, Water and Planning.                      2.1 Environmental                          australis, resembles the bottlenose
                                                                                           dolphin but also show numerous
                                                                                                                                        sequestering carbon (known as ‘blue
                                                                                                                                        carbon’) in mangroves, seagrass            2.1.1 Marine Ecosystems
                                                    values                                 distinctions
                                                                                           Photo courtesy of the Gippsland              meadows and coastal saltmarshes.
                                                                                           Lakes Ministerial Advisory
                                                                                                                                                                                   Australia’s southern coast is unique.
  Principle                                    The Gippsland coast features extensive
                                                                                           Committee
                                                                                                                                        The Gippsland coastal region supports      There is no other east-west expanse of
  The Gippsland Regional Coastal               and diverse natural environments, as                                                     many species listed in migratory bird      temperate shoreline in the southern
  Board will support and work with             noted in The Gippsland Coastal and                                                       agreements with Japan (JAMBA), China       hemisphere. Some of Victoria’s marine
  all coastal managers to improve              Marine Asset Framework (2011). Its          aggregation areas for blue, southern         (CAMBA) and the Republic of Korea          species, such as the eastern blue groper,
  the understanding, appreciation              environmental values are of national        right and humpback whales, and               (ROKAMBA) as well as threatened species,   occur nowhere else in the world.
  and protection of the Gippsland              and international significance. With its    breeding colonies for Australian and         such as the little tern, Lathams snipe
                                               overlapping cool and warm temperate                                                      and hooded plover. Places like Shallow     Gippsland is home to marine habitats
  coast’s values.                                                                          New Zealand fur seals. Inter-tidal
                                               zones, the region supports over 3000                                                     Inlet and Nooramunga Marine and            of state significance, such as the Corner
                                                                                           habitats, such as sand flats, rocky shores
                                               plant species, 500 terrestrial vertebrate                                                Coastal Park – Victoria’s largest marine   Inlet Marine and Coastal Park which has
                                                                                           and rock pools, support diverse marine
                                               species, several hundred fish species and                                                protected area – have long been            the largest area of broad-leafed
                                                                                           life and seabirds. Other significant
                                               a vast number of invertebrate fauna1,2.                                                  identified for their state significant     seagrass in Victoria.5
                                                                                           coastal and marine habitats include
                                               Numerous species and ecological             seagrass meadows along parts of the          coastal habitat for waterbirds.3           The Burrunan dolphin, only recently
                                               communities are listed as vulnerable,       Gippsland coast and the southern most        Parts of the Gippsland Lakes and Corner    classified as a new dolphin species, is
                                               threatened or endangered, including         global extent of mangroves in Corner         Inlet are wetlands listed under the        endemic to southern Australian waters
                                               the nationally vulnerable subtropical       Inlet. Over 60 per cent of important         international Ramsar Convention.4 The      and is most commonly seen in two
                                               and temperate coastal saltmarsh             bird areas (defined by Birds Australia)      Gippsland Lakes are one of Victoria’s      resident populations in coastal Victoria:
                                               community. Some significant habitats        within the state occur in the region.        most important environmental assets        the Gippsland Lakes and Port Phillip.
                                               for vulnerable fauna include nesting                                                     and a local, national and international    The Gippsland Lakes Environment Fund
                                                                                           The natural environments vary
                                               and roosting sites for fairy terns and                                                   icon. The Lakes are a major tourist        supported research into the dolphin
                                                                                           dramatically. They include large areas of
                                               hooded plovers, migration paths and                                                      destination, recreation area and home      and its habitat requirements.7
                                                                                           relatively untouched rugged coastline
8                             GIPPSLAND REGIONAL
                              COA S TA L P L A N
                                                                                             VALUING AND UNDERSTANDING THE COAST
                                                                                                                                                                               O
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Baines
                                                            BAW BAW SHIRE                                                                      Maffra                              Stratford                                                      Paynesville                         Swamp                                            Ewing Marsh
                                                                                                                          Heyfield T h o m s o                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 POINT HICKS
                                                                                                                                               n R i ve
                                                                                                                                                        r                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  MARINE NATIONAL PARK
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                                                                                                                                                                                                               Wellington Victoria
                                                                                                                               Rosedale                              L a Tr o b e R i v e r Sale                                Lake
                                               Warragul                        Moe                                                                                                                                             Reeve                               GIPPSLAND LAKES
                                                                                          LATROBE CITY                                                                HOLEY PLAINS                                                                                   COASTAL PARK
                                                                                                                    Traralgon                               an C re e kNATIONAL PARK
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                                                                             Foster                  Barry
                                                                                          Toora
                                                                                                     Beach Welshpool                                                   Port Albert
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Ramsar
                        Venus Bay
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           site
                        CAPE LIPTRAP                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Coal-fired
                        COASTAL PARK                                                          CORNER INLET                                      NOORAMUNGA MARINE                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             power stations
                                                                                                MARINE &                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Aboriginal site
                                                                                                                                                  & COASTAL PARK
                                                                                              COASTAL PARK                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 of significance
                                                                             SHALLOW
                                                                               INLET                     WILSONS
                                                                   ap

                                                          C a p e L i p t r MARINE &         Darby
                                                                                                       PROMONTORY                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Angling                                            Parks
                                                                           COASTAL PARK     Swamp        NATIONAL                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          club                                               Victoria
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        IT
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   STRA
                                                                                                           PARK
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 BASS                                                                                                                         Offshore oil
                                                                                                  Tidal River                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Port
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              & gas

                                                                                                                                                          WILSONS PROMONTORY                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Shipwrecks                                         Lamb & wool
                                                                                                                                                          MARINE NATIONAL PARK

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Life saving club                                   Beef & dairy

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Caravan park                                       Tree plantation

Figure 3 Indicative map of the key regional social, economic and environmental values of the Gippsland coastal region (not to scale).
VALUING AND UNDERSTANDING THE COAST                 GIPPSLAND REGIONAL
                                                                                                                                                                      COA STA L PLA N
                                                                                                                                                                                           9

The Board notes the work of the             with high levels of salt and reduce their   2.2 Social values
Victorian Environment Assessment            water needs.
Council in documenting Gippsland’s                                                      The Gippsland coastal region has a
                                            Foreshore ecosystems bridge people’s
marine values and making                                                                wealth of social resources. The larger
                                            movements between land and water.
recommendations for managing those                                                      towns of Warragul, Traralgon, Sale and
                                            People enjoy swimming, surfing, diving,
values in its Marine Investigation Final                                                Bairnsdale have social networks
                                            fishing and boating through foreshore
report.3 The report identifies many                                                     associated with employment, training
                                            access. People also enjoy relaxing and
different types of marine habitat in the                                                institutions, sporting and artistic life.
                                            walking on the foreshore. In some
Gippsland coastal region. These include                                                 Smaller coastal settlements like Venus
                                            places, infrastructure such as pipelines
pelagic habitats (the water column                                                      Bay, Port Albert, Loch Sport and Marlo
                                            for gas and oil need to go across
within the ocean), deep rocky reefs,                                                    have strong links to neighbourhood,
                                            foreshore areas.
sub-tidal rocky reefs, intertidal                                                       family and place. Many locations along
shorelines, including rock platforms and    2.1.3 Hinterland Ecosystems                 the Gippsland coastline like Lakes
sandy beaches.                                                                          Entrance, Paynesville and Mallacoota
                                            Behind the foreshore, the region has a      are major tourist towns that represent
The Victorian Government has                number of nationally significant            strong long-standing connections for
committed to reviewing the Coastal          estuaries and coastal wetlands, as well     the families and friends who share
Management Act 1995 and                     as ecologically significant habitats such   these places.8
management arrangements for marine          as the Gippsland Plains, coastal forests                                                                        Port Albert, low tide
parks, coasts and bays. These initiatives   and coastal heath.                          People are attracted to life on the                                 Photo: Peter Jennings
will be the primary mechanism to                                                        Gippsland coast by its scenic beauty,
                                             These habitats are represented in the      recreational amenity and housing
improve the integration of marine and
                                            parks system, good examples being           affordability. Coastal settlements in
coastal planning – a key issue in the
                                            Wilsons Promontory, Croajingolong and       Gippsland range from towns such as
Victorian Coastal Strategy 2014.
                                            the Lakes National Park. Rivers and         Lakes Entrance to villages and hamlets
2.1.2 Foreshore Ecosystems                  estuaries of state significance occur on    such as Bemm River, Gipsy Point, Sandy
                                            both public and private land. The           Point and Seaspray. Around 40 per cent
Foreshore ecosystems are particularly       Mitchell, Snowy and Bemm Rivers are
important: they form the link between                                                   of Gippsland’s population is located in
                                            all Heritage Rivers with significant        villages and settlements of less than
marine, estuarine, freshwater and           estuaries that are part of the engine
terrestrial areas. Foreshore habitats                                                   500 people.
                                            room for the carbon and nutrient cycles
include the beach, dune system,             that support coastal plants and animals.    The importance of the coast to the
headland scrub, mangroves and                                                           community is evidenced by the high
saltmarshes.                                In southern and central Gippsland,          level of volunteerism. People willingly     Paynesville foreshore
                                            towns and farms have now replaced           give their time to be involved in           has multiple uses
Unstable low-nutrient soils, made           original habitat in some ecosystems, so                                                 Photo: Destination
largely of sands that hold little water,                                                monitoring, managing, protecting and        Gippsland
                                            not all species are fully protected in      restoring coastal values.
interact with wind and salt to provide      parks and reserves. Further changes in                                                                          Squeaky Beach track in
the critical influences on coastal          land use have the potential to affect
                                                                                                                                                            Wilsons Promontory
vegetation. Plant communities growing                                                                                                                       National Park
                                            those species. Therefore it is important                                                                        Photo: Garry Moore,
in these areas have evolved to cope         to think through the best way to                                                                                Tourism Victoria
with this challenging environment.          safeguard them.
Examples include the native spinifex
that binds shifting sand dunes, as well
as moonah and sheoak trees whose
narrow leaves enable them to cope
10         GIPPSLAND REGIONAL
           COA S TA L P L A N
                                             VALUING AND UNDERSTANDING THE COAST

2.2.1 Amenity values                         2.2.2 Cultural heritage values                                                                                                                                         2.2.3 Aboriginal cultural
Many factors affect people’s enjoyment       The Gippsland coastal region is endowed                       Facilities                      Sensory Access                             Vegetation                           heritage
of the coast and contribute to their well    with significant coastal cultural heritage.          Availability of clear visitor              The ability to see and          Abundant and healthy                   The Gippsland coastal region has cultural
being by providing amenity values.           Some of these values are embodied in                 information and well                       hear waves, feel sand,          looking vegetation (including          heritage significance to its Traditional
                                                                                                  designed and maintained                    taste salt and smell            mangroves and sea grass
Figure 4 describes how different             tangible objects, such as buildings,                                                            seaweed will increase           beds) that supports animals            Owners, including the Gunaikurnai.
                                                                                                  facilities (chairs, playgrounds,
attributes of the coast can contribute to    landscapes, shipwrecks, places of                    benches, tables, toilets, bins)            satisfaction with               (like birds, reptiles and fish) is     Aboriginal people of the area have
the way people appreciate and value it.      significance and artefacts. Some cultural                                                       amenity. This relates           the most important factor in
                                                                                                  for general use will increase
                                                                                                                                                                             increasing satisfaction with
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    strong connections with the region:
                                                                                                  satisfaction with amenity.                 to the naturalness at
Some aspects of amenity are tangible,        values, though, are intangible: they                                                            the beach including             amenity. The exact type of             their stories of place, and the tens of
                                                                                                  Note the facilities must not
such as paths and natural vegetation.        include the connections to traditions                detract from the ‘naturalness’             open space free                 vegetation that improves               thousands of years of physical evidence
                                                                                                                                             from obtrusive                  amenity differs for individual
Others are intangible, such as open          many people feel, including Aboriginal,              of the place. Proximity of
                                                                                                                                                                             locations and needs to be              of their presence, remind us of these
                                                                                                  paths and access along the                 development.
space, views, links to places or people,     maritime and agricultural history. Other             beach, as well as proximity to                                             understood at each location.           links. The region contains many
or the knowledge that wildlife is            forms of cultural value arise from                   cafes and shops. The type of                                               Indigenous vegetation is               archaeological sites, such as midden
                                                                                                                                                                             preferable as this has benefits
present.9                                    holidaying and recreational customs.                 facilities expected at different
                                                                                                                                                                             for other values also.                 sites, artefact scatters, scar trees and
                                                                                                  locations will vary.
The sense of wellbeing people derive         Connections to natural heritage,                                                                                                                                       camping places. The ancestors of these
from the coast is intrinsically linked to    including culturally significant landscapes                                                                                                                            groups managed traditional areas now
our ability to maintain or enhance the       and biodiversity, are also meaningful.                                                                                                                                 inundated; groups moved as the coast
quality and extent of natural views,         The Gippsland coast has other abundant                                                                                                           Natural               line changed over thousands of years.
native vegetation and natural                heritage values as well. Its rich maritime                Safety                                   SATISFACTION
                                                                                                                                                                                            Physical Form           Aboriginal people have an ongoing and
landscapes. The built environment also       history is a prime example. The wreck of             The ability to use the
                                                                                                                                                    WITH
                                                                                                                                                                                            Beaches with a          intimate relationship with coastal and
                                                                                                                                                 THE COAST
contributes to people’s enjoyment of         the Sydney Cove longboat in 1797 was                 coast safely is an                                                                        more natural physical   marine environments, with continuing
the coast: it provides us with physical      the first recorded wreck of a European               attractive feature for a                                                                  form (including sand,   social, spiritual or traditional connection.
                                                                                                  particular beach and                                                                      rock pools, dune
and visual access to the natural             vessel along Victoria’s coastline; it also           can be enhanced by                                                                        system, cliffs) and     Land and sea country is a term for the
environment and its associated               resulted in the first European exploration           signage about hazards,                                                                    without concrete        whole environment, integrating land,
intangible values.                           of Bass Strait.                                      the presence of a                                                                         will increase
                                                                                                  life-saving club and                                                                      satisfaction with
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    intertidal areas and sea, and including
For example, the tracks, paths and           Port Albert, established in 1841, is                 other facilities.                                                                         amenity.                natural, heritage, material and spiritual
boardwalks that allow people to move         noteworthy as Gippsland’s first port.                                                                                                                                  components. This connection is the basis
to, from or along the beach help             Several buildings and sites in Port Albert                                                                                                                             for maintaining cultural traditions and
                                                                                                                         Water Quality                       Clean Beaches                                          passing on knowledge across generations.
improve amenity. At the same time            are listed in the Victorian Heritage Register.
they provide people with access to the       Other sites listed on the register include:                                Pollution is identified as          No litter or little litter in                           In 2010, the Gunaikurnai were recognised
                                                                                                                        an important part of                the sea or around the
sights and sounds of the ocean.              –	the area associated with construction                                   satisfaction with the               beach will increase                                     under the Native Title Act 1993 as Traditional
Similarly, picnic facilities enable people      of the artificial entrance to the                                       beach and can affect                satisfaction with amenity.                              Owners of approximately 1.3 million
to enjoy the time they spend beside             Gippsland Lakes at Lakes Entrance;
                                                                                                                        use such as swimming,               This is based on the                                    hectares in Gippsland extending from
                                                                                                                        boating, as well as                 relationship between
the coast.                                                                                                              commercial and                      presence of litter and                                  near Warragul to the Snowy River, north
                                             –	the light stations at Gabo Island, Point                                recreational fishing.               satisfaction with                                       to the Great Dividing Range, and
High amenity values also create health          Hicks and Wilsons Promontory; and                                       Water that is free of oils,         the beach.
benefits by encouraging people to be                                                                                                                                                                                including 200 metres of offshore sea
                                                                                                                        colours, litter and smells
more active by involving themselves in       –	the Paynesville government slip and                                     will increase satisfaction                                                                  territory. This area includes the coastline
bushwalking, boating, cycling,                  winch shed.                                                             with amenity.                                                                               between Corner Inlet and the Snowy
canoeing, surfing, snorkelling, diving,                                                                                                                                                                             River. The Gunaikurnai have a close
                                             The wilderness values of the Gippsland
fishing and a range of other activities.                                                                                                                                                                            relationship with, and traditional
                                             coast are important to Victoria. There is
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    responsibility for, the land (Wurruk), waters
Amenity values are diminished by the         nowhere else like it. Its wildness provides      Figure 4 Managing visitor satisfaction with their coastal experience – key amenity values
                                                                                              (derived from Melbourne Water)                                                                                        (Yarnda) and air (Watpootjan) as a
presence of inappropriate or intrusive       insights into the natural connections
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    connected whole that forms the basis
development, degraded environments,          between land and water. It also holds
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    of their cultural practices.
odour, litter and noise.                     cultural significance for many.
VALUING AND UNDERSTANDING THE COAST                                    GIPPSLAND REGIONAL
                                                                                                                                              COA STA L PLA N
                                                                                                                                                                        11

The Gunaikurnai are also the Registered      communities and protect cultural
Aboriginal Party for this area with          heritage and the condition of the
statutory roles under the Aboriginal         natural environment. They are also
Heritage Act 2006.                           interested in establishing marine ranger
The Gunaikurnai also have joint              teams to achieve this.
management responsibilities for
significant areas. In their recognition
                                             2.3 Economic values
and settlement agreement with the            The commercial uses of the Gippsland
state government, several parks and          coastal region include recreation, coastal
reserves were transferred to them            tourism, agriculture, commercial and
under the Traditional Owner Settlement       recreational fishing, shipping, renewable
Act 2010 to be jointly managed with the      energy and petroleum extraction. Each
State. This includes several areas around    of these has direct and indirect benefits
Gippsland Lakes (Gippsland Lakes             to local and regional economies.
Coastal Park, Lakes National Park,
                                             Gippsland’s coastal economy is based
Gippsland Lakes Reserve on Raymond
                                             largely on natural resources. Coastal
Island), Lake Tyers State Park, Corringle
                                             dependent economic sectors include
Foreshore Reserve, Mitchell River                                                                                                    Captains Cove, Metung
                                             oil and gas in Bass Strait, fisheries,
National Park, Buchan Caves Reserve,                                                                                                 Photo: Roberto Seba,
                                             commercial ports, shipping, commercial                                                  Tourism Victoria
New Guinea Cave (in Snowy River
                                             boating and services supported by
National Park) and Tarra-Bulga National
                                             coastal settlements and tourism.
Park. The agreement also includes
                                                                                                                                     three per cent of output. Recreational
rights to access and use Crown land for      The Gippsland coastal region is an
                                                                                                                                     boating in Gippsland Lakes for example
traditional purposes including fishing,      important centre for commercial and
                                                                                                                                     adds $163 m to the regional economy.
hunting, camping and gathering in            recreational fisheries with large
                                                                                                                                     Key tourism assets in the coastal zone
accordance with existing laws.               commercial fishing fleets operating out
                                                                                                                                     include the Gippsland Lakes, Wilsons
                                             of Lakes Entrance, Corner Inlet and Port
There are significant cultural values,                                                                                               Promontory and Mallacoota Inlet.8
                                             Franklin. Together with the eastern zone
interests and aspirations throughout                                                                                                 Tourism, recreation and economic
                                             abalone fishery based at Mallacoota,
the complex of marine, coastal and                                                                                                   development are all supported by the
                                             Gippsland’s estimated annual commercial
national parks on and around Wilsons                                                                                                 road network managed by Vic Roads.
                                             catch contributes over $20 million to
Promontory.
                                             the Victorian economy.8 The economic                                                    Non-commercial economic values
                                                                                          Left: Fishing nets at   Fishing at Lake
Traditional Owners in the region have a      contribution of recreational fishing will    Lakes Entrance          Tyers estuary      include storm and flood protection,
strong interest in being more effectively    be boosted by the Victorian Government’s     Photo: Destination      Photo: Tim Ellis   erosion buffers and nutrient cycling.
involved in coastal management.              Target One Million plan to improve fishing   Gippsland                                  These ecosystem services provide
Protecting cultural heritage is a major      opportunities and increase participation.                                               significant benefit to the community.
concern, as is sharing the responsibility                                                                                            For example, mangroves protect
                                             The coastal towns of Mallacoota, Lakes       settlements such as Lakes Entrance,
for caring for country. Traditional Owners                                                                                           against wave erosion, sea grass beds
                                             Entrance, Port Albert, Port Welshpool,       Port Welshpool and Port Franklin.
bring together natural and cultural values                                                                                           act as nurseries for important fish
                                             Port Franklin and Walkerville have
by working on country. The Gunaikurnai                                                    Agriculture, forestry and fishing are      species (such as bream and whiting)
                                             long-standing ties to the commercial
seek to contribute their skills and                                                       collectively the biggest employers. They   and coastal vegetation including
                                             fishing industry, which in some cases is
knowledge in managing country as a                                                        provide 26 per cent of jobs and 13 per     saltmarshes, mangroves and seagrasses
                                             still a major economic driver for the
partner in land and sea management to                                                     cent of total regional output. Tourism     fix nutrients and carbon.
                                             settlements. Commercial fishing is still a
improve the well-being of their                                                           generates five per cent of jobs and
                                             major source of employment for
12         GIPPSLAND REGIONAL
           COA S TA L P L A N
                                                VALUING AND UNDERSTANDING THE COAST

2.4 Protecting coastal                                                                                                                      potential work. Another example is the       The following chapters outline actions to
                                                                                                                                             Gippsland Lakes Natural Assets Report        address priority regional issues including
     values                                                                                                                                  Card; it identifies key environmental        population changes, coordination of
The diverse and highly valued                                                                                                                indicators such as water quality, wetlands   management, and the implications of
environmental, social, cultural and                                                                                                          and seagrass, as well as a methodology       climate change, particularly the effects
economic values of the coast are                                                                                                             for monitoring the overall health of this    of flooding and erosion.
affected by a range of pressures and                                                                                                         important area.
threats, such as increasing use, coastal
development, invasive pest plants and
animals, pollution, litter (particularly
                                                                                                                                                Case study – Ninety Mile Beach
plastics) and climate change.
                                                                                                                                                The management of development at Ninety Mile Beach highlights the
Under the Coastal Management Act 1995,                                                                                                          importance of having appropriate well considered planning in place to
regional and local decision-makers must                                                                                                         protect coastal values.
have regard for the coastal values
described above when working with                                                                                                               The beach between Bass Strait and Lake Reeve is the longest stretch of
their communities on coastal planning                                                                                                           uninterrupted beach in the country. Between 1955 and 1969, areas along the
and management.                                                                                                                                 beach were subdivided into about 11,800 lots which were sold. It later became
                                                Diver with Brown                                                                                apparent that the physical characteristics of the land made these areas
The Victorian Coastal Strategy 2014             Leatherjacket, Corner Inlet                    social and economic values of the                unsuitable for development. These characteristics included easily erodible
identifies a hierarchy of principles to         Marine National Park
                                                Photo: Museum of Victoria                      Lakes. The Strategy set the direction for        coastal soils, poor conditions for effluent disposal and high quality vegetation
guide planning and decision making.                                                            future investment, coordination,                 and landscape.
The Board uses this as the basis for                                                           research and monitoring of the health
developing policies and actions to              the Board notes the work by catchment                                                           Various planning and management programs were applied from the mid-
                                                                                               of the Lakes, particularly the processes
manage the factors that contribute to           management authorities in estuaries                                                             1970s with limited success. Wellington Shire Council’s Ninety Mile Beach Plan
                                                                                               affecting, and implications from, water
coastal values. Appendix 3 lists coastal        and wetlands in response to statewide                                                           was developed to resolve the long running planning and management issue,
                                                                                               quality issues. It is built on working with
plans in the region.                            directives in the Victorian Coastal Strategy                                                    and comprises planning controls to restrict further inappropriate development
                                                                                               a broad range of partner organisations
                                                2014 and the Victorian Waterway                                                                 and a program to assist the transfer of private lots into public ownership.
The hierarchy of principles helps us to                                                        and groups. The Strategy was
be explicit and consistent about how            Management Strategy 2013. The                  supported by the 2001 Gippsland Lakes            The development of the Ninety Mile Beach Plan followed several years of
we refer to the different types of values,      catchment management authorities’              Environmental Study10 commissioned               extensive collaboration between local and state governments. The Council’s
and how we prioritise actions and               regional catchment strategies and              by the Board and subsequent work                 long-term strategy for the area was backed by a detailed Land Capability
investment. Regionally, this helps us           waterway strategies identify significant       about salinity issues, environmental             Assessment which supported the finding that further development should be
identify where these values are most            natural values to prioritise investment.       watering, algal blooms and other water           prohibited. This culminated in approval of a four year funding agreement with
concentrated, and, in particular, helps us      Similarly, the Board notes work by local       quality issues. The 2015 Corner Inlet            the Victorian Government in June 2011 for $6 million for the Council’s
recognise where they may be at risk due         councils in planning and managing              Water Quality Improvement Plan is                Voluntary Assistance Scheme.
to coastal processes or human activities.       community coastal values within their          another key planning document                    Interim planning controls were applied from June 2011 until permanent
                                                planning schemes and urban design.             addressing water quality issues.                 planning controls were finalised under Amendment C71 of the Wellington
Figure 5 provides a regional snapshot of
some of the values within the Gippsland         They work with land holders, developers        Much work has been achieved, and                 Planning Scheme in May 2013. This amendment applies to a 10.8 kilometre
coastal region and how these guide              and public land managers to make sure          continues, in identifying and monitoring         section of the Ninety Mile Beach area between the settlements of Paradise
decisions by coastal planners and               impacts of increasing urbanisation and         the condition of the Gippsland coast, and        Beach/Golden Beach and The Honeysuckles, up to Glomar Beach. It affects
managers.                                       use of the coast are managed to meet           in protecting its values. One example is         more than 3,700 inappropriately subdivided lots.
                                                community expectations.                        the Gippsland State of the Coast Update          This amendment also ensured that inappropriate development outside
It also identifies key plans and work
                                                The Board also notes the importance of         report,11 which summarises planning,             identified settlement boundaries is addressed through local policy and
done by those agencies with significant
                                                the Gippsland Lakes Environmental              management and research about the                appropriate land use planning responses.
responsibilities on the coast. In particular,
                                                Strategy7 in protecting the environmental,     region’s coast and identifies future
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