CENTRAL REGIONAL COASTAL PLAN 2015-2020 - Marine and coasts

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CENTRAL REGIONAL COASTAL PLAN 2015-2020 - Marine and coasts
COASTAL PLAN 2015–2020
Central Coastal Board                               Authorised and published by the Victorian
PO Box 500, East Melbourne,                         Government, Department of Environment,
Victoria, Australia                                 Land, Water and Planning, 8 Nicholson Street,
Phone: (03) 9637 9463                               East Melbourne, September 2015
Email: admin@ccb.vic.gov.au
                                                    © The State of Victoria Department of
Electronic copies of the plan are available         Environment, Land, Water and Planning
online at www.ccb.vic.gov.au.                       Melbourne 2015
If you would like printed copies or have any
questions about the plan, please contact us
using the details above.
Members of the Central Coastal Board at the         This work is licensed under a Creative
time of preparing this Regional Coastal Plan        Commons Attribution 3.0 Australia licence.
were:                                               You are free to re-use the work under that
Mr Ross Kilborn (Chair)                             licence, on the condition that you credit the
Dr Rosalind Jessop                                  State of Victoria as author. The licence does
Mr Doug Miller                                      not apply to any images, photographs or
Ms Angela Reidy                                     branding, including the Victorian Coat of
Mr Andrew Rodda                                     Arms and the Victorian Government logo.
Ms Anne-Marie Tenni                                 To view a copy of this licence, visit http://
Mr Jeffrey Weir                                     creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/au/
The Central Coastal Board proudly
acknowledges Victoria’s Aboriginal                  ISBN 978-1-74146-786-4 (Print)
communities and their rich culture; and pays        ISBN 978-1-74146-787-1 (pdf )
its respects to the Traditional Owners in the       Disclaimer
Central Coastal Region. The Board also
                                                    This publication may be of assistance to you
recognises the intrinsic connection of
                                                    but the State of Victoria and its employees
traditional owners to Country and
                                                    do not guarantee that the publication is
acknowledges their contribution in the
                                                    without flaw of any kind or is wholly
management of land, water and resources
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                                                    therefore disclaims all liability for any error,
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                                                    from you relying on any information in this
                                                    Unless stated, images sourced from the
                                                    Department of Environment, Land, Water
                                                    and Planning.

Front Cover Top: St Kilda Harbour,
photo: Roberto Seba, Tourism Victoria.
Bottom from left to right: Mangroves at
Western Port. Cunningham Pier Geelong.
Point Lonsdale Pier and Lighthouse. Blue Devil
Fish, photo: Nicola Waldron. The Beach, St Kilda,
Victoria, c1920-1954 Rose Stereograph Co.
                                                                                                                                     COA STA L PLA N

Minister’s Foreword                                     2    7   Managing Coastal Land and Infrastructure             27   List of Figures
Chair’s Foreword                                        3    	Regional Priority 3 – Integrating Coastal Planning          Figure 1: The three levels of
Preparing the Central Regional Coastal Plan             4      and Management                                         27   planning for coastal management        5

1   Introduction                                        5    	Regional Priority 4 – Sustainable and Equitable             Figure 2: Central Coastal Region
                                                               Funding Mechanisms for Coastal Infrastructure               and region of influence                8
    1.1   What is the Regional Coastal Plan?             5     and Management                                         29
                                                                                                                           Figure 3: Melbourne’s growth
    1.2   How the Regional Coastal Plan will be used     6   	Regional Priority 5 – Oversee the Implementation            boundary, neighbouring regional
    1.3   The role of the Central Coastal Board          7     of the Recreational Boating Facilities Framework            growth centres, Registered
                                                               for the Central Coastal Region                         30   Aboriginal Parties (RAP) and RAP
    1.4   What the Regional Coastal Plan covers          7
                                                             	Regional Priority 6 – Sustainable Visitation and            applicants                             9
    1.5   Working with other organisations               9
                                                               Tourism Infrastructure Service Level Hierarchy         32   Figure 4: Bio-physical values of the
2   Valuing and Understanding the Coast                 10                                                                 Central Coastal Region               11
                                                             8	Valuing the Natural Environment and
    2.1   Bio-physical values                           10      Integrating Marine Planning                           33   Figure 5: Economic and social
    2.2   Eco-system services                           12   	Regional Priority 7 – Protecting Significant Coastal        values of the Central Coastal
                                                               and Marine Ecosystems and Habitats                     33   Region                                16
    2.3   Aboriginal cultural values                    12
                                                             9   Integration of Key Issues                            34   Figure 6: Mind map of how the
    2.4   Social and historical values                  13                                                                 priorities link to have integrated
    2.5   Coastal settings of significance              13   	
                                                              Regional Priority 8 – Promoting Leadership,                  actions in the Central Coastal
                                                              Co-ordination and Capacity Building for the Coast       34   Region                                21
    2.6   Coastal use and development                   14
                                                             10 Implementing the Regional Coastal Plan                36   Figure 7: Map indicating areas for
3   Coastal Processes and Climate Change                18
                                                                 10.1 Monitoring, evaluation and reporting            36   hazard assessment and adaptation
    3.1   Natural coastal processes                     18                                                                 planning (based on coastal
                                                                 10.2 Table of actions                                36
    3.2   Climate change                                19                                                                 instability and low lying areas)   26
                                                             11 Appendices                                            38
4	Priority Actions for the Central Coastal Region      21                                                                 Figure 8: Indicative map of
                                                             Appendix 1 – Public and agency consultation about            foreshore, marine park and
    4.1   The vision                                    21                 the Regional Coastal Plan                  38   sanctuary managers                    28
    4.2   Regional priorities                           21   Appendix 2 – C
                                                                           oastal management and planning                 Figure 9: Boating facilities in the
    4.3   The Plan at a glance                          22                connections in Victoria                     41   Central Coastal Region                31
5   Managing for Population Growth                      23   Appendix 3 – Aligning Actions in the Central Regional        List of Tables
                                                                           Coastal Plan with Key Issues and Desired
	Regional Priority 1 – Population Growth - Balancing                                                                      Table 1: Central Regional Priorities
                                                                           Outcomes in the Victorian Coastal
  Access and Valuing the Natural Environment            23                                                                 for Action                           21
                                                                           Strategy 2014                              42
6   Climate Change                                      24
                                                             Appendix 4 – L ist of coastal management plans in the
	Regional Priority 2 – Adapting to Climate Change                        Central Coastal Region                      44
  and Increased Coastal Hazards                         24
                                                             Acronyms		                                               46
                                                             References and Sources of Information                    47
    COA S TA L P L A N

                         MINISTER’S FOREWORD
                         The coast is close to the hearts of the      This Plan will support government
                         many Victorians who live near it, or visit   agencies, community and industry
                         it, and enjoy all that it has to offer.      groups to work more collaboratively in
                         Communities along the coastline are          managing the coast. It will help coastal
                         deeply connected to their local              managers and communities tackle
                         landscape and care about the future of       challenges on the coast in their region
                         the coast.                                   more effectively, and with greater
                         Our coastal environment is complex           coordination. It will enable us to be
                         and constantly changing, and there are       more responsive and adaptable as
                         many pressures that need to be               pressures change over time, and our
                         understood and managed better. As            understanding of climate change
                         Minister and a Local Member of a             implications improves.
                         coastal area, I appreciate how               The local knowledge, passion and
                         important it is to understand, protect       enthusiasm of Victoria’s coastal managers
                         and care for the things we love about        and communities is invaluable, and I
                         the coast.                                   look forward to working together to
                         Victoria has a strong coastal planning       ensure that the diverse natural, social,
                         and management framework, based on           cultural and economic values of the
                         the Victorian Coastal Strategy (2014).       coast that we enjoy today remain for
                         The Central Coastal Board has developed      future generations.
                         this Regional Coastal Plan to build on
                         that framework and outline how the           The Hon Lisa Neville MP
                         Strategy should be put into practice.        Minister for Environment, Climate
                                                                      Change and Water
                                                                                                                                       COA STA L PLA N

The Central Coastal Board’s vision is:       The Regional Coastal Plan is based          The Central Coastal Board will use the
Treasuring the Central Coastal Region        upon the hierarchy of principles in the     Regional Coastal Plan to inform, engage
– a healthy and sustainable coast for        Strategy – protecting the natural           and encourage the involvement of all
current and future generations.              environment, providing direction and        persons and organisations involved in
The Central Coastal Region, from             delivering sustainable use to meet the      coastal planning and management to:
Breamlea to Inverloch, covers nearly         needs and aspirations of present and        –	reflect the regional priorities in their
1,000 kilometres of coastline. It includes   future generations through integrated          decisions;
the metropolis of Melbourne, the City        coastal zone management. Consistent
                                             with the Strategy, the Plan gives           – work together when they need to;
of Greater Geelong, the peri-urban
communities of the region, the two           preference to improving, and increasing     –	identify and resolve systemic gaps
large bays of Port Phillip and Western       the utilisation of, existing developed         and emerging issues; and
Port and the region’s open coastline         sites over new development.
                                                                                         –	together deliver the Board’s vision
and islands.                                 The Central Coastal Board has identified       for the region.
The region encompasses both public           eight regional priorities for the Central
                                                                                         In parallel with the implementation of
and private land and includes the            Coastal Region:
                                                                                         this Plan, the Victorian Coastal Strategy
foreshores, estuarine and marine             1.	Population growth – balancing           Implementation Coordinating
environments and the hinterland and              access and valuing the natural          Committee will be addressing some of
catchments that influence and impact it.         environment;                            the major issues identified for the coast.
The region’s coast is enjoyed by millions    2.	Adapting to climate change and          In addition, the Minister will be reviewing
of residents and visitors, and this will         increased coastal hazards;              the Coastal Management Act 1995 and
increase as metropolitan Melbourne’s                                                     developing a new Marine and Coastal Act.
                                             3.	Integrating coastal planning and        The knowledge gained in preparing and
current population of 4.5 million grows          management;
to 8 million by 2051. There is a need to                                                 implementing this Plan will contribute
strike the balance between maintaining       4.	Sustainable and equitable funding       to the Implementation Coordinating
functioning ecosystems and the social            mechanisms for coastal                  Committee and to the community
and economic benefits of future use              infrastructure and management;          consultation for the new Act.
and development. The coast, it’s marine      5.	Implementing the Recreational           The Board sincerely thanks the many
and shore habitats, and our use and              Boating Facilities Framework;           organisations and people who have
enjoyment of these areas will be                                                         contributed to this Plan, and who on a
                                             6.	Sustainable visitation and tourism
affected by climate change, including a                                                  daily basis contribute to ensuring the
                                                 infrastructure service through the
recognised increase in the mean sea                                                      vision of the Victorian Coastal Strategy
                                                 development of a multi-level
level of 0.8m by 2100. It is already a                                                   2014: A healthy coast, appreciated
highly modified coast.                                                                   by all, now and in the future.
                                             7.	Protecting significant coastal and
This Plan provides a regional focus for
                                                 marine ecosystems and habitats;
all agencies and organisations with a
                                                 and                                     Ross Kilborn
responsibility for coastal management
                                             8.	Promoting leadership, co-ordination     Chair, Central Coastal Board
to interpret and implement the
Victorian Coastal Strategy 2014 in the           and capacity building.
region. In particular, it will guide the
development of coastal management
plans for the length of the coast.
           COA S TA L P L A N

The process of preparing the Central                                                            The draft Regional Coastal Plan was
Regional Coastal Plan comprised three                                                           released in February 2015. The Central
phases:                                                                                         Coastal Board held twelve formal
1.	preliminary planning, information                                                           meetings in Frankston, Geelong,
    gathering and identification of                                                             Inverloch and Port Melbourne in
    regional priorities;                                                                        February and March 2015 to provide
                                                                                                further opportunities for consultation
2.	development of a draft Plan for                                                             with stakeholders and the public. Many
    public consultation; and                                                                    community groups attended, along
3.	finalising the plan in response to                                                          with representatives from a wide
    consultation.                                                                               cross-section of coastal management
                                                                                                organisations, and mayors, executive
As part of the first phase, an ‘invitation
                                                                                                officers and staff from the thirteen
to be involved’ brochure was sent out
                                                                                                councils in the region (see Appendix 1).
to key stakeholders in March 2014 at
the beginning of the planning process.                                                          Sixty-five written submissions were
It identified key questions to help focus                                                       received with comments specific to the
feedback and guide submissions. It was                                                          region, with another thirteen about
followed by a workshop for local                                       Middle Brighton Beach    state-wide issues. The Board reviewed
                                                                       Photo: Werner Hennecke   these submissions and the feedback
councils to further identify
opportunities and gaps to address in                                                            from face-to-face meetings to revise
the Plan. Key government agencies                                                               and finalise the Plan.
involved in managing the coast were                                                             A range of issues were raised during
also consulted.                                                                                 the consultation for the initial planning
                                                                                                and subsequent draft Plan. These
                                                                                                helped refine the Plan and shape its
                                                                                                eight priority actions. Some issues of
                                                                                                local importance were raised, for
                                                                                                example, designating areas for dogs on
                                                                                                beaches. These issues are best dealt
                                                                                                with in local coastal management plans.

                                             Dolphins in Port
                                             Phillip Bay
                                             Photo: Searoad Ferries,
                                             Tourism Victoria

                                                                                                                    Back Beach rock pools,
                                                                                                                    Photo: Ewen Bell,
                                                                                                                    Tourism Victoria
                                                                                                                                                                                                  COA STA L PLA N

1.1 What is the Regional                     The Plan provides a strong framework
                                              to support local planning and decision
     Coastal Plan?                            making on both public and private                                                                                                                      Sets statewide direction
                                                                                                                                          Victorian Coastal           Developed by the
The Regional Coastal Plan for the             land. It aims to help people value and                                                      Strategy
                                                                                                                                                                      Victorian Coastal              for coastal planners
                                                                                                                                                                      Council                        and managers
Central Coastal Region is a Coastal           understand the coast. The Regional
Action Plan endorsed under part 3 of          Coastal Plan will also provide the
the Coastal Management Act 1995. Its          framework for agencies, community
contents meet the requirements of             and industry groups working and
section 23 of that Act.                       engaging with decision makers on
                                              emerging strategic regional priorities
The Victorian Coastal Strategy 2014           for the Central Coastal Region.                                                                                                                        Translates state-wide
                                                                                                                                                                      Developed by
provides the broad framework for                                                                                                          Regional                    Regional Coastal               direction by identifying
managing the coast and for developing         As a statutory document, the Regional                                                       Coastal Plans               Boards                         regional values, priorities
                                              Coastal Plan has important links with                                                                                                                  and management gaps
regional coastal plans and more local
and specific coastal management plans         other statutory instruments. As outlined
                                              in the Victorian Coastal Strategy 2014,    Keel boats on Port Phillip
(Figure 1). This Plan provides a regional                                                Photo: Teri Dodds
framework for planning and decision-          the broader land use planning system is
making on both public and freehold            important for the implementation of
land at the local level. It also provides a   the Strategy, regional coastal plans and   The Plan’s primary audiences are local                                       Developed by coastal
                                              coastal management plans (see              government, committees of                        Coastal                                                    Sets local direction and
focus for all agencies with responsibility                                                                                                                            public land managers
                                              Appendix 2). The relationship between      management, government agencies                  Management                  (eg. local municipalities      develops sub-regional or issues
for coastal management to act                                                                                                                                                                        based operational plans
                                              these policies and plans is through:                                                        Plans                       & committees of
together to plan and manage the coast                                                    and peak bodies with a coastal focus. It                                     management)
by:                                           –	the State Planning Policy Framework     has also been written to provide
                                                 which requires coastal planning to      landowners, volunteer groups and
–	interpreting and implementing the
                                                 be consistent with the Strategy and     coastal communities with an
   Victorian Coastal Strategy 2014 and
                                                 relevant coastal action plans           understanding of the framework for          Figure 1: The three levels of planning for coastal management
   its hierarchy of principles at a
                                                 (including this Regional Coastal        managing and protecting coastal
   regional scale;
                                                 Plan); and                              values in the region, and how they can
–	facilitating integration across                                                       contribute to this outcome.                 The Plan has three parts:
   jurisdictions to increase efficiency       –	sections of local planning schemes
                                                                                         The principle of ‘Integrated Coastal        –	Chapters 2 and 3 provide an
   and effectiveness;                            through Municipal Strategic
                                                                                         Zone Management’ (ICZM) underpins              overview of the values of the Central
                                                 Statements and Local Planning
–	identifying regional coastal values                                                   the Central Regional Coastal Plan. ICZM        Coastal Region and how they are
                                                 Policy Frameworks.
   and strategic objectives (regional                                                    is about working across a geographic           changing;
   priorities) to be accounted for; and                                                  area (land to sea), across different land   –	Chapters 4 to 9 set out the eight
–	identifying solutions that address                                                    tenures (public and private), and across       regional priorities that are a focus for
   systemic gaps in coastal                                                              organisations and jurisdictions                action; and
   management.                                                                           (national, state, regional and local).
                                                                                                                                     –	Chapter 10 explains how the plan
                                                                                         ICZM is achieved through both formal
                                                                                                                                        will be implemented, including the
                                                                                         and informal collaboration and
                                                                                                                                        process of monitoring, evaluating
                                                                                         coordination between the various
                                                                                                                                        and reporting.
                                                                                         groups using and managing the coast.
            COA S TA L P L A N
                                                1 INTRODUCTION

1.2 H
     ow the Regional                                                                                                                    Sea All Dolphin Swims,
                                                                                                                                                                                     Hierarchy of Principles
    Coastal Plan will                                                                                                                    Photo: Mark Chew,
                                                                                                                                         Tourism Victoria                            The Victorian Coastal Strategy 2014
    be used                                                                                                                                                                          supports the hierarchy of principles
In line with the Victorian Coastal                                                                                                                                                   introduced in previous Strategies
                                                                                                                                         This Plan has been designed to set
Strategy 2014 hierarchy of principles,                                                                                                                                               and also recognises that the
                                                                                                                                         realistic expectations about what can
the Regional Coastal Plan documents                                                                                                                                                  foundation of coastal planning and
                                                                                                                                         be delivered, and by when. The Board
and describes key regional issues and                                                                                                                                                management is a healthy coastal
                                                                                                                                         anticipates that most of the key actions
strategic priorities. It links actions, those                                                                                                                                        and marine environment. These
                                                                                                                                         can be delivered within existing
accountable, the outcomes to be                                                                                                                                                      principles give effect to the directions
                                                                                                                                         budgets of management agencies.
achieved, and measures and reports on                                                                                                                                                in the Coastal Management Act
                                                                                                                                         However, additional funding will be
performance annually. The review                                                                                                                                                     1995 and are included in the State
                                                                                                                                         needed to carry out some further
period for the Plan is 2020.                                                                                                                                                         Planning Policy Framework and in
                                                                                                                                         planning and management steps, such
                                                                                                                                                                                     planning schemes throughout
This Plan takes a long-term and regional                                                                                                 as detailed coastal hazard studies and
perspective.                                                                                                                             adaptation plans. Over the next five
                                                                                                                                         years the Plan provides the framework       The principles are:
The Regional Coastal Plan will build the
                                                                                                                                         for Commonwealth, state, regional,          –	Ensure the protection of
evidence base to guide future planning
                                                The Plan will also guide development                                                     local agencies and the private sector to       significant environmental and
and establish the foundations for the
                                                and implementation of coastal                                                            work together on attracting funding to         cultural values;
ongoing process of progressively
                                                management plans. Where existing                                                         carry out this additional work. This is a
improving management decisions. This                                                                                                                                                 –	Undertake integrated planning
                                                coastal action plans are still relevant,                                                 state-wide issue raised in the Victorian
will bring benefits in the future,                                                                                                                                                      and provide clear direction for
                                                local managers may continue to use                                                       Coastal Strategy 2014.
including better targeted investment,                                                                                                                                                   the future; and
improved coordination of management             these plans. It is expected that over
                                                time these coastal action plans would                                                                                                –	Ensure the sustainable use of
activities and promotion of best practice.
                                                transition into coastal management                                                         The Central Coastal Board will               natural coastal resources.
The actions in the Plan have been
developed to allow flexibility to adapt         plans where needed.                                                                        participate in a review of funding        Only when the above principles
to new information and achieve the              During consultation for this Plan, many                                                    arrangements by the Victorian             have been considered and
best outcomes for the coast. The Board          organisations and individuals expressed                                                    Coastal Council and the                   addressed:
will undertake a mid-term review of the         concern that funding is a limiting factor                                                  Department of Environment, Land,
                                                                                                                                                                                     –	Ensure development on the
Plan’s implementation in 2018.                  for managing the coast. The Regional                                                       Water and Planning, as outlined in
                                                                                                                                                                                        coast is located within existing
                                                Coastal Plan provides governments and                                                      the Victorian Coastal Strategy 2014.
Importantly, the Board will use the Plan                                                    Sorrento Foreshore                                                                          modified and resilient
to work with other managers and                 coastal managers with priorities for        Photo: Ewen Bell,                                                                           environments where the demand
                                                                                            Tourism Victoria
stakeholders to increase understanding          strategic investment. Sustainable and                                                                                                   for development is evident and
of the coast, protect coastal values and        equitable funding mechanisms are                                                                                                        any impacts can be managed
further improve management                      essential to enable coastal managers to     are important. However, land managers                                                       sustainably.
arrangements.                                   meet their responsibilities and to better   have different abilities to utilise                                                      The actions in this Regional Coastal
                                                understand, protect and manage              opportunities, with some having                                                          Plan support these principles and
                                                coastal values and assets.                  limited or no options to generate funds                                                  work to make sure that decision
                                                Current revenue streams, such as            locally. There are also inconsistencies in                                               making on the coast is guided by,
                                                income from parking, camping areas          how the “user pays” principle is applied                                                 and consistent with the Victorian
                                                and caravan parks on Crown land, and        in the region.                                                                           Coastal Strategy 2014.
                                                leasing Crown land for other activities,
                                                                                                                                                                      COA STA L PLA N

1.3 T
     he role of the                                                                                            1.4 What the Regional                      –	catchments - rivers and drainage
                                                                                                                                                               systems that affect the coastal zone,
    Central Coastal                                                                                                  Coastal Plan covers                       including estuaries and wetlands;
    Board                                                                                                       The Central Coastal Region comprises           and
                                                                                                                the areas of 13 local councils that form    –	atmosphere - near, around and over
The Central Coastal Board is a statutory
                                                                                                                the administrative and physical interface      the coast as defined above.
planning and advisory body of
                                                                                                                of the catchment flows and influences
community members with extensive                                                                                                                            Some key spatial characteristics of the
                                                                                                                on Port Phillip, Western Port and the
experience and expertise in coastal                                                                                                                         region are:
                                                                                                                region’s open coast.
matters. Appointed by the Minister for
                                                                                                                                                            –	993 kilometres1 of coastline
Environment, Climate Change and                                                                                 Importantly, in the Central Coastal
                                                                                                                                                               (inclusive of islands such as Phillip
Water, it provides strategic guidance for                                                                       Region it is both the region’s hinterland
                                                                                                                                                               Island and French Island);
managing the region’s coast. The Board                                                                          (for example the greater metropolitan
has specific functions, which are to:                                                                           Melbourne and peri-urban area) and          –	3600 square kilometres of marine
                                                                                                                the large embayments of Port Phillip           waters and embayment (notably
–	develop coastal action plans
                                                                                                                and Western Port that drive and                Port Phillip and Western Port);
   (including this overarching Regional
                                                                                                                influence the use and management of         –	20,246 square kilometres of catchment
   Coastal Plan) and guidelines for
                                                                                                                the region’s coastline, estuarine and          (Port Phillip and Western Port,
   coastal planning and management          Photo: Ross Kilborn
                                                                                                                marine areas (see Figure 2).                   Corangamite and West Gippsland
   for the region;
                                                                                                                Significant agricultural areas in the          catchment management authorities);
–	provide leadership in implementing
                                            More broadly, the Board seeks to be an                              region’s catchments, particularly around    –	4.5 million resident population in
   the Victorian Coastal Strategy 2014,
                                            advocate for coastal issues. Where                                  Werribee and Western Port, add to the          the Central Coastal Region and its
   coastal action plans and coastal
                                            needed, it aims to raise difficult issues                           diverse and complex land uses and              hinterland;
   guidelines in the Central Coastal
                                            and questions to help resolve how best                              pressures.
   Region;                                                                                                                                                  –	in excess of 40 organisations
                                            to manage and protect the region’s
                                                                                                                The term ‘coast’ encompasses both              managing the coast; and
–	monitor, evaluate and report on the      coastal areas into the future. A key part
                                                                                                                public and private land, and means:
   Victorian Coastal Strategy 2014 and      of this is shaping future expectations                                                                          –	13 local councils that form the
   Regional Coastal Plan in the region;     about:                                                              –	the marine environment - nearshore          region’s coastline (see Figure 3).
                                                                                                                   marine environment, the seabed,
–	facilitate the involvement of            –	how the coast, and the demands on
                                                                                                                   and waters out to the State limit of
   individuals and organisations to            it, will change over time;
                                                                                                                   three nautical miles;
   participate in the planning and
                                            –	how to respond to those changes;
   management of the coast in the                                                                               –	foreshores - or coastal Crown land
                                               and                                      Port Phillip Bay from
   region; and                                                                          Arthur’s seat              up to 200 m from the high water
                                            –	how to plan for and use the coast to     Photo: Salahuddin          mark;
–	provide advice to the Minister for
                                               protect its values.                      Ahmad
   Environment, Water and Climate                                                                               –	coastal hinterland - land directly
                                                                                                                                                              The length of coastline was calculated

   Change and the Victorian Coastal                                                                                influenced by the sea or directly          using the official coastline for Victoria
   Council on coastal issues and                                                                                   influencing the coastline and marine       (FR_FRAMEWORK_AREA_LINE, ANZLIC ID:
   development in the region.                                                                                      areas, and with critical impacts on        ANZVI0803002894) which represents the
                                                                                                                   the foreshore and nearshore                state boundary zero metre contour
                                                                                                                                                              coastline. It does include small islands
                                                                                                                                                              such as Mud Island. It does not include
                                                                                                                                                              rivers and estuaries such as the Yarra and
                                                                                                                                                              Maribyrnong Rivers.
                                                                                                                                                              For further information please go to
           COA S TA L P L A N
                                             1 INTRODUCTION

The region’s coast can be broadly
characterised as:
–	urban coast - intensively used public
   and freehold land, planned and
   managed for a wide range of use
   and development, including
   residential use, commercial activities,
   recreation, marinas and commercial
–	open coast - visitor and tourism
   destinations supported by services
   and infrastructure;
–	natural coast - low impact use and
   development planned and
   managed to support and protect
   environmental values; and
–	coastal waters and embayments
   - receptor of catchment inputs,
   boating, and water-based tourism
   and commercial shipping that is
   regulated and managed to protect
   the health and safe use of marine
   environments and marine protected
These areas include coastal
communities with defined town

                                             Figure 2 Central Coastal Region and region of influence
1 INTRODUCTION                        CENTRAL REGIONAL
                                                                                                                                                                                                           COA STA L PLA N


1.5 Working with other
This Plan identifies lead and partner                         Urban growth boundary
organisations for each action. The Board
will work with these organisations to
develop an implementation plan within
six months of the Regional Coastal Plan
being endorsed by the Minister. This will
provide further detail about the process,
the specific roles and responsibilities of
each organisation, and the timing for
each action in this Plan.
Managing the Central Coastal Region is
complex. Many organisations are
involved including 43 managers along
the coastline (see Figure 8 on page 28).
These organisations have their own
planning processes that contribute to
protecting coastal values. The Central
Coastal Board will support and work
with these organisations to coordinate
planning activities and integrate
management wherever possible. There
may also be opportunities to work with
industry groups and the private sector
to improve management of the coast.
The Central Coastal Board will support
actions in the regional catchment
strategies and waterway strategies that
aim to improve the condition of coastal
values, particularly to maintain or
improve water quality in estuaries,
embayments and coastal waters.

                                             Figure 3 Melbourne’s growth boundary, neighbouring regional growth centres, Registered Aboriginal Parties (RAP) and RAP applicants (Sources: Regional Growth Plans; Aboriginal Affairs Victoria)
           COA S TA L P L A N

2.1 Bio-physical values                                                                   At an international level the region        parks and reserves (for example, Phillip
                                                                                          contains three Ramsar listed wetlands:      Island Nature Parks, North Western Port
The Central Coastal Region provides a                                                                                                 Nature Conservation Reserve, Jawbone
                                                                                          –	Western Port (59,297 hectares which
broad range of values to people. In                                                                                                   Flora and Fauna Reserve, The Spit
                                                                                             also includes the UNESCO Western
many ways, the inherent natural                                                                                                       Wildlife Reserve, Point Cook Coastal
                                                                                             Port Biosphere Reserve);
features underpin many uses of coastal                                                                                                Park and Lake Connewarre Wildlife
areas. This use brings pressures that can                                                 –	Edithvale-Seaford Wetlands (261          Reserve) contribute to the protection of
reduce the natural values and amenity,                                                       hectares); and                           significant bio-physical values. The
for example through loss of marine and                                                    –	Port Phillip Bay (Western Shoreline)     region also has extensive lengths of
terrestrial vegetation and habitat.                                                          and Bellarine Peninsula (22,645          accessible foreshore and recreational
2.1.1 Coasts                                                                                 hectares) (see Figure 4).                beaches.

The region’s coastline has diverse                                                        Collectively, the Ramsar sites provide      Most of the region’s vegetation is highly
bio-physical characteristics that provide                                                 critical habitat for tens of thousands of   modified. For example, the original
benefits in the form of:                                                                  migratory waders and water birds, and       vegetation of the threatened coastal
                                                                                          winter habitat for the critically           Moonah woodland now only occurs in
–	recreational use;                                                                      endangered orange-bellied parrot.           scattered remnants. This highlights the
–	shoreline stabilisation;                                                                                                           importance of protecting existing
                                                                                          The region includes Point Nepean,
                                                                 Red knot on Mud Island                                               remnant stands of native vegetation
–	buffering for and adapting to coastal                                                  French Island and Mornington
                                                                 Photo: Annette Hatten                                                wherever possible.
   hazards and climate change;                                                            Peninsula national parks. Other regional
                                                                                                                                      Estuaries form an important part of the
–	habitat protection and biodiversity;
                                                                                                                                      bio-physical character of the coastline.
                                                                                                                                      Some of the key ones in the region are:
–	landscape character and amenity.                                                                                                   Anderson Inlet, Balcombe Creek,
                                                                                                                                      Limeburners Bay and Barwon River
                                                                                                                                      estuaries. Estuaries are highly variable
                                                                                                                                      environments that from time to time
                                                                                                                                      undergo salinity changes due to the
                                                                                                                                      mixing of sea water with fresh water
                                                                                                                                      catchment flows. Important rivers in
                                                                                                                                      the region include the Barwon,
                                                                                                                                      Werribee, Maribyrnong, Yarra and Bass
                                            Little penguins on                                                                        rivers.
                                            Phillip Island
                                                                                                                                      The Victorian Waterway Management
                                                                                                                                      Strategy 2013 provides the framework
                                                                                                                                      for government, in partnership with the
                                                                                          Above: Red octopus in                       community, to manage rivers, estuaries
                                                                                          rock pools, Point
                                                                                          Lonsdale                                    and wetlands to support environmental,
                                                                                                                                      social, cultural and economic values for
                                                                                                                                      all to enjoy.
2 VALUING AND UNDERSTANDING THE COAST                                                                                                                                                                                   CENTRAL REGIONAL
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               COA STA L PLA N

2.1.2 Marine
The Central Coastal Region’s marine

area covers approximately 3600 square                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Jawbone Flora and                                                                                                                ve r
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Fauna Reserve                                                                                                  Yarra
kilometres and includes the major                     Upper Stony

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             S ke l e t o n C r e e
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          I I
                                                     Creek Reservoir


embayments of Port Phillip and                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Melbourne


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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              I I I


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                I I I
                                                         Lower Stony                                                                                                                                    Loll

Western Port as well as the off-shore

                                                                                                                                                                                                             ypop                                                                                                      Williamstown
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               I I I I                                               I
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          I                                                                                           k
                                                        Creek Reservoir
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  I I

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Cre                                            r

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Danden Cree
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          I I

marine waters to three nautical miles.


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                                                                                                             Hov                                                                    L

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    I I


Important marine habitats within the


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 I                                                                                                                                I

                                                                                                                                                                             JAWBONE                                             I
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              POINT COOK



                                                                                                                                 YOU YANGS


                                                                                                                                                                              MARINE Brighton

region are represented within five

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             COASTAL PARK

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Emerald Cockatoo


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              I  I



                                                                                                                               REGIONAL PARK
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  LAKE PARK                      Cree


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Back Cre

marine national parks, five marine

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   I I
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             g                                                                               ek

                                                                                                                                                                                    Sandringham                                                                                                           in            Cardinia


                                                                                                                                                             POINT COOKE



sanctuaries, nine marine special                                                                                                                                                                                                                                I
                                                                                                    Flinders Peak                                                                                                                                                                                m

                                                                                                                                                         MARINE SANCTUARY RICKETTS POINT

                                                                                                                                                                                    I                                                                               I
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      I                      m                                                                                   D ia m ond Cre




management areas and the Bunurong

                                                                                                                                                                                  MARINE SANCTUARY





                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               STATE PARK

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          ip River


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          l l

marine and coastal protected areas (see                                                                                                        Treatment   Plant

                                                                                                             IN                                                                                                                                                                        I
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Berwick               Beaconsfield
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         I I I


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              l l

                                                                                                                                                            Port Phillip Bay            Edithvale                                                                                                                                Reservoir

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   I I


                                                                                        d Cree
Figure 4).
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         I I


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  l l

                                                                                                                                                            (Western Shoreline)                                         Chelsea

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      l l
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  I I
                                                                                                                                     The Spit                                                                                                                                                                                              Pakenham

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          GIP l l
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         I I
                                                                                                                                                                                        Wetlands                                                                                                                             I I                                    PRINCESS FWY



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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      I I I

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             PSL l l
The Victorian Bays and Inlets Bioregion
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       I I
                                                                                                                                Wildlife Reserve

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Patterson Creek

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                                                                             I I I I I I         I   I

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    I I

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            I I I I I I I I

includes both Port Phillip and Western                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Cranbourne
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        I I

                                                                                                                                          I I
                                                        HAM                                                                                  Portarlington                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  I I I I

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Bunyip I I I I

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     HW Y


                                                                   HWY                                                                                                                                            K

                                                                                                               CORIO BAY                                             PORT PHILLIP BAY                               ananook C

Port, with diverse habitats including                                                                                                                                                                                                reek

                                                                                                                       I I
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           I I I

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     I I I
                                                                                            Geelong                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        R iv

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       re e
                                                                                                                                                    Salt                                                            Frankston I                                                                                                                                   Bunyip

deep channels, seagrass meadows,

                                                               Barwon River                                                                                                                              S w e e t w a te r C r e e k

                                                                                                                        I I
                                                                                                                                                  Lagoon                                                                                                I I
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      NORTH WESTERN
                                                                                                      BELL                                                 St Leonards

mangroves and saltmarsh, and

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              I I I I
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      PORT NATURE

                                                                                                                              II I
                                                                 au rn Ponds C                Reedy               EH
                                                                                                                     WY                                                                                Mount Eliza
                                                               W              ree k
abundant fish fauna. Areas with high                                                           Lake                                                                                                                                               Y                   CONSERVATION                                       Tooradin                   Koo wee rup
                                                                                                                                                                     Bellarine                                                                W

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              I I
                                                      PRINCESS HWY
                                                                                                                       I                                                                                                                                              RESERVE

                                                                   I I



                                                                       I I

biodiversity and conservation values                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Lang Lang River

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           LA LIN
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                                                                               I I
                                                                                   I I
                                                                                                                   Connewarre Lake

                                                                                                                                                                                           B al
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                                                                                           I I

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        I I
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include:                                                                      Lake Connewarre                                                                                                   co m b

                                                                                                                                        Queenscliff                                                                                                                                                           FRENCH          ISLAND


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  N SU

                                                                                                                            Victoria                                                                     Creek
                                                                               Wildlife Reserve Murtnagurt

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     MARINE NATIONAL PARK

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        I I I I
                                                                                                                        Ocean                                                       Mount Martha

                                                                                                     Swamp              Grove                      D              F                                                                          PE                                                                                                       Lang Lang
–	Popes Eye with diverse biodiversity;                                                                                                  B                                                                                                         Hastings

                                                           N                                             Barwon                Point                                                                                                                                              MARINE

                                                                                                                                                      E   Portsea                   Safety      Beach                      Devilbend                                                                               FRENCH        ISLAND

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         I I
                                                                                                         Heads                 Lonsdale A                                                                                                                                       NATIONAL
–	a distinctive reef habitat at Portsea                                                                                                                                            Dromana                                Reservoir ine Creek                                                                     NATIONAL PARK

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        I I I
                                                                                                                                                               Sorrento                                                                               g                             PARK
   Hole; and                                                                                                                                                                    Rosebud                                                      a  rrin                                                                 Mt Wellington

                                                                                                       BARWON                                                 PO

                                                                                                                                                                 INT                                                                                                                           FRENCH ISLAND

                                                                                                         BLUFF                                                       NEP                            ARTHURS SEAT                                   a Somers

–	unique seagrass beds at Port Phillip                                                                 MARINE                                POINT NEPEAN
                                                                                                                                                                         EA N R D
                                                                                                                                                                                     Tootgarook STATE PARK                                ul
   Heads, Flinders and Bunurong.             0            10                   20                   SANCTUARY                                 NATIONAL PARK                            Swamp
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      e  n   ins
                                                                                                                                                                                 Mornington P                                              WESTERN PORT                                                                                                   Y     s Riv
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       HW Bas Candowie
Port Phillip is also home to resident and                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               CHURCHILL                                  AS

                                                     kilometres                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Reservoir
                                                                                                            EX-HMAS CANBERRA                                                                                                                                                                        ISLAND MARINE

quite isolated communities of                                                                              RECREATION RESERVE                MORNINGTON PENINSULA                                                                                                         Cowes                     NATIONAL PARK

                                                                                                                                                    NATIONAL PARK                                                     Flinders
bottlenose and common dolphins.                                                                                                                                                                                                                               PHILLIP ISLAND                                                                     Bass Hill             Lance Creek
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    San Remo                                             Reservoir
                                                                                                     PORT PHILLIP HEADS MARINE NATIONAL PARK
The Central Victorian Bioregion from                     LEGEND
                                                                                                         A. POINT NEPEAN                 D. POPES EYE                                       MUSHROOM REEF
Cape Otway to west of Wilsons                                                                            B. POINT LONSDALE               E. PORTSEA HOLE                                  MARINE SANCTUARY                                                                                                                                                                           t River
                                                         Parks and Reserves                              C. SWAN BAY                     F. MUD ISLAND                                                                             PHILLIP ISLAND                                                                                                                           Powlet
Promontory includes the region’s open
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     NATURE PARK
coast. Areas of high conservation value                  Marine Protected Areas                                                                                                                                                                                                                KILCUNDA-HAMERS HAVEN                                                    Wonthaggi
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       COASTAL RESERVE
include:                                                 Coastal Wetlands
–	the marine community in the deep                      UNESCO Biosphere Reserve                                                                                                                                                                                                   CAPE PATTERSON COASTAL RESERVE
   canyon at the entrance to Port                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           BUNURONG MARINE PARK
                                                          Ramsar sites
   Phillip;                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     BUNURONG
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            BUNURONG MARINE NATIONAL PARK    COASTAL RESERVE
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        BASS STRAIT
–	bull kelp at Barwon Bluff; and
–	a large fur seal colony at Seal Rocks,
   Phillip Island.                          Figure 4 Bio-physical values of the Central Coastal Region
           COA S TA L P L A N
                                             2 VALUING AND UNDERSTANDING THE COAST

The region also includes significant         2.2 Eco-system services                      2.3 Aboriginal cultural
artificial habitats:                                                                                                                     The Central Coastal Board
                                             The natural coastal systems in the                values                                    supports incorporating cultural
– S outh Channel Fort (white-faced
                                             Central Coastal Region are of intrinsic
   storm petrels);                                                                        Aboriginal people have ongoing and             heritage and traditional knowledge
                                             value and provide a range of beneficial
                                                                                          strong connections with the coast and          into all coastal planning and
– C
   hinaman’s Hat (Australian fur            ecosystem services. Healthy coastal and
                                                                                          view the coastal lands as inseparable          management.
  seals);                                    marine ecosystems play important roles
                                                                                          from the coastal waters: their stories of
– St Kilda breakwater (Little penguins);    in providing services that help sustain
                                                                                          place, and the tens of thousands of
                                             both the ecological values of the
– P
   opes Eye, mentioned previously,                                                       years of physical evidence of their
                                             ecosystems themselves and a variety of
  important for nesting gannets; and                                                      presence across the region remind us
                                             other values and uses for people. For
                                                                                          of these connections. Shell middens,
– m
   any shipwrecks, particularly             example, mangroves protect against
                                                                                          camping places and scar trees dating
  between Port Phillip Heads and             wave erosion, and sea grass beds act as
                                                                                          back some 12,000 years are just a few
  Torquay.                                   nurseries for important fish species.
                                                                                          physical examples of the long term
                                             Other benefits include:
The proximity of so many marine                                                           connection of Aboriginal people to
protected areas to a major population        –	storm protection, erosion buffers,        coastal areas in the region – a
centre is unique on a global scale and          and flood and disease control;            connection that continues today.
presents the Central Coastal Region          –	products from nature such as food         The current coastline wasn’t always
with a significant responsibility and set       and pharmaceuticals;                      where it is now, and Traditional Owner
of challenges. Such protected areas are                                                   interests and responsibilities extend to
primarily managed for their ecological       –	habitat, biodiversity, nutrient cycling
                                                and biogeochemical services; and          areas now inundated. Land and sea
values, but also afford opportunities to                                                  country is a term for the whole
provide social value through recreation      –	recreational opportunities, and           environment, integrating land, intertidal    ‘i sea, i care’
(for example dive sites such as Popes           education, aesthetics, amenity and        areas and sea, and including natural,        ambassadors learning
Eye and Portsea Hole in Port Phillip) and       spiritual values.                         heritage, material and spiritual             from Traditional
community involvement in their                                                                                                         Owners with a
                                             Coastal vegetation and sediments also        components. This connection is the           smoking ceremony.
management.                                                                               basis for maintaining cultural traditions    Photo: Jeff Weir
                                             provide important ecosystem services
Potential threats to these protected         by sequestering significant amounts of       and passing on knowledge across
marine areas, and the marine                 carbon (known as “blue carbon”) in           generations.
environment generally, include impacts       mangrove forests, seagrass meadows           Indigenous people play an active role
from sediment, nutrients, toxicants and      and intertidal salt marshes.                 in managing natural resources
litter from catchments, oil spills, marine                                                particularly relating to ‘sea country’. As
pest incursions, dredging and anticipated                                                 custodians and owners (through
impacts from climate change.                                                              Victorian legislation such as the
                                                                                          Aboriginal Heritage Act 2006 and the
                                                                                          Traditional Owner Settlement Act 2010),
                                                                                          Aboriginal people have responsibilities
                                                                                          for country in a range of ways,
                                                                                          encompassing natural resources and                             An Aboriginal shell
                                                                                          cultural heritage. Indigenous groups in                        midden deposit from
                                                                                          the region include the Wathaurung,                             Jawbone Flora and
                                                                                                                                                         Fauna Reserve,
                                                                                          Wurundjeri, Boon Wurrung and                                   Williamstown
                                                                                          Bunurong (see Figure 3 on page 9).                             Photo: Phillip
                                                                                                                                                                        COA STA L PLA N

2.4 Social and historical                                                                                       Bathing boxes are colourful icons of
                                                                                                                 Port Phillip. They occupy a unique role in
     values                                                                                                      bayside beach life. The lighthouses along
These values include both historical                                                                             the coastal headlands provide a sense
connections and contemporary                                                                                     of place and have historical significance
customs.                                                                                                         (for example Pt. Lonsdale, Queenscliff,
                                                                                                                 Williamstown, Port Melbourne, Cape
Victoria’s first European settlement                                                                             Schanck). The urban coast also has many
started at Sullivan Bay near Sorrento in                                                                         piers, ports, marinas, yachting clubs,
1803 – 30 years before Melbourne was                                                                             promenades and pathways contributing
founded. The 1852 Quarantine Station                                                                             to an active coastline and waterways.
at Point Nepean played an important
role in handling immigrants to the new                                                                           Natural landscapes within the region
settlement of Melbourne. Fifty heritage                                                                          include the mangrove forests of Western
buildings remain from this era. A fort at                                                                        Port, the Port Phillip Heads coast with
                                                                                                                 views of Bass Strait and The Rip, and the    Cape Woolamai
The Heads and the artificial island of                                                                                                                        Photo: Phillip Wierzbowski
South Channel Fort were built in the                                                                             impressive coastal scenery of Cape
1880s as important parts of Victoria’s                                                                           Woolamai and The Nobbies. Many
defences.                                    Cape Schanck                                                        locations around the bays provide a          Other features in the region include:
The Central Coastal Region is important
                                             Photo: Salahuddin        2.5 Coastal settings of                   sense of isolation and ‘semi-wilderness’
                                                                                                                                                              –	the Altona Meadows active sand
                                                                                                                 despite the metropolis (for example
to past and newly arrived migrants.          Ahmad
                                                                           significance                          Seaford or Somers) and are part of the          spits – one of the major coastal sand
These communities contribute a rich                                                                              cherished fabric of the region.                 bodies of Port Phillip;
fabric of cultures to the region. They are                            Coastal settings include the landscape
                                                                      types of the coastline, the underwater     The Central Coastal Region has many          –	the Altona East sand bars – a
also a potential untapped source of                                                                                                                              sequence of about 20 intertidal and
enthusiasm in managing and                                            features of the marine environment         sites of geomorphic and geological
                                                                      and the vistas obtained both from land     importance. The Beaumaris Cliffs fossil         submarine bars extending unbroken
protecting coastal values. For example,                                                                                                                          for up to 600 m parallel to the
initiatives such as the Bilingual Coast                               and water.                                 site is of international significance. Its
                                                                                                                 sedimentary rocks contain fossils of            coastline; and
Guides program support these                                          For much of the Central Coastal Region
communities to develop a greater                                      the coastal landscape is framed by built   marine megafauna dating back to six          –	the areas around Lyall Inlet, Quail
understanding of the coast and a sense                                form. The views of Port Phillip and        million years (Wakelin Associates 2009).        Island and Watson Inlet with diverse
of custodianship.                                                     Melbourne’s skyline from points on land    The site contains the most diverse              intertidal geomorphology.
                                                                      (for example Williamstown, Pt Cook,        range of marine mammal fossils, and is       The waters of the region provide a wide
Coastal areas give sense of place and                                                                            the most important site of its type, in
identity for residents and visitors. This                             Portarlington and Arthurs Seat) are a                                                   range of habitats and include a number
                                                                      feature. Likewise there are picturesque    Australia.                                   of popular dive sites. Intertidal rocky
generates a strong connection to the
coast for many people, which is                                       views of Corio Bay and Geelong from                                                     reefs occur along much of the coastline
reflected in the numerous community                                   Limeburners Point and of Phillip Island                                                 facing Bass Strait. Areas such as
groups and individuals active in                                      and Western Port from San Remo.                                                         Bunurong Marine Park and Marine
                                             Brighton Bathing Boxes
managing coastal areas.                      Photo: Department of                                                                                             National Park, Ricketts Point Marine
                                             Environment, Land,                                                                                               Sanctuary and Mushroom Reef Marine
In many places, the coastal landscape is     Water and Planning                                                                                               Sanctuary provide easy access to the
a primary area for recreation and social                                                                                                                      marine environment.
involvement, and this contributes to
the health and well-being of the
           COA S TA L P L A N
                                             2 VALUING AND UNDERSTANDING THE COAST

2.6 C
     oastal use and                                                                                              2.6.1 A place to live
    development                                                                                                   In the Central Coastal Region, the
                                                                                                                  opportunity to reside on, or
High population and intensive use is a                                                                            emotionally connect to, the coast is
distinguishing feature of the Central                                                                             embraced by many. The most recent
Coastal Region, and much of the                                                                                   Victorian Coastal Council’s Community
coastline around metropolitan areas is                                                                            Attitudes and Behaviour Survey for the
highly modified. There are also many                                                                              coast (Ipsos-Eureka SRI 2012) estimated
values and uses in close proximity to each                                                                        that a quarter of people living within
other, and this can create conflict.                                                                              five kilometres of the coast visit it daily
The challenge is to manage the pressures                                                                          and almost ninety percent at least once
from a demanding population now, and                                                                              a month. This study also identified that
in the future. The region is heavily                                                                              the most enjoyable aspect of a coastal
urbanised and is predicted to grow to a                                                                           visit is the clean and unspoilt
catchment population of almost eight                                                                              environment, the scenery and the time
million by 2051 (Victoria in Future 2014).                                                                        spent with family and friends and just
Metropolitan Melbourne is a growing                                                                               ‘being there’.
                                             Queenscliff Harbour
tourism destination both internationally                                                                          The study also found that one of the
and nationally. Peak populations,                                                                                 biggest concerns of survey participants
particularly on the Bellarine and            The region has high economic, social                                 about the coast was rubbish and litter.
Mornington peninsulas, Phillip Island        and commercial values with high usage                                Recent work by CSIRO in its 2014
and Bass Coast can triple in size during     and ageing infrastructure.                                           report, Understanding the Effects of
holiday periods due to second home           Consequently it is a high cost coastline                             Marine Debris on Wildlife, showed that
ownership and holidaymakers in caravan       to manage and maintain. The                                          much of the plastics and debris found
parks and accommodation houses.              predominant forms of coastal use and                                 in our marine environments is
Strategic planning for the growth of the     development include residential, visitor,                            concentrated near cities. Litter
region is set out in several documents       tourism and recreation infrastructure                                management will continue to be a
- Plan Melbourne (Metropolitan Planning      and commercial uses.                                                 challenge for the Central Coastal Region.
Strategy 2014), G21 Regional Growth          Recurrent maintenance and replacement                                The extensive urban coastline provides
Plan (Geelong Regional Alliance 2013)        costs for boat ramps, jetties, walking                               for relatively intensive residential uses in
and the Gippsland Regional Growth Plan       and bicycle paths, sea walls, beach                                  both established coastal communities
                                                                                         Ocean Grove
released in 2014. These have an important    renourishment and dredging are critical     Photo: Catharina Greve   (for example Williamstown) and new
role in ensuring sustainable communities     to maintaining economic, social and                                  coastal developments (for example
and delineating settlement boundaries        community value of coastal                                           Wyndham Harbour or Martha Cove).
and green breaks between settlements.        infrastructure.                                                      Many locations along the region’s
The plans also identify current and                                                                               urban coast are, and will continue to,
future population patterns.                                                                                       experience higher density residential
                                                                                                                  development in the form of townhouses
                                                                                                                  and apartments as a result of urban
                                                                                                                  consolidation and redevelopment (for
                                                                                                                  example Geelong, Hampton/
                                                                                                                  Sandringham, Chelsea, Frankston and
                                                                                                                                                                                        COA STA L PLA N

Throughout the region there are many                                                                                               Government’s Target One Million plan
peri-urban towns where a key                                                                                                       will improve fishing opportunities and        Case Study – Managing the
community value is the ‘coastal lifestyle’.                                                                                        increase recreational fishing in Victoria     coast to support
Towns such as Barwon Heads, Ocean                                                                                                  to 1 million people over four years.          environmental and
Grove, Portarlington, Flinders, Somers,                                                                                            There are some 211 boating facilities,
                                                                                                                                                                                 recreational needs
Corinella, Cowes, Inverloch and others                                                                                             including boat ramps, yacht and
are characterised by defined settlement                                                                                            motorboat clubs and marinas. An               One of Victoria’s major natural wildlife
boundaries with breaks of open or                                                                                                  estimated 98 percent of boats are             attractions, Phillip Island’s Penguin
natural coast between the towns. Such                                                                                              trailerable and this places considerable      Parade, is exemplar of managing
coastal towns are experiencing growth                                                                                              pressure on boat ramps, particularly at       the coast for sustainable tourism
in permanent residents due both to the                                                                                             peak periods. The Central Coastal Board       development. Annual visitation to
lifestyle they offer and relative proximity                                                                                        has prepared a Recreational Boating           the Penguin Parade has been in
to major employment opportunities.                                                                                                 Facilities Framework (2014) as an             excess of 500,000 visitors per year
                                                                                                                                   inventory of the region’s boating             for the last 20 years. Admission to
For many residents of metropolitan                                                                                                                                               the Penguin Parade is controlled by
Melbourne, for example, growth corridors                                                                                           facilities and a planning framework to
                                                                                                                                   help manage expectations and classify         ticket sales through Phillip Island
to the east and west of the region, the                                                                                                                                          Nature Parks, with a maximum
coast is never far away. The proximity of                                                                                          facilities based on the level of service
                                                                                                                                   they provide (see Regional Priority 5).       capacity of 3,700 people per night.
two different bay experiences – the nature                                                  The Silver Spirit docked at
of Western Port and the activity of Port                                                    Cunningham Pier in Geelong             Swimming is popular at beaches in Port        Phillip Island Nature Parks is a
Phillip – and the rugged stretches of the                                                   Photo: Barton van Laar,                Phillip, Western Port and surf beaches on     not-for-profit, self-funded
                                                                                            Tourism Victoria                                                                     organisation operating on Crown
open coast, means the 993 kilometres                                                                                               the open coast patrolled by surf life
of the Central Coastal Region is inherent                                                                                          saving clubs. Several popular dive sites      land under its own Board of
in how current and future residents of                                                                                             focus on the wide range of marine             Management. It is also overseen by
the region value the coast.                                                                                                        habitats (for example Popes Eye and           the state government as a committee
                                                                                                                                   Portsea Hole in Port Phillip, and Flinders    of management appointed under
2.6.2 Recreation and tourism                                                                                                       Pier and Crawfish Rock in Western Port).      section 14 of the Crown Land
The coast is a major contributor to                                                                                                Open coast diving destinations include        (Reserves) Act 1978. Funds generated
Melbourne’s liveability today (Figure 5).                                                                                          several wreck sites. Surfing is popular on    from ecotourism activities are
Many value a day at the beach, coastal                                                                                             the Bass Coast and the outer coasts of        invested into conservation, research
walks, cycle paths and the views from                                                                                              Phillip Island, Mornington and Bellarine      and education programs. The Phillip
roads along the foreshore. Smaller                                                                                                 Peninsulas. Other activities include          Island Nature Parks has undertaken
coastal settlements provide strong links                                                                                           wind-surfing, kite-surfing and jet-skiing.    significant management actions to
                                              Enjoying the beach
to neighbourhood, family and place.                                                                                                                                              improve the penguins’ habitat,
                                              at Rosebud                                                                           Key tourist attractions such as the Phillip
Holiday-makers have for generations           Photo: Catharina Greve                                                                                                             including the presence of rangers,
                                                                                                                                   Island Nature Park, the coastal and           the acquisition and rehabilitation
travelled to the same destinations, from                                                                                           maritime areas of the Mornington and
hotels to family camping areas. Popular                                                                                                                                          of freehold land within the penguin
                                              Ocean Grove, Portarlington and on the                                                Bellarine peninsula and St Kilda are major    colony on Summerland Peninsula,
summer destination coastal caravan/                                                         Leatherjacket in                       drawcards for tourists, and the resulting
camping sites include Rosebud/Rye             Bass Coast, as well as seasonally popular                                                                                          and fox and weed control.
                                                                                            strapweed                              service industries are of great economic
foreshore, Portarlington, Kilcunda and        sites on the Mornington Peninsula and         Photo: Museum
                                                                                                                                   importance to both the state and              Phillip Island Nature Parks was
Inverloch.                                    in many other coastal towns.                  Victoria
                                                                                                                                   regional economies (for example $140          awarded the 2015 Australian Coastal
The region has more than half of the          Recreational fishing and boating is a                                                million per annum from Phillip Island         Award in the category of ‘Planning
State’s caravan and camping sites on          major attraction of the coast. Port Phillip                                          Nature Parks). See Figure 5 for some of       and Management’ for the restoration
coastal Crown land, with major year round     and Western Port bays offer diverse                                                  the region’s recreation and tourism           of the Summerland Peninsula.
facilities located at Barwon Heads/           boating opportunities. The Victorian                                                 facilities.
           COA S TA L P L A N
                                                 2 VALUING AND UNDERSTANDING THE COAST

Figure 5 Economic and social values of the Central Coastal Region
                                                                                                                                                     COA STA L PLA N

2.6.3 Commercial enterprise                                                                         Commercial and local port authorities
Commercial fishers in the region                                                                    are the waterway managers for              Case studies – Natural
operate under the authority of a Fishery                                                            designated areas under the Marine          coastal values in an urban
Access Licence. The total number of                                                                 Safety Act 2010. Parks Victoria is the     setting
these licences is capped. Current                                                                   designated waterway manager for Port
                                                                                                    Phillip and Western Port and Yarra,        Jawbone Flora and Fauna
government policy is for commercial                                                                                                            Reserve and Marine Sanctuary is
netting in Port Phillip and Corio Bay to                                                            Maribyrnong and Patterson rivers. The
                                                                                                    Victorian Coastal Strategy 2014 and        a little promontory, west of the
be phased out.                                                                                                                                 beach at Williamstown. For over 80
                                                                                                    elements of the State Planning Policy
The Fisheries Act (Victoria) 1995 also                                                              Framework (including Clause 18.03 that     years access was restricted to the
provides for the management,                                                                        lists port land use and development        area and it was used as a rifle
development and promotion of a                                                                      strategies) currently guide land-use       range.
viable aquaculture industry. The main                                                               planning within designated ports. The      Today it is managed by Parks
species harvested in the bays are blue                                                              amenity values offered by ports are also   Victoria and has been transformed
mussels.                                                                                            recognised within regional growth plans.   into a haven for coastal and marine
The region contains the State’s largest                                                             Industrial use of coastal areas, for       life right next to Melbourne. This
commercial ports – the Port of                                                                      example by oil refineries, steel and       has largely been achieved by the
Melbourne, Geelong Port and the Port        Cruise ships Melbourne                                  aluminium works and saltworks, is          work of volunteers, the Jawbone
of Hastings. The Port of Melbourne is       Photo: Roberto Seba,
                                                                                                    reducing. There is significant potential   Marine Sanctuary Care Group, with
                                            Tourism Victoria                                                                                   the help of the local community
the largest container port in Australia                                                             to rehabilitate and redevelop some
and Melbourne is a major freight                                                                    industrial sites adjacent to the coast.    and visitors who care for the area.
logistics hub in the country. These ports                                                           This will be facilitated with adequate     Warringine Coastal Reserve,
contribute significantly to the Victorian                                                           planning of the industrial and land use    south of Hastings, is a tribute to
economy both in terms of revenue and                                                                changes.                                   decades of community and
jobs and there is a continuing demand                                                                                                          government partnerships to
for capacity.                                                                                       The hospitality industry places a high
                                                                                                    value on a waterfront setting for its      restore the coastal landscape from
The marked increase in population and                                                               visual amenity and a sense of well-        cattle farm to a coastal asset and
trade in the next 30 years will increase                                                            being it engenders. Commercial use of      accessible window to Western
freight and shipping, and may lead to                                                               the coast needs to be carefully planned    Port’s Ramsar values. Today,
future expansion of port facilities.                                                                to protect natural values and balance      walking tracks and boardwalks
Population growth will also increase the                                                            demand for coastal space with              provide access to remarkable
use of other marine craft, with the                                    Fishing                      community values.                          coastal habitats including
potential need to expand marine                                        Photo: Mark Chew,                                                       woodland, saltmarsh and
industries to service recreational                                     Tourism Victoria                                                        mangrove communities that
boating demand. Such facilities should                                                                                                         support diverse animal and bird
be established inland from the coast in     Swanson Dock                                                                                       life including 25 rare species.
marine industry precincts.                  Photo: Port of Melbourne
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