CENTRAL REGIONAL COASTAL PLAN 2015-2020 - Marine and coasts
Page content transcription
If your browser does not render page correctly, please read the page content below
Central Coastal Board Authorised and published by the Victorian PO Box 500, East Melbourne, Government, Department of Environment, Victoria, Australia Land, Water and Planning, 8 Nicholson Street, Phone: (03) 9637 9463 East Melbourne, September 2015 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org © The State of Victoria Department of Electronic copies of the plan are available Environment, Land, Water and Planning online at www.ccb.vic.gov.au. Melbourne 2015 If you would like printed copies or have any questions about the plan, please contact us using the details above. Members of the Central Coastal Board at the This work is licensed under a Creative time of preparing this Regional Coastal Plan Commons Attribution 3.0 Australia licence. were: You are free to re-use the work under that Mr Ross Kilborn (Chair) licence, on the condition that you credit the Dr Rosalind Jessop State of Victoria as author. The licence does Mr Doug Miller not apply to any images, photographs or Ms Angela Reidy branding, including the Victorian Coat of Mr Andrew Rodda Arms and the Victorian Government logo. Ms Anne-Marie Tenni To view a copy of this licence, visit http:// Mr Jeffrey Weir creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/au/ deed.en The Central Coastal Board proudly acknowledges Victoria’s Aboriginal ISBN 978-1-74146-786-4 (Print) communities and their rich culture; and pays ISBN 978-1-74146-787-1 (pdf ) its respects to the Traditional Owners in the Disclaimer Central Coastal Region. The Board also This publication may be of assistance to you recognises the intrinsic connection of but the State of Victoria and its employees traditional owners to Country and do not guarantee that the publication is acknowledges their contribution in the without flaw of any kind or is wholly management of land, water and resources appropriate for your particular purposes and management. therefore disclaims all liability for any error, loss or other consequence which may arise from you relying on any information in this publication. Unless stated, images sourced from the Department of Environment, Land, Water and Planning. Front Cover Top: St Kilda Harbour, photo: Roberto Seba, Tourism Victoria. Bottom from left to right: Mangroves at Western Port. Cunningham Pier Geelong. Point Lonsdale Pier and Lighthouse. Blue Devil Fish, photo: Nicola Waldron. The Beach, St Kilda, Victoria, c1920-1954 Rose Stereograph Co.
CENTRAL REGIONAL COA STA L PLA N 1 CONTENTS Minister’s Foreword 2 7 Managing Coastal Land and Infrastructure 27 List of Figures Chair’s Foreword 3 Regional Priority 3 – Integrating Coastal Planning Figure 1: The three levels of Preparing the Central Regional Coastal Plan 4 and Management 27 planning for coastal management 5 1 Introduction 5 Regional Priority 4 – Sustainable and Equitable Figure 2: Central Coastal Region Funding Mechanisms for Coastal Infrastructure and region of influence 8 1.1 What is the Regional Coastal Plan? 5 and Management 29 Figure 3: Melbourne’s growth 1.2 How the Regional Coastal Plan will be used 6 Regional Priority 5 – Oversee the Implementation boundary, neighbouring regional 1.3 The role of the Central Coastal Board 7 of the Recreational Boating Facilities Framework growth centres, Registered for the Central Coastal Region 30 Aboriginal Parties (RAP) and RAP 1.4 What the Regional Coastal Plan covers 7 Regional Priority 6 – Sustainable Visitation and applicants 9 1.5 Working with other organisations 9 Tourism Infrastructure Service Level Hierarchy 32 Figure 4: Bio-physical values of the 2 Valuing and Understanding the Coast 10 Central Coastal Region 11 8 Valuing the Natural Environment and 2.1 Bio-physical values 10 Integrating Marine Planning 33 Figure 5: Economic and social 2.2 Eco-system services 12 Regional Priority 7 – Protecting Significant Coastal values of the Central Coastal and Marine Ecosystems and Habitats 33 Region 16 2.3 Aboriginal cultural values 12 9 Integration of Key Issues 34 Figure 6: Mind map of how the 2.4 Social and historical values 13 priorities link to have integrated 2.5 Coastal settings of significance 13 Regional Priority 8 – Promoting Leadership, actions in the Central Coastal Co-ordination and Capacity Building for the Coast 34 Region 21 2.6 Coastal use and development 14 10 Implementing the Regional Coastal Plan 36 Figure 7: Map indicating areas for 3 Coastal Processes and Climate Change 18 10.1 Monitoring, evaluation and reporting 36 hazard assessment and adaptation 3.1 Natural coastal processes 18 planning (based on coastal 10.2 Table of actions 36 3.2 Climate change 19 instability and low lying areas) 26 11 Appendices 38 4 Priority Actions for the Central Coastal Region 21 Figure 8: Indicative map of Appendix 1 – Public and agency consultation about foreshore, marine park and 4.1 The vision 21 the Regional Coastal Plan 38 sanctuary managers 28 4.2 Regional priorities 21 Appendix 2 – C oastal management and planning Figure 9: Boating facilities in the 4.3 The Plan at a glance 22 connections in Victoria 41 Central Coastal Region 31 5 Managing for Population Growth 23 Appendix 3 – Aligning Actions in the Central Regional List of Tables Coastal Plan with Key Issues and Desired Regional Priority 1 – Population Growth - Balancing Table 1: Central Regional Priorities Outcomes in the Victorian Coastal Access and Valuing the Natural Environment 23 for Action 21 Strategy 2014 42 6 Climate Change 24 Appendix 4 – L ist of coastal management plans in the Regional Priority 2 – Adapting to Climate Change Central Coastal Region 44 and Increased Coastal Hazards 24 Acronyms 46 References and Sources of Information 47
2 CENTRAL REGIONAL COA S TA L P L A N MINISTER’S FOREWORD The coast is close to the hearts of the This Plan will support government many Victorians who live near it, or visit agencies, community and industry it, and enjoy all that it has to offer. groups to work more collaboratively in Communities along the coastline are managing the coast. It will help coastal deeply connected to their local managers and communities tackle landscape and care about the future of challenges on the coast in their region the coast. more effectively, and with greater Our coastal environment is complex coordination. It will enable us to be and constantly changing, and there are more responsive and adaptable as many pressures that need to be pressures change over time, and our understood and managed better. As understanding of climate change Minister and a Local Member of a implications improves. coastal area, I appreciate how The local knowledge, passion and important it is to understand, protect enthusiasm of Victoria’s coastal managers and care for the things we love about and communities is invaluable, and I the coast. look forward to working together to Victoria has a strong coastal planning ensure that the diverse natural, social, and management framework, based on cultural and economic values of the the Victorian Coastal Strategy (2014). coast that we enjoy today remain for The Central Coastal Board has developed future generations. this Regional Coastal Plan to build on that framework and outline how the The Hon Lisa Neville MP Strategy should be put into practice. Minister for Environment, Climate Change and Water
CENTRAL REGIONAL COA STA L PLA N 3 CHAIR’S FOREWORD The Central Coastal Board’s vision is: The Regional Coastal Plan is based The Central Coastal Board will use the Treasuring the Central Coastal Region upon the hierarchy of principles in the Regional Coastal Plan to inform, engage – a healthy and sustainable coast for Strategy – protecting the natural and encourage the involvement of all current and future generations. environment, providing direction and persons and organisations involved in The Central Coastal Region, from delivering sustainable use to meet the coastal planning and management to: Breamlea to Inverloch, covers nearly needs and aspirations of present and – reflect the regional priorities in their 1,000 kilometres of coastline. It includes future generations through integrated decisions; the metropolis of Melbourne, the City coastal zone management. Consistent with the Strategy, the Plan gives – work together when they need to; of Greater Geelong, the peri-urban communities of the region, the two preference to improving, and increasing – identify and resolve systemic gaps large bays of Port Phillip and Western the utilisation of, existing developed and emerging issues; and Port and the region’s open coastline sites over new development. – together deliver the Board’s vision and islands. The Central Coastal Board has identified for the region. The region encompasses both public eight regional priorities for the Central In parallel with the implementation of and private land and includes the Coastal Region: this Plan, the Victorian Coastal Strategy foreshores, estuarine and marine 1. Population growth – balancing Implementation Coordinating environments and the hinterland and access and valuing the natural Committee will be addressing some of catchments that influence and impact it. environment; the major issues identified for the coast. The region’s coast is enjoyed by millions 2. Adapting to climate change and In addition, the Minister will be reviewing of residents and visitors, and this will increased coastal hazards; the Coastal Management Act 1995 and increase as metropolitan Melbourne’s developing a new Marine and Coastal Act. 3. Integrating coastal planning and The knowledge gained in preparing and current population of 4.5 million grows management; to 8 million by 2051. There is a need to implementing this Plan will contribute strike the balance between maintaining 4. Sustainable and equitable funding to the Implementation Coordinating functioning ecosystems and the social mechanisms for coastal Committee and to the community and economic benefits of future use infrastructure and management; consultation for the new Act. and development. The coast, it’s marine 5. Implementing the Recreational The Board sincerely thanks the many and shore habitats, and our use and Boating Facilities Framework; organisations and people who have enjoyment of these areas will be contributed to this Plan, and who on a 6. Sustainable visitation and tourism affected by climate change, including a daily basis contribute to ensuring the infrastructure service through the recognised increase in the mean sea vision of the Victorian Coastal Strategy development of a multi-level level of 0.8m by 2100. It is already a 2014: A healthy coast, appreciated hierarchy; highly modified coast. by all, now and in the future. 7. Protecting significant coastal and This Plan provides a regional focus for marine ecosystems and habitats; all agencies and organisations with a and Ross Kilborn responsibility for coastal management 8. Promoting leadership, co-ordination Chair, Central Coastal Board to interpret and implement the Victorian Coastal Strategy 2014 in the and capacity building. region. In particular, it will guide the development of coastal management plans for the length of the coast.
4 CENTRAL REGIONAL COA S TA L P L A N PREPARING THE CENTRAL REGIONAL COASTAL PLAN The process of preparing the Central The draft Regional Coastal Plan was Regional Coastal Plan comprised three released in February 2015. The Central phases: Coastal Board held twelve formal 1. preliminary planning, information meetings in Frankston, Geelong, gathering and identification of Inverloch and Port Melbourne in regional priorities; February and March 2015 to provide further opportunities for consultation 2. development of a draft Plan for with stakeholders and the public. Many public consultation; and community groups attended, along 3. finalising the plan in response to with representatives from a wide consultation. cross-section of coastal management organisations, and mayors, executive As part of the first phase, an ‘invitation officers and staff from the thirteen to be involved’ brochure was sent out councils in the region (see Appendix 1). to key stakeholders in March 2014 at the beginning of the planning process. Sixty-five written submissions were It identified key questions to help focus received with comments specific to the feedback and guide submissions. It was region, with another thirteen about followed by a workshop for local Middle Brighton Beach state-wide issues. The Board reviewed Photo: Werner Hennecke these submissions and the feedback councils to further identify opportunities and gaps to address in from face-to-face meetings to revise the Plan. Key government agencies and finalise the Plan. involved in managing the coast were A range of issues were raised during also consulted. the consultation for the initial planning and subsequent draft Plan. These helped refine the Plan and shape its eight priority actions. Some issues of local importance were raised, for example, designating areas for dogs on beaches. These issues are best dealt with in local coastal management plans. Dolphins in Port Phillip Bay Photo: Searoad Ferries, Tourism Victoria Back Beach rock pools, Sorrento Photo: Ewen Bell, Tourism Victoria
CENTRAL REGIONAL COA STA L PLA N 5 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 What is the Regional The Plan provides a strong framework to support local planning and decision Coastal Plan? making on both public and private Sets statewide direction Victorian Coastal Developed by the The Regional Coastal Plan for the land. It aims to help people value and Strategy Victorian Coastal for coastal planners Council and managers Central Coastal Region is a Coastal understand the coast. The Regional Action Plan endorsed under part 3 of Coastal Plan will also provide the the Coastal Management Act 1995. Its framework for agencies, community contents meet the requirements of and industry groups working and section 23 of that Act. engaging with decision makers on emerging strategic regional priorities The Victorian Coastal Strategy 2014 for the Central Coastal Region. Translates state-wide Developed by provides the broad framework for Regional Regional Coastal direction by identifying managing the coast and for developing As a statutory document, the Regional Coastal Plans Boards regional values, priorities Coastal Plan has important links with and management gaps regional coastal plans and more local and specific coastal management plans other statutory instruments. As outlined in the Victorian Coastal Strategy 2014, Keel boats on Port Phillip (Figure 1). This Plan provides a regional Photo: Teri Dodds framework for planning and decision- the broader land use planning system is making on both public and freehold important for the implementation of land at the local level. It also provides a the Strategy, regional coastal plans and The Plan’s primary audiences are local Developed by coastal coastal management plans (see government, committees of Coastal Sets local direction and focus for all agencies with responsibility public land managers Appendix 2). The relationship between management, government agencies Management (eg. local municipalities develops sub-regional or issues for coastal management to act based operational plans these policies and plans is through: Plans & committees of together to plan and manage the coast and peak bodies with a coastal focus. It management) by: – the State Planning Policy Framework has also been written to provide which requires coastal planning to landowners, volunteer groups and – interpreting and implementing the be consistent with the Strategy and coastal communities with an Victorian Coastal Strategy 2014 and relevant coastal action plans understanding of the framework for Figure 1: The three levels of planning for coastal management its hierarchy of principles at a (including this Regional Coastal managing and protecting coastal regional scale; Plan); and values in the region, and how they can – facilitating integration across contribute to this outcome. The Plan has three parts: jurisdictions to increase efficiency – sections of local planning schemes The principle of ‘Integrated Coastal – Chapters 2 and 3 provide an and effectiveness; through Municipal Strategic Zone Management’ (ICZM) underpins overview of the values of the Central Statements and Local Planning – identifying regional coastal values the Central Regional Coastal Plan. ICZM Coastal Region and how they are Policy Frameworks. and strategic objectives (regional is about working across a geographic changing; priorities) to be accounted for; and area (land to sea), across different land – Chapters 4 to 9 set out the eight – identifying solutions that address tenures (public and private), and across regional priorities that are a focus for systemic gaps in coastal organisations and jurisdictions action; and management. (national, state, regional and local). – Chapter 10 explains how the plan ICZM is achieved through both formal will be implemented, including the and informal collaboration and process of monitoring, evaluating coordination between the various and reporting. groups using and managing the coast.
6 CENTRAL REGIONAL COA S TA L P L A N 1 INTRODUCTION 1.2 H ow the Regional Sea All Dolphin Swims, Queenscliff Hierarchy of Principles Coastal Plan will Photo: Mark Chew, Tourism Victoria The Victorian Coastal Strategy 2014 be used supports the hierarchy of principles In line with the Victorian Coastal introduced in previous Strategies This Plan has been designed to set Strategy 2014 hierarchy of principles, and also recognises that the realistic expectations about what can the Regional Coastal Plan documents foundation of coastal planning and be delivered, and by when. The Board and describes key regional issues and management is a healthy coastal anticipates that most of the key actions strategic priorities. It links actions, those and marine environment. These can be delivered within existing accountable, the outcomes to be principles give effect to the directions budgets of management agencies. achieved, and measures and reports on in the Coastal Management Act However, additional funding will be performance annually. The review 1995 and are included in the State needed to carry out some further period for the Plan is 2020. Planning Policy Framework and in planning and management steps, such planning schemes throughout This Plan takes a long-term and regional as detailed coastal hazard studies and Victoria. perspective. adaptation plans. Over the next five years the Plan provides the framework The principles are: The Regional Coastal Plan will build the for Commonwealth, state, regional, – Ensure the protection of evidence base to guide future planning The Plan will also guide development local agencies and the private sector to significant environmental and and establish the foundations for the and implementation of coastal work together on attracting funding to cultural values; ongoing process of progressively management plans. Where existing carry out this additional work. This is a improving management decisions. This – Undertake integrated planning coastal action plans are still relevant, state-wide issue raised in the Victorian will bring benefits in the future, and provide clear direction for local managers may continue to use Coastal Strategy 2014. including better targeted investment, the future; and improved coordination of management these plans. It is expected that over time these coastal action plans would – Ensure the sustainable use of activities and promotion of best practice. transition into coastal management The Central Coastal Board will natural coastal resources. The actions in the Plan have been developed to allow flexibility to adapt plans where needed. participate in a review of funding Only when the above principles to new information and achieve the During consultation for this Plan, many arrangements by the Victorian have been considered and best outcomes for the coast. The Board organisations and individuals expressed Coastal Council and the addressed: will undertake a mid-term review of the concern that funding is a limiting factor Department of Environment, Land, – Ensure development on the Plan’s implementation in 2018. for managing the coast. The Regional Water and Planning, as outlined in coast is located within existing Coastal Plan provides governments and the Victorian Coastal Strategy 2014. Importantly, the Board will use the Plan Sorrento Foreshore modified and resilient to work with other managers and coastal managers with priorities for Photo: Ewen Bell, environments where the demand Tourism Victoria stakeholders to increase understanding strategic investment. Sustainable and for development is evident and of the coast, protect coastal values and equitable funding mechanisms are any impacts can be managed further improve management essential to enable coastal managers to are important. However, land managers sustainably. arrangements. meet their responsibilities and to better have different abilities to utilise The actions in this Regional Coastal understand, protect and manage opportunities, with some having Plan support these principles and coastal values and assets. limited or no options to generate funds work to make sure that decision Current revenue streams, such as locally. There are also inconsistencies in making on the coast is guided by, income from parking, camping areas how the “user pays” principle is applied and consistent with the Victorian and caravan parks on Crown land, and in the region. Coastal Strategy 2014. leasing Crown land for other activities,
1 INTRODUCTION CENTRAL REGIONAL COA STA L PLA N 7 1.3 T he role of the 1.4 What the Regional – catchments - rivers and drainage systems that affect the coastal zone, Central Coastal Coastal Plan covers including estuaries and wetlands; Board The Central Coastal Region comprises and the areas of 13 local councils that form – atmosphere - near, around and over The Central Coastal Board is a statutory the administrative and physical interface the coast as defined above. planning and advisory body of of the catchment flows and influences community members with extensive Some key spatial characteristics of the on Port Phillip, Western Port and the experience and expertise in coastal region are: region’s open coast. matters. Appointed by the Minister for – 993 kilometres1 of coastline Environment, Climate Change and Importantly, in the Central Coastal (inclusive of islands such as Phillip Water, it provides strategic guidance for Region it is both the region’s hinterland Island and French Island); managing the region’s coast. The Board (for example the greater metropolitan has specific functions, which are to: Melbourne and peri-urban area) and – 3600 square kilometres of marine the large embayments of Port Phillip waters and embayment (notably – develop coastal action plans and Western Port that drive and Port Phillip and Western Port); (including this overarching Regional influence the use and management of – 20,246 square kilometres of catchment Coastal Plan) and guidelines for the region’s coastline, estuarine and (Port Phillip and Western Port, coastal planning and management Photo: Ross Kilborn marine areas (see Figure 2). Corangamite and West Gippsland for the region; Significant agricultural areas in the catchment management authorities); – provide leadership in implementing More broadly, the Board seeks to be an region’s catchments, particularly around – 4.5 million resident population in the Victorian Coastal Strategy 2014, advocate for coastal issues. Where Werribee and Western Port, add to the the Central Coastal Region and its coastal action plans and coastal needed, it aims to raise difficult issues diverse and complex land uses and hinterland; guidelines in the Central Coastal and questions to help resolve how best pressures. Region; – in excess of 40 organisations to manage and protect the region’s The term ‘coast’ encompasses both managing the coast; and – monitor, evaluate and report on the coastal areas into the future. A key part public and private land, and means: Victorian Coastal Strategy 2014 and of this is shaping future expectations – 13 local councils that form the Regional Coastal Plan in the region; about: – the marine environment - nearshore region’s coastline (see Figure 3). marine environment, the seabed, – facilitate the involvement of – how the coast, and the demands on and waters out to the State limit of individuals and organisations to it, will change over time; three nautical miles; participate in the planning and – how to respond to those changes; management of the coast in the – foreshores - or coastal Crown land and Port Phillip Bay from region; and Arthur’s seat up to 200 m from the high water – how to plan for and use the coast to Photo: Salahuddin mark; – provide advice to the Minister for protect its values. Ahmad Environment, Water and Climate – coastal hinterland - land directly The length of coastline was calculated 1 Change and the Victorian Coastal influenced by the sea or directly using the official coastline for Victoria Council on coastal issues and influencing the coastline and marine (FR_FRAMEWORK_AREA_LINE, ANZLIC ID: development in the region. areas, and with critical impacts on ANZVI0803002894) which represents the the foreshore and nearshore state boundary zero metre contour coastline. It does include small islands environment; such as Mud Island. It does not include rivers and estuaries such as the Yarra and Maribyrnong Rivers. For further information please go to http://www.data.vic.gov.au
8 CENTRAL REGIONAL COA S TA L P L A N 1 INTRODUCTION The region’s coast can be broadly characterised as: – urban coast - intensively used public and freehold land, planned and managed for a wide range of use and development, including residential use, commercial activities, recreation, marinas and commercial ports; – open coast - visitor and tourism destinations supported by services and infrastructure; – natural coast - low impact use and development planned and managed to support and protect environmental values; and – coastal waters and embayments - receptor of catchment inputs, boating, and water-based tourism and commercial shipping that is regulated and managed to protect the health and safe use of marine environments and marine protected areas. These areas include coastal communities with defined town boundaries. Figure 2 Central Coastal Region and region of influence
1 INTRODUCTION CENTRAL REGIONAL COA STA L PLA N 9 MELBOURNE 1.5 Working with other organisations This Plan identifies lead and partner Urban growth boundary organisations for each action. The Board will work with these organisations to develop an implementation plan within six months of the Regional Coastal Plan being endorsed by the Minister. This will provide further detail about the process, the specific roles and responsibilities of each organisation, and the timing for each action in this Plan. Managing the Central Coastal Region is complex. Many organisations are involved including 43 managers along the coastline (see Figure 8 on page 28). These organisations have their own planning processes that contribute to protecting coastal values. The Central Coastal Board will support and work with these organisations to coordinate planning activities and integrate management wherever possible. There may also be opportunities to work with industry groups and the private sector to improve management of the coast. The Central Coastal Board will support actions in the regional catchment strategies and waterway strategies that aim to improve the condition of coastal values, particularly to maintain or improve water quality in estuaries, embayments and coastal waters. Figure 3 Melbourne’s growth boundary, neighbouring regional growth centres, Registered Aboriginal Parties (RAP) and RAP applicants (Sources: Regional Growth Plans; Aboriginal Affairs Victoria)
10 CENTRAL REGIONAL COA S TA L P L A N 2 VALUING AND UNDERSTANDING THE COAST 2.1 Bio-physical values At an international level the region parks and reserves (for example, Phillip contains three Ramsar listed wetlands: Island Nature Parks, North Western Port The Central Coastal Region provides a Nature Conservation Reserve, Jawbone – Western Port (59,297 hectares which broad range of values to people. In Flora and Fauna Reserve, The Spit also includes the UNESCO Western many ways, the inherent natural Wildlife Reserve, Point Cook Coastal Port Biosphere Reserve); features underpin many uses of coastal Park and Lake Connewarre Wildlife areas. This use brings pressures that can – Edithvale-Seaford Wetlands (261 Reserve) contribute to the protection of reduce the natural values and amenity, hectares); and significant bio-physical values. The for example through loss of marine and – Port Phillip Bay (Western Shoreline) region also has extensive lengths of terrestrial vegetation and habitat. and Bellarine Peninsula (22,645 accessible foreshore and recreational 2.1.1 Coasts hectares) (see Figure 4). beaches. The region’s coastline has diverse Collectively, the Ramsar sites provide Most of the region’s vegetation is highly bio-physical characteristics that provide critical habitat for tens of thousands of modified. For example, the original benefits in the form of: migratory waders and water birds, and vegetation of the threatened coastal winter habitat for the critically Moonah woodland now only occurs in – recreational use; endangered orange-bellied parrot. scattered remnants. This highlights the – shoreline stabilisation; importance of protecting existing The region includes Point Nepean, Red knot on Mud Island remnant stands of native vegetation – buffering for and adapting to coastal French Island and Mornington Photo: Annette Hatten wherever possible. hazards and climate change; Peninsula national parks. Other regional Estuaries form an important part of the – habitat protection and biodiversity; bio-physical character of the coastline. and Some of the key ones in the region are: – landscape character and amenity. Anderson Inlet, Balcombe Creek, Limeburners Bay and Barwon River estuaries. Estuaries are highly variable environments that from time to time undergo salinity changes due to the mixing of sea water with fresh water catchment flows. Important rivers in the region include the Barwon, Werribee, Maribyrnong, Yarra and Bass Little penguins on rivers. Phillip Island The Victorian Waterway Management Strategy 2013 provides the framework for government, in partnership with the Above: Red octopus in community, to manage rivers, estuaries rock pools, Point Lonsdale and wetlands to support environmental, social, cultural and economic values for all to enjoy.
2 VALUING AND UNDERSTANDING THE COAST CENTRAL REGIONAL COA STA L PLA N 11 2.1.2 Marine The Central Coastal Region’s marine Kororoit area covers approximately 3600 square Jawbone Flora and ve r Ri Fauna Reserve Yarra kilometres and includes the major Upper Stony Creek I S ke l e t o n C r e e We I I Creek Reservoir I I I embayments of Port Phillip and Melbourne I I I I I I I I I I I I rrib I I I I Lower Stony Loll I Western Port as well as the off-shore ee ypop Williamstown I I I I I I k Creek Reservoir I I R Cre r Danden Cree I I I ive I ek I I marine waters to three nautical miles. I I I I k I I I Hov L ong I I I I I I I I I I Important marine habitats within the I I ittle I Werribee I I ells JAWBONE I POINT COOK I I I I I I I YOU YANGS River I Cr MARINE Brighton I LYSTERFIELD I region are represented within five I COASTAL PARK I Emerald Cockatoo I eek I I I I SANCTUARY I I REGIONAL PARK I k I I LAKE PARK Cree I I Back Cre I marine national parks, five marine I I I I I g ek I Sandringham in Cardinia I I rr I I me I I POINT COOKE BEA I I Gembrook I Reservoir I sanctuaries, nine marine special I I Flinders Peak m I e I I MARINE SANCTUARY RICKETTS POINT I I CH I I I m D ia m ond Cre I EASTLINK Buny D BUNYIP I management areas and the Bunurong I ek I MARINE SANCTUARY R Eu Sutherlan I I WY I Western I I SF I I I STATE PARK ip River I I CE I l l Mordialloc I marine and coastal protected areas (see Treatment Plant I I IN I Berwick Beaconsfield I PR I I I I I I l l I I M Port Phillip Bay Edithvale Reservoir I I I I ID d Cree Figure 4). I I STH I l l I LA I Seaford I (Western Shoreline) Chelsea I I ND I I I I l l I I The Spit Pakenham GIP l l I I Wetlands I I PRINCESS FWY HW k I I I I I l I I I PSL l l The Victorian Bays and Inlets Bioregion I I Wildlife Reserve Y Patterson Creek l I I I I I I I I I I I I I I AND I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I Card includes both Port Phillip and Western Cranbourne I I I I I HAM Portarlington I I I I I Bunyip I I I I I ILTON HW Y I I inia HWY K I CORIO BAY PORT PHILLIP BAY ananook C I Port, with diverse habitats including reek I I I I I I I r C e I I I Geelong R iv re e I Salt Frankston I Bunyip I deep channels, seagrass meadows, k Barwon River S w e e t w a te r C r e e k I I Lagoon I I I NORTH WESTERN BELL St Leonards I mangroves and saltmarsh, and I I I I ARIN PORT NATURE II I au rn Ponds C Reedy EH WY Mount Eliza W ree k I abundant fish fauna. Areas with high Lake Y CONSERVATION Tooradin Koo wee rup I Bellarine W I I PRINCESS HWY I RESERVE H I Mornington I I Lake K Peninsula C I I I biodiversity and conservation values Lang Lang River LA LIN I I DU I C I I I I Connewarre Lake I B al I I OO I I I I I I include: Lake Connewarre co m b I Queenscliff FRENCH ISLAND OR N SU e I Victoria Creek Wildlife Reserve Murtnagurt MO MARINE NATIONAL PARK I I I I Ocean Mount Martha NI Swamp Grove D F PE Lang Lang – Popes Eye with diverse biodiversity; B Hastings YARINGA I N Barwon Point MARINE I E Portsea Safety Beach Devilbend FRENCH ISLAND I I Heads Lonsdale A NATIONAL – a distinctive reef habitat at Portsea Dromana Reservoir ine Creek NATIONAL PARK I I I Sorrento g PARK Hole; and Rosebud a rrin Mt Wellington W I BARWON PO Rye I INT FRENCH ISLAND I BLUFF NEP ARTHURS SEAT a Somers I I – unique seagrass beds at Port Phillip MARINE POINT NEPEAN EA N R D Tootgarook STATE PARK ul Heads, Flinders and Bunurong. 0 10 20 SANCTUARY NATIONAL PARK Swamp e n ins Mornington P WESTERN PORT Y s Riv er HW Bas Candowie Port Phillip is also home to resident and CHURCHILL AS S Creek kilometres Reservoir EX-HMAS CANBERRA ISLAND MARINE B quite isolated communities of RECREATION RESERVE MORNINGTON PENINSULA Cowes NATIONAL PARK Main NATIONAL PARK Flinders bottlenose and common dolphins. PHILLIP ISLAND Bass Hill Lance Creek San Remo Reservoir PORT PHILLIP HEADS MARINE NATIONAL PARK The Central Victorian Bioregion from LEGEND A. POINT NEPEAN D. POPES EYE MUSHROOM REEF Cape Otway to west of Wilsons B. POINT LONSDALE E. PORTSEA HOLE MARINE SANCTUARY t River Parks and Reserves C. SWAN BAY F. MUD ISLAND PHILLIP ISLAND Powlet Promontory includes the region’s open NATURE PARK coast. Areas of high conservation value Marine Protected Areas KILCUNDA-HAMERS HAVEN Wonthaggi COASTAL RESERVE include: Coastal Wetlands Inverloch – the marine community in the deep UNESCO Biosphere Reserve CAPE PATTERSON COASTAL RESERVE canyon at the entrance to Port BUNURONG MARINE PARK Ramsar sites Phillip; BUNURONG BUNURONG MARINE NATIONAL PARK COASTAL RESERVE BASS STRAIT – bull kelp at Barwon Bluff; and – a large fur seal colony at Seal Rocks, Phillip Island. Figure 4 Bio-physical values of the Central Coastal Region
12 CENTRAL REGIONAL COA S TA L P L A N 2 VALUING AND UNDERSTANDING THE COAST The region also includes significant 2.2 Eco-system services 2.3 Aboriginal cultural artificial habitats: The Central Coastal Board The natural coastal systems in the values supports incorporating cultural – S outh Channel Fort (white-faced Central Coastal Region are of intrinsic storm petrels); Aboriginal people have ongoing and heritage and traditional knowledge value and provide a range of beneficial strong connections with the coast and into all coastal planning and – C hinaman’s Hat (Australian fur ecosystem services. Healthy coastal and view the coastal lands as inseparable management. seals); marine ecosystems play important roles from the coastal waters: their stories of – St Kilda breakwater (Little penguins); in providing services that help sustain place, and the tens of thousands of both the ecological values of the – P opes Eye, mentioned previously, years of physical evidence of their ecosystems themselves and a variety of important for nesting gannets; and presence across the region remind us other values and uses for people. For of these connections. Shell middens, – m any shipwrecks, particularly example, mangroves protect against camping places and scar trees dating between Port Phillip Heads and wave erosion, and sea grass beds act as back some 12,000 years are just a few Torquay. nurseries for important fish species. physical examples of the long term Other benefits include: The proximity of so many marine connection of Aboriginal people to protected areas to a major population – storm protection, erosion buffers, coastal areas in the region – a centre is unique on a global scale and and flood and disease control; connection that continues today. presents the Central Coastal Region – products from nature such as food The current coastline wasn’t always with a significant responsibility and set and pharmaceuticals; where it is now, and Traditional Owner of challenges. Such protected areas are interests and responsibilities extend to primarily managed for their ecological – habitat, biodiversity, nutrient cycling and biogeochemical services; and areas now inundated. Land and sea values, but also afford opportunities to country is a term for the whole provide social value through recreation – recreational opportunities, and environment, integrating land, intertidal ‘i sea, i care’ (for example dive sites such as Popes education, aesthetics, amenity and areas and sea, and including natural, ambassadors learning Eye and Portsea Hole in Port Phillip) and spiritual values. heritage, material and spiritual from Traditional community involvement in their Owners with a Coastal vegetation and sediments also components. This connection is the smoking ceremony. management. basis for maintaining cultural traditions Photo: Jeff Weir provide important ecosystem services Potential threats to these protected by sequestering significant amounts of and passing on knowledge across marine areas, and the marine carbon (known as “blue carbon”) in generations. environment generally, include impacts mangrove forests, seagrass meadows Indigenous people play an active role from sediment, nutrients, toxicants and and intertidal salt marshes. in managing natural resources litter from catchments, oil spills, marine particularly relating to ‘sea country’. As pest incursions, dredging and anticipated custodians and owners (through impacts from climate change. Victorian legislation such as the Aboriginal Heritage Act 2006 and the Traditional Owner Settlement Act 2010), Aboriginal people have responsibilities for country in a range of ways, encompassing natural resources and An Aboriginal shell cultural heritage. Indigenous groups in midden deposit from the region include the Wathaurung, Jawbone Flora and Fauna Reserve, Wurundjeri, Boon Wurrung and Williamstown Bunurong (see Figure 3 on page 9). Photo: Phillip Wierzbowski
2 VALUING AND UNDERSTANDING THE COAST CENTRAL REGIONAL COA STA L PLA N 13 2.4 Social and historical Bathing boxes are colourful icons of Port Phillip. They occupy a unique role in values bayside beach life. The lighthouses along These values include both historical the coastal headlands provide a sense connections and contemporary of place and have historical significance customs. (for example Pt. Lonsdale, Queenscliff, Williamstown, Port Melbourne, Cape Victoria’s first European settlement Schanck). The urban coast also has many started at Sullivan Bay near Sorrento in piers, ports, marinas, yachting clubs, 1803 – 30 years before Melbourne was promenades and pathways contributing founded. The 1852 Quarantine Station to an active coastline and waterways. at Point Nepean played an important role in handling immigrants to the new Natural landscapes within the region settlement of Melbourne. Fifty heritage include the mangrove forests of Western buildings remain from this era. A fort at Port, the Port Phillip Heads coast with views of Bass Strait and The Rip, and the Cape Woolamai The Heads and the artificial island of Photo: Phillip Wierzbowski South Channel Fort were built in the impressive coastal scenery of Cape 1880s as important parts of Victoria’s Woolamai and The Nobbies. Many defences. Cape Schanck locations around the bays provide a Other features in the region include: The Central Coastal Region is important Lighthouse Photo: Salahuddin 2.5 Coastal settings of sense of isolation and ‘semi-wilderness’ – the Altona Meadows active sand despite the metropolis (for example to past and newly arrived migrants. Ahmad significance Seaford or Somers) and are part of the spits – one of the major coastal sand These communities contribute a rich cherished fabric of the region. bodies of Port Phillip; fabric of cultures to the region. They are Coastal settings include the landscape types of the coastline, the underwater The Central Coastal Region has many – the Altona East sand bars – a also a potential untapped source of sequence of about 20 intertidal and enthusiasm in managing and features of the marine environment sites of geomorphic and geological and the vistas obtained both from land importance. The Beaumaris Cliffs fossil submarine bars extending unbroken protecting coastal values. For example, for up to 600 m parallel to the initiatives such as the Bilingual Coast and water. site is of international significance. Its sedimentary rocks contain fossils of coastline; and Guides program support these For much of the Central Coastal Region communities to develop a greater the coastal landscape is framed by built marine megafauna dating back to six – the areas around Lyall Inlet, Quail understanding of the coast and a sense form. The views of Port Phillip and million years (Wakelin Associates 2009). Island and Watson Inlet with diverse of custodianship. Melbourne’s skyline from points on land The site contains the most diverse intertidal geomorphology. (for example Williamstown, Pt Cook, range of marine mammal fossils, and is The waters of the region provide a wide Coastal areas give sense of place and the most important site of its type, in identity for residents and visitors. This Portarlington and Arthurs Seat) are a range of habitats and include a number feature. Likewise there are picturesque Australia. of popular dive sites. Intertidal rocky generates a strong connection to the coast for many people, which is views of Corio Bay and Geelong from reefs occur along much of the coastline reflected in the numerous community Limeburners Point and of Phillip Island facing Bass Strait. Areas such as groups and individuals active in and Western Port from San Remo. Bunurong Marine Park and Marine Brighton Bathing Boxes managing coastal areas. Photo: Department of National Park, Ricketts Point Marine Environment, Land, Sanctuary and Mushroom Reef Marine In many places, the coastal landscape is Water and Planning Sanctuary provide easy access to the a primary area for recreation and social marine environment. involvement, and this contributes to the health and well-being of the community.
14 CENTRAL REGIONAL COA S TA L P L A N 2 VALUING AND UNDERSTANDING THE COAST 2.6 C oastal use and 2.6.1 A place to live development In the Central Coastal Region, the opportunity to reside on, or High population and intensive use is a emotionally connect to, the coast is distinguishing feature of the Central embraced by many. The most recent Coastal Region, and much of the Victorian Coastal Council’s Community coastline around metropolitan areas is Attitudes and Behaviour Survey for the highly modified. There are also many coast (Ipsos-Eureka SRI 2012) estimated values and uses in close proximity to each that a quarter of people living within other, and this can create conflict. five kilometres of the coast visit it daily The challenge is to manage the pressures and almost ninety percent at least once from a demanding population now, and a month. This study also identified that in the future. The region is heavily the most enjoyable aspect of a coastal urbanised and is predicted to grow to a visit is the clean and unspoilt catchment population of almost eight environment, the scenery and the time million by 2051 (Victoria in Future 2014). spent with family and friends and just Metropolitan Melbourne is a growing ‘being there’. Queenscliff Harbour tourism destination both internationally The study also found that one of the and nationally. Peak populations, biggest concerns of survey participants particularly on the Bellarine and The region has high economic, social about the coast was rubbish and litter. Mornington peninsulas, Phillip Island and commercial values with high usage Recent work by CSIRO in its 2014 and Bass Coast can triple in size during and ageing infrastructure. report, Understanding the Effects of holiday periods due to second home Consequently it is a high cost coastline Marine Debris on Wildlife, showed that ownership and holidaymakers in caravan to manage and maintain. The much of the plastics and debris found parks and accommodation houses. predominant forms of coastal use and in our marine environments is Strategic planning for the growth of the development include residential, visitor, concentrated near cities. Litter region is set out in several documents tourism and recreation infrastructure management will continue to be a - Plan Melbourne (Metropolitan Planning and commercial uses. challenge for the Central Coastal Region. Strategy 2014), G21 Regional Growth Recurrent maintenance and replacement The extensive urban coastline provides Plan (Geelong Regional Alliance 2013) costs for boat ramps, jetties, walking for relatively intensive residential uses in and the Gippsland Regional Growth Plan and bicycle paths, sea walls, beach both established coastal communities Ocean Grove released in 2014. These have an important renourishment and dredging are critical Photo: Catharina Greve (for example Williamstown) and new role in ensuring sustainable communities to maintaining economic, social and coastal developments (for example and delineating settlement boundaries community value of coastal Wyndham Harbour or Martha Cove). and green breaks between settlements. infrastructure. Many locations along the region’s The plans also identify current and urban coast are, and will continue to, future population patterns. experience higher density residential development in the form of townhouses and apartments as a result of urban consolidation and redevelopment (for example Geelong, Hampton/ Sandringham, Chelsea, Frankston and Docklands).
2 VALUING AND UNDERSTANDING THE COAST CENTRAL REGIONAL COA STA L PLA N 15 Throughout the region there are many Government’s Target One Million plan peri-urban towns where a key will improve fishing opportunities and Case Study – Managing the community value is the ‘coastal lifestyle’. increase recreational fishing in Victoria coast to support Towns such as Barwon Heads, Ocean to 1 million people over four years. environmental and Grove, Portarlington, Flinders, Somers, There are some 211 boating facilities, recreational needs Corinella, Cowes, Inverloch and others including boat ramps, yacht and are characterised by defined settlement motorboat clubs and marinas. An One of Victoria’s major natural wildlife boundaries with breaks of open or estimated 98 percent of boats are attractions, Phillip Island’s Penguin natural coast between the towns. Such trailerable and this places considerable Parade, is exemplar of managing coastal towns are experiencing growth pressure on boat ramps, particularly at the coast for sustainable tourism in permanent residents due both to the peak periods. The Central Coastal Board development. Annual visitation to lifestyle they offer and relative proximity has prepared a Recreational Boating the Penguin Parade has been in to major employment opportunities. Facilities Framework (2014) as an excess of 500,000 visitors per year inventory of the region’s boating for the last 20 years. Admission to For many residents of metropolitan the Penguin Parade is controlled by Melbourne, for example, growth corridors facilities and a planning framework to help manage expectations and classify ticket sales through Phillip Island to the east and west of the region, the Nature Parks, with a maximum coast is never far away. The proximity of facilities based on the level of service they provide (see Regional Priority 5). capacity of 3,700 people per night. two different bay experiences – the nature The Silver Spirit docked at of Western Port and the activity of Port Cunningham Pier in Geelong Swimming is popular at beaches in Port Phillip Island Nature Parks is a Phillip – and the rugged stretches of the Photo: Barton van Laar, Phillip, Western Port and surf beaches on not-for-profit, self-funded Tourism Victoria organisation operating on Crown open coast, means the 993 kilometres the open coast patrolled by surf life of the Central Coastal Region is inherent saving clubs. Several popular dive sites land under its own Board of in how current and future residents of focus on the wide range of marine Management. It is also overseen by the region value the coast. habitats (for example Popes Eye and the state government as a committee Portsea Hole in Port Phillip, and Flinders of management appointed under 2.6.2 Recreation and tourism Pier and Crawfish Rock in Western Port). section 14 of the Crown Land The coast is a major contributor to Open coast diving destinations include (Reserves) Act 1978. Funds generated Melbourne’s liveability today (Figure 5). several wreck sites. Surfing is popular on from ecotourism activities are Many value a day at the beach, coastal the Bass Coast and the outer coasts of invested into conservation, research walks, cycle paths and the views from Phillip Island, Mornington and Bellarine and education programs. The Phillip roads along the foreshore. Smaller Peninsulas. Other activities include Island Nature Parks has undertaken coastal settlements provide strong links wind-surfing, kite-surfing and jet-skiing. significant management actions to Enjoying the beach to neighbourhood, family and place. improve the penguins’ habitat, at Rosebud Key tourist attractions such as the Phillip Holiday-makers have for generations Photo: Catharina Greve including the presence of rangers, Island Nature Park, the coastal and the acquisition and rehabilitation travelled to the same destinations, from maritime areas of the Mornington and hotels to family camping areas. Popular of freehold land within the penguin Ocean Grove, Portarlington and on the Bellarine peninsula and St Kilda are major colony on Summerland Peninsula, summer destination coastal caravan/ Leatherjacket in drawcards for tourists, and the resulting camping sites include Rosebud/Rye Bass Coast, as well as seasonally popular and fox and weed control. strapweed service industries are of great economic foreshore, Portarlington, Kilcunda and sites on the Mornington Peninsula and Photo: Museum importance to both the state and Phillip Island Nature Parks was Inverloch. in many other coastal towns. Victoria regional economies (for example $140 awarded the 2015 Australian Coastal The region has more than half of the Recreational fishing and boating is a million per annum from Phillip Island Award in the category of ‘Planning State’s caravan and camping sites on major attraction of the coast. Port Phillip Nature Parks). See Figure 5 for some of and Management’ for the restoration coastal Crown land, with major year round and Western Port bays offer diverse the region’s recreation and tourism of the Summerland Peninsula. facilities located at Barwon Heads/ boating opportunities. The Victorian facilities.
16 CENTRAL REGIONAL COA S TA L P L A N 2 VALUING AND UNDERSTANDING THE COAST Figure 5 Economic and social values of the Central Coastal Region
2 VALUING AND UNDERSTANDING THE COAST CENTRAL REGIONAL COA STA L PLA N 17 2.6.3 Commercial enterprise Commercial and local port authorities Commercial fishers in the region are the waterway managers for Case studies – Natural operate under the authority of a Fishery designated areas under the Marine coastal values in an urban Access Licence. The total number of Safety Act 2010. Parks Victoria is the setting these licences is capped. Current designated waterway manager for Port Phillip and Western Port and Yarra, Jawbone Flora and Fauna government policy is for commercial Reserve and Marine Sanctuary is netting in Port Phillip and Corio Bay to Maribyrnong and Patterson rivers. The Victorian Coastal Strategy 2014 and a little promontory, west of the be phased out. beach at Williamstown. For over 80 elements of the State Planning Policy The Fisheries Act (Victoria) 1995 also Framework (including Clause 18.03 that years access was restricted to the provides for the management, lists port land use and development area and it was used as a rifle development and promotion of a strategies) currently guide land-use range. viable aquaculture industry. The main planning within designated ports. The Today it is managed by Parks species harvested in the bays are blue amenity values offered by ports are also Victoria and has been transformed mussels. recognised within regional growth plans. into a haven for coastal and marine The region contains the State’s largest Industrial use of coastal areas, for life right next to Melbourne. This commercial ports – the Port of example by oil refineries, steel and has largely been achieved by the Melbourne, Geelong Port and the Port Cruise ships Melbourne aluminium works and saltworks, is work of volunteers, the Jawbone of Hastings. The Port of Melbourne is Photo: Roberto Seba, reducing. There is significant potential Marine Sanctuary Care Group, with Tourism Victoria the help of the local community the largest container port in Australia to rehabilitate and redevelop some and Melbourne is a major freight industrial sites adjacent to the coast. and visitors who care for the area. logistics hub in the country. These ports This will be facilitated with adequate Warringine Coastal Reserve, contribute significantly to the Victorian planning of the industrial and land use south of Hastings, is a tribute to economy both in terms of revenue and changes. decades of community and jobs and there is a continuing demand government partnerships to for capacity. The hospitality industry places a high value on a waterfront setting for its restore the coastal landscape from The marked increase in population and visual amenity and a sense of well- cattle farm to a coastal asset and trade in the next 30 years will increase being it engenders. Commercial use of accessible window to Western freight and shipping, and may lead to the coast needs to be carefully planned Port’s Ramsar values. Today, future expansion of port facilities. to protect natural values and balance walking tracks and boardwalks Population growth will also increase the demand for coastal space with provide access to remarkable use of other marine craft, with the Fishing community values. coastal habitats including potential need to expand marine Photo: Mark Chew, woodland, saltmarsh and industries to service recreational Tourism Victoria mangrove communities that boating demand. Such facilities should support diverse animal and bird be established inland from the coast in Swanson Dock life including 25 rare species. marine industry precincts. Photo: Port of Melbourne Corporation
You can also read