REMUNERATION AND BENEFITS IN CENTRAL GOVERNMENT CIVIL SERVICE IN THE EU MEMBERS STATES AND EUROPEAN COMMISSION

 
REMUNERATION AND BENEFITS IN CENTRAL GOVERNMENT CIVIL SERVICE IN THE EU MEMBERS STATES AND EUROPEAN COMMISSION
REMUNERATION AND BENEFITS IN
CENTRAL GOVERNMENT CIVIL SERVICE
  IN THE EU MEMBERS STATES AND
      EUROPEAN COMMISSION

               \
REMUNERATION AND BENEFITS IN CENTRAL GOVERNMENT CIVIL SERVICE IN THE EU MEMBERS
STATES AND EUROPEAN COMMISSION

The views expressed in this paper are those of the author and do not necessarily represent the official position
of the Government Office of the Slovak Republic.

PREPARED:        Ľudmila Staňová Mikkelsen
                 Katarína Števove
                 Andrea Dlesková

© 2017, Government Office of Slovakia
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TABLE OF CONTENTS .............................................................................................................................................. 3
LIST OF TABLES AND FIGURES................................................................................................................................. 4
INTRODUCTION ...................................................................................................................................................... 5
1     DEFINING FEATURES OF THE CIVIL SERVICE REMUNERATION SYSTEM ........................................................ 7
   1.1       CHARACTERISTICS OF THE PAY SYSTEM ................................................................................................ 7
2     PREDICTABILITY AND FLEXIBILITY OF THE SYSTEM OF REMUNERATION .................................................... 11
   2.1       FEATURES OF THE PAY GRADE ............................................................................................................ 11
   2.2       PRINCIPLES OF PROGRESS IN PAY RANGE ........................................................................................... 15
   2.3       EXCEPTIONS FROM THE PAY GRADE ................................................................................................... 16
3     MEASURES FOR INCREASING PERFORMANCE ............................................................................................ 18
   3.1       INDIVIDUAL PERFORMANCE RELATED COMPONENT ......................................................................... 18
4     BENEFITS AND OTHER FACTORS INFLUENCING THE CHOICE OF EMPLOYMENT IN THE CIVIL SERVICE ..... 23
   4.1       CIVIL SERVANT’S WORKING WEEK ...................................................................................................... 23
   4.2       CIVIL SERVANTS ANNUAL LEAVE ......................................................................................................... 26
   4.3       SABBATICAL LEAVE .............................................................................................................................. 29
   4.4       CIVIL SERVANT’S SEVERANCE PAY ....................................................................................................... 33
   4.5       CIVIL SERVANTS RETIREMENT PAY ...................................................................................................... 35
   4.6       NOTICE PERIOD ................................................................................................................................... 35
   4.7       PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT .......................................................................................................... 37
      4.7.1           POLICIES FOR ATTRACTING YOUNG PEOPLE INTO CIVIL SERVICE .............................................. 38
      4.7.2           VALORIZATION ........................................................................................................................... 41
      4.7.3           SPECIAL HEALTH CARE FACILITIES .............................................................................................. 41
      4.7.4           OTHER BENEFITS......................................................................................................................... 43
REFERENCIES......................................................................................................................................................... 44
GLOSSARY ............................................................................................................................................................. 45
INDEX .................................................................................................................................................................... 47

IREMUNERATION AND BENEFITS IN CENTRAL GOVERNMENT CIVIL SERVICE IN THE EU MEMBRS STATES AND EC                                                                    3
LIST OF TABLES AND FIGURES
TABLE 1: PRINCIPLE OF PROGRESS IN PAY RANGE II ............................................................................................ 16
TABLE 2: PROPOSERS FOR GRANTING A PR COMPONENTS II .............................................................................. 19
TABLE 3: APPROVERS FOR GRANTING OF PR COMPONENTS II ............................................................................ 20
TABLE 4: PERCENTAGE OF CIVIL SERVANTS WITH PR COMPONENT .................................................................... 21
TABLE 5: ANNUAL LEAVE ..................................................................................................................................... 27
TABLE 6: FORM OF CONTRIBUTION FOR CIVIL SERVANT DURING SABBATICAL LEAVE ........................................ 30
TABLE 7: ASKING FOR SABBATICAL LEAVE II ......................................................................................................... 33
TABLE 8: CIVIL SERVANTS ENTITLED TO SEVERANCE PAY..................................................................................... 33
TABLE 9: THE AMOUNT OF SEVERANCE PAY AND THE NUMBER OF YEARS IN THE CIVIL SERVICE ...................... 34
TABLE 10: CIVIL SERVANTS ENTITLED TO A RETIREMENT PAY ............................................................................. 35
TABLE 11: THE LINK BETWEEN THE NOTICE PERIOD AND THE LENGTH OF THE YEARS SPENT
IN THE CIVIL SERVICE ........................................................................................................................................... 36
TABLE 12: COUNTRIES WITH POLICIES FOR ATTRACTING YOUNG PEOPLE INTO THE CIVIL SERVICE ................... 38
TABLE 13: THE NUMBER OF COUNTRIES WITH A POLICY FOR ATRACTTING OF YOUNG PEOPLE
IN THE CIVIL SERVICE ........................................................................................................................................... 40
TABLE 14: VALORIZATION ..................................................................................................................................... 41
TABLE 15: COUNTRIES WITH SPECIAL HEALTH CARE FACILITIES .......................................................................... 42

FIGURE 1: BASE PAY ................................................................................................................................................ 8
FIGURE 2: COMPONENTS ....................................................................................................................................... 9
FIGURE 3: NUMBER OF SALARY GRADES .............................................................................................................. 12
FIGURE 4: COMPRESSION RATIO OF HIGHEST TO LOWEST SALARY ..................................................................... 13
FIGURE 5: COMPARATIVE PERSPECTIVE OF HIGHEST AND LOWEST SALARY ....................................................... 14
FIGURE 6: PRINCIPLE OF PROGRESS IN PAY RANGE I ........................................................................................... 15
FIGURE 7: POSSIBILITY TO AGREE ON DIFFERENT PAY ......................................................................................... 17
FIGURE 8: CRITERIA FOR GRANTING THE PERFORMANCE RELATED COMPONENT ............................................. 18
FIGURE 9: PROPOSERS THE GRANTING OF A PR COMPONENTS I ........................................................................ 19
FIGURE 10: APPROVERS FOR GRANTING PR COMPONENTS I .............................................................................. 20
FIGURE 11: NUMBER OF COUNTRIES REGISTERING A PERCENTAGE OF PR COMPONENTS................................. 22
FIGURE 12: COMPARING OF WORKING HOURS PER WEEK FOR PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SECTOR .......................... 24
FIGURE 13: FLEXIBLE WORKING TIME .................................................................................................................. 25
FIGURE 14: ANNUAL LEAVE I ................................................................................................................................ 27
FIGURE 15: CONTRIBUTION TO ANNUAL LEAVE ................................................................................................... 28
FIGURE 16: SABBATICAL LEAVE ............................................................................................................................ 29
FIGURE 17: PAID SABBATICAL LEAVE .................................................................................................................... 30
FIGURE 18: LENGTH OF SABBATICAL LEAVE ......................................................................................................... 31
FIGURE 19: ASKING FOR SABBATICAL LEAVE I ..................................................................................................... 32
FIGURE 20: SEVERANCE PAY IN HUNGARY ........................................................................................................... 34
FIGURE 21: LENGTH OF NOTICE PERIOD (IN DAYS) .............................................................................................. 36
FIGURE 22: OBLIGATION TO PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT .............................................................................. 37
FIGURE 23: COUNTRIES WITH OBLIGATION TO PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT ................................................ 38
FIGURE 24: HEALTH CARE ENTITLEMENT ............................................................................................................. 42

IREMUNERATION AND BENEFITS IN CENTRAL GOVERNMENT CIVIL SERVICE IN THE EU MEMBRS STATES AND EC                                                             4
INTRODUCTION
Remuneration is one of the fundamental                     remuneration of civil servants working in
tools for human resources management                       central public administration and to
which should be used to increase                           classify and characterize the systems of
motivation and performance of civil                        remuneration as well as to describe the
servants. It should reflect such principles as             latest trends in remuneration of civil
equality, transparency and fairness, which                 servants. The data was used to prepare a
should be therefore mirrored in the rules                  workshop for Human Resources Working
used to calculate functional salary, rewards               Group of EU Public Administration
and other benefits for civil servants1. This               Network, which was in October 2016 in
also    corresponds       with      European               Bratislava, Slovakia.
administrative principles which define
transparency and predictability as two                     The survey collected data on:
main pillars for remuneration as well as                      1. Defining features of the system of
two main prerequisites to improve                                 remuneration
employee motivation and attract and keep                      2. Predictability and flexibility of the
qualified workforce within the civil                              system of remuneration
service2.                                                     3. Measures aimed at increasing
                                                                  performance
The aim of this survey is to map a relatively                 4. Benefits and other factors
complex system of remuneration across                             influencing    the     choice     of
the EU member states while being mostly                           employment in the civil service
descriptive e.g. it maps, compares and
                                                           By civil servants in central public
describes individual remuneration system
                                                           administration, we meant employees of
in order to improve information sharing on
                                                           public institutions located in the center of
an international level and promote
                                                           the government organization with nation-
knowledge economy.
                                                           wide competencies. These organizations
The survey was conducted in 20163 and its                  perform an executive function and are
aim was collect data from all EUPAN                        normally      responsible      for    policy
member states and EC on the                                formulation. The rules related to

1                                                          3
   Stratégia riadenia ľudských zdrojov v štátnej             The survey was conducted in 2016 and its results
službe na roky 2015 -2020, (online). Available on:         were evaluated at the turn of 2016 and 2017. The
http://www.rokovania.sk/File.aspx/ViewDocumen              study was finalized in 2017 and therefore these
tHtml/Mater-Dokum-192011?prefixFile=m_                     results represent the status of the remuneration
2
  OECD (2005). Performance Related Pay Policies            system in 2016 and do not take into account the
for Government Employees. Paris: OECD. (online).           changes that may have occurred in the
Available on:                                              remuneration system in some survey participants.
http://s3.amazonaws.com/zanran_storage/www.a
llamreform.hu/ContentPages/2478061912.pdf

IREMUNERATION AND BENEFITS IN CENTRAL GOVERNMENT CIVIL SERVICE IN THE EU MEMBRS STATES AND EC        5
employment of their employees are                          remuneration systems across different
distinct from the rules of employees                       national public administrations. A survey
working in the private sector and are                      conducted during August-September 2016
usually regulated by a specific law or legal               was sent to the EUPAN contact centers of
measures. This category of state                           27-member       states    +     European
employees was chosen because it is                                     4
                                                           Commission + Switzerland + Serbia as
narrow enough to enable comparison in                      observational countries.

The following countries responded to the Survey:

    1.  Austria                            11. France                              22. Poland
    2.  Belgium                            12. Germany                             23. Portugal
    3.  Bulgaria                           13. Greece                              24. Romania
    4.  Croatia                            14. Hungary                             25. Serbia
    5.  Cyprus                             15. Ireland                             26. Slovakia
    6.  Czech Republic                     16. Italy                               27. Slovenia
    7.  Denmark                            17. Lithuania                           28. Spain
    8.  European                           18. Latvia                              29. Sweden
        Commission (EC)                    19. Luxembourg                          30. Switzerland
    9. Estonia                             20. Malta
    10. Finland                            21. Netherlands

     NOTE: Slovak legislation about the remuneration of civil servants was changing
     during the Slovak Presidency and therefore during the workshop as well. Data in
     this document were presented on these workshops in October and December
     2016, they were based on Act No. 400/2009 Coll. on Civil Service, modified and
     amended, which was valid during the workshops, summarizing and presenting
     the outcome. Starting on the 1st of June 2017 a new legal regulation for the
     remuneration of civil servants is in force i.e. Act No. 55/2017 Coll. On Civil Service,
     modified and amended, as a part of a larger reform of remuneration and human
     resources management in the Slovak Civil Service.

4
   The information provided by the European
Commission concerns only officials and do not
include other servants.

IREMUNERATION AND BENEFITS IN CENTRAL GOVERNMENT CIVIL SERVICE IN THE EU MEMBRS STATES AND EC        6
1 DEFINING FEATURES OF THE
CIVIL SERVICE REMUNERATION
SYSTEM
                                                           Pay range – the range between the lowest
1.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF                                     and highest pay rate within a pay grade.
THE PAY SYSTEM                                             Pay band – a unit in a system of
                                                           remuneration consisting of more pay
Base pay – the salary or wages that every
                                                           grades and therefore allowing more pay
civil servant receives regularly (usually
                                                           progression.
monthly) from the government by virtue of
being on the payroll. Base pay is usually                  Job    family    –    are     hierarchically
linked to an employee's position and is                    differentiated posts within a certain job
uniform across similar positions. The base                 area or a corporate function (e.g.
wage is often cited to compare wages in                    communication, legislation, a particular
the public and private sectors. It is,                     area of public policy, etc.). Jobs in a job
however, only one component of civil                       family are similar in that they require
servants' total rewards.5                                  similar knowledge, skills and abilities
                                                           (competencies). Job family systems usually
Pay grade – a unit in a system of
                                                           have separate grade and pay structures for
remuneration. A job classification in a pay
                                                           each job family.
grade usually depends on factors such as
job description, education or seniority. A                 Competency related pay – people receive
pay range is attributed to each pay grade,                 financial rewards in the shape of increases
based on the spot rates of all job posts                   to their base pay by reference to the level
classified within the pay grade.                           of competence they demonstrate in
                                                           carrying out their roles. It is a method of
Pay rate – an exact monetary rate
                                                           paying people for the ability to perform
attributed to a job post, also known as,
                                                           now and in the future6. In contrast to
“spot rate” or “pay tariff”.
                                                           performance components, competency

5                                                          6
    Definition extracted from OECD (2005).                     Armstrong, M. – Taylor, S. (2009). Armstrong´s
Performance Related Pay Policies for Government            handbook of human resource management and
Employees. Paris: OECD. (online). Available on:
                                                           practice. 11 TH. Edition. UK. Colour press Ltd.
http://s3.amazonaws.com/zanran_storage/www.a
llamreform.hu/ContentPages/2478061912.pdf

IREMUNERATION AND BENEFITS IN CENTRAL GOVERNMENT CIVIL SERVICE IN THE EU MEMBRS STATES AND EC         7
related pay is not based on the                            The data shows (see Figure 1) that most
achievement of agreed results defined as                   countries (16) use pay grade with a pay
targets or outcomes, but on the                            range, i.e. a system of pay grades exists and
competency assessment, and affects the                     each pay grade has within itself a pay range
base salary.                                               (i.e. salary from XX to XY, rather than a
                                                           fixed rate XZ). This system allows salary
The goal of the first question was to                      mobility within the same pay grade.
categorize countries into different pay                    Depending        on   the     criteria    (i.e.
systems for the purpose of finding                         seniority/merit                             vs.
correlations between the pay system and,                   automaticity/managerial discretion), the
for example, professional development or                   opportunity for salary mobility may have a
other variables collected in the survey. The               significant impact on civil service
categorization of countries into pay                       motivation and performance.
systems should be based on a) type of base
pay system, b) assessment of commonly
used components with the particular base
pay (if such patterns exist).

FIGURE 1: BASE PAY

         Q1 - competency related pay             3

                       Q1 - job family                        6

                        Q1 - pay band                                  9

 Q1 - pay grade with an exact pay rate                                      10

      Q1 - pay grade with a pay range                                                                16

                                         0   2       4    6       8        10    12     14      16            18
                                                         Number of EUPAN countries

SOURCE: Government Office of Slovakia, On the basis of results of the Survey made in 2016

NOTE: Slovakia is one of the countries that use the system - pay grades with a fixed pay rate. At
present, the Slovak remuneration system is changing to make the state service more attractive in
order to increase mobility and career opportunities.

Similarly, countries that use pay bands                    band. Again, based on the criteria, this
group several positions into one band                      system may impact motivation and
enabling salary progression within this                    performance.

IREMUNERATION AND BENEFITS IN CENTRAL GOVERNMENT CIVIL SERVICE IN THE EU MEMBRS STATES AND EC             8
Pay grades with a fixed pay rate do not                    Competency related pay systems, on the
allow salary progression within a grade.                   other hand, require indexes or coefficients
Salary progression will depend on progress                 for different levels of competencies. For
to a higher grade – this can pose                          example, the basic salary in Croatia is the
requirements on civil servant’s skills and                 product of the coefficient of the
abilities and may sometimes involve having                 complexity of the job of the civil servant
to go through a selection procedure.                       (competency coefficient) and the basis for
Because of the amount of effort, a civil                   calculation of salary (5.108,84 kn or 680 €),
servant has to invest into increasing                      increased by 0.5% for each year of.
his/her salary, these systems are not
considered as motivating as the ones                       As for the components of pay, most
mentioned above.                                           countries use a component for overtime
                                                           work and individual performance.
Job families (Cyprus, Estonia, France, Italy,              Component for weekend work and work
Latvia and Serbia) and competency related                  during public holidays is also common. Less
pay systems (Austria, France, and Latvia)                  common is a so-called gratitude bonus, i.e.
are generally less popular among the                       civil service bonus, additional annual
countries (see in Figure 1). This could be                 remuneration or anniversary award used
due to their complexity. Job families                      in Poland or Bonus for exceptional service-
usually have separate grade and pay                        related achievements used in Estonia.
structures for each job area or a corporate                Similarly, the collective performance
function (e.g. communication, legislation, a               related component is not very common
particular area of public policy, etc.).                   (only 5 out of 29 respondent’s service).

FIGURE 2: COMPONENTS

                   Q1 - seniority based component                      8

     Q1 - individual performance based component                                                      21

     Q1 - collective performance related component             5
               Q1 - component for managerial tasks                               13

 Q1 - component for substituting superiors on leave                                   14

                 Q1 - component for overtime work                                                      22

                 Q1 - component for weekend work                                            17

    Q1 - component for work during public holidays                                     15

        Q1 - standby/working outside normal hours                                                19

                               Q1 - gratitude bonus                    8

                                                      0    5               10         15         20             25
                                                                   Number of EUPAN countries

SOURCE: Government Office of Slovakia, On the basis of results of the Survey made in 2016

IREMUNERATION AND BENEFITS IN CENTRAL GOVERNMENT CIVIL SERVICE IN THE EU MEMBRS STATES AND EC               9
Reward – a sum in addition to the monthly                  holiday) for working more than the regular
salary which can be awarded for various                    working week requires.
reasons, e.g. for good performance, for
managerial tasks, etc. A civil servant is                  Component for individual performance –
normally not entitled to a reward, but                     a salary component granted on the basis of
there can be types of reward that do allow                 the performance of an individual.
entitlement.
                                                           Component for collective performance – a
Overtime component – financial or                          salary component granted on the basis of
another form of contribution (e.g. unpaid                  the performance of a group.

IREMUNERATION AND BENEFITS IN CENTRAL GOVERNMENT CIVIL SERVICE IN THE EU MEMBRS STATES AND EC   10
2 PREDICTABILITY AND
FLEXIBILITY OF THE SYSTEM OF
REMUNERATION
                                                           under ten (Austria, Italy, Poland and
2.1 FEATURES OF THE PAY                                    Romania), but most countries have salary
GRADE                                                      grades between the number 10 – 20
                                                           (Belgium, Cyprus, Czech Republic, EC,
The number of salary grades may have an                    Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Latvia,
impact on the system of salary                             Lithuania, Luxemburg, Malta, Netherlands,
progression. In general, the more salary                   Serbia and Slovakia. There are also
grades there are, the smaller the                          countries with salary grades between 20-
differences between them. This raises the                  50 (Bulgaria, Spain, Switzerland) and
importance of the conditions under which                   countries exceeding 50 salary grades
a civil servant progresses into a higher                   (Slovenia, Portugal, France, Finland).
salary grade, e.g. if they are too strict (i.e.            Finland has 102 collective bargaining
s/he has to go through a public selection                  contracts and 112 appendices. The number
procedure, gain new skills, etc.) it may be                of pay grades varies from contract to
generally not worth the effort to progress                 contract but is usually from 10 to 40. For
into a salary grade only slightly higher than              statistical and comparison purposes, a
the one s/he is already in. On the contrary,               government’s pay classification (levels 9—
a low number of salary grades imply that                   2) is used and maintained by the Office for
the differentiation between the salaries is                the Government as Employer. Each pay
higher. This raises the importance of the                  grade is converted into general
differentiation of job roles per salary                    commensurable points and further into a
grade, because if the job content in                       classification based on job demands.
different grades is similar a risk of                      Because payments based on conditions
entitlement to a higher salary grade                       and tasks are included in the monthly
increases.                                                 salary in some of the contracts, this pay
                                                           grade data includes only task-specific
Figure 3 looks at number of salary grades                  component and individual performance
and there are countries with salary grades                 component.

IREMUNERATION AND BENEFITS IN CENTRAL GOVERNMENT CIVIL SERVICE IN THE EU MEMBRS STATES AND EC   11
FIGURE 3: NUMBER OF SALARY GRADES

                    0             5           10         15            20    25    30       35    40     45      50

         Austria                          7
        Belgium                                              15
        Bulgaria                                                                  28
         Croatia        N/A
         Cyprus                                               16
  Czech Republic                                    12
       Denmark          N/A
              EC                                                  17
         Estonia        N/A
         Finland        0 (On average 10 to 40 on contractual basis)
         France                                                                                                       301
       Germany                                               15
         Greece         N/A
        Hungary                                                   17
         Ireland                               10
            Italy             3
          Latvia                                              16
       Lithuania                                                        20
    Luxembourg                                                         19
          Malta                                                         20
     Netherlands                                                       19
         Poland                       6
        Portugal                                                                                                      115
        Romania         1
          Serbia                                        13
        Slovakia                                   11
        Slovenia                                                                                                  65
           Spain                                                                       30
        Sweden          0
     Switzerland                                                                                 38

SOURCE: Government Office of Slovakia, On the basis of results of the Survey made in 2016

NOTE: Slovakia is in the 11 categories because of Act No. 400/2009 Coll. On Civil Service, modified and
amended, only recognizes 11 grades, but there are only 6 of these 11 grades used in practice by Central
State Administration. Since 1st June 2017 a new legal regulation on the remuneration of civil servants,
i.e. Act No. 55/2017 Coll. on Civil Service, modified and amended, which identifies 9 pay grades.

The difference between the lowest and the                                    opportunity for salary progression, which
highest salary (see Figure 4) is called the                                  can significantly affect the motivation and
compression ratio and implies the                                            performance of civil servants. In the table
opportunity for salary progression. In                                       below, this ratio is expressed as a multiple
general, the higher this ratio, the more                                     of the lowest salary. The average

IREMUNERATION AND BENEFITS IN CENTRAL GOVERNMENT CIVIL SERVICE IN THE EU MEMBRS STATES AND EC                     12
compression ratio is approx. 7.54, which                               7.54 times higher than average lowest
means that the average highest salaries are                            salaries.

FIGURE 4: COMPRESSION RATIO OF HIGHEST TO LOWEST SALARY

        Spain                                                                                       33.73
     Hungary                                                          19.00
      Estonia                                                13.49
     Slovenia                                             11.77
      Bulgaria                                     9.52
  Switzerland                                    8.78
       Ireland                                   8.46
       Poland                                   8.00
           EC                              7.27
       Austria                            6.77
        Latvia                           6.60
       Serbia                            6.45
       Cyprus                            6.40
     Portugal                            6.35
       Croatia                         5.59
  Netherlands                         5.14
       France                     4.86
  Luxembourg                      4.56
        Malta                     4.49
     Lithuania                   4.34
     Denmark                    4.02
Czech republic                  3.68
      Belgium                  3.41
     Germany                   3.24
                                                average = 7.51
      Finland             2.93
      Slovakia             2.50
         Italy          1.40

                 0.00           5.00             10.00        15.00   20.00    25.00     30.00     35.00     40.00

SOURCE: Government Office of Slovakia, On the basis of results of the Survey made in 2016

The graph (see Figure 5) also shows us                                 in Serbia, Bulgaria, Lithuania, Slovakia and
highest and lowest salaries in comparative                             the Czech Republic. The lowest and highest
perspective. We can easily see the levels of                           are highest in Switzerland, Denmark,
lowest and highest salaries per country.                               Luxembourg and EC.
The lowest and highest salaries are lowest

IREMUNERATION AND BENEFITS IN CENTRAL GOVERNMENT CIVIL SERVICE IN THE EU MEMBRS STATES AND EC               13
FIGURE 5: COMPARATIVE PERSPECTIVE OF HIGHEST AND LOWEST SALARY

 € 10,000.00

                                        Belgium       Denmark                               Switzerland
                                                 Luxembourg
                                                             EC
                                                  Germany
                          Italy
                                            Netherlands Ireland
                                      Finland Austria
                                France

                                       Cyprus     Spain
  € 1,000.00

                             Malta
                    Czech Republic
                    SlovakiaCroatia
                            Portugal
                          Poland           Slovenia
                                             Hungary
  minimum                           Estonia
   salary                  Latvia
                      Lithuania

                        Bulgaria
                       Serbia

    € 100.00
               €-         € 5,000.00   € 10,000.00 € 15,000.00 € 20,000.00 € 25,000.00 € 30,000.00 € 35,000.00
                                                       maximum
                                                        salary

SOURCE: Government Office of Slovakia, On the basis of results of the Survey made in 2016

The line across the graph is a linear                          salary. This information is also apparent
prediction of the relationship between                         from the compression ratio in the graph
highest and lowest salaries. If the countries                  above – whereas Denmark’s compression
are close to the line, their lowest and                        ratio is 4.02 (i.e. highest salaries are 4.02
highest salaries are in balance. For                           times higher than lowest), Belgium’s ratio
example, per the linear prediction,                            is only 3.41 and as the table shows, it is
Denmark’s lowest and highest salary is in                      probably due to the relatively high lowest
balance, but Belgium’s lowest salary is                        salary. Hungary has a very low lowest
quite high when compared to its’ highest                       salary, as according to the linear prediction

IREMUNERATION AND BENEFITS IN CENTRAL GOVERNMENT CIVIL SERVICE IN THE EU MEMBRS STATES AND EC           14
we would expect them to be on the level                        pay ranges (i.e. salary from XX to XY, rather
above 1000 EUR/month gross, not below                          than a fixed rate XZ per pay grade) need to
1000, as they are now. Countries can also                      think about the criteria under which a civil
be compared to the average in the graph.                       servant progresses into a higher pay range.
Both values, average and linear prediction                     As the graph shows, most countries use
(trend) are based on the data given by                         seniority as the main principle of progress
countries, i.e. they are not normative, they                   to a higher pay range. Some countries use
only express what is the usual trend.                          an increase in responsibilities and in
                                                               competencies as the main criterion.
2.2 PRINCIPLES OF
PROGRESS IN PAY RANGE
This question is relevant when interpreting
results to question 1. Countries that use

FIGURE 6: PRINCIPLE OF PROGRESS IN PAY RANGE I
 16
                 15
 14

 12

 10
                                                                       9
                                           8                                                    8
  8

  6

  4

  2

  0
           Q4A - seniority        Q4B - responsibilities       Q4C - competencies        Q4D - other

                                                           #

SOURCE: Government Office of Slovakia, On the basis of results of the Survey made in 2016

A detailed look at the countries and their                     performance appraisal criteria, efficiency
criteria under which a civil servant                           and merit as for example in Ireland. In
progresses into a higher pay range offers                      Ireland, there are increments awarded
the following table (see Table 1). Most                        which are subjected to certain criteria such
countries that have mentioned the                              as achieving a rating of three or more in
possibility “other” (see Table 1) said civil                   their end of year performance review.
servant progress is based on the

IREMUNERATION AND BENEFITS IN CENTRAL GOVERNMENT CIVIL SERVICE IN THE EU MEMBRS STATES AND EC          15
For example, in Poland, according to the                   the Office has to take into account in
Ordinance of the Head of Civil Service                     particular: 1) job evaluation, 2)
concerning standards of human resources                    performance assessment, including the
management in the Civil Service, while                     level of competencies and work results, 3)
fixing a basic salary the Director General of              account job market conditions.

TABLE 1: PRINCIPLE OF PROGRESS IN PAY RANGE II
 PRINCIPLE OF
 PROGRESS IN PAY         (N= 24)    #      %                            COUNTRIES
 RANGE
 Seniority                          15    54% Austria, Belgium, Croatia, Czech Republic, EC, France,
                                              Germany, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Luxembourg,
                                              Netherlands, Romania, Serbia, Switzerland

 Responsibilities                    8    29% Austria, Estonia, Finland, France, Latvia, Serbia, Spain,
                                              Switzerland
 Competencies                       10    38% Austria, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Italy,
                                              Latvia, Serbia, Spain, Switzerland
 Other                               8    33% Bulgaria, Cyprus, Ireland, Lithuania, Malta,
                                              Netherlands, Poland, Portugal
SOURCE: Government Office of Slovakia, On the basis of results of the Survey made in 2016

                                                           guidelines concerning the payment based
2.3 EXCEPTIONS FROM                                        on special contracts between the
THE PAY GRADE                                              contractual public employee and the
                                                           employer (which have the purpose of a
In most countries (25 out of 29) a                         consistent system of remuneration). The
possibility of agreement on different pays                 pay rates within the internal guidelines
for a civil servant other than the one                     derive from the pay schemes stipulated by
officially stated in a pay grade is not                    law. These pay rates are restricted to that
possible. However, there are countries                     amount which is justifiable for a certain
(Austria,      Estonia,   Finland,     and                 position or service.
Netherlands) where it is possible.
                                                           In Finland, the limit to how high or low
For example, in Austria, civil servants can                salaries can be given by the collective
come     under     a    special    contract                agreements of state civil servants, as well
(Sondervertrag). In general, Art 36                        as budget constraints. In the Netherlands,
Contract Staff Act stipulates that special                 however, it seems that top public
contracts (e.g. concerning pay that differs                managers have a different pay system and
from the statutory salary scheme) can only                 therefore it is possible to agree on salaries
be concluded in exceptional cases. There                   higher than in the regular pay grades.
are no official documents, but internal

IREMUNERATION AND BENEFITS IN CENTRAL GOVERNMENT CIVIL SERVICE IN THE EU MEMBRS STATES AND EC    16
FIGURE 7: POSSIBILITY TO AGREE ON DIFFERENT PAY
                                                                4

                                  25

                                                   Yes   No

SOURCE: Government Office of Slovakia, On the basis of results of the Survey made in 2016

As we can see in the previous text each                    any civil servant (it doesn’t have to be a
Central PA has an established system of                    political nominee, nor managerial
remuneration with the ones with the fixed                  position). A Civil servant with salary
criteria being dominant. Despite these                     outside of the official pay grade system has
fixed criteria some countries, in some                     to be working on either particularly
cases, allow civil servants to agree on their              significant tasks or on extremely
salary without taking the official pay                     challenging tasks. As long as the civil
grades into account (tariff pays). To agree                servant is working on such tasks, i.e. the
on a salary is possible only in 4 countries                reasons and conditions on which the salary
(See Figure 7). In some the agreement is                   was agreed on persist, s/he is entitled to
possible only for specific categories of civil             the salary. There is no salary ceiling which
servants, like political nominees, in others,              may lead to differences across the Central
it is possible for regular civil servants as               PA because Slovakia has a decentralized
well.                                                      Human Resources management, i.e. two
                                                           civil servants performing similar tasks can
In Slovakia, the agreement on a salary                     be remunerated differently.
outside the official pay grade is possible for

IREMUNERATION AND BENEFITS IN CENTRAL GOVERNMENT CIVIL SERVICE IN THE EU MEMBRS STATES AND EC   17
3 MEASURES FOR INCREASING
PERFORMANCE
                                                           questions about the existence of formal
3.1 INDIVIDUAL                                             regulation for criteria of PR component, if
PERFORMANCE RELATED                                        it does who is responsible for creating and
                                                           approving PR component and who, apart
COMPONENT                                                  from the creators and approvers, is
                                                           involved in the process of granting the PR
For individual performance related
                                                           component. Surprisingly (see Figure 8) only
component (further as “PR component”),
                                                           19 out of 30 countries have formally
i.e. part of the salary that is based on
                                                           defined criteria for granting the PR
performance, the respondents were asked
                                                           component.

FIGURE 8: CRITERIA FOR GRANTING THE PERFORMANCE RELATED COMPONENT

                                 11

                                                                           19

                                                   Yes   No

SOURCE: Government Office of Slovakia, On the basis of results of the Survey made in 2016

For example, in Sweden, principles for pay                 the operations and to operations being
setting are given in national collective                   carried out effectively and efficiently. A
agreements with the unions. More                           crucial prerequisite for effective and well-
detailed criteria are decided on agency                    functioning operations is that the
level during the defined process of pay                    employer can recruit, motivate, develop
setting. Pay formation and pay setting                     and retain employees with skills that are
should contribute to achieving the goals of                needed in the short and long term. The pay

IREMUNERATION AND BENEFITS IN CENTRAL GOVERNMENT CIVIL SERVICE IN THE EU MEMBRS STATES AND EC   18
is an instrument to ensure this and should                          The questions on PR components are
stimulate engagement and development                                relevant for assessing who is involved in
at work and be perceived as fair in relation                        the process of granting a PR component to
to job performance and work efforts. An                             a civil servant. The results show that in
employee's pay should be determined by                              most countries the proposal is put forward
objective factors such as responsibilities,                         by the immediate superior employee (see
job demands, and other requirements                                 Figure 9). This presumably helps in terms of
associated with the work tasks, as well as                          granting PR components to those that
the employee’s skill and performance                                really deserve it, as it is the immediate
against the objectives of the operations.                           superior who will have first-hand
On the other hand, for example in Slovakia                          information on the performance of his/her
criteria are set only by the quality of the                         employees.
performance of the civil service.

FIGURE 9: PROPOSERS THE GRANTING OF A PR COMPONENTS I

                   Q9D - other

     Q9C - highest civil servant

 Q9B - superior of im.superior

    Q9A - immediate superior

                                    0             5                 10            15             20                25

                                                          (n= 22)    #

SOURCE: Government Office of Slovakia, On the basis of results of the Survey made in 2016

A detailed look at the countries and                                related components offers the following
proposers for granting performance                                  table (see Table 2).

TABLE 2: PROPOSERS FOR GRANTING A PR COMPONENTS II

                                   (N= 28)   #        %       COUNTRIES

 Immediate superior                          22       95%     Austria, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia,
                                                              Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Latvia,
                                                              Lithuania, Malta, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal,
                                                              Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland
 Superior of immediate superior I            4        18%     Germany, Lithuania, Portugal, Serbia

 Highest civil servant                       3        14%     Germany, Portugal, Serbia

 Other                                       2        9%      Czech Republic, Portugal

SOURCE: Government Office of Slovakia, On the basis of results of the Survey made in 2016

IREMUNERATION AND BENEFITS IN CENTRAL GOVERNMENT CIVIL SERVICE IN THE EU MEMBRS STATES AND EC                 19
As Figure 10 shows, approval for granting                        ranked civil servant, such as the head of
the component is needed and this will be                         the service office. In some cases (7) it can
given, in most cases (12), by the highest                        be the superior of the immediate superior.

FIGURE 10: APPROVERS FOR GRANTING PR COMPONENTS I

                   Q10D - other

     Q10C - highest civil servant

 Q10B - superior of im. Superior

     Q10A - immediate superior

                                    0         2         4            6        8          10         12            14

                                                       (n= 22)   #

SOURCE: Government Office of Slovakia, On the basis of results of the Survey made in 2016

This can be mostly for budgetary reasons,                        granting a PR component, which could
i.e. so that the organization does not                           have undesired effects.
exceed its budget. However, in some
countries, the highest ranked civil servant                      A detailed look at the countries and
can be a political nominee. This would                           approvers for granting performance
mean that the element of politics could                          related components offers the following
enter into the decision-making process of                        table (see Table 3).

TABLE 3: APPROVERS FOR GRANTING OF PR COMPONENTS II
                                    (N= 24)       #    %     COUNTRIES

 Immediate superior                               2    9%    Portugal, Sweden

 Superior of im. superior                         8    36%   Austria, Finland, France, Germany Italy,
                                                             Netherlands, Portugal, Spain

 Highest civil servant                            12   56%   Bulgaria, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Hungary,
                                                             Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Portugal, Serbia, Slovakia,
                                                             Slovenia, Switzerland
 Other                                            4    18%   Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, Malta

SOURCE: Government Office of Slovakia, On the basis of results of the Survey made in 2016

IREMUNERATION AND BENEFITS IN CENTRAL GOVERNMENT CIVIL SERVICE IN THE EU MEMBRS STATES AND EC                20
Comparing the data (Tables 2 and 3) shows                    some cases where the civil servant does
that almost all countries have proposal and                  not have a higher superior), HR
approval on different levels, with the                       department representatives (Sweden,
exception of Portugal, Sweden and Serbia.                    Portugal, France and Finland) and unions
Serbia and Sweden have approval and                          (Sweden) as well as equal opportunity
proposal on one particular level (Serbia –                   commissioner     or   disabled-employee
highest civil servant, Sweden – immediate                    officer.
superior). Portugal is the only country that
involves all three into the decision-making                  As for percentage share, only some
process of granting a PR component – the                     countries register data per cent for civil
immediate superior, the superior of the                      servants which received PR component.
immediate superior and the highest                           List of the countries with PR component
ranking civil servant. Five countries also                   data per cent can be seen in Table 4.
specified other people involved. These
usually are the head of the civil service
commission (The Czech Republic, only in

TABLE 4: PERCENTAGE OF CIVIL SERVANTS WITH PR COMPONENT

 COUNTRIES                                              PERCENTAGE

 Belgium                                                0%
 Cyprus                                                 0%
 Czech Republic                                         95%
 Denmark                                                56%
 Finland                                                99%
 Germany                                                15%
 Hungary                                                60%
 Latvia                                                 52%
 Lithuania                                              60%
 Malta                                                  5%
 Netherlands                                            13%
 Slovakia                                               87%
 Sweden                                                 99%
 Switzerland                                            31%
SOURCE: Government Office of Slovakia, On the basis of results of the Survey made in 2016

The percentage share of civil servants with                  Germany) and uses more complex criteria
PR component significantly differs among                     to obtain. Whilst concerning Germany
the countries that collect these data.                       there are particular regulations regarding
Percentage share varies between 5 and 95                     e.g. task forces, project or working groups
per cent. This proves that PR component                      with several civil servants who can benefit
may be relatively hard to obtain in some                     from PR components but counting only as
countries (e.g. Malta, the Netherlands,                      one civil servant within the limits of the

IREMUNERATION AND BENEFITS IN CENTRAL GOVERNMENT CIVIL SERVICE IN THE EU MEMBRS STATES AND EC    21
above-mentioned quota. This leads to a                     The average percentage of civil servants
differentiated consideration. On the other                 that have a PR component in EUPAN
hand, some countries use PR component                      countries is 46.66%. This data, however,
as a regular part of a salary (Sweden,                     should be treated with much care as a
Finland, Czech Republic, Slovakia). It can be              significant number of countries (14 out of
assumed that in these countries everyone                   30) responded with not having access to
entering the central PA expects that after                 such data, while some of the other
some time a part of his/her salary will be in              countries only provided rough estimates.
a form of PR component regardless how
the criteria are set.

FIGURE 11: NUMBER OF COUNTRIES REGISTERING A PERCENTAGE OF PR COMPONENTS

                   14

                                                                                     16

                                            Don’t have    Do have

SOURCE: Government Office of Slovakia, On the basis of results of the Survey made in 2016

IREMUNERATION AND BENEFITS IN CENTRAL GOVERNMENT CIVIL SERVICE IN THE EU MEMBRS STATES AND EC   22
4 BENEFITS AND OTHER
FACTORS INFLUENCING THE
CHOICE OF EMPLOYMENT IN
THE CIVIL SERVICE
In order for a system with lower salaries to               in the public sector vs. the private. In
motivate people to enter the central PA                    general, the salaries tend to be higher in
and retain the employees in the system                     the private, for-profit sector. However,
(mostly in order to keep the fluctuation of                there are other means of attracting civil
civil servants low and to retain employees                 servants into the public sector.
with so-called institutionalized memory), it
should offer benefits. The basic division of               One of them is the number of working
benefits is into financial and non-financial               hours. In the survey, working week was
ones, or we can divide them into ones that                 defined as the amount of time measured
are used during the whole civil service or                 in hours or days in a week that a civil
ones that are only connected to the                        servant is at the disposal of the employer,
termination of the civil service. This is the              executing civil service and is fulfilling his
reason while the representatives of the                    duties in line with his work contract.
countries have been asked about the
                                                           As can be seen in Figure 14, the majority of
length of a working week, flexible working
                                                           countries (… out of …) have an equal
time, annual leave, sabbatical leave, notice
                                                           number of working hours in the public and
period, retirement benefits, severance pay
                                                           private sectors, i.e. they do not use the
and other benefits.
                                                           number of working hours as an element to
                                                           attract employees. The standard work
4.1 CIVIL SERVANT’S                                        week in these countries is 40 hours in both
                                                           sectors.
WORKING WEEK
The following information can be relevant
when assessing the advantages of working

IREMUNERATION AND BENEFITS IN CENTRAL GOVERNMENT CIVIL SERVICE IN THE EU MEMBRS STATES AND EC    23
FIGURE 12: COMPARING OF WORKING HOURS PER WEEK FOR PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SECTOR
 42

                                                                                                 Switzerland
                                                                                 Belgium
                                                                                      Romania
 41                                                                                       Luxembourg
                                                                                             HungaryBulgaria
                                                                                         Malta
                                                                                            SloveniaGreece
                                                                         Serbia
 40                                                                                      Poland          Estonia
                                                                                                      Austria
                                                                                  Sweden
                                                                Lithuania                           Croatia
                                                                                       Czech republic
                                                                                Latvia
 39

                                                                            Slovakia
                                                                        Spain

 38

 37                                           Denmark

                                                                                           Finland
 36
                                                                   Netherlands              Italy

                                                                   Portugal

 35                   France

 34
      34         35            36        37             38         39               40              41             42

SOURCE: Government Office of Slovakia, On the basis of results of the Survey made in 2016

NOTE: Vertical is the working time in the public sector and horizontally is the working time in the private
sector.

As we can see in Figure 14 countries in the                  sector is 36, 25 hours for most of the
lower right sector are the ones that use                     central government (83.8%). For 14.1% of
reduced working week in central PA. When                     the central government, there are 38.25
sorted from lowest to highest the first is                   hours within a working week. The rest
Portugal (35 hours public sector/40 hours’                   varies from 36.25 to 36.6 hours. Slovakia is
private sector), Italy (36 hours public                      in the same segment as the countries with
sector/40 hours private sector), Finland                     reduced working week because despite
and the Netherlands, Spain and Slovakia.                     having working week legally set to be 40
As for Finland, the working week in public                   hours, it is usually reduced to 37.5 hours a

IREMUNERATION AND BENEFITS IN CENTRAL GOVERNMENT CIVIL SERVICE IN THE EU MEMBRS STATES AND EC                 24
week each year by a collective agreement.                  most other countries (see Figure 14). The
France and Denmark are interesting as                      other countries have the same working
they have the same working week in                         weeks, i.e. 40 hours in both sectors with
private and public sectors, but in both                    Switzerland being an exception having the
cases, the working week is shorter than                    longest working week of all the countries.

FIGURE 13: FLEXIBLE WORKING TIME

                                     4

                                                                            25

                                                   Yes   No

SOURCE: Government Office of Slovakia, On the basis of results of the Survey made in 2016

The survey defined flexible working time as                civil servants alike. It mostly helps with
the distribution of working time between                   commuting during morning/afternoon
compulsory office hours and voluntary                      traffic, picking up children from
office hours. This usually means that civil                kindergarten, etc. Due to this. it is known
servants can come to work later/leave                      as a work-life balance benefit. On the other
earlier if the necessary number of hours is                hand, flexible working time allows civil
spent in the office. This is the most utilized             servants to come to work earlier or stay at
benefit from all the mentioned benefits in                 work longer when it is necessary to fulfil
the survey across central public                           urgent tasks. Flexible working time
administrations (25 out of 29 countries).                  regulation differs among the countries
Flexible working time is a non-financial                   with Slovakia, Sweden, Hungary, France,
benefit and its nature is to help civil                    Finland, Estonia and Austria stating that
servants organize their private and work                   amount of flexible working hours, i.e. how
life and therefore it is a very welcome                    many hours the employees need to be in
benefit by both sides, by employers and                    the office depends on the type of

IREMUNERATION AND BENEFITS IN CENTRAL GOVERNMENT CIVIL SERVICE IN THE EU MEMBRS STATES AND EC   25
organization and the employer. In some                     of 6 hours as compared to the regular
countries like Slovenia the number of                      working time as stated in the legislation.
hours differs based on particular days, i.e.               Hence, daily working time cannot be less
Monday to Thursday the employees are                       than 6 hours or exceed 10 hours.
required to be in the office from 9:00 to
15:30 and on Friday only from 9:00 to
                                                           4.2 CIVIL SERVANTS
14:30. Slovakia, similarly to e.g. Spain, the
flexible working time is calculated weekly.                ANNUAL LEAVE
The employee is obliged to work 37.5
hours in a given week and needs to be in                   Another comparative advantage of
the office at least until 14:30. This means                working in the public sector can be the
that s/he can split the benefit and can be in              number of days for annual leave. Annual
the office longer and some shorter while                   leave is the amount of holiday that a civil
having the necessary number of working                     servant is entitled to after a year of service.
hours. On the other hand, in the Czech                     In 19 central PAs, the civil servants have
Republic, there is not a set number of                     more than 25 days of annual leave, 10
working hours in a working week that the                   countries have 25 days of annual leave and
employee needs to be in the office. Law on                 in only 2 cases (Latvia, Switzerland) less
Civil Service as amended in section 100,                   than 20 days. A number of days in annual
paragraph 2 by Act No. 262/2006 Coll.,                     leave are different not only across the
Labour Code, section 85 on the flexible                    countries but within the countries
division of working hours states that the                  themselves as well because there are
employer can choose which start and end                    several variables (criteria) on which the
of basic and optional working hours. The                   number of days in annual leave is
employee is required to be in the office                   calculated such as e.g. age, years in civil
during the basic working hours.                            service, years employed (including the
                                                           private sector), etc. In some cases, the
In Luxembourg, there is, for example,                      number of days in annual leave is stable
regular weekly working time of 40 hours.                   each year, in others, it depends on the
According to the legislation about flexible                collective agreement for example in
working time, the civil servant may be                     Croatia, Slovakia or Denmark. For example,
present for only 30 hours a week. This,                    in Denmark, civil servants are entitled to 5
however, means that he/she has to                          weeks based on law and one additional
compensate the 10 missing hours during                     week based on the collective agreement.
the next weeks in such a way that at the
end of the month, he/she has only a minus

IREMUNERATION AND BENEFITS IN CENTRAL GOVERNMENT CIVIL SERVICE IN THE EU MEMBRS STATES AND EC     26
FIGURE 14: ANNUAL LEAVE I
                                                        0      2

                                                                                10

                            19

                   Less than 20 days    Up to 20 days        Up to 25 days   More then 25 days

SOURCE: Government Office of Slovakia, On the basis of results of the Survey made in 2016

As previously mentioned most of the 19                         relatively often used criteria for the
countries that have more than 25 days of                       additional days of annual leave. The range
annual leave for civil servants stated that                    for days of annual leave in each country
years of working experience is one of the                      can be seen in Table 5.

TABLE 5: ANNUAL LEAVE
 COUNTRY                     ANNUAL LEAVE                   COUNTRY                  ANNUAL LEAVE

 Austria                     25 to 30 days                  Italy                    32 days
 Belgium                     26 to 33 days                  Latvia                   33 days
 Bulgaria                    20 to 32 days                  Lithuania                28 to 42 days
 Croatia                     18 to 30 days                  Luxembourg               32 days
 Cyprus                      20 to 36 days                  Malta                    24 days
 Czech Republic              up to 25 days                  Netherlands              up to 25 days
 Denmark                     25 to 30 days                  Poland                   N/A
 EC                          24 to 30 days                  Portugal                 up to 25 days
 Estonia                     25 days                        Romania                  up to 25 days
 Finland                     30 to 38 days                  Serbia                   20 to 30 days
 France                      up to 25 days                  Slovakia                 25 to 30 days
 Germany                     30 days                        Slovenia                 20 to 35 days
 Greece                      up to 25 days                  Spain                    22 to 28 days
 Hungary                     more than 25 days              Sweden                   28 to 35 days
 Ireland                     N/A                            Switzerland              20 to 30 days
SOURCE: Government Office of Slovakia, On the basis of results of the Survey made in 2016

IREMUNERATION AND BENEFITS IN CENTRAL GOVERNMENT CIVIL SERVICE IN THE EU MEMBRS STATES AND EC        27
From the sample of countries that                               Annual leave is a time intended for civil
responded to the number of days of annual                       servant’s relaxation and some countries
leave, 23 stated that apart from the years                      grant financial contribution or the
of working experience they use other                            opportunity to rent holiday facilities as a
criteria as well with pay grade and age of                      part of their benefits and motivation
the employee being the most common. For                         programs. Therefore, in the survey, we also
example, in Slovakia, a civil servant until                     asked if there is any extraordinary
the age of 33 has 20 days of annual leave                       contribution to the annual leave, in terms
and age 33 or more (not depending on the                        of providing cheaper holiday facilities to
number of years of working experience in                        employees or in terms of providing an
civil service) is entitled to 25 days of annual                 extra holiday payment contribution.
leave. This claim is usually increased by 5
days in the collective agreement of a                           13 of the responding countries (30) stated
higher degree. For example, in Hungary,                         that they do not grant benefits directly
annual leave is made up of basic annual                         related to employee’s vacation. In the
leave (25 days per year) and additional                         other 17 countries, we were asking what
annual leave which is depending on the                          type of benefit are they providing (see
qualification, grades, the number of                            Figure 16), e.g. whether it is a form of
children and other health-based reasons.                        financial contribution related to a vacation,
These factors make the number of annual                         or a benefit that provides an opportunity
leave individual and quite different.                           to rent holiday facilities at a discount price
                                                                which is the case in Slovakia as well.

FIGURE 15: CONTRIBUTION TO ANNUAL LEAVE

                                     4

                                                                                           11
                          3

        Q20A - financial reward/ contribution   Q20B - renting out holliday resort for civil servant   Q20C - other

SOURCE: Government Office of Slovakia, On the basis of results of the Survey made in 2016

IREMUNERATION AND BENEFITS IN CENTRAL GOVERNMENT CIVIL SERVICE IN THE EU MEMBRS STATES AND EC                    28
As can be seen in Graph 16 most of the                     prevention of burnout, care of family or
countries, in this case, are providing some                children, higher studies, etc. However, a
sort of a contribution, but 4 countries have               sabbatical leave is not the same thing as a
the benefit in a form of a discount in                     maternal, paternal leave or caring for
holiday facilities (Bulgaria, Poland, Slovakia             relatives during sickness, as these types of
and Slovenia). Among the three countries                   leave are explicitly regulated by law and
that selected the “other” option, two                      are hence not part of the sabbatical leave.
stated that the benefit depends on the                     Regarding sabbatical leave, countries were
particular civil office but they didn’t state              asked to respond with details about the
the type of benefit used. Austria stated                   presence of sabbatical leave in the systems
that they do not use this form of benefits                 of     central    public     administrations,
as their federal public employees receive                  compensation during sabbatical leave,
four special allowances which are not                      possibility or obligation of the employer to
linked to a specific purpose within the run                provide sabbatical leave upon request of a
of the year.                                               civil servant and the length of the
                                                           sabbatical leave.
4.3 SABBATICAL LEAVE                                       It was found out that 28 out of 30 countries
                                                           recognize the term sabbatical leave, i.e. it
Sabbatical leave is a limited leave from the
                                                           is possible to go on sabbatical leave in
civil service with the right of the civil
                                                           these countries. On the other hand, 2
servant to return after this period. It can be
                                                           countries (Poland and Romania) have no
allocated for any purpose such as
                                                           sabbatical leave.

FIGURE 16: SABBATICAL LEAVE
                                                2

                                                                  28

                                                    Yes   No

SOURCE: Government Office of Slovakia, On the basis of results of the Survey made in 2016

IREMUNERATION AND BENEFITS IN CENTRAL GOVERNMENT CIVIL SERVICE IN THE EU MEMBRS STATES AND EC    29
In many countries, sabbatical leave is                      many of the countries which recognize
known as “unpaid leave” and as the title                    sabbatical leave have paid, unpaid or partly
suggests, it is unpaid. Figure 18 shows how                 paid sabbatical leave.

FIGURE 17: PAID SABBATICAL LEAVE

                                                                           8

                            16

                                                                               6

                                                            1

                        Q22A - pay in full amount         Q22B - pay in partial amount
                        Q22C - alternative compensation   Q22D - no contribution

SOURCE: Government Office of Slovakia, On the basis of results of the Survey made in 2016

The table below shows (see Table 6) a                       sabbatical and fully, partly or unpaid
clearer categorization of countries with no                 sabbatical.

TABLE 6: FORM OF CONTRIBUTION FOR CIVIL SERVANT DURING SABBATICAL LEAVE

                         (N= 25)   #     %    COUNTRIES

Pay in full amount                 8    32% Croatia, Denmark, Malta, Latvia, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia,
                                            Switzerland,

Pay in partial amount              6    24% Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Germany, Greece, Sweden

Alternative compensation           1     4% Denmark

Unpaid                             14 56% Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, EC, Estonia, Finland,
                                          France, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands,
                                          Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden

SOURCE: Government Office of Slovakia, On the basis of results of the Survey made in 2016

IREMUNERATION AND BENEFITS IN CENTRAL GOVERNMENT CIVIL SERVICE IN THE EU MEMBRS STATES AND EC        30
Denmark is listed in several categories                    interest of the employer, the civil servant
because it depends on the type of                          has the right to absence from work due to
sabbatical leave. Slovakia is in the                       preparation for the exam and he receives
categories “unpaid”, but also “pay in full                 pay from state whilst on sabbatical leave.
amount”, because, in Slovakia, the
employer has the possibility to provide                    As Figure 19 shows, the lengths of
sabbatical leave with pay in full amount as                sabbatical leave are very differently
well, but practically this option is not                   modified, but as we can see four countries
preferred. In Slovenia, it could also be                   have no formally regulated limits for the
these two options. In case of education in                 length of the sabbatical leave. In three
civil servant’s own interest, the civil                    cases the sabbatical leave is limited to 12
servant has the right to absence from work                 months. In EC, it is limited to the maximum
due to preparation for the exam, but he                    of 12 years of unpaid leave, similarly in
does not receive payment or any other                      Luxembourg, where it is 10 years. In
form of financial contribution from state                  Greece, it is up to 5 years which can be
whilst on sabbatical leave. On the other                   partially remunerated.
hand, in the case of education in the

FIGURE 18: LENGTH OF SABBATICAL LEAVE
                                                     1
                                               1
                                          1
         N/A
                                    1
         NO LIMIT

         144 months            3
         120 months
                                                                                        13
         60 months

         48 months
                          1
         36 months
                           1
         12 months

         6 months
                               2
         1 month

         100 hours                  1

         0 months                         1

                                                            4

SOURCE: Government Office of Slovakia, On the basis of results of the Survey made in 2016

In the discussion of sabbatical leave, the                 whether a civil servant asking for a
question of its approval is also very                      sabbatical leave needs the employer’s
interesting, so we asked in the survey                     permission. In very few (4 out of 27) is the

IREMUNERATION AND BENEFITS IN CENTRAL GOVERNMENT CIVIL SERVICE IN THE EU MEMBRS STATES AND EC   31
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