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To 6G The Road message - Eurescom GmbH
Winter 2021

The magazine for telecom insiders

CELTIC News 2/2021

The Road
  to 6G
The Kennedy perspective
The old dog learns
new tricks

5G-VINNI roundtables
on TelecomTV

A bit beyond
How AI machines are
­becoming inventors
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        Join the Industry-Driven Research
        Programme for a Smart Connected World
        CELTIC-NEXT Call for Project Proposals – Deadline: 14th of April 2022

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        CELTIC-NEXT projects are collaborative private-public partnership R&D projects. All Eureka member
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        funding and national contacts per country can be found on the CELTIC-NEXT Public Authorities
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        support you.

        CELTIC-NEXT Office
        Xavier Priem

2   Eurescom message Winter 2021
To 6G The Road message - Eurescom GmbH

Dear readers,

While 5G networks are still being deployed, work    exclusive cover theme interview, which follows an        the latest release of the 5G PPP white paper on
on 6G, the sixth generation of mobile communi-      article by Eurescom message editor Anastasius            5G architecture and the new ENISA threat land-
cation technologies, has already begun. Will 6G     Gavras on global initiatives towards 6G. In the          scape report. Finally, in the latest “A bit beyond”
just be an evolutionary update of 5G? Or will it    next article, an author team from the ARIADNE            article you can learn about AI machines becom-
achieve a new innovation level in connecting        project share their insights on Reconfigurable In-       ing inventors.
people, robots and things? Researchers all over     telligent Surfaces for 6G. In the final article of the          One comment on our own behalf: the print
the world have started to explore these and more    cover theme, Yue Zhang from the University of            edition of this issue of Eurescom message is
questions along the road towards 6G.                Leicester presents the technological vision of the       printed on recycled paper certified by the Forest
   In this issue of Eurescom message, we provide    6G BRAINS project.                                       Stewardship Council (FSC). This reflects our
a glimpse on what is done in Europe to move to-        This edition of Eurescom message also in-             commitment to the sustainable use of natural
wards 6G. We present selected research and in-      cludes a variety of further articles on different,       resources.
novation projects that are already working on       ICT-related topics. See, for example, the new                 My editorial colleagues and I hope you will find
different technological aspects that may later      opinion article by Eurescom director David Ken-          value in this edition of Eurescom message, and
become parts of the 6G standard.                    nedy on the challenges of personally dealing with        we would appreciate your comments on the
   In the first article of the cover theme,         ubiquitous data collection in his column “The            ­current issue as well as suggestions for future
Eurescom message editor Uwe Herzog gives an         Kennedy Perspective”. Under “Events”, we report           ­issues. Enjoy reading our magazine.
overview on activities and concepts currently be-   about two interesting virtual events – the IEEE
ing explored on the road to 6G. The next article    International Symposium on Broadband Multi-
by the Head of Nokia Standards, Peter Merz,         media Systems and Broadcasting and the round-            Milon Gupta
presents the EU flagship project on 6G, Hexa-X.     tables of the 5G-VINNI project on TelecomTV. See         Editor-in-chief
Peter Merz is also the interview partner in our     also our “News in brief” section, which features

Cover image: © Adobe Stock
                                                                                                                               Eurescom message Winter 2021     3
To 6G The Road message - Eurescom GmbH

     7 – 11 December 2021                                                    28 February – 3 March 2022
     IEEE Global Communications Conference (GLOBECOM                         MWC Barcelona 2022
     2021)                                                                   Barcelona, Spain
     Madrid, Spain                                                 
                                                                             7 – 10 March 2022
     8 – 11 January 2022                                                     25th Conference on Innovation in Clouds, Internet
     IEEE Consumer Communications & Networking                               and Networks (ICIN 2022)
     ­Conference (CCNC 2022)                                                 Paris, France (Hybrid Conference)
      Virtual Conference                                           
                                                                             6 – 10 June 2022
                                                                             2022 EuCNC & 6G Summit
                                                                             Grenoble, France


     CHARITY project meeting in Heidelberg

     The CHARITY project meeting in Heidelberg,      CHARITY partners, 9 months after the project           Further information
     Germany on 14-15 October 2021 was the first     had started. The photo shows Antonis Protop-      Further information about the CHARITY project
     in-person project meeting organised by          saltis from ORamaVR demonstrating CHARI-          is available at
     Eurescom since the Corona pandemic spread       TY’s virtual-reality based medical training use
     across Europe more than 1.5 years earlier. It   case.
     was also the first in-person encounter of the

4   Eurescom message Winter 2021
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                                                                                                                                                                   The Road

                                                                                                                                                                     to 6G
                                           4         Events calendar

                                           4         Snapshot


                                           6         The old dog learns new tricks


                                           7         The road to 6G – An overview

                                                     Hexa-X and the values of 6G – The European Union’s flagship
                                           8         project on 6G
                                                     AI-driven ubiquitous networks for massive machine connections –
                                           9         The 6G BRAINS project vision

                                         11          Global initiatives towards 6G – A review of the current status

                                                     Commercial 6G launch expected by 2030 – Interview with
                                         12          Peter Merz from Nokia
                                                     Reconfigurable Intelligent Surfaces for 6G – Innovative wireless
                                         13          network solutions from the ARIADNE project


                                                     5G footprint in broadcast technology – IEEE International
                                         14          Symposium on Broadband Multimedia Systems and Broadcasting
                                                     5G-VINNI project on TelecomTV – Roundtables about uses cases
                                         15          and network slicing


                                                     4th release of 5G PPP white paper on 5G architecture published ++
                                         16          ENISA threat landscape report highlights surge in cybercrime


                                         18          Invented by DABUS – How AI machines are becoming inventors

Eurescom message, Winter 2021
ISSN 1618-5196 (print edition)
ISSN 1618-520X (Internet edition)
Editors: Milon Gupta (editor-in-chief), Anastasius Gavras, Uwe Herzog
Submissions are welcome, including proposals for articles and complete articles, but we reserve the right to edit. If you would like to contribute, or send any
comments, please contact:
Eurescom message · Wieblinger Weg 19/4 · 69123 Heidelberg, Germany · Phone: +49 6221 989–0 · Fax: +49 6221 989–209 · E-mail:
Advertising: Luitgard Hauer, phone: +49 6221 989–405, e-mail:
Eurescom message is published twice a year. Eurescom message on the Web:
Data Protection Declaration:

© 2021 Eurescom GmbH. No reproduction is permitted in whole or part without the express consent of Eurescom.

                                                                                                                                                                  Eurescom message Winter 2021   5
To 6G The Road message - Eurescom GmbH

The old dog learns new tricks

                           David Kennedy
                           Director of Eurescom

There is a common saying that “you can’t
teach an old dog new tricks”, based on the
idea that many people are unable or unwill-
ing to do things differently, if they have been
doing them one way for a long time.

Big Brother is watching you

As I get older, I find it easier to have an overview
perspective of many of the changes proposed to
us and can see them in the context of the impact
they will have on our lives. I know I am resisting
                                                                                                                                                      © AdobeStock
being fully integrated by refusing to have a smart
watch to monitor me as I talk, move and even
sleep. However, I recognised that these capabili-      Fight or flight                                         pages make it very difficult to have a clear idea
ties are interesting – even desirable – for others.                                                            about their policies as they ask first a general
   As I think about it, the question is not black      Having learned that systems are profiling me re-        question where you either give full permission or
and white – it is more complex in terms of trying      gardless of the permissions I gave, the question        open a long set of specific questions. The nasty
to understand, where it is of benefit to me to         is if you can counteract this or even if you want       trick is that if you reject all cookies, they use this
share data and where is it an invasion of my pri-      to. I have to admit, I am not totally anti such tar-    as the basis for not holding that decision, so the
vacy. For example, I have noticed that there is a      geting, but I have limits. I do not allow Siri to be    next time you visit their page, you are forced to go
direct correlation between the auctions I look at      active on my phone, because she will listen all         through the whole charade again. In this way you
on eBay and the ads that get offered to me on          the time to see if I need her help. I have been         get frustrated and you eventually accept all cook-
Facebook. Clearly these guys are sharing infor-        very annoyed to find occasionally in conversation       ies to avoid being asked again.
mation. But is this so bad? I was looking for          with someone that she was active and listening
something specific on eBay, and if this is avail-      from their smart watch or phone and actually            What to do
able through Facebook, this is actually helping        tried to join in the conversation. This is too intru-
me find what I want.                                   sive.                                                   As a confirmed old dog, I think I do have to learn
   However, I can’t tell these systems when I              However, if I was alone in the house, maybe         new tricks to survive in this new world. I could
have actually bought something. This means             recovering from illness or injury, I probably would     make my life simpler by relaxing and just saying
they keep offering me ads for something I have         really appreciate being able to shout at a box to       “yes to all” when asked, but I know this will in-
already paid for, which is only going to annoy me      do jobs or contact people for me. Again, it comes       crease the noise level in my life. What I want to
– particularly if they offer it for a cheaper price    down to context and trust. I am obviously pre-          do is customise the world to my comfortable level
than I paid.                                           pared to allow some intrusion for a visible bene-       of sharing info, but to do this I somehow have to
   You can also distort your profile by making a       fit. The real problem is that it is very difficult to   know enough about how systems work and
purchase for others. I am not sure how my online       feel you are in control and can make the right          where I am leaving traces and sharing elements
profile changed after I bought a leg waxing kit for    choices to choose this.                                 of my profile.
my wife, but I did notice a significant difference                                                                Of course, if I had my personal version of Siri,
in the ads I was offered after that. The level of      Cookies are not always sweet                            Alexa or whoever that was clearly mine and not
this profiling is such that when you load a web                                                                public, “she” could manage this for me. Maybe
page, there can actually be an online auction of       The recent laws on data protection and the use of       this is the answer, old dogs need personal ava-
the ad space on the page to product advertisers,       cookies to capture the permissions has not              tars to learn the new tricks for them.
based on your profile, within the time it takes you    helped as much as I would like. First many web
to load the page.

6   Eurescom message Winter 2021
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The road to 6G
An overview

                           Uwe Herzog

5G networks are currently being deployed
around the globe. Commercial marketing
towards consumers mainly emphasizes un-
precedented bitrates, and vertical indus-
tries look into the potential that 5G could
offer to their type of business. While there is
                                                                                                                                                      © AdobeStock
more in 5G than that, and even though more
will still be included with the 5G enhance-
ments that are currently being standardised              usual increments, e.g. in bitrates and latency.        ICT has however continued to increase its share
with 3GPP Release 17, thinking about what                Given the trend to machine-centric communica-          in the global carbon emissions. In view of the
to address in a further generation of mobile             tions, 6G will also need to be able to handle a        ongoing global warming discussions and the in-
communications has started in many re-                   much larger number of communication end-               creasing sense of urgency that can be witnessed
gions of the world.                                      points, i.e. humans and things, and to process         very strongly here in Europe and elsewhere, this
                                                         the increasing amount of data, in absolute terms       topic might still get a relevance for telecom net-
When I talk to people that are not in IT and I men-      but also per area. Various technologies can con-       work operations that is not expected today.
tion that I am in mobile telecommunications re-          tribute to that, but further expanding mm-wave
search, I often see them surprised: to them ev-          technology and exploiting it, which is happening       Security
erything seems to be there, and maybe most               only slowly in 5G at the moment, might be an
noticeable to consumers are the improvements             essential element to that end. From the network        One theme that I see at risk of not receiving
in handsets that are pushed into the market at           design view, efforts will continue to make 6G          proper attention is network and service security.
short intervals. They do not see the huge innova-        more dynamic and flexible, and, e.g., cloudifica-      The theft of 50 million user data at T-Mobile US,
tion and investments that are needed in the mo-          tion and disaggregation are ingredients for that.      which got known in August 2021, has underlined
bile networks behind the handsets. The question          In addition, open APIs – think, e.g., of Open RAN      once more how critical it is to have proper secu-
of what will be in 6G as yet another generation is       – will likely play a role. A technology that is ex-    rity measures in place. The increasing number of
not answered yet. It needs careful consideration         pected to receive much attention for 6G is Artifi-     hacking attacks that can be observed make it
given the huge efforts and investment that can           cial Intelligence (AI). With further improvements      clear that this is not a problem that will soon fade
be expected from its introduction.                       of the technology, an increasing amount of avail-      away. Implementing proper security has a cost,
                                                         able data and improved training methods, AI            but like an insurance, it does not have an imme-
What 6G will add to 5G                                   chipsets, and more, it could become a commod-          diately visible benefit nor can it create corre-
                                                         ity that it is currently not yet, and can enable       sponding additional revenue.
Thinking about what 6G will be, I remember a             improvements in many aspects and elements of               From a pure cost aspect, one might argue that
presentation by a well-known colleague from TU           a 6G network, e.g., to make network manage-            it is cheaper to fix an issue rather than imple-
Dresden, I think it was at EuCNC 2019 in Valen-          ment and operation more efficient and more se-         menting the required security mechanisms, but
cia, where he said – probably with a wink of the         cure.                                                  the potential damage might go beyond lost reve-
eye – that 6G will be there to fix the issues in 5G.                                                            nue. Possibly, strict requirements on trust and
While there is certainly some truth in that, further     Cost and energy consumption                            security from vertical sector users can cause a
innovations will be part of 6G. Many initiatives                                                                shift here. However, it will also remain a chal-
have been launched in Europe, the US, China,             A strong and overarching design principle for 6G       lenge for security research to come up with in-
Japan and other regions, marking the start of a          could be to keep cost under control and to re-         novative solutions that are cost-efficient yet effec-
6G vision phase.                                         duce energy consumption. Cost has been a re-           tive, offering a high degree of automation in line
    Several white papers were already published          curring aspect in particular for telecom operators     with ETSI Zero Touch Management or through
that look into promising technological advances          in a low-margin business environment, and lower        the use of AI / Machine Learning technologies,
and innovations that are potential candidates for        cost is also important for services to be afford-      that enable a low threshold for the introduction
adoption in 6G. Which of these will finally make         able for end users. Energy consumption and the         and operation of security solutions.
it into the standard is difficult to forecast, but one   ecological footprint in general have received in-
can certainly expect that with 6G we will see the        creasing attention over the past years in which

                                                                                                                                  Eurescom message Winter 2021     7
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Hexa-X and the values of 6G
The European Union’s flagship project on 6G

                         Peter Merz
                         Vice President,
                         Head of Nokia Standards

The world is just at the beginning of the 5G
era, and yet researchers are already diving
into the sixth generation of mobile commu-
nication technologies. The Hexa-X consorti-
um is leading the European 6G effort with a
diverse group of researchers, representing
a broad cross-section of the industry and

The project is being led by Nokia working closely
with a strong consortium of European partners.
They are preparing the foundation for future proj-
ects to come from the next big European initia-
tive, Smart Network Services from the 5G Infra-
structure Association (5G IA), while working with
teams in other regions to create one 6G global
standard for the world. A bit more than half a        6G three worlds wheel
year into the two-and-a-half-year project, they
have already delivered their vision, use cases and
initial technical analysis for mobile networks in     engineering of our carbon-based infrastructures,        and 6G. The 5G IA recently published a paper
the 2030s.                                            it must be engineered for minimal impact as well.       that outlines its European vision for the 6G net-
                                                         Consortium partners are also focused on digi-        work ecosystem. Hexa-X made a central contribu-
The Hexa-X 6G vision                                  tal inclusion, arguing that by 2030 connectivity        tion with other current EU research to the paper.
                                                      will likely be regarded as a basic human right.            Continuing the themes of 5G, SNS sees 6G as
Hexa-X takes its name from the Greek for the          They believe that the network, if designed prop-        continuing to provide a platform for connecting
number 6, with X representing the many, as-yet-       erly, can contribute to greater trust, if built on      even more things, humans, robots and every
unnamed capabilities of the 6G standard that          principals of security, privacy, availability, resil-   kind of autonomous vehicle. But it also recogniz-
may emerge. The project is part of the European       ience and compliance with ethical frameworks.           es the key role the network will play in the evolu-
Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation             Trust is especially important, as 6G will be at      tion of society, as the digital, physical and hu-
program, intended to boost the technical leader-      the heart of the new age of automation and arti-        man worlds increasingly converge. They also
ship of the EU and ensure that the new standard       ficial intelligence. For people to accept the grow-     recognize the importance of the European Green
represents the goals and values of the European       ing role of machines in our lives, much will have       Deal and the drive to achieve climate neutrality
community. Building an ecosystem of business-         to be done to communicate the values promoted           by 2050.
es, academia and other organizations and key          by 6G, as well as ensuring the privacy of data
talent around the new standard will ensure that       handling, network intelligence and the trustwor-        The importance of a global standard
Europe takes long-term leadership on both fronts.     thiness of AI.
   In their vision document published earlier this                                                            Although a European initiative, the Hexa-X con-
year, the consortium envisions 6G as a key soci-      Smart networks and services                             sortium is clear on the importance of arriving at
etal platform for building efficient and sustain-                                                             a global consensus on the 6G standard. It will
able ways of living, ensuring trust, security and     In parallel, Hexa-X is also working with the 5G IA      strive for openness and collaboration among the
privacy and creating economic prosperity and          as it prepares for a broader effort to launch, in       European and global research community, stan-
growth. With climate change high on their list of     about a year’s time, the Smart Networks and Ser-        dardization bodies and policy makers.
priorities, the consortium is especially interested   vices (SNS). The SNS European Partnership                  Competition with regional initiatives is healthy
in improving the energy efficiency of networks.       aims to secure European leadership for the de-          for driving the development of the best possible
Since 6G will play a crucial role in improving the    velopment and deployment of next-generation             technologies. However, the days of diverging mo-
efficiency of other systems important to the re-      mobile networks. It is focused on 5G evolution          bile standards should be behind us. The consor-

8   Eurescom message Winter 2021                                                                                                                           © AdobeStock
To 6G The Road message - Eurescom GmbH

tium recognizes that we now live in a global           European research projects have been at the        understanding of both the performance- and val-
economy with global supply chains, and the inte-    forefront of research for many generations of mo-     ue-oriented aspects of the technology and how it
gration of our operational systems demands          bile networks. This strong experience and track       can play a key role in building a more sustain-
global standards. Achieving economies of scale      record in collaborative research will be an advan-    able, trusting and inclusive world.
is crucial for the success of today’s business      tage in achieving 6G leadership. And by present-
models. Going it alone with a European-only ap-     ing the values informing their vision for 6G, they        Further information
proach would be self-defeating in the long run.     hope to bring the rest of the world to a clearer      Hexa-X project website –

AI-driven ubiquitous networks for massive
machine connections
The 6G BRAINS project vision

                       Yue Zhang
                       University of Leicester

Ubiquitous smart wireless connectivity is
critical for future large-scale industrial
tasks, services, assets and devices. Very sig-
nificantly improved connectivity needs to be
unlocked through novel spectrum combina-
tions and the fully autonomous manage-
ment of the underlying network resources
by applying online Artificial Intelligence (AI)
at multiple decision layers. Therefore, it is
required to bring AI-driven Deep Reinforce-
ment learning (DRL) to perform MAC/PHY              Figure 1: 6G BRAINS Concept Vision (images: Robert Bosch GmbH)
resource allocation and configuration over
the high dynamic ultra-dense D2D cell free          of-concept trials. The primary and secondary ap-      Factory of the future
(CF) network with new spectrum links in-            plications of THz and OWC technologies for a
cluding THz and optical wireless communi-           very broad spectrum of scenarios will be validat-     The factory of the future represents one of the
cations (OWC) to enhance the performance            ed at BOSCH’s self-contained smart factory.           most challenging applications of the future mo-
with regard to capacity, reliability and la-                                                              bile communication systems. A large number of
tency for next generation ubiquitous net-           Enabling technologies                                 specific use cases representing this scenario
works.                                                                                                    have been described in different bodies, includ-
                                                    The enabling technologies in 6G BRAINS focus          ing 3GPP and 5G-ACIA (5G Alliance for Connect-
The 6G BRAINS project proposes a novel com-         on four technological areas:                          ed Industries and Automation). From the large
prehensive cross-layer DRL driven resource allo-    n Enhanced new spectrum links: OWC and THz            list of specific use cases in the factory of the fu-
cation solution to support the massive connec-      n AI-driven D2D cell free network architecture        ture environment, 6G BRAINS identified two use
tions over Device-to-Device (D2D) assisted highly     for highly dynamic and ultra-dense connectiv-       cases which require further improvement of the
dynamic cell-free network enabled by Sub-6            ity                                                 current 5G technology.
GHz/mmWave/THz/OWC and high-resolution              n AI-based end-to-end directional network                 The first use case represents the offloading of
3D Simultaneous Localization and Mapping              slicing with guaranteed QoS over highly             the control logic from the industrial controller
(SLAM) of up to 1 mm accuracy. The enabling           dynamic networks                                    running as part of a production cell on the shop
technologies in 6G BRAINS focus on four major       n AI-driven data fusion for 3D indoor position        floor to a more centralized computing area called
aspects, including disruptive new spectral links,     mapping through heterogeneous location              "factory edge" in a virtualized form as a virtual
highly dynamic D2D cell-free network modelling,       methods enabling 1 mm location position             machine or a container. A more centralized ap-
intelligent end-to-end network architecture inte-     accuracy and 1° orientation accuracy.               proach, where all controllers (real or virtualized)
grating the multi-agent DRL scheme and AI-en-                                                             are placed in the same area will significantly in-
hanced high-resolution 3D SLAM data fusion.                                                               crease the flexibility of the production process
The proposed solution will be validated by proof-                                                         and reduce the cost. Connecting the production

                                                                                                                            Eurescom message Winter 2021    9
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Figure 2: 6G BRAINS overall logical architecture

cells through the 6G BRAINS communication              Overall logical architecture                           control plane and the data plane. The data (infra-
system to the “factory edge” shall enable the                                                                 structure) plane comprises the various end-to-
ease of reconfiguration of hardware and software       Figure 2 presents the detailed reference logical       end network segments including RAN and other
components on demand. This use case sets very          architecture of 6G BRAINS. It highlights that the      wireless networks, such as CF, D2D and IAB (In-
high expectations on the guaranteed latency and        AI loops can take place at the global level or at      tegrated Access and Backhaul). The simulation/
deterministic communication that should sup-           each local level. The overall architecture includes    emulation/AI training plane is introduced to in-
port low industrial application cycle times and        monitoring plane, cognitive plane, control plane,      corporate 6G BRAINS components that are es-
very precise synchronicity.                            management and orchestration plane, data               sential for the R&D targets but are mainly re-
   Another use case is represented by wireless         plane, simulation/emulation/AI training plane          quired for offline or design phases, rather than
video cameras that are easily deployed in every        and PHY/MAC plane of the user equipment                online and operational phases. The UE PHY/
factory production cell at different locations to      (UE).                                                  MAC plane accommodates the functional blocks
send high-quality and high-frame-rate video to an         The monitoring plane interacts with the other       for the UE physical and MAC aspects focusing on
image-analysing system located at the “factory         planes (data plane, control plane, etc.) to collect    a simulation approach.
edge”. By this, a new level of production monitor-     and monitor functional and performance param-
ing is unleashed enabling a long list of new fea-      eters, including KPIs. Based on the inputs from        Outlook
tures, such as anomaly detection, improved             the monitoring plane, the cognitive plane analy-
safety, process tracking and logging, remote con-      ses the system and makes decisions to offer in-        The technologies developed in 6G BRAINS will be
trol, and predictive maintenance. This use case        telligent operational strategies such as optimising    widely applicable to various vertical sectors such
has high requirements on the data rate, consum-        resource allocation and deployment inputs to the       as Industry 4.0, intelligent transportation,
ing up to 3 Gbps per camera in case of state-of-       relevant RL-driven modules such as RAN slicing         eHealth, and more. In particular, new business
the-art industrial camera systems.                     and CF scheduling, maintaining the normal op-          opportunities emerging in 6G BRAINS will be
   Finally, the combination of these two use cas-      eration of the system in the case of faults/fail-      identified for follow-up exploitation activities. The
es represents a very challenging approach for a        ures, and improving the performance in the case        results of 6G BRAINS are expected to create a
system that is required to provide a precise QoS       of suboptimal operations.                              solid basis for future projects and global stan-
differentiation by, e.g., creating individual slices      The cognitive plane outputs its intelligent deci-   dardisation for beyond 5G and 6G technologies
for each of the required services. The 6G BRAINS       sions to other planes for actions to be applied.       in areas relevant to industrial environments.
concept vision is illustrated in Figure 1.             The control plane is called on demand, to en-
                                                       force real-time actions decided by the cognitive
                                                       plane via the RL policy adapter. The manage-                Further information
                                                       ment and orchestration plane provides the man-         6G BRAINS project website –
                                                       agement interface for other planes, especially the
10    Eurescom message Winter 2021

Global initiatives towards 6G
A review of the current status

                                                       and others have published their own visions of          International activities
                                                       6G or channelled their opinions through alliances
                                                       and collaborations like the NGMN Alliance (Next         Other world regions have published their own 6G
                                                       Generation Mobile Networks Alliance). The com-          visions and partly have launched similarly ambi-
                        Anastasius Gavras              mon denominator is that they put the technology         tious programmes. Japan’s NICT has released
                        Eurescom                       evolution in the context of resolving societal is-      white papers on beyond 5G/6G and quantum
                           sues.                                                   networks. Reported plans for China state ambi-
                                                          Emerging commonalities in the use cases can          tions for commercialisation of 6G technologies by
Not much is defined yet around 6G. It is               be seen for the areas of extreme reality, holo-         2030. In the U.S., the alliance for telecommuni-
hard to draw the line between 5G and 6G,               graphic applications, precision sensing and ac-         cations industry solutions (ATIS), a telecom stan-
and the nomenclature of 3GPP defining 5G               tuation, human machine interfaces, and digital          dards body, launched the Next G Alliance in
enhancements and 5G advanced capabili-                 replicas of physical world artefacts.                   2020 to advance North American leadership in
ties from Release 17 to Release 20 does not                                                                    6G. South Korea’s Ministry of Science and ICT
help in clarifying the borders between the             Programmes and initiatives                              established a 6G research and development im-
generations either. Resolving this requires a                                                                  plementation plan that calls for investing around
consensus about the societal, market and               In general, I observe that many formulated vi-          200 million dollars by 2025. Finally, the Europe-
operational needs that the 6th generation              sions are positioning 6G as a tool that must ad-        an Space Agency has started a study for a space-
mobile network should meet and that clear-             dress the societal needs and the sustainable de-        based infrastructure, which, albeit carrying 5G in
ly go beyond what 5G can deliver today or              velopment goals (SDGs) formulated by the                its name, has a long-term ambition to embrace
will deliver in the next few years.                    United Nations. The 5G PPP project Hexa-X is            emerging 6G concepts.
                                                       one of the main efforts to develop so-called key
In this context, it is worthwhile analysing the        value indicators (KVIs), derived from the SDGs,         Outlook
plethora of 6G white papers that have been pub-        and finally to translate these into concrete techni-
lished. The motivation for these white papers is       cal requirements and performance indicators for         The list of existing initiatives, white papers, pro-
driven by research interest, company expecta-          designing the 6th generation mobile network.            grammes and plans is much longer, and many
tions, or long-term government plans aiming to         The same path has been established by the 6G            more initiatives are underway. Global conver-
establish a long-term roadmap. However, it is          Drivers and Visions white paper published by the        gence on visions, requirements and roadmaps
very difficult at this stage to conclude on a single   NGMN Alliance, which sets the basic framework           has already started in alliances and forums that
unified landscape of needs, requirements and           for the formulation of 6G use cases and is work         will propagate in the next few years into the main
expectations. In addition, several funding agen-       in progress.                                            standards body, namely 3GPP. We should expect
cies around the world have started to fund proj-          The latest batch of 5G PPP projects started in       exciting developments on all fronts and from all
ects and initiatives on 6G.                            the beginning of 2021 in the scope of beyond            regions. Of particular importance to Europe is,
                                                       5G. These projects address a variety of technol-        whether the efforts become instrumental to meet
White papers                                           ogy topics ranging from new waveforms, channel          high-level policy objectives, such as those formu-
                                                       propagation models for THz frequencies, accu-           lated in the context of the Green New Deal, the
One of the first 6G white papers that received         rate positioning, energy efficiency, extreme reli-      UN Sustainable Development Goals, and the Eu-
global attention was published in 2019 by the          ability, extreme bandwidth transport, in-network        ropean technological sovereignty discussion.
University of Oulu in Finland. The initiative          computing for artificial intelligence and machine
evolved into the 6G Flagship, which is today fa-       learning, and many others.
cilitating the work of 12 expert groups on select-        The Horizon Europe programme puts the work                Further information
ed 6G topics with the goal of consolidating opin-      on 6G under the heading Smart Networks and              n	6G Flagship –
ions and publishing them in a series of 6G white       Services (SNS), which is planned to be launched            6gflagship/
papers. According to the 6G Flagship, more than        shortly with the establishment of the SNS Joint         n	Hexa-X project –

250 experts from 100 organisations in over 30          Undertaking. The targeted public research and           n	NGMN Alliance –

countries contributed to the 6G Flagship white         innovation investment is 900 million euro over          n	5G PPP Smart connectivity beyond 5G

papers.                                                the budget period 2021-2027. The German gov-               projects –
    Ericsson outlines in its white papers a combi-     ernment has launched a large 6G programme                  6-projects/
nation of technology push, expectations pull and       with an estimated budget in excess of 600 mil-          n	5G-IS 5G system infrastructure study

new emerging use cases. Nokia defines the tech-        lion euro in the period 2021-2025. An initial por-         –
nological areas that will require significant ad-      tion of estimated 200 million euro has already
vances to meet 6G requirements. Samsung pro-           been granted to several large projects called 6G
vides an initial set of key performance indicators     hubs with the ambition of creating the basis for
and how they compare to 5G. Many telecommu-            an innovation ecosystem for future communica-
nication operators like Deutsche Telekom, BT,          tion technologies around 6G.
Vodafone, Orange, China Mobile, NTT Docomo

                                                                                                                               Eurescom message Winter 2021    11

Commercial 6G launch expected by 2030
Interview with Peter Merz from Nokia

While 5G is still being rolled out, prepara-                                                                     European R&D on 6G started in 2020.
tions for 6G are gaining speed. That raises                                                                      Where do we stand now?
questions about the path towards 6G, and
why we need 6G in the first place. Eurescom                                                                      Peter Merz: In general, countries and regions
message editor-in-chief Milon Gupta asked                                                                        around the world make investments in all areas
Peter Merz, Head of Nokia Standards,                                                                             of technology and innovation. In January 2021,
about it. Mr. Merz is responsible for Nokia                                                                      the European Commission 6G flagship research
Standards including related standards re-                                                                        project Hexa-X, which is being led by Nokia, was
search activities in areas like radio/RAN,                                                                       officially kicked off. Being a 2.5-year project with-
core, network management and automa-                                                                             in the EU’s Horizon 2020 ICT-52 program, Hexa-
tion as well as network security.                                                                                X displays European leadership in 6G, and Euro-
                                                                                                                 pean research projects have been at the forefront
                                                                                                                 of research for many generations of mobile net-
Why do we need 6G?                                                                                               works. This strong experience and track record in
                                                                                                                 collaborative research will be an advantage in
Peter Merz: Wireless technologies are of critical         Peter Merz                                             achieving European 6G leadership.
relevance for our society and economy today;                                                                        Horizon Europe will make 900 million euro in
their importance for economic growth, wealth                                                                     funding available for 6G by the end of the year.
and sustainability will continue to steadily in-          Improvements in uplink capacity and handling of        This is complemented by dedicated substantial
crease with 5G and its evolution, enabling new            mobility will be combined with the inherent high       6G funding programs in Germany, France and
ecosystems and services motivated by growing              data rate and low latency capabilities of 5G to        Finland.
traffic and trillions of devices.                         create a fully immersive user experience while on
   Human intelligence will be augmented in the            the move. It will also bring innovations for im-
world of 2030 by being tightly coupled and                proved coverage, resilient timing services that will   How will 6G change the ICT landscape and
seamlessly intertwined with the network and               facilitate diverse new services, enhanced low-         vertical industry sectors?
digital technologies. This will call for a shift in the   cost massive IoT, and further support for non-
way communication networks are designed.                  terrestrial networks (NTN) and drones.                 Peter Merz: 5G is the first system designed to
While 5G enables us to consume digital media                 6G will go even further, calling for a change in    make inroads into the industrial environment,
anywhere, anytime, future technology should en-           the way communication networks are designed.           and the transformation to Industry 4.0 featuring
able us to embed ourselves in entire virtual or           Multiple key requirements must be reconciled:          the first wave of wireless-enabled automation will
digital worlds.                                           serve the massively growing traffic and the ex-        already have happened well before 2030. 5G net-
                                                          ploding numbers of devices and markets, while          works providing ultra-reliable low-latency commu-
                                                          also accomplishing the highest possible stan-          nications (URLLC) will have facilitated real-time
What are the benefits of 6G compared                      dards regarding energy efficiency, strong securi-      processing in the cloud. However, special indus-
to 5G-Advanced?                                           ty, and efficiency in coverage and operation, for      trial use cases relying on much more extreme re-
                                                          enabling sustainable growth in a trustworthy way.      quirements for wireless communication will re-
Peter Merz: 5G-Advanced will further develop 5G                                                                  quire 6G to augment 5G.
to its fullest capabilities over the coming decade.

3GPP timeline of 5G to 6G releases

12     Eurescom message Winter 2021
CELTIC News 2/2021
The newsletter of EUREKA Cluster CELTIC-NEXT

                     Public Authority Profile
                     The Portuguese National Innovation Agency

                     Interview with Eureka chairman Miguel Bello

                     Project Highlights
                     CyberWi – Cyber-security in the Wireless
                     Industrial use case
C E LT I C N e w s

Table of Contents

CELTIC Chair’s Corner                                                       Join the Industry-Driven Research
Towards the Eureka Clusters Programme Launch
– A New Era of Joint Thematic Calls .................... 3
                                                                            Programme for a Smart Connected World
Public Authority Profile                                                    CELTIC-NEXT Call for Project Proposals – Deadline: 14th of April 2022
How Portugal supports CELTIC-NEXT projects
– The Portuguese National Innovation Agency . 4                             Do not miss the opportunity to participate in CELTIC-NEXT, the
                                                                            ­industry-driven European ICT and telecommunications research
                                                                             ­programme under the umbrella of Eureka. Submission deadline
Eureka − A major tool to promote research and
                                                                              for the next call for project proposals is 14th of April 2022.
innovation: Interview with Eureka chairman
Miguel Bello Mora ................................................. 5
                                                                            CELTIC-NEXT projects are collaborative private-public partnership R&D projects.
Project Highlights                                                          All Eureka member countries and associated countries can financially support
CyberWi – Cyber-security in the Wireless                                    them. More information on public funding and national contacts per country can
Industrial use case ................................................ 6      be found on the CELTIC-NEXT Public Authorities Website. Please talk to your
                                                                            national contact early in the process.
Update from the CELTIC Office
An exciting year of transition and renewal                                  Easy proposal process
for CELTIC-NEXT – New ambitions and new
                                                                            Preparing and submitting a CELTIC-NEXT project proposal is easy. Just register via
roadmap ............................................................... 7
                                                                            the CELTIC-NEXT online proposal tool, fill in the Web forms, and upload your
                                                                            proposal in pdf. Access to the proposal tool and to a proposal template is avail-
                                                                            able via our Call Information page (

                                                                            Benefits of participating in CELTIC-NEXT
                                                                            › You are free to define your project proposal according to your own research
                                                                              interests and priorities.
                                                                            › Your proposal is not bound by any call texts, as long as it is within the ICT/
                                                                              telecommunications area.
                                                                            › CELTIC-NEXT projects are close to the market and have a track record of
                                                                              ­exploiting their results soon after the end of the project.
                                                                            › High-quality proposals have an excellent chance of receiving funding, with an
                                                                              average success rate higher than 50 %.
                                                                            › The results of the evaluation will already be known in May 2022.

                                                                            If you have any questions or need help, do not hesitate to contact us; we would
                                                                            be pleased to support you.

CELTIC Office                                                               Contact:
Xavier Priem                                                                CELTIC-NEXT Office
CELTIC Office Director                                                      Xavier Priem
c/o Eurescom GmbH                                                 
Wieblinger Weg 19/4                                                         Website:
69123 Heidelberg, Germany
Phone: +49 6221 989 138

2 CELTIC News 2/2021
C E LT I C C H A I R ’ S C O R N E R

What living in interesting times means

David Kennedy
CELTIC-NEXT Chair Person

                                                                                                                                         © AdobeStock
In common folklore it is often unclear, if
the wish “may you live in interesting times”
is intended as a curse or a blessing. Either         once you start supplying this information,         lays and interactions in the project decisions
way, it can mean that you experience a lot           the supply must be continuous and reliable         as the Clusters combined resources. The
of change and you need to remain active and          and economical. Despite the increasing re-         next step in this development we hope to
responsive to the changes to ensure that you         quirement for pervasive communications,            see now is a reduction in the overall time to
progress positively. Well, for the CELTIC-NEXT       we are also under pressure to ensure the           decision for Eureka projects and that this ex-
community the recent times have been very            sustainability of communications by lower-         perience can also be used to improve the
interesting with lots of changes impacting           ing the power consumption of all elements          throughput of the regular Cluster “bottom-
every aspect of our domain.                          of the network.                                    up” calls.
                                                         In summary, the new outlook for the ICT            The new flexibility has increased the op-
CELTIC-NEXT in the new post-Covid                    domain is that we have to provide incredible       erational costs for the Clusters, but it is an-
world                                                speed and reliability for the connections for      ticipated that it should stimulate more
                                                     low cost with a very low environmental pro-        national investment in the new joint topics
One interesting aspect of the way we all re-         file. Clearly there are many challenges in         which will increase the overall volume of the
structured our lives and work in the “lock-          this.                                              programme. This increase in research proj-
down” period is that we have rapidly learned                                                            ect volume should compensate for the in-
to do many things remotely. This creates a           CELTIC-NEXT and the New Eureka                     creased costs to keep the ECP instrument
very significant shift from travelling and meet-     ­Clusters Programme                                efficient and practical. We in CELTIC-NEXT
ing to using communications to stay in contact                                                          have heavily invested in the new structure
via webinars and videoconferencing. In fact,         In the past two years the CELTIC-NEXT Cluster      and we are now looking forward to see how
we have learned that many meetings are no            has worked with the other Eureka Clusters to       the programme volumes evolve.
longer necessary, if the participants have reli-     help evolve the Eureka Clusters Programme
able communications of sufficient capacities.        (ECP). The idea is to revitalise the instrument,   Conclusion
The issue here is that we have proved the con-       as an effective and efficient international re-
cept for remote working – even if we were            search collaboration tool and to stimulate         From the CELTIC-NEXT perspective we remain
forced into it without any preparation – to the      more involvement and investments.                  committed to embracing the changes and us-
extent where it is unlikely that we will ever jus-       The approach was to consider the pro-          ing them to help us better serve our commu-
tify the amount of travel and meetings we had        cesses and see where the programme could           nity. The origin of the CELTIC community was
in 2019 going forward.                               be more responsive to the ever-changing set        the need to bring the digital communications
    The impact of this on business processes         of research and innovation requirements            benefits to the world. This has evolved to the
is that the integration of high-speed high-          and priorities facing industrial and national      point where the vertical communities are now
capacity communications infrastructures in-          interests. A key result is the introduction of     informed and active regarding the benefits
to both the production and use of many               joint calls operated collectively by the rele-     advanced communications can bring to their
advanced products is now assured and the             vant Clusters while presenting a consistent        domains that they are now becoming drivers
communications technologies must deliver.            and seamless interface to the project pro-         of the changes in the communications infra-
    A good example will be the advanced traf-        posers and the national authorities. To dem-       structures and services too.
fic management on the roads and the intro-           onstrate the new flexibility of the Clusters,         We do live in interesting times, and CELT-
duction of autonomous cars. In this context          the first joint call – the AI call 2020 – was      IC-NEXT remains committed to helping all
all road users need to be equally informed           launched and run successfully. The lessons         parts of industry and society to embrace
about changing circumstances on the road             learned included greater collaboration be-         and benefit from advanced communica-
and, more specifically, any safety risks. And        tween Clusters and more analysis of the de-        tions.

                                                                                                                                  CELTIC News 2/2021    3

How Portugal supports CELTIC-NEXT projects
The Portuguese National Innovation Agency

                                                   ­ scal incentives programmes to promote pri-
                                                   fi                                                 cala Europeia”, 11 new CELTIC projects were
                                                   vate investment in R&D and to foster collab-       recently funded, reflecting a total investment
                                                   orative R&D between companies and R&D              from the Portuguese entities involved of 7 mil-
                                                   institutions for an effective transfer of knowl-   lion euro and corresponding to approximately
                                                   edge to the market. ANI also promotes the in-      4.5 million euro of public funding.
                                                   ternationalisation of Portuguese innovative            The Portuguese entities most represented
                                                   companies and R&D institutions through sup-        in CELTIC-NEXT projects include companies
                                                   porting their participation in the Horizon Eu-     such as UBIWHERE Lda, CELFINET - CONSUL-
                                                   rope R&DI Framework Programme as well as           TORIA EM TELECOMUNICAÇÕES, S.A., Proef
Rita Silva                                         other international networks for R&D cooper-       Eurico Ferreira S.A., GLINTT Healthcare Solu-
ANI – Agência Nacional de Inovação, SA             ation and business internationalisation such       tions S.A., Wavecom – Soluções Radio S.A.,                                  as the Enterprise Europe Network and the Eu-       and renowned research centres like Instituto
                                                   reka Network.                                      de Telecomunicações, Instituto Superior de
                                                       Portugal has now for the third time since      Engenharia do Porto (ISEP), or Instituto Poli-
ANI – Agência Nacional de Inovação, SA, is the     becoming one of the 18 founding member             técnico de Castelo Branco.
National Innovation Agency of Portugal. It is      states of the Eureka Network in 1985 taken             CELTIC-NEXT projects with Portuguese
owned in equal shares by IAPMEI – the Portu-       over the Chairmanship of Eureka from July          participation focus on several ICT areas such
guese Agency for Competitiveness and Inno-         2021 until June 2022. ANI is part of the Chair-    as energy efficiency and quality of service/ex-
vation under the Ministry of the Economy           manship Team, hosting the National Eureka          perience in mobile telecommunications net-
and Digital Transition – and FCT – the Portu-      office.                                            works, smart operations optimization and
guese Foundation for Science and Technol-                                                             performance monitoring in mobile telecom-
ogy under the Ministry of Science, Technology      FACTS about Portuguese participation               munications networks, healthcare, smart cit-
and Higher Education. ANI supports techno-         in CELTIC- NEXT projects                           ies, and internet of the future. Their main
logical and business innovation in Portugal,                                                          partner countries are Spain, France, Finland,
contributing to the consolidation of the           The EUREKA Clusters prove to be an excellent       Sweden, Turkey, Canada, Korea, and Israel.
national innovation system and to strength-        channel for the internationalisation of Portu-         As an added-value of participating in
ening the competitiveness of the national          guese companies, academia, RTOs and re-            CELTIC-NEXT projects, Portuguese entities re-
economy in global markets.                         search centres enabling them to access to          port an overall increase in competitiveness
                                                   global value chains, to new knowledge and to       levels through the possibility to access new
In 2020, Portugal reached a 1,6% R&D share of      partner with numerous countries. In fact, the      markets, to improve their positioning in global
national GDP, an all-time high. 57% of R&D         opportunity offered by the Eureka Network          value chains, an increase in exports, improve-
funding comes from companies’ investments.         and the Clusters projects to collaborate be-       ment in R&DI capacities and gain of new ex-
There are around 4,300 R&D-performing              yond Europe on a truly global stage is one of      pertise through the possibility to employ
companies investing an average of 420,000          the major benefits identified by companies.        highly qualified human resources and lastly,
euro per year to develop new technologies.            CELTIC-NEXT is the Eureka Cluster with          the enlargement of the company’s product
                                                   the largest Portuguese participation. This is      portfolio and cross-selling of solutions.
Portugal’s innovation strategy                     related to the fact that the technological area
                                                   with the largest Portuguese participation in › Further information
Along this path, an ambitious national strate-     EUREKA projects is electronics, IT and tele- ANI website –
gy for technological and entrepreneurial inno-     coms technology (62 %).
vation for the period 2018-2030 has been              Between 2008-2020, 31 CELTIC
defined. It includes main targets such as          projects with Portuguese partici-
achieving a global investment in R&D of 3% of      pation were funded. Since 2017,
GDP by 2030, with a relative share of two          with the introduction of a grant-
thirds coming from private expenditure, as         based funding instrument relying
well as becoming a European leader in digital      on European Structural and In-
skills by 2030. From 2021 to 2027, Portugal        vestment Funds (ESIF) to support
aims to double the Portuguese participation        Eureka and Eurostars projects,
in European Union funding programmes, and          the funding of Eureka Clusters
to attract around 2 billion euros for R&I, as      projects has become more agile
well as tripling the number of students in mo-     and stable in Portugal. This has
bility in higher education, compared to 2014-      raised interest and created re-
2020.                                              newed dynamics among stake-
    ANI has a central role in the Portuguese in-   holders to apply and participate.
novation ecosystem and contributes to the             Under the new instrument
achievement of the major national innovation       “Projetos de I&D Industrial à Es-
goals. The Agency manages financial and                                                 ANI headquarters in Porto

4 CELTIC News 2/2021

Eureka − A major tool to promote research
and innovation
Interview with Eureka chairman Miguel Bello Mora

On 1st July, Portugal took over the Eureka                                                            How would you describe the progress
chairmanship for one year – already for the                                                           of Eureka in the first months of the
third time in the 35-year history of Eureka.                                                          Portuguese chairmanship?
The motto of the Portuguese Chairmanship is
“Innovation for a greener, digital and health-                                                        Miguel Bello Mora: During the first months of
ier planet through a collaborative approach”.                                                         the Eureka Portuguese chairmanship some of
CELTIC News editor Milon Gupta asked                                                                  the strategic priorities have been implement-
Eureka chairman Miguel Bello Mora, CEO of                                                             ed, like the collaboration with the European
the Atlantic International Research Centre in                                                         Space Agency, where a Memorandum of Un-
Portugal, about priorities and progress of                                                            derstanding is in preparation, and the first of
Eureka after the first quarter of the Portu-                                                          the international events on “Eureka meets the
guese Eureka term.                                                                                    Atlantic through Space-Ocean-Earth collabor-
                                                                                                      ative innovations”. In addition, the final pro-
What are the main priorities of the                                                                   posal for the Eurostars 3 programme, one of
­Portuguese Eureka chairmanship?                                                                      the flagship projects of Eureka, has been com-
                                                                                                      pleted in August.
Miguel Bello Mora: We have five main priori-          And fifth, to continue the necessary re-
ties for the Portuguese Eureka chairmanship:      structuring of the Eureka Secretariat and           What is your vision for Eureka and its
First, to increase the global outreach of the     pursue a healthy financial model for the            programmes beyond the Portuguese
Eureka Network by promoting collaboration         ­Eureka Secretariat.                                chairmanship?
with international organizations with an im-
portant innovation component, like the Euro-      Which role do you see for the Eureka                Miguel Bello Mora: Our vision beyond the
pean Space Agency, and via the organization       Clusters Programme in the context of                ­Portuguese Chairmanship is to have Eureka as
of a series of international events.              the Portuguese priorities?                           a major tool to promote research and innova-
     Second, to enhance new forms of coop-                                                             tion, strengthening the bottom-up, open and
eration for effective RDI programmes by           Miguel Bello Mora: The Portuguese chairman-          flexible nature of the network by building on
strengthening the relation with the Europe-       ship is contributing to the revitalization of the    the work done by the previous Chairmanships
an Union within the new Horizon Europe            Eureka Clusters Programme by implementing            while following the strategic priorities of the
framework programme for research, devel-          the new governance model, ensuring greater           recently approved Eureka Strategic Roadmap
opment, and innovation.                           compromise from public authorities on the            for 2021-2027.
     Third, strengthening the Eureka Net-         funding of projects, intensifying the participa-         Eureka shall promote the dynamism of
work’s positioning by reinforcing the mecha-      tion of industrial key players at the board of       the economy and European innovation
nisms for the generation of projects,             Clusters’ governance structures and promot-          through the recovery period from the crisis
contributing to the revitalization of the         ing collaboration and cross-fertilisation be-        associated with the COVID-19 pandemic and
­Eureka Clusters Programme.                       tween Clusters through the organisation of           should stimulate new opportunities for the
     Fourth, adding value to the Eureka label,    joint calls.                                         development of new products and services
 with the organisation of Eureka’s Global             A joint thematic call is promoted with a         in global markets, as well as new internation-
 ­Innovation Summit 2022 and the Eureka           topic focused on Space-Ocean-Earth Obser-            al collaborations towards citizens wellbeing
  Ministerial Meeting in Portugal in June 2022.   vation Systems and Space related technolo-           and healthy living.
                                                  gies which would include the promotion of
                                                  projects linked with the Green Deal in areas
                                                  like Earth Observation from Space and its
                                                  combination with Artificial Intelligence.

                                                                                                                                 CELTIC News 2/2021   5
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