Transport Connection in Northern Mountainous Provinces Project Gender Action and Ethnic Minority Development Plan Lao Cai Province - Lao Cai ...

 
Transport Connection in Northern
Mountainous Provinces Project
Gender Action and Ethnic Minority
Development Plan
Lao Cai Province

Lao Cai Provincial People’s Committee

April 2011 (FINAL DRAFT)
Gender Action and Ethnic Minority Development Plan
                                                                           Lao Cai Province

                     ABBREVIATIONS

ADB       =   Asian Development Bank
CEM       =   Committee for Ethnic Minority
CWS       =   Commercial Sex Worker
DARD      =   Department of Agriculture and Rural Development
DP        =   Displaced Person
EM        =   Ethnic Minority
GAEMDP        Gender Action and Ethnic Minority Development Plan
GOV       =   Government of Viet Nam
HH        =   Household
IDU       =   Intravenous Drug User
MOLISA    =   Ministry of Labour, Invalids and Social Affairs
NGO       =   Non-government Organization
PDOT      =   Provincial Department of Transport
PPA           Participatory Poverty Assessment
PPC       =   Provincial People’s Committee
PPMU      =   Provincial Project Management Unit
Project   =   Transport Connection in Northern Mountainous Provinces Project
WU        =   Women’s Union
YU        =   Youth’s Union

                                                                                      Page i
Gender Action and Ethnic Minority Development Plan
                                                                                                                                       Lao Cai Province

                                                                    TABLE of CONTENTS
                                                                                                                                                             Page
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY………………………………………………………………………………………………………… i
1.    INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................................................ 1
2.         PROJECT DESCRIPTION ................................................................................................................................. 1
3.         SOCIOECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE PROJECT AREA ............................................................... 2
4.         WOMEN IN THE COMMUNITIES ...................................................................................................................... 3
5.         ETHNIC MINORITY HOUSEHOLDS ................................................................................................................. 4
6.         CONSULTATION AND PARTICIPATION .......................................................................................................... 5
7.         PROJECT BENEFITS ........................................................................................................................................ 5
8.         RESETTLEMENT IMPACTS AND SOCIAL RISKS ........................................................................................... 5
8.1        HIV/AIDS ............................................................................................................................................................ 6
8.2        HUMAN TRAFFICKING ............................................................................................................................................ 6
8.3        ROAD SAFETY .................................................................................................................................................. 7
9.         BENEFICIAL AND MITIGATIVE MEASURES ................................................................................................... 8
9.1        HIV/AIDS HUMAN TRAFFICKING AWARENESS CAMPAIGN & ROAD SAFETY CAMPAIGN ................................................ 8
9.2        EMPLOYMENT DURING CIVIL WORKS ....................................................................................................................... 9
9.3        SAFETY MEASURES ALONG THE ROAD .................................................................................................................. 10
9.4        IMPLEMENTATION ARRANGEMENTS .......................................................................................................... 13
           9.4.1              PPMU .......................................................................................................................................... 13
           9.4.2              Women’s Union ........................................................................................................................... 13
           9.4.3              Committee for Ethnic Minorities (CEM) ........................................................................................ 13
           9.4.4              Youth Union ................................................................................................................................. 14
           9.4.5       Support from Project Coordination Consultants ........................................................................... 14
10.        BUDGET .......................................................................................................................................................... 14
11.        GRIEVANCE REDRESS MECHANISM ........................................................................................................... 14
12.        MONITORING, REPORTING & EVALUATION................................................................................................ 15
13.        IMPLEMENTATION SCHEDULE ..................................................................................................................... 16
14.        UPLOADING ON ADB WEBSITE .................................................................................................................... 16

                                                                      LIST OF ANNEX
                                                                                                                                                                         Page

NO TABLE OF FIGURES ENTRIES FOUND.
                                                                        LIST OF TABLES
                                                                                                                                                           Page
Table 1: Characteristics of Roads affected ...................................................................................................................... 1

                                                                                                                                                                          Page ii
Gender Action and Ethnic Minority Development Plan
                                                                                                                          Lao Cai Province

Table 2 : Household Income by Ethnic Group and Gender.............................................................................................. 4
Table 3 : Summary of Perceived Benefits and Adverse Effects of Road Project ............................................................ 5
Table 4: Gender Action and Ethnic Minority Development Plan .................................................................................... 10
Table 5 : Summary of Budget for the Implementation of the GAEMDP for Lao Cai Province ........................................ 14
Table 6: Indicative Implementation Schedule ........................................................................................................... 16

                                                                                                                                                  Page iii
Gender Action and Ethnic Minority Development Plan
                                                                                                    Lao Cai Province

                                              EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Project Background. The Transport Connections in Northern Mountainous Provinces Project will rehabilitate
about 307 km of provincial and district roads in six provinces in the northern mountainous provinces of Viet Nam
(Bac Kan, Cao Bang, Ha Giang, Tuyen Quang, Yen Bai, and Lao Cai). These provinces have high rates of poverty
and ethnic minority populations. The road network consists predominantly of unpaved, narrow roads. Many
sections are impassable during the rainy season. The travel time and cost from mountainous remote areas to
social infrastructure will be reduced, and the economic activities along the roads will be enhanced.
For Lao Cai Province, the Project will improve 5 roads including: Provincial Road 156: 16.1 km; Provincial Road
154:14.9 km; Provicial Road 151B: 18.6 km; Provicial Road 151: 8.9 km; andProvincial Road 160: 8.9 km. These five
roads will be upgraded to Class V with a carriageway of 3.5 meters (m) width with an embankment width of 6.5 m.
Provincial Road 154 is located in the uplands where communication is difficult. Many villages have no access to
clean water and electricity. Other roads are located in the midlands, not far from big roads. Access to the main axis
is, however, very difficult for roads 151B and 160.
Socio-Economic Information. The main primary source of income of most HH in the project area is agriculture.
The poverty incidence in Lao Cai province was 21.0% (new standard) in 2008. Remote areas, especially those that
become difficult to access by road during the rainy season, are particularly poor. This is the case for Road 154. By
paving these roads, the project will improve year-round all-weather access to markets, jobs, schools, and health
centers.
Women are involved mainly in agricultural activities in the Project area. They also sell their products to the local
markets. With better roads, the markets will be easier to reach and trading opportunities for women will increase.
Better roads will also bring more customers to the area, improving opportunities to expand women's small
enterprises. Access to health center will also be improved. Access to health clinics is important for women. It
means that they and their children are able to recover more quickly.
Lao Cai is home to 33 ethnic groups which gives rise to extremely complex patterns of locally adapted land use systems
and sociocultural characteristics. The largest ethnic groups are the Kinh (approximately 33%), the Hmong (20%), the
Tay (13.7%) and the Dao (12.5%). Many rural communes and villages have two or more ethnic groups living side by
side. In the midlands area, the Kinh, Tay, Thai. Lao and Giay ethnic groups predominate. The Hmong, Dao, Nung, Phu
La, and other smaller groups tend to live at higher elevations.
GAEMDP. This gender action and ethnic minority development plan (GAEMDP) has been prepared to maximize
benefits to local populations and to ensure that women and ethnic minorities equally share the benefits. Enhanced
connectivity can also have unintended consequences (e.g. increased risk of HIV/AIDS and human trafficking,
increased road safety risks), and this plan includes provisions to mitigate against these risks. The GAEMDP will
include four components, all of which have been designed to ensure as many beneficiaries as possible from the
investments made. The four components are:
    HIV/AIDS and Human Trafficking Campaign;
    Road safety campaign and road safety design measures;
    Employment of local population during construction;
    Climate change adaptation
          HIV/AIDS and Human Trafficking Campaign. An HIV/AIDS prevention and human trafficking awareness
          campaign and a road safety campaign will be conducted before and during construction along the project
          roads. WU at the provincial and commune levels will be responsible for the whole campaign organization
          (training of facilitators, materials). Training of facilitators will be conducted by women’s unions and
          representatives of HIV/AIDs centres and communes in each of the two project areas. Campaigns will be
          conducted at commune & village levels by 2 facilitators per village (village chief & 1 woman member of the
          WU). Campaigns will be conducted at village level and during market days, through distribution of leaflets,
          use of loud speakers, and presentation of plays.
          Construction-Setting Risk Mitigation Campaign. The contractors will have to prepare an awareness
          campaign plan to develop awareness, training, prevention, diagnosis and treatment programs for workers.

Revised, version2                                                                                                   Page i
Gender Action and Ethnic Minority Development Plan
                                                                                                      Lao Cai Province

          This program will be under the contractor’s budget. The Women’s Union and village officials, together with
          the gender and ethnic minority specialists, will coordinate with, and monitor and report on the contractors’
          HIV/AIDS programs and provide support by providing materials and carrying out campaign activities
          targeting workers.
          Road safety program. PPMU and mass organization will conduct campaign on traffic regulations and
          safety measures in communes/villages and schools to raise awareness of road safety during construction
          and operation. Training of facilitators will be undertaken together with the HIV/AIDS human trafficking
          campaign. As for HIV/AIDS and Human Trafficking Campaign, Campaigns will be conducted at commune
          & village levels by 2 facilitators per village (village chief & 1 woman member of the WU). Campaigns will
          be conducted at village level and during market days, through distribution of leaflets, use of loud speakers,
          and presentation of plays.
          The project design will also include safety measures for pedestrians such as: (i) speed bumps to slow
          traffic in villages and roadside settlements and at other strategic locations; (ii) lighting poles at strategic
          locations; and (iii) road safety signage (including pedestrian crossings). The location of these road safety
          facilities will be discussed with the WU and commune authorities during construction.
          Employment of local population during construction. Discussion with PPMU Lao Cai was held on
          March 10, 2011, to identify achievable targets for employment of local labor and women. After discussion,
          it was agreed to include specifications in bidding documents and civil works contracts that require, to the
          extent feasible, civil works and other contractors for the Project to hire a local labor force, specifically:
              20% of the labor force (unskilled labourers) will come from local communities along the improved
              roads;
              Among these 20%, 50% will be women; and,
              Equal work for equal pay and no use of child labour.
          Discussion was also held with commune authorities to identify the process to hire local people. Contractors
          will submit to the commune authorities the number of people and the types of tasks needed. The local
          authorities, in collaboration with the WU, will inform the community and will ask interested people to give
          their names at the commune level. The list, 50% men and 50% women, will be given to the contractors.
          The PPMU, commune authorities and the WU will monitor whether the contractor meet the targets (i.e.,
          agreed percentage of local labour and women; wages to be paid by the contractor).
          Climate Change Adaptation. 25% of the PPMU staff attending adaptation training seminars will be
          female.
Consultation and Disclosure. Consultations with the key stakeholders have been carried out during the
preparation of the GAEMP. A GAEMDP Information Booklet has been prepared. Copies will be placed in village
offices, Office of the Women’s Union and Committee for Ethnic Minorities, and in the market areas where bulletin
boards are present before ADB Management Review Meeting or before ADB Follow-Up Mission.
Implementation Arrangements. The Lao Cai PPC is the executing agency while the PPMU is the executing
agency of the Project. PPMUs are staffed with counterpart personnel mostly seconded from the Provincial
Department of Transport (PDOT). Currently PPMU staff are quite exclusively men. The PPMU is under the PDOT
and is located in the PDOT building. There is a woman’s group within PDOT, which can be consulted on gender
issues. Among the PPMUs, Mrs Bui Thi Thanh Xuan has been appointed to work on social issues including gender
issues. Specific to activities mentioned in this GAEMDP, mass organizations such as Women’s Union and
Committee for Ethnic Minorities will lead in the planning and implementation of all GAEMDP. Representatives from
other mass organizations such as Fatherland’s Front, Youth Union, Farmer’s Association will also be requested to
participate in the planning and implementation of various GAEMDP activities. The Women’s Union will be assisted
by a team of international and national gender and ethnic minority development specialists from the Project
Coordination Consultants.

Revised, version2                                                                                                      Page ii
Gender Action and Ethnic Minority Development Plan
                                                                                                  Lao Cai Province

GAEMDP Budget, Implementation Schedule, and Monitoring. The ADB loan funds will be used for the
GAEMDP activities (with the exception of the contractors’ own HIV/AIDS campaigns). The budget for the
implementation of the GAEMDP is estimated at 1 062 540 000 VND (50,917 USD). Loan funds will be used for
GAEMDP and will be charged against the international PCC contract. Administration costs (such as transportation,
allowances for local authorities and facilitators, purchase or rental of speakers, dissemination of information
leaflets) will be part of the provisional sum.

The Project is expected to commence in January 2012. The GAEMDP activities will be carried out until completion
of civil works construction. The PPMU and the Women’s Union, assisted by the Project Coordination Consultants
will develop gender- and ethnic- segregated indicators during inception and prepare quarterly progress reports and
will be submitted to the PPC and ADB.

                                    Table ES: Indicative Implementation Schedule

                      Main GAEMDP Plan Activities                         Implementation Schedule
    Preparation of Gender Action and Ethnic Minority Development Plan (GAEMDP)
    GAEMDP Preparation (consultation)                                            Aug-Sep 2010, March 2011
    GAEMDP submission to ADB for review and concurrence                                April-May 2011
    Disclosure of GAEMDP Information Booklet                                              May 2011
    GAEMDP uploaded on ADB website                                                        May 2011
    Management Review Meeting                                                              Jun 2011
    Loan effectiveness                                                                30 December 2011
    Implementation period/ Pre Construction                                       January 2012–June 2015
    Recruitment of supervision consultant                                            Second quarter 2012
    Awareness campaign for HIV/AIDS, human trafficking and road safety          3rd and 4th Qtr 2012-onwards
    Start of Civil Works Construction                                                 First quarter 2013
                                                                              Continuously during construction
    Supervision of employment of local workers
                                                                                          period
                                                                              Continuously during construction
    HIV/AIDS campaign for contractors
                                                                                          period
    Awareness campaign for HIV/AIDS, human trafficking and road safety         Second and third quarters 2013
    Monitoring (from recruitment of supervision consultant to the end
                                                                               Second quarter 2012 -onwards
    of civil works construction)

Revised, version2                                                                                                Page iii
Gender Action and Ethnic Minority Development Plan
                                                                                                     Lao Cai Province

   1.        INTRODUCTION
   The Transport Connections in Northern Mountainous Provinces Project will rehabilitate about 307 km of provincial and
   district roads in six provinces in the northern mountainous provinces of Viet Nam (Bac Kan, Cao Bang, Ha Giang,
   Tuyen Quang, Yen Bai, and Lao Cai). These provinces have high rates of poverty and ethnic minority populations. The
   road network consists predominantly of unpaved, narrow roads. Many sections are impassable during the rainy
   season. The travel time and cost from mountainous remote areas to social infrastructure will be reduced, and the
   economic activities along the roads will be enhanced.

   A gender action and ethnic minority development plan (GAEMDP) has been prepared, for Lao Cai province, to
   maximize benefits to local populations and to ensure that women and ethnic minorities equally share the benefits.
   Enhanced connectivity can also have unintended consequences (e.g. increased risk of HIV/AIDS and human
   trafficking, increased road safety risks), and this plan includes provisions to mitigate against these risks.
   The socio-economic situation of the project area in general and households in particular is based on the following
   sources:
            Publications, socio-economic profile of households potentially affected by land acquisition;
            Information gathered during the public meetings held at the village level in August - September 2010.
   In early March 2011, two consultation meetings were again organized at the commune and village levels to
            Identify the expected direct benefits to the local communities;
            Determine how awareness campaigns should be conducted and by whom;
            Determine how the local communities could actively participate in the various GAEMDP activities
            Determine specific targets for the employment of local people and of women during construction;
            Identify persons in charge of social issues within PPMU;

   Information from these consultation meetings were derived from the following participants: Lao Cai PPMU staff,
   representatives of the Women’s Union (WU) and the Committee for Ethnic Minorities (CEM) at the provincial level,
   representatives of the Nam Dang commune’s authorities, the local women’s union, and representatives of the
   community were also met.

   2.        PROJECT DESCRIPTION
   For Lao Cai Province, the Project will improve 5 roads including: Provincial Road 156: 16.1 km; Provincial Road 154:14.9
   km; Provicial Road 151B: 18.6 km; Provicial Road 151: 8.9 km; andProvincial Road 160: 8.9 km;. These five roads will be
   upgraded to Class V with a carriageway of 3.5 meters (m) width with an embankment width of 6.5 m.
   Due to lack of funds for regular maintenance and improvement, the 5 provincial roads that will be improved under the
   Project are generally described as seriously damaged and degraded with narrow roadbeds and low class pavement
   structure. The following table presents the main characteristics of the affected roads.
   Provincial Road 154 is located in the uplands where communication is difficult. Many villages have no access to clean
   water and electricity. Other roads are located in the midlands, not far from big roads. Access to the main axis is,
   however, very difficult for roads 151B and 160.
                                         Table 1: Characteristics of Roads affected
   Roads          Districts   Communes     Location/accessibility               Socioeconomic           Benefits expected
                                                                                    situation
                                            - Start from Lao Cai City;      - 96% of the population   - Safer travel;
                                            - Pavement in bad status          is from an EM (Tay,     - Easier access to
Provincial        Lao Cai      Ta Phoi      - Cross the access road to a      Dao, Nhung, Hmong);       services (school,
Road 156            City                      large apatite mine used by    - Good conditions for       markets, health
                               Bac
                                              many trucks                     agriculture (bananas)     center)
                                 Cuong                                      - Near Lao Cai            - Economic
                         B                                                    markets;                  enhancement at local
                                                                                                        level;
                                                                                                                 Page 1
Gender Action and Ethnic Minority Development Plan
                                                                                                          Lao Cai Province

       Roads        Districts    Communes        Location/accessibility              Socioeconomic            Benefits expected
                                                                                         situation
Provincial           Muong         Nam Chay      - Mainly unpaved road           - High level of poverty;   - Safer travel;
Road 154             Khuong                        located in remote and         - 100% of the              - Reduction in travel
                                                   mountainous areas               population is from an      distance;
                                                                                   EM (Nhung, Hmong,        - Easier access to
                                                                                   Chinese)                   services (school,
                                                                                 - Upland areas with          markets, health
                                                                                   difficult production       center)
                                                                                   conditions;              - Economic
                                                                                                              enhancement at local
                                                                                                              level for EM groups;
                                                                                                            - Reduction of poverty;
Provincial            Nam          Vo Lao,       - Earth road located in         - 87% of the population    - Safer travel;
Road 151B             Dan         Nam Dang         midland areas;                  from an EM (Tay,         - Reduction in travel
                     District      and Hoa       - Impassable during the rainy     Dao);                      distance;
                                     Mac           season                        - Upland areas with        - Easier access to
                                                 - Linked to Road 151              difficult production       services (school,
                                                                                   conditions;                markets, health
Provincial          Van Ban        Tan An        - Paved road located in         - 30% of the population      center)
Road 151             District                      midland area;                   from an EM (Dao);        - Economic
                                                 - Pavement in bad status        - Locate on the plain        enhancement at local
                                                                                   along the Red River;       level;
                                                                                 - Good conditions for
                                                                                   agriculture;
Provincial          Bao Yen Xuan Hoa             - Paved road located in         - 80% of the population
Road 160             District Xuan                 midland area;                   from an EM (Tay,
                              Thuong             - Pavement in bad status          Nung);
                                                                                 - Upland areas with
                                                                                   difficult production
                                                                                   conditions

   3.        SOCIOECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE PROJECT AREA
   Main Source of Income. The main primary source of income of most HH in the project area is agriculture.
   Local Produce Found in the Area. The economy of Lao Cai is predominantly agriculture-based. In the midlands
   (roads 151, 151B, 154 and 160), farmers practice mixed farming garden systems including wetland rice and rainfed hill
   crops and intensive home garden production that combines livestock, horticulture, forestry and fisheries. There are
   greater market opportunities in these parts of the province. In highland areas (Road 154), farmers are more reliant on
   rainfed agriculture, with terrace rice and maize. Access to markets is difficult.
   Poverty. The national poverty line is established by Ministry of Labour, Invalids and Social Affairs (MOLISA). For the
   period from 2006 to 2010; the rural poverty line is VND 200,000/person/month while the urban poverty line is VND
   260,000/person/month. The poverty incidence in Lao Cai province was 21.0% (new standard) in 2008. Remote areas,
   especially those that become difficult to access by road during the rainy season, are particularly poor. Transport takes
   up a lot of time and physical effort in rural areas. Paved roads and enhanced connectivity are vital for local economic
   development and poverty reduction. By paving these two roads, the project will improve year-round all-weather access
   to markets, jobs, schools, and health centers.

   According to the Lao Cai Poverty Assessment1, Lao Cai has 138 communes that are classified as extremely poor and
   eligible for Program No. 1352 (of which, 11 bordering communes are also eligible for additional investment under a

   1   Lao Cai Participatory Poverty Assessment (2003)
                                                                                                                       Page 2
Gender Action and Ethnic Minority Development Plan
                                                                                                           Lao Cai Province

separate program of the Government). A large amount of investment has been put into extremely poor communes. In
Nam Dang Commune (along Road 151B), 69% of HH are poor. Muong Khuong District (Road 154) is the poorest
district of the province.

4.     WOMEN IN THE COMMUNITIES
Labor. Women are involved mainly in agriculture activities in the project area. They also sell their products to the local
markets. Women’s position has been improved though slowly; they now have better knowledge of economy, society
and culture; the quality of life (health, clothing, accommodation, transportation and cultural needs) has improved; the
birth rate has declined. Very low percentage of women has some position in the government apparatus. In all
communes visited there is no woman, other than head of WU, acting as commune or village leader. Along all the
project roads, women contribute to nearly the half of the household income.

Education. All communes along the project roads have a primary school and some have a lower secondary school.
All children, boys and girls, go to school. However, the enrolment rates in upper secondary education in
high/remote areas (for Road 154) remain low compared to the midland districts (roads 151, 151B, 156, 160),
especially for girls, according to the Lao Cai Participatory Poverty Assessment. To continue after lower secondary,
students have to go to their district town. They go to boarding school and stay in town all week. With improved roads,
girls will have a better chance of attending secondary school (especially along Road 154).

According to the LCPPA, Illiteracy is also a problem among women officials. According to the Lao Cai Women’s Union
20% of female officials in the province are still illiterate. The Women’s Union in the district of Muong Khuong (Road
154) also complained that even if they had encouraged female officials to attend illiteracy elimination and primary
education classes, the result was not satisfactory. If the classes were held in the village, the outcome was insignificant.
If the classes were held at the district center, their husbands would not let them go, because they had work at home.
Due to limited education, most women aged more than 30 years old in the upland area (Road 154) are illiterate.

Involvement in Groups. The participation of women in public meetings is limited. Traditionally, husbands attend
meetings. This is also due to a complex mentality, poor listening during meetings. According to the LCPPA, in upland
villages (Road 154), mass organizations face lots of difficulties and some are even dormant. The main reasons,
according to people, are the limited capacity of local officials (many officials from mass organizations are not
conversant in Vietnamese), the limited time spent on their jobs (they are occupied with home work, as they are not
provided with an allowance), and few interesting activities organized by mass organizations draw the participation of
local people.

Markets. Each commune, along project roads has its own market. Market day varies from one commune to another
to allow sellers to go to all the markets. Men and women usually go together to the market on a motorbike to sell and
buy their agricultural products. Better roads will also bring more customers to the area, improving opportunities to
expand women's small enterprises. Market places are an important source of information for the community.
Information flow is mainly via commune and village officials, neighbours and also via market places.

Health. Access to health clinics is important for women. It means that they and their children are able to recover more
quickly. For women, this is especially important, not only because women and children tend to fall ill more often but
also because they do not have to stay home so long to tend to their sick children.

2 Programme 135 (P135) was established in 1998 to implement government policies targeting the most vulnerable communes,
promoting production and access to basic infrastructure, improving education, training local officials and raising people's awareness for
better living standards and quality of life. The rationale for establishing P135 was to help people in ethnic minority and mountainous
areas overcome poverty, narrow the income gap with other communes in other districts and provinces and eliminate risks for social
instability.
                                                                                                                                Page 3
Gender Action and Ethnic Minority Development Plan
                                                                                                   Lao Cai Province

5.    ETHNIC MINORITY HOUSEHOLDS
Lao Cai is home to 33 ethnic groups which gives rise to extremely complex patterns of locally adapted land use
systems and sociocultural characteristics. The largest ethnic groups are the Kinh (approximately 33%), the Hmong
(20%), the Tay (13.7%) and the Dao (12.5%). Many rural communes and villages have two or more ethnic groups
living side by side. In the midlands area, the Kinh, Tay, Thai. Lao and Giay ethnic groups predominate. The Hmong,
Dao, Nung, Phu La, and other smaller groups tend to live at higher elevations.

Source of Income. Ethnic minorities stand out as particularly disadvantaged in Viet Nam’s economic context. They
tend to be less educated, more likely to suffer from malnutrition, are almost twice as likely to work self-employed in
agriculture and are half as likely to be wage earners. In the project area, ethnic minority groups are almost all involved
in agricultural production. They grow maize as their main food crop and raise cows, goats and pigs. Few ethnic
minority members are involved in other activities (services, government, etc.).
Regarding income, lower incomes are found along Road 154, in the uplands, where all the HH are from an EM. Along
the other project roads, the Kinh HHs generally have higher incomes than other ethnic groups (see Table 2).
                             Table 2 : Household Income by Ethnic Group and Gender
                        Roads/                            Contribution to Household Income
                    Ethnic Groups               Male                    Female                 Total
                Road 151
                    Kinh                      1,066,670               958,333                2,025,003
                    Dao                       1,180,000               960,000                2,140,000
                Road 151B
                    Kinh                      1,075,000             1,275,000*               2,350,000
                    Dao                       1,038,460              653,850                 1,692,310
                    Tay                        888,460               903,850*                1,792,310
                Road 160
                    Kinh                       800,000              1,175,000*               1,975,000
                    Tay                        880,000               815,000                 1,695,000
                    Nung                       741,670               608,330                 1,350,000
                Road 154
                    Nung                       633,333               716,670*                1,350,003
                    Hmong                      600,000               520,000                 1,120,000
                    Chinese                    675,000                595830                 1,270,830
                Road 156
                    Kinh                      1,600,000             1,200,000                2,800,000
                    Dao                       1,125,000             1,275,000*               2,400,000
                    Tay                       1,090,910              936,360                 2,027,270
                    Nung                      1,180,000             1,020,000                2,200,000
                    Hmong                     1,300,000              733,333                 2,033,333
                Average                        992,156               896,660                 1,888,816
                %                                53%                   47%

Poverty. According to the LCPPA, ethnic communities such as the H’Mong, Dao, Phu La, who live in upland areas
with difficult production conditions, have just escaped from poverty. Their opportunity to generate marketable products
and transform economic structure is limited. As such, their living standard has not improved as much as those of other
ethnic minorities living in lower areas. Upland areas are still in need of extensive support to improve infrastructure and
increase marketable products in order to reduce reliance on agriculture and to raise income levels. Therefore, the
improvement of the project roads (especially Road 154) will contribute to their economic development.
Education. In general, ethnic minority groups have a lower level of education than Kinh. In the project area, all
children from ethnic minority group go to primary and lower secondary school that is generally located at the commune

                                                                                                                Page 4
Gender Action and Ethnic Minority Development Plan
                                                                                                             Lao Cai Province

level. Ethnic minority people use their own languages in daily communication but majority of them (mostly
young people can understand and speak Vietnamese. It is said that women mostly old and women are less literate.
Lao Cai province provides education services (free education plus support of textbooks etc.) to ethnic minority
people and people living in remote/difficult areas.

6.            CONSULTATION AND PARTICIPATION

During project preparation (in August and September 2010) public consultation were conducted along each of the five
project roads. Affected households from EM groups and representative of CEM attended to these meetings together
with local authorities, affected HH and representatives of various mass organizations (Women’s Union, Youth Union
etc.).
During these public meetings, Ethnic Minority Households (EMH) were asked to respond on some specific issues and
concerns among their communities. The following table summarized the concerns of the affected HH. EMH and Kinh
share the same concerns in the project area.
These concerns have been taking into account, in the GAEMDP, for the preparation of beneficial and mitigative
measures.
Affected households see much more benefits than adverse effects of the proposed Project. The road improvement will
improve greatly transportation and economic activities. All persons met want the project to start as soon as possible.

                        Table 3 : Summary of Perceived Benefits and Adverse Effects of Road Project

                                   Benefits                                                           Adverse Effects
  1.   Improved roads will provide safer traffic condition for local people.   1.   Number of traffic accidents may increase.
  2.   People will have better access to schools by making roads easier        2.   Number of social evils may increase. Improved roads
       to navigate specially during rainy season. Easier and safer for              will provide easier access for outsiders who may bring
       children to go to school.                                                    with them vices such as drug addiction and prostitution,
  3.   Better transportation contributes in promoting product exchanges             trafficking of women and children and spread of
       and trading activities and facilitates the movement of products              communicable diseases.
       from source to markets.                                                 3.   Disruption in daily living of people during construction
  4.   Improved roads and transportation will help improve the standard             period like their mobility in going to school and market.
       of living of local people.                                              4.   Households who will be directly affected in terms of
  5.   The people within the project area can earn additional income                their houses and livelihood are concerned that they will
       from jobs in construction work and for providing lodging and food            not be paid on time nor given assistance for repairing
       to Contractors and construction workers coming from outside.                 their houses or relocating.
                                                                               5.   Households who will lose agriculture are concerned
                                                                                    about the loss in production.
                                                                               6.   Existing customary rights of EMP should be respected
                                                                                    in terms of land titling and other cultural behavior.

7.            PROJECT BENEFITS

As mentioned in Table 1 above, improved connectivity can bring great benefits to the local population. Access to
markets and transport services increase, travel is faster and more convenient, and children can travel safely further
from home. The quality of rural health, education and other services improve with better accessibility. Because ethnic
minorities accounts for more than 80% of the population for 4 of the 5 project roads and women play an important role
in the local economy, project benefits will directly benefit ethnic minorities and women.

8.     RESETTLEMENT IMPACTS AND SOCIAL RISKS
Impacts on women and EMH specific to resettlement are not significant. Resettlement impacts are not different than
the Kinh in the project area. A stand-alone Resettlement Plan has been prepared for Lao Cai province. About 528

                                                                                                                                  Page 5
Gender Action and Ethnic Minority Development Plan
                                                                                                       Lao Cai Province

households will be affected by land acquisition. No main structure will be affected. No households will lose 10% or
more of their total productive assets and there will not be any acquisition of common property resources. Access to
properties and economic opportunities will not be restricted during project construction and operation.

In terms of social risks, the following associated social risks in the improvement of project roads have been identified:
HIV/AIDS, human trafficking, and road safety.

8.1           HIV/AIDS
General. The HIV epidemic in Vietnam is still in a concentrated stage, with the highest HIV prevalence found in male
injecting drugs users (18.4%), female sex workers (3.2%) and men who have sex with men (16.7%). The HIV epidemic
may have begun to stabilize, as reflected by stable trends in HIV prevalence among injecting drugs users and female
sex workers in many places. While in other places, these trends are increasing such as in the northwest of the country.
HIV prevalence among women attending antenatal clinics and among male military recruits has begun decreasing and
continues to be observed at low levels of 0.3% and 0.15%, respectively. People aged 20-39 years account for more
than 80% of all reported cases and the proportion of people living with HIV aged 30-39 is showing signs of increasing.
Men accounted for 73.2% of all reported cases in 2009. HIV cases have been reported nationwide in all 63
provinces/cities, 97.5% of districts, and 70.5% of wards/communes. As of 31 December 2009, there were 160,019
reported HIV cases and 44,050 deaths due to AIDS-related illnesses.3 According to the Viet Nam HIV/AIDS Estimates
and Projections 2007- 2012, adult HIV prevalence (aged 15-49) was 0.44% in 2010.4

Province. According to a report by PATH5, though Lao Cai is not a province with a particularly large number of HIV
cases, HIV prevalence has increased steadily in recent years. As of 30 December 2003, there were 188 HIV/AIDS
cases officially reported (see Figure 1), with 10 people dying of AIDS. The number of new drug users has also
increased, with 181 reported cases in 2003.

Project Areas. In the commune visited (Nam Dang along Road 151B), there are no known cases of HIV/AIDS
according to the commune authorities. Opening remote areas, especially Road 154 could increase the spread of
HIV/AIDS, both during construction and with a greater influx of outsiders once the road is complete. Road 154 is also
along the Chinese border. According to the PATH report, the risk of HIV transmission in the border areas of Lang Son
and Lao Cai provinces is likely to remain high in the coming years because HIV transmission exists not only among
commercial sex workers (CSWs) and intravenous drug users (IDUs) but also among clients and the general
population.
The Women’s Union, in collaboration with health centers, conducts regular awareness campaigns on HIV/AIDS at the
commune level. In the commune visited, such a campaign was being conducted.

In Lao Cai Province, in addition to the provincial AIDS committee, a Steering Committee for intervention programs for
IDUs and CSWs was established for running peer education and harm reduction programs. It was funded by GTZ and
Save the Children/US during the period 1997-2003 in several communes in the north of Lao Cai town, some others in
Bao Thang District and Sa Pa Town. Interventions targeted mainly IDUs and inadequately addressed CSWs, clients,
and migrants.

8.2           HUMAN TRAFFICKING
General. Viet Nam is a source and destination country for human trafficking. Vietnamese men, women, and girls are
trafficked for sexual and labor exploitation in Cambodia, People's Republic of China, Thailand, Hong Kong, Macau,
Malaysia, Taiwan, South Korea, the United Kingdom, and the Czech Republic for commercial sexual exploitation.
Women and men are trafficked for forced labor in brothels, factories, construction projects, ships, or as domestic
servants.

3 National Committee for AIDS, Drugs, and Prostitution Prevention and Control. 2010. The Fourth Country Report on Following up the
Implementation to the Declaration of Commitment on HIV and AIDS. Hanoi.
4 Ministry of Health. 2009. Viet Nam HIV/AIDS Estimates and Projections: 2007-2012. Hanoi.

5 PATH (2005) Needs Assessment Report on Mobility and Cross-Border HIV/AIDS Transmission in Lang Son and Lao Cai, Vietnam

                                                                                                                        Page 6
Gender Action and Ethnic Minority Development Plan
                                                                                                               Lao Cai Province

Vietnamese women are also recruited through fraudulent marriages. Between 2002-2007, there were around 25,000
marriages by Vietnamese women to Korean men, and 24,600 to Taiwanese men from 2003 to 2005. 6 In 2008, the
Vietnamese Government estimated that approximately 10% of the arranged marriages with Chinese men become
trafficking cases. Women are often recruited through licensed and unlicensed migrant labor recruiting agencies. In
response, the government tightened the requirements for foreign marriages, making marriage brokerage illegal. From
2005-2007, as many as 900 human trafficking cases involving 1,600 traffickers and 2,200 smuggled women and
children were detected.7
There are many causes of human trafficking in Vietnam. The UN Inter-Agency Project on Human Trafficking argues
that many of the causes are socio-economic, such as difficulty finding employment in rural and remote areas, lack of
awareness, and low education level.8 The National Action Plan Against the Trafficking of Women and Children from
2004-2010 places the Viet Nam Women’s Union in charge of promoting public education while the Ministry of Labor,
Invalids and Social Affairs (MOLISA) focuses on assisting victims and repatriation and reintegration.
A study conducted under ADB regional technical assistance (TA)9 found that construction of a new road, located in the
far northeast of Cambodia with borders on Lao and Viet Nam, had more impact in encouraging migration for ethnic
minorities than in facilitating access to social facilities and services. As such, for many of these ethnic minorities, the
new roads that lead into their provinces also offer a way out of hardship and poverty and into prosperity, through
migration. According to this study, migration, when unregulated, especially for people with limited education, skills, and
information, can lead to human trafficking and other forms of exploitation. Ethnic minorities are particularly at risk.
Women from the ethnic minority villages in the Northern region10 in particular became sexual victims, with several
percent ending up in Laos. In China, most became victims of the sex industry or are forced labour in rural areas
(through forced marriages to farmers).

Project Area. Lao Cai has been identified as one of Vietnam’s hotspots for human trafficking. The province is dealing
with a rise in the trafficking of women and children across the border shared with China. Therefore, the risk of human
trafficking with China is already high and will increase with the improvement of the road network. This is especially the
case along Road 154, located in Muong Khuong District, which has a border and access road to China.

At the end of March and the beginning of April 2011, several cases of human trafficking were published in the
newspaper11 & 12. One of these cases concerned an ethnic minority girl.
The Women’s Union conducts regular awareness campaigns on human trafficking at the commune level. In all
communes visited, such campaigns were being conducted.

8.3     ROAD SAFETY
Pedestrians and motorcyclists are the most vulnerable road users and account for the majority of traffic deaths in
Vietnam. With the improvement of the roads and the anticipated increase in traffic (cars and trucks) and speed, there
may be increased road accidents. This safety issue will affect all road users and, in particular, women who often travel
to and from their fields. It will also affect students going to school. Road safety issues were also identified as a concern
by women during public meetings conducted in 2010.
A safety transportation board has been established within DOT. This board is in charge of awareness safety
campaigns in the province. The WU at the provincial level is a member of this board.

6 World Vision. GMS Human Trafficking: A Changing Landscape. Available online: http://www.freedomshabbat.org/downloads/regionaltraff.pdf
7 Human Trafficking Crackdown in Viet Nam. 7 January 2008. Available at http://www.humantrafficking.org/updates /768
8 Footnote 24.
9 ADB. 2005. Technical Assistance for Preventing the Trafficking of Women and Children and Promoting Safe Migration in the Greater Mekong

Subregion. Manila. (RETA 6190)
10 The provinces of the Northern region in which the serious cases of human trafficking are concentrated include Ha Giang Province
(134 cases), Lao Cai Province (105 cases), Lang Son Province (95 cases), Quang Ninh Province (73 cases), Ha Noi City (66 cases),
Nghe An Province (66 cases), Lai Chau Province (56 cases) and Bac Giang Province (44 cases). (Source JICA, see note 10)
11 http://vietnamnews.vnagency.com.vn/Social-Isssues/209799/Child-traffickers-arrested-in-Lao-Cai.html
12 http://vietnamnews.vnagency.com.vn/Pages/PrintView.aspx?ArticleID=210033

                                                                                                                                       Page 7
Gender Action and Ethnic Minority Development Plan
                                                                                                  Lao Cai Province

Road safety campaigns are already being conducted in Lao Cai Province, at the commune level, by the Women’s
Union. The WU conduct their campaigns on market days. Usually markets take place once a week in the affected
communes. The day of the market varies from one commune to another. The WU conducts various awareness
campaigns every month at the commune level. The WU uses different means to inform the community and women in
particular. They distribute leaflets and use loud speakers. Some plays with actors on specific subjects can also be
organized.

9.        BENEFICIAL AND MITIGATIVE MEASURES
Based on the above analysis, the proposed GAEMDP will include four components, all of which have been designed to
ensure as many beneficiaries as possible from the investments made. The four components are:
        HIV/AIDS and Human Trafficking Campaign;
        Road safety campaign and road safety design measures;
        Employment of local population during construction;
        Climate change adaptation

Specific to resettlement impacts, as mentioned above, a separate Resettlement Plan has been prepared. It includes
specific actions for women and ethnic minorities such as: EMH are covered by customary rights, separate meetings
with women and EMH during RP updating and implementation will be carried out, and special assistance will be
provided to women and EMH based on their needs. Key information in the Resettlement Plan will be disclosed to the
affected households through distribution of copies of information leaflets in Vietnamese language during market days
in the communes prior to submission to the ADB for review and concurrence.

A GAEMDP Information Booklet has been prepared as shown in Annex 1. Copies will be placed in village offices,
Office of the Women’s Union and Committee for Ethnic Minorities, and in the market areas where bulletin boards are
present before ADB Management Review Meeting or before ADB Follow-Up Mission.
9.1        HIV/AIDS HUMAN TRAFFICKING AWARENESS CAMPAIGN & ROAD SAFETY CAMPAIGN
An HIV/AIDS prevention and human trafficking awareness campaign and a road safety campaign will be conducted
before and during construction along the project roads. To facilitate the organization both campaign will be conducted
at the same time.
There are currently HIV/AIDS and human trafficking prevention and road safety activities implemented in all the
communes by the Women’s Union and health centers. The proposed campaigns took experience from the existing
activities conducted in Lao Cai Province.
9.1.1      Organization
           3-day training course at subproject level
           - A 3-day training course will be undertaken in one commune for each of the five project roads;
           - During the 3-day training course, the Women’s Union at the provincial level, along with HIV/AIDS centre
              members, will train community members.
           - Each commune affected by the project road will send the following representatives to the 3-day training
              course:
              - Women’s Union chairwoman and vice chairwoman;
              - Commune PPC Member in Charge of Safety Issues;
              - Commune Youth Union Leader;
              - Commune health care centre ;
              - A teacher from primary school and a teacher from basic secondary school.
      -     This training course will focus on the main topics and materials to be used.
      -    The WU will give each representative the necessary training materials;

                                                                                                              Page 8
Gender Action and Ethnic Minority Development Plan
                                                                                                    Lao Cai Province

           3-day training course at commune level
           - After the training course at the subproject level, the representatives of each commune that participated in
             the first training course will become trainers in their respective commune,
           - Each village in each commune affected by the project road will send the following representatives to the 3-
             day training course:
             - Village Women’s Union Chairwoman;
             - Village Leader.
           - These representatives will become the 2 facilitators at the village level (at least 50% should be women);

           Dissemination of information
           - The two facilitators in each village will have 2 weekly meetings with villagers to disseminate information on
             HIV/ AIDS, human trafficking and road safety;
           - In mountainous areas, if the houses are scattered, the facilitators will go to each house to disseminate
             information every 2 weeks;
           - When necessary, the facilitators will translate the information in other languages;
           - Twice a month, during market days in each commune, information will be disseminated. Plays will also be
             organized.
           - Trained teachers will provide information in their respective primary and basic secondary schools.

      Timing and Material
      Training materials will come from the provincial and district level (WU and Health Centres) and from the Provincial
      Department of Transport (PDOT). The gender and ethnic minority specialists, under the Project Coordination
      Consultant, will review the existing material and supplement it if necessary. For HIV/AIDS and Human Trafficking,
      the supplement will be based on the existing materials developed for the following ADB projects: TA-6467 (REG)
      and RETA 646713: HIV Prevention and Infrastructure: Mitigating Risk in the GMS.
All the written information will be in Vietnamese. However, at least one facilitator will be able to verbally translate the
information to those who don’t understand Vietnamese.
The organization of this awareness campaign has been discussed with the WU, at the provincial and commune level,
and with representatives of other stakeholders (PPMU, CEM, commune authorities). All the stakeholders met agreed
with the proposed organization.
It should be noted that an awareness campaign will also be conducted by contractors specifically for their workers. The
contractors will have to prepare an awareness campaign plan to develop awareness, training, prevention, diagnosis
and treatment programs for workers. This program will be under the contractor’s budget. The Women’s Union and
village officials, together with the gender and ethnic minority specialists, will coordinate with, and monitor and report on
the contractors’ HIV/AIDS programs and provide support by providing materials and carrying out campaign activities
targeting workers.
9.2        EMPLOYMENT DURING CIVIL WORKS
Civil works for road improvements will require local labourers for land clearance, earthworks and other activities.
Greater gender equality in labor-based road construction and maintenance will provide significant social benefits to
participating households and communities. According to local authorities met, women are already involved in
maintenance road work. The activities conducted by women are mainly clearing drainage ditches and culverts and
spreading crushed stones on the road. Women can also maintain embankments and plant and care for trees and other
plants that protect against erosion.
As per the Labour Code, all employment for civil works will have to respect GOV commitments to gender equity and
promotion of ethnic minorities, including:

13
  ADB. 2008. Regional Technical Assistance Report for HIV Prevention and Infrastructure – Mitigating Risk in the Greater
Mekong Subregion (RETA 6467).
                                                                                                                  Page 9
Gender Action and Ethnic Minority Development Plan
                                                                                                        Lao Cai Province

         Employment targets for women and ethnic minorities;
         No discrimination against the employment of qualified women and ethnic minorities; and,
         No differential wages paid to men and women for work of equal value.
Discussion with PPMU Lao Cai was held on March 10, 2011, to identify achievable targets for employment of local
labor and women. After discussion, it was agreed to include specifications in bidding documents and civil works
contracts that require, to the extent feasible, civil works and other contractors for the Project to hire a local labor force,
specifically:
         20% of the labor force (unskilled labourers) will come from local communities along the improved roads;
         Among these 20%, 50% will be women; and,
                  Equal work for equal pay and no use of child labour.
Discussion was also held with commune authorities to identify the process to hire local people. Contractors will submit
to the commune authorities the number of people and the types of tasks needed. The local authorities, in collaboration
with the WU, will inform the community and will ask interested people to give their names at the commune level. The
list, 50% men and 50% women, will be given to the contractors.

The PPMU, commune authorities and the WU will monitor whether the contractor meet the targets (i.e., agreed
percentage of local labour and women; wages to be paid by the contractor). During meetings at the commune level,
participants asked whether the contractors would pay the laborers daily or weekly. Information on local employment
will be included in the monitoring reports. It is worth mentioning that hiring local laborers may be difficult during the
planting and harvesting season.

9.3     SAFETY MEASURES ALONG THE ROAD
The project design will include safety measures for pedestrians such as: (i) speed bumps to slow traffic in villages and
roadside settlements and at other strategic locations; (ii) lighting poles at strategic locations; and (iii) road safety
signage (including pedestrian crossings). The location of these road safety facilities will be discussed with the WU and
commune authorities during construction. Table 4 summarizes the content of the GAEMDP.

                           Table 4: Gender Action and Ethnic Minority Development Plan
   Project outputs               Activities and Indicators                       Responsibilities               Time frame
Output 1: Project      -Contractors will prioritize the use of        - PPMU/Project Coordination             - During
roads are              local unskilled labour (through                  Consultant will be responsible to      construction
rehabilitated          subcontracting); at least 30% of the             ensure this clause is included in
                       labour force will be local unskilled labor;      the contract;
                       -Among the 30% of local labour, at least       - Commune authorities will submit
                       50% of unskilled labourers will be               to the contractors the list of
                       female;                                          interested people;
                       -Male and female unskilled workers will        - Women’s Union and Commune
                       receive equal pay for equal work;                authorities will be responsible for
                       - Contractors will not employ child              ensuring that employment targets
                       labour on civil works contracts;                 are met.
                       - Persons interested will write their          -
                       names at village level; commune
                       authorities and village chiefs will provide
                       names to the contractors; priority will be
                       given to members of the poorest
                       households
                       -Separate male/female latrines / basic
                       facilities will be provided in the
                       construction sites.
Output 2: PDOT’s       - 25% of the PPMU staff attending              - PPMU staff                            - During
capacity on climate    adaptation training seminars will be                                                    implementation

                                                                                                                    Page 10
Gender Action and Ethnic Minority Development Plan
                                                                                                        Lao Cai Province

change adaptation     female
and flexible
application of road
classification is
enhanced
Output 3:             HIV/AIDS and Human Trafficking                  - WU at the provincial and               - Monthly, before
Awareness of          Campaign                                          commune levels will be                   and during
potential social      Community-Based Risk Mitigation                   responsible for the whole                construction
problems is           Campaign                                          campaign organization (training of
enhanced among        - The risk mitigation information will            facilitators, materials development)
vulnerable people,        be delivered to project-affected              in collaboration with district and
especially women          communes and villages using a                 commune health centres.
and ethnic                participatory approach with a               - WU at the village level will be
minorities                special focus on the poor,                    responsible for the dissemination
                          vulnerable households (e.g. ethnic            of information
                          minority groups, households                 - Commune/district health centres
                          headed by women, and families                 will assist WU at commune level
                          with disabled and elderly members,          - Project Coordination Consultant
                          and out-of-school youth).                     will include international and
                      - Materials will be gender-responsive             national gender and ethnic
                          and culturally- and linguistically-           minority specialists
                          appropriate; in particular it should         - The gender and EM specialists
                          be translated/adapted into various              from the Project Coordination
                          ethnic minority languages (Dao,                 Consultants will review the
                          Hmong Tay) where necessary;                     existing materials and, if
                      - Training of facilitators will be                  necessary, supplement the
                          conducted by women’s unions and                 existing materials from the TA-
                          representatives of HIV/AIDs centres             6467 (REG) and RETA 6467 :
                          and communes in each of the two                 HIV Prevention and
                          project areas;                                  Infrastructure: Mitigating Risk in
                      - Campaigns will be conducted at                    the GMS;
                          commune & village levels by 2               -
                          facilitators per village ( village chief
                          & 1 woman member of the WU)
                      - Campaigns will be conducted at
                          village level and during market
                          days, through distribution of leaflets,
                          use of loud speakers, and
                          presentation of plays;
                      Construction-Setting Risk Mitigation            -   Contractors                          - During
                      Campaign                                        -   Local health centers                   construction
                      - PPMU and Contractor will work                 -   Commune authorities
                          closely with health services at the         -   Women’s union will carry out
                          district and commune levels to                  overall coordination to create
                          develop awareness, training,                    greater synergy on HIV focused
                          prevention, diagnosis and treatment             activities.
                          programs for workers.
                      - All programs and materials
                          developed will integrate gender
                          issues, including key vulnerabilities
                          and needs of men and women.
                      - In particular contractor will:
                         - Develop awareness programs for
                            the employees and the community
                            including information, education

                                                                                                                      Page 11
You can also read
NEXT SLIDES ... Cancel