UNDERSTANDING THE HUMAN HEALTH AND SOCIOECONOMIC IMPACTS FROM THE DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL - Mississippi-Alabama ...

 
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UNDERSTANDING THE HUMAN HEALTH AND SOCIOECONOMIC IMPACTS FROM THE DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL - Mississippi-Alabama ...
SYNTHESIS SERIES
UNDERSTANDING THE HUMAN HEALTH                                                    The purpose of this publication
                                                                                  is to exclusively reflect findings
AND SOCIOECONOMIC IMPACTS FROM                                                    from synthesis activities
                                                                                  supported by the Gulf of
THE DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL                                                   Mexico Research Initiative
Melissa Partyka, Danielle Bailey, Emily Maung-Douglass, Stephen Sempier,          (GoMRI). GoMRI synthesis
Tara Skelton, and Monica Wilson                                                   documents are the primary
                                                                                  references for this publication.
                                                                                  The summary may also include
The Deepwater Horizon oil spill was the largest marine oil spill                  peer-reviewed publications
in the history of the United States. Though the impacts to the                    and other reports cited in the
environment have been well documented and studied extensively,                    GoMRI synthesis activities that
widespread consequences to humans also took place. Human                          help to provide foundation
                                                                                  for the topic.
impacts recorded over the past 10 years include physical and
mental health effects along with socioeconomic and community
resilience challenges. However, in many cases clear cause-and-
effect relationships between the spill and the impacts are absent.

INTRODUCTION                           the closure of 89 beaches, while       as exceeding 100,000 barrels
The Deepwater Horizon (DWH)            oiling of surface waters resulted in   (420,000 gallons) of oil. Large oil
oil spill began on April 20, 2010,     the closure of nearly 89,000 square    spills are very rare; however, they
approximately 50 miles off the coast   miles of federal waters to fishing.    can negatively impact the health
of Louisiana and continued for 87                                             of those responding to the spill
                                       Large oil spills, like DWH, are
days. Oil from the spill impacted                                             and residents of impacted areas,
                                       defined by the National Oceanic and
1,313 miles of coastline, leading to                                          in addition to affecting the general
                                       Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)
                                                                              welfare of coastal communities
                                                                              (Figure 1a). In the case of DWH,
                                                                              the explosion of the oil platform
                                                                              that preceded the spill also led
                                                                              to the deaths of 11 oil industry
                                                                              workers. Over the following days,
                                                                              months, and years, the impacts
                                                                              of DWH were observed for some
                                                                              individuals, families, businesses,
                                                                              and communities. These impacts

                                                                              A fishing boat serves as a vessel
                                                                              of opportunity in oil spill response
                                                                              by pulling an oil boom. (National
                                                                              Commission on the BP Deepwater
                                                                              Horizon oil spill)
UNDERSTANDING THE HUMAN HEALTH AND SOCIOECONOMIC IMPACTS FROM THE DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL - Mississippi-Alabama ...
deepened the negative effects of            Impacts to oil spill workers                The GuLF (Gulf Long-term Follow Up)
previous disasters in the Gulf, such        Two of the largest studies on human         STUDY, conducted by the National
as Hurricanes Katrina and Rita in           health following DWH are ongoing.           Institute of Environmental Health
2005.b                                      These studies examine the impacts           Sciences (NIEHS), is a long-term
HEALTH IMPACTS OF THE                       to oil spill workers. Oil spill workers     study that uses data on exposure
SPILL                                       can be described as professional            and health outcomes drawn from
Human health studies following the          responders (such as U.S. Coast              surveys, home visits, and other
DWH spill are the largest of their          Guard personnel), trained lay               clinical data as well as worker
kind in history, and many are still         persons (for example, fishers hired         access to mental health services.1
underway. Though much remains               to help in response), or community          This study includes 32,608 people,
to be understood about long-term            volunteers who have received                25,000 of whom actually worked
effects, research studies conducted         some or no additional training.             on the oil spill, while the more than
in the immediate aftermath of               These workers can encounter a               7,000 remaining were non-oil spill
the spill provide scientists with           variety of health hazards, including        workers (meaning people who were
valuable information about risks to         physical exposure to oil, fumes from        trained but not hired) for contrast.
oil response workers and coastal            burning oil, oil spill chemicals such       Another large study on oil spill
residents. These health impacts             as dispersants and cleaning agents,         workers is the U.S. Coast Guard
may be from not only from physical          as well as other work stressors             (USCG) Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill
exposure to chemicals but also              like high heat and humidity, long           study.2 This study includes 53,519
come from the social and economic           working hours, and physical and             USCG personnel, 8,696 of whom
disturbances caused by the spill.           psychological strain.                       responded to the spill and 44,823

FIGURE 1. Studies of nine large oil spills showed a myriad of impacts on humans, with the following populations showing the
most vulnerability: people dependent on natural resources; response and cleanup workers; people living in close proximity to
the spill; children, pregnant women, and the elderly; and people with chronic health issues. (Adapted from Sandifer et al., 2020)

                                                                2
UNDERSTANDING THE HUMAN HEALTH AND SOCIOECONOMIC IMPACTS FROM THE DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL - Mississippi-Alabama ...
who did not, to provide comparison.        every chemical in oil and symptoms
The teams from both studies have           were generally self-reported, these
collaborated and are attempting            impacts cannot be directly linked to
to determine long-term effects             the oil spill or any specific chemical
of exposure to oil and oil cleanup         in the crude oil.b
chemicals through primary pathways         In contrast to the GuLF Study, the        A child chases waves
like inhalation and skin contact.b         researchers of the USCG study             on a Gulf beach years
                                                                                     after oil from the
The goal of the GuLF STUDY is to           gained access to baseline health data     Deepwater Horizon oil
quantify exposure of oil spill workers     for its participants, since medical       spill washed ashore.
to two potentially toxic components        data are available for all active-du-     (M. Partyka)
of oil: total hydrocarbons (THC),          ty USCG members from before the
a group of volatile oil-based              spill through the present.2 Access
chemicals, and another group of            to baseline data allows researchers
                                                                                    ing DWH.5 However, no reported
chemicals associated with cancer           to study changes in the health of
                                                                                    increases in cases of miscarriage or
risks called BTEX-H (benzene,              workers after they were involved
                                                                                    infertility in women from southeast-
toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene,             in cleanup work. Results from this
                                                                                    ern Louisiana, a population that lived
hexane). Scientists measured               study indicate that exposure to
                                                                                    closest to the spill, emerged after
both THC and BTEX-H levels by              crude oil and oil spill chemicals cor-
                                                                                    DWH.6 This is not to say there were
air sampling and used the results          related to multiple symptoms includ-
                                                                                    no reports of negative health effects
to estimate the potential toxic            ing respiratory distress, headaches,
                                                                                    following the spill. Women physically
effects to oil spill workers over          blurred vision, skin irritation, and
                                                                                    exposed to the spill or who experi-
time. Results of air sampling were         even heart disease in some workers.b
                                                                                    enced economic impacts, such as
mixed. Based on available data, it         These impacts were identified even
                                                                                    job loss or reduced wages, reported
appears that exposure of workers           though health protection protocols,
                                                                                    other symptoms like wheezing or
to concentrations of oil-based             including using personal protective
                                                                                    irritated eyes and noses.7
chemicals were low compared to             equipment (PPE), were in place. This
current occupational exposure              finding indicates that more work is      Children, if exposed to oil, are also
standards.3 However, another study         needed to both improve PPE and its       more vulnerable because of their
conducted from May 1, 2010 to              proper use to protect oil spill work-    higher breathing and metabolic
September 30, 2010, measured               ers in the future.b                      rates, their developing immune
coastal air quality for benzene (the       Health impacts to non-oil spill          and hormonal systems, as well as
B in BTEX-H) and fine particulate          workers and children                     their behavior during inquisitive
matter (also called PM2.5 ).4 According                                             play.8 Coastal residents and visitors
to this second study, onshore              Oil spill impacts to humans are less     were particularly concerned about
concentrations were generally higher       studied than environmental impacts,      young children encountering oil
following the spill, with benzene          and physical health effects are more     chemicals while playing at Gulf
concentrations 2 to 19 times               researched among spill workers than      beaches. Children’s play habits on
higher and PM2.5 concentrations            in other groups of people.b In fact,     the beach involve close contact
10 to 45 times higher than pre-            partly because large oil spills are so   with sand, including the potential
spill samples. Both measurements           rare in the United States, much of       for ingesting sand and water as
were high enough to exceed public          what researchers know about im-          they dig, bury themselves, and sit in
health criteria in places near oil spill   pacts to non-oil spill workers comes     shallow water.9 These behaviors had
cleanup activities. Initial results of     from studies in other countries.b        not been quantified prior to DWH.
the GuLF STUDY found an increase           Some previous studies in other           To help understand the potential
of cases of heart disease and              countries showed reproductive            health risks to children, researchers
reduced lung function in some oil          health effects for people exposed        conducted a series of experiments
spill workers compared to non-oil          to chemicals in crude oil. This led to   at multiple beaches in Texas and
spill workers. However, because            concerns about potential impacts to      Florida not impacted by DWH. These
air quality samples did not test for       pregnant women in the Gulf follow-       experiments included watching
                                                              3
UNDERSTANDING THE HUMAN HEALTH AND SOCIOECONOMIC IMPACTS FROM THE DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL - Mississippi-Alabama ...
play behavior and measuring the            health effects from any incidental    problems (respiratory symptoms,
amount of sand stuck to children           exposure.b                            eye and/or vision issues, skin
after playing for a set time. Though       However, children were still impacted problems, headaches, or unusual
research is ongoing, initial results       by DWH. Based on health status        bleeding) were worse in children
indicate that children who played          reports for children four, six, and   from households that experienced
at beaches that were cleaned of oil        eight years after the spill, overall  physical exposure to the spill or
are unlikely to experience negative        health and recent physical health     economic losses related to the spill.8

  WHAT DOES RISK MEAN?                                              entered the body; and gauge how the body responds
                                                                    to that dose.b The result is an estimate of risk typically
  Thousands of chemicals can be found in crude oils,
                                                                    provided in units of probability (Figure 2). Risk prob-
  and some of them are potentially toxic to humans
                                                                    ability is the likelihood of an individual or groups of
  when inhaled, ingested, or absorbed through human
                                                                    individuals becoming ill given the concentration, ex-
  skin. Following DWH many people expressed concern
                                                                    posure time, and dose of a chemical people encounter.
  about the risk or likelihood of illness to themselves
                                                                    Probabilities do not guarantee illness nor protection
  and their families while working outside, eating sea-
                                                                    from illness.
  food, or playing at the beach. To address these con-
  cerns scientists conducted air, seafood, water, and               It is not possible for scientists to sample everywhere,
  beach sand sampling for chemicals in oil and disper-              so they use models to estimate concentrations of
  sants that could be toxic to humans.9 But the question            chemicals in multiple locations. Scientists must also
  of risk to individuals is difficult to answer; here is why.       consider the variety of ways that different groups of
                                                                    people can come in contact with these chemicals.
  Individual risk can be estimated through a risk assess-
                                                                    For example, oil spill workers cleaning up oil on the
  ment. Risk assessments are developed by scientists
                                                                    beach have different chemical exposure rates than
  that assign a number to risk factors and outcomes.
                                                                    recreational beach goers. The next step is to deter-
  Researchers identify hazardous chemicals and their
                                                                    mine the dose of the chemical and whether the body’s
  concentrations in the environment; evaluate how
                                                                    response is either likely to be acute or chronic. Acute
  someone may have been exposed by ingesting, inhal-
                                                                    responses, such as a cough or skin reaction, might
  ing, or touching a chemical; determine the dose that
                                                                                             be noticed rapidly, but chronic
                                                                                             responses, like some cancers,
                                                                                             might take years to develop.
                                                                                             These responses can vary in se-
                                                                                             verity and are different for each
                                                                                             individual depending on many
                                                                                             factors such as overall health,
                                                                                             access to care, and underlying
                                                                                             conditions.
                                                                                           FIGURE 2. This visualization
                                                                                           shows some of the steps involved
                                                                                           in identifying and modeling human
                                                                                           risk following an oil spill: 1) source
                                                                                           of oil chemicals, 2) reduction in
                                                                                           the concentration of chemicals
                                                                                           during transport or movement of
                                                                                           the chemical through the envi-
                                                                                           ronment, 3) potential exposure to
                                                                                           chemical during various activities,
                                                                                           and 4) the probability of impact
                                                                                           from chemicals based on the dose
                                                                                           and underlying health conditions.
                                                                                           (Anna Hinkeldey)

                                                                4
UNDERSTANDING THE HUMAN HEALTH AND SOCIOECONOMIC IMPACTS FROM THE DEEPWATER HORIZON OIL SPILL - Mississippi-Alabama ...
Impacts were more common in
African American children and those      IF THEY CATCH IT, WILL YOU EAT IT?
from low-income households.b             After over 22,000 samples and months of testing, federal and state
                                         authorities determined that Gulf seafood was safe for human consump-
Mental health impacts
                                         tion.12-13 Though researchers have pointed out the need for improvements
Human health impacts from an             in the current seafood testing program, including testing for additional hy-
oil spill are not limited to physical    drocarbons and their potential toxic effects on consumers,14 independent
illnesses. Multiple studies have         studies supported the results from federal response. None of the studies
found that mental and physical           found an increased risk from consuming Gulf seafood in the months and
health are closely related during        years after the oil spill.b However, consumers continued to worry about
disasters, in part because               seafood safety, even years later. While debate between researchers con-
environmental contamination              tinues about why this was the case, most agree that risk communication
can cause significant stress.a           about eating seafood from the Gulf was the main cause.13 In the future,
However, the mental health               health experts recommend that any assessment of seafood safety should
impacts experienced by individuals       be followed by plain language notices about risks to consumers. These
following major disasters have been      notices should target people from many different backgrounds, cultures,
understudied compared to other           ages, and ethnicities followed by regular updates.b To learn more about
health aspects, and the evidence of      the seafood testing programs put in place after the oil spill, read The
mental health distress associated        Deepwater Horizon oil spill’s impact on Gulf seafood.
with the DWH oil spill is mixed.b
The results of two large research
surveys in the Gulf Coast region        fishing, tourism, and transportation     chances of contaminated seafood
suggest few changes in mental or        sectors, among others. Though            entering markets and restaurants,
behavioral health overall followed      studies have been conducted on           the seafood sector, and the associ-
DWH.10 However, results across          these impacts, researchers have          ated tourism trade, was negatively
a range of other, smaller studies       found that closer study of additional    impacted for years after the spill.b
targeting specific communities          socioeconomic variables could help
                                                                                 Scientists estimated large economic
indicate increased reports from         assess the value of other resources
                                                                                 losses in the fisheries sector, which
individuals of symptoms consistent      for impacted communities, including
                                                                                 includes commercial and recreation-
with depression, anxiety, and post-     cultural identity, attitudes, and
                                                                                 al fishing as well as marine aquacul-
traumatic stress.b This may indicate    social ties.b
                                                                                 ture. Initial estimates of losses to the
that members of some communities        Fisheries and tourism sector             commercial and recreational fishing
are more vulnerable to negative         impacts                                  industries were $4.9 billion and $3.5
mental health impacts following                                                  billion, respectively.15 The commer-
                                        At the time of the spill, Gulf fisher-
oil spills. For example, community                                               cial shrimping impacts accounted
                                        ies accounted for around 16% of all
members with ties to the fishing                                                 for almost 85% of the projected
                                        the fish caught in the U.S.,11 fuel-
industry were more likely than                                                   impacts. One set of analyses found
                                        ing concerns of Gulf residents and
non-fishers to report a decline in                                               that consumers were likely to transi-
                                        non-residents about the safety of
mental health. To learn more about                                               tion to farmed shrimp to satisfy de-
                                        the nation’s seafood supply. In antic-
how oil spills and other disasters                                               mand, which would further harm the
                                        ipation of potential contamination,
can impact the mental health of                                                  wild-caught shrimping industry.16
                                        the federal government announced
communities, read The Deepwater                                                  However, 10 years after the spill
                                        emergency fishery closures in
Horizon’s impact on people’s health:                                             research is still ongoing to fully un-
                                        combination with a rigorous testing
Increases in stress and anxiety.                                                 derstand the true economic impacts
                                        program. By the height of the spill in
                                        early June, nearly 37% of federal wa-    across the diverse fishing sector.b
THE SOCIOECONOMIC
IMPACTS TO INDUSTRIES                   ters in the Gulf of Mexico Exclusive     Misperception of the actual damage
AND COMMUNITIES                         Economic Zone were closed to fish-       following the spill along with
The DWH spill resulted in numerous      ing.12 Though widespread fisheries       confusion about potential risks to
socioeconomic impacts, affecting        closures following DWH reduced the       the public contributed to negative
                                                          5
financial impacts to multiple           opment, social relationships, access        are poorly studied for oil spill work-
industries, including tourism. One      to information, and communication           ers, their families, and others who
report demonstrated that the            with those in authority.10 These            may be exposed to or affected by
public was unaware of locations         studies found that, though the spill        them.b Additionally, special attention
and extent of damage from the oil.      resulted in differing economic im-          should be paid to vulnerable people,
For example, of the non-residents       pacts across fisheries, tourism, and        including individuals with chronic
surveyed, 44% believed the oil spill    oil and gas sectors, the impacts were       illness or who suffer from healthcare
caused damages similar to those         primarily short-term. However, at the       and economic disparities.b
seen following Hurricane Katrina,       household level, and particularly in        Clear human health findings have
and 29% of tourists canceled or         poorer households, financial impacts        been limited by a lack of baseline
postponed planned trips to Louisiana    were still being felt years later. Fur-     health data from before the oil
due to the spill.17 The tourism and     ther, community well-being showed           spill.a Additionally, long delays in
recreation industries received about    signs of distress related to the spill      implementing major health research
$147 million in paid claims spanning    across multiple studies. Much of            activities following the spill, heavy
23 different types of businesses,       the reported distress appeared to           reliance on self-reported data,
such as airlines, aquaria, water        be related to economic uncertainty          limited collection of clinical health
sports, and more. Restaurants,          and mistrust in the compensation            information, and a small number
lodging, and retail operations          processes put in place to specifically      of long-term studies make it
claimed a further 3.5 billion dollars   alleviate economic distress.b To learn      difficult for researchers to establish
in loss.b An important finding from     more about how to help to make our          connections between symptoms
these reports and studies is that       communities more resilient to future        experienced by some oil spill workers
consumer perception matters and         disasters, read Creating healthy            and coastal residents and DWH.b In
is an important driver of economic      communities to overcome oil spill           the future, researchers recommend
impact and recovery.b                   disasters.                                  that health studies be initiated
Community Resilience                                                                before, during, and/or immediately
                                        CURRENT GAPS AND
                                        FUTURE OPPORTUNITIES                        following a large spill and continue
Resilience can be defined many
                                                                                    long enough to identify long-term
ways, but scientists that studied       A range of mental and physical
                                                                                    effects and potentially secondary
the human impacts of DWH typical-       health impacts have been attributed
                                                                                    waves of chronic illnesses.b
ly define it to mean the ability of a   to oil spills in general and the DWH
community to adapt to change and        specifically, but in most cases clear       Need for a community health
learn from past experiences.b Re-       cause-and-effect relationships are          observing system
searchers looked at different factors   absent. Overall, researchers have           Environmental disasters of various
that improved resilience in Gulf com-   found that mental and physical              kinds and magnitudes occur
munities, including economic devel-     health effects and their interactions       regularly in the Gulf region, with one

                                          Fishing boats serving as vessels of opportunity pull oil into a fire boom. (USCG)

                                                            6
often following another. Recurring              health impacts. They have proposed             nomic disparities). The information
disasters can take a toll on human              a framework for a community                    collected through the CHOS, if im-
health in the region, particularly in           health observing system (CHOS) for             plemented, will be used primarily by
communities that already suffer                 the Gulf of Mexico region.a                    public health and medical profes-
significant health and economic                                                                sionals, emergency managers and
                                                The CHOS would build upon and
disparities.b Previous studies of                                                              responders, and researchers. The
                                                leverage existing, ongoing nation-
health impacts following disasters in                                                          analysis of these data could then
                                                al health surveys while including
the Gulf demonstrated the need for                                                             be used to assess disaster-related
                                                new long-term studies designed to
baseline health information to study                                                           health effects; enhance disaster
                                                identify and describe disaster-as-
the effects of disasters.a However,                                                            planning and response; improve
                                                sociated health trends in the five
it became clear following DWH that                                                             protection for disaster responders
                                                Gulf states. The goal is to target
these data are lacking. To ensure                                                              and workers; build individual and
                                                recruitment efforts to encompass
baseline data are in place prior to                                                            community resilience; and promote
                                                a representative sample of the
the next major disaster, scientists                                                            new clinical, biomedical, and public
                                                Gulf region’s coastal population,
funded through the Gulf of Mexico                                                              health research and practice. Local
                                                and specifically include people
Research Initiative (GoMRI) assert                                                             observations and monitoring will
                                                considered vulnerable or typically
that ongoing health monitoring is                                                              need to continue indefinitely to
                                                under-represented (for example,
essential to develop and maintain                                                              ensure long-term understanding of
                                                ethnic minorities and those who
these types of data and to capture                                                             potential impacts.a
                                                suffer health, healthcare, and eco-
acute, chronic, and long-term

   GLOSSARY
   Acute — Occurring over a short period of time,                         the air that are too small to see and easily inhaled.
   typically less than 72 hours.                                          Occupational exposure limits — The maximum
   Chronic —Taking place over an extended period of                       concentration of a toxic substance a worker can be
   time, typically weeks, months, or years.                               exposed to over a period of time without suffering
   Crude oil — Naturally occurring, unrefined oil. Crude                  harmful effects.
   oil is refined to produce a wide array of petroleum                    Socioeconomic impacts — Impacts to human
   products (e.g., heating oils, gasoline, diesel, lubricants,            populations that address both social and economic
   asphalt, propane).                                                     factors.
   Fine particulate matter — Solid or liquid particles in                 Volatile — Easily evaporated at normal temperatures.

REFERENCES
Publications resulting from the GoMRI-supported synthesis activities serve as the primary references for
this work. Additional supporting literature, either cited in GoMRI synthesis papers or necessary for foundational
information about the subject, is also included.

GoMRI synthesis publications                    Supporting publications
 a. Sandifer, P., Knapp, L., Lichtveld, M.,     1. Kwok, R. K., Engel, L. S., Miller, A. K.,   3. Middlebrook, A. M., Murphy, D. M.,
    Manley, R., Abramson, D., Caffey, R.,          Blair, A., Curry, M. D., Jackson, W. B.,       Ahmadov, R., Atlas, E. L., Bahreini, R.,
    . . . Singer, B. H. (2020). Framework for      . . . Sandler, D. P.; GuLF STUDY Research      Blake, D. R., . . . Ravishankara, A. R.
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    Public Health, 8, 588.                         response and clean-up. Environmental           Sciences, 109(50), 20280-20285.
                                                   Health Perspectives, 125(4), 570-578.       4. Nance, E., King, D., Wright, B., & Bullard,
 b. Sandifer, P.A., Ferguson, A., Finucane,
    M.L., Partyka, M.L., Solo-Gabriele, H.,     2. Rusiecki, J., Alexander, M., Schwartz,         R. D. (2016). Ambient air concentrations
    Hayward Walker, A., . . . Yoskowitz,           E. G., Wang, L., Weems, L., Barrett, J.,       exceeded health-based standards for
    D. (2021). Human health and socio-             . . . Engel, L. S. (2018). The Deepwater       fine particulate matter and benzene
    economic effects of the Deepwater              Horizon oil spill Coast Guard cohort           during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.
    Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico.       study. Occupational and Environmental          Journal of the Air & Waste Manage-
    Oceanography, 34(1), 50-67.                    Medicine, 75(3), 165-175.                      ment Association, 66(2), 224-236.

                                                                     7
5. Mehri, Z.O. (2010). Gulf coast oil disaster: Impact on human
   reproduction. Fertility and Sterility, 94(5), 1575-1577.                              ABOUT THE GoMRI/SEA GR ANT
6. Harville, E. W., Shankar, A., Zilversmit, L., & Buekens, P. (2018).                       SYNTHESIS SERIES
   The Gulf oil spill, miscarriage, and infertility: the GROWH study.
   International Archives of Occupational and Environmental                     The GoMRI Research Board established Synthesis &
   Health, 91(1), 47-56.
                                                                                Legacy committees to review 10 years of oil spill science
7. Peres, L. C., Trapido, E., Rung, A. L., Harrington, D. J., Oral, E.,
   Fang, Z., . . . Peters, E. S. (2016). The Deepwater Horizon oil spill        findings. Look for Sea Grant extension publica­tions on
   and physical health among adult women in southern Louisiana:                 these GoMRI synthesis topics:
   The women and their children’s health (WaTCH) study. Environ-
   mental Health Perspectives, 124(8), 1208-1213.                               • Observing and modeling oil plumes and circulation
8. Slack, T., Kroeger, R. A., Stroope, S., Keating, K. S., Sury, J.,            • Combined ecosystem modeling
   Brooks, J., . . . Beedasy, J. (2020). Deepwater Horizon oil spill
   exposure and child health: A longitudinal analysis. Population               • Combined oil spill modeling
   and Environment, 1-24.
                                                                                • How oil weathers and degrades
9. Ferguson, A., Del Donno, C., Obeng-Gyasi, E., Mena, K., Altomare,
   T. K., Guerrero, R., Gidley, M., Montas, L., & Solo-Gabriele, H. M.          • Ecological/ecosystem oil spill impacts
   (2019). Children exposure-related behavior patterns and risk
   perception associated with recreational beach use. International             • Human health and socioeconomic oil spill impacts
   Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 16(15),
   2783.                                                                        • Microbiology, genetics, and oil spills
10. Finucane, M. L., Clark-Ginsberg, A., Parker, A. M., Becerra-Or-             • Dispersant-related impacts from oil spill response
    nelas, A. U., Clancy, N., Ramchand, R., . . . Black, A. B. (2020).
    Building community resilience to large oil spills: Findings and
    recommendations from a synthesis of research on the mental
    health, economic, and community distress associated with the                   SEA GR ANT SCIENCE OUTREACH TEAM
    Deepwater Horizon oil spill. RAND Corporation.
11. Shepard, A. N., Valentine, J. F., D’Elia, C. F., Yoskowitz, D. W.,
                                                                                      Dani Bailey, Texas Sea Grant College Program,
    & Dismukes, D. E. (2013). Economic impact of Gulf of Mexico                                 danielle.bailey@tamu.edu
    ecosystem goods and services and integration into restoration
    decision-making. Gulf of Mexico Science, 31(1), 10-27.                        Emily Maung-Douglass, Louisiana Sea Grant College
12. Ylitalo, G. M., Krahn, M. M., Dickhoff, W. W., Stein, J. E., Walker, C.                 Program, edouglass@lsu.edu
    C., Lassitter, C. L., . . . Dickey, R. W. (2012). Federal seafood safety
    response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Proceedings of the                   Missy Partyka, Mississippi-Alabama Sea Grant
    National Academy of Sciences, 109(50), 20274-20279.
                                                                                          Consortium, m.partyka@auburn.edu
13. Dickey, R. & Huettel, M. (2016). Seafood and beach safety in the
    aftermath of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Oceanography,                     Stephen Sempier, Mississippi-Alabama Sea Grant
    29(3), 196-203.
                                                                                        Consortium, stephen.sempier@usm.edu
14. Farrington, J. W. (2020). Need to update human health risk
    assessment protocols for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in                       Tara Skelton, Mississippi-Alabama Sea Grant
    seafood after oil spills. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 150, 110744.
                                                                                           Consortium, tara.skelton@usm.edu
15. Sumaila, U. R., Cisneros-Montemayor, A. M., Dyck, A., Huang,
    L., Cheung, W., Jacquet, J., . . . Pauly, D. (2012). Impact of the
    Deepwater Horizon well blowout on the economics of U.S. Gulf
                                                                                      LaDon Swann, Mississippi-Alabama Sea Grant
    fisheries. Canadian Journal of Fisheries & Aquatic Sciences, 69,                      Consortium, ladon.swann@usm.edu
    499-510.
16. Asche, F., Bennear ,L. S., Oglend, A., & Smith, M. D. (2012). U.S.            Monica Wilson, Florida Sea Grant, UF/IFAS Extension,
    shrimp market integration. Marine Resource Economics, 27(2),                              monicawilson447@ufl.edu
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17. MDRG (Market Dynamics Research Group). (2010). Oil spill
    research report. Louisiana Department of Culture and Tourism:
    Market Dynamics Research Group. https://www.crt.state.la.us/
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    port_regional_nationwide20110407.pdf
                                                                                         Texas • Louisiana • Florida
                                                                                           Mississippi-Alabama

ACKNOWLEDGMENT
Special thanks to the many external reviewers who
contributed to the betterment of this oil spill science
outreach publication.
                                                                               This work was made possible in part by a grant from The Gulf of
SUGGESTED CITATION                                                             Mexico Research Initiative, and in part by the Sea Grant programs of
Partyka, M., Bailey, D., Maung-Douglass, E., Sempier,                          Texas, Louisiana, Florida and Mississippi-Alabama. The statements,
S., Skelton, T., & Wilson, M. (2021). Understanding the                        findings, conclusions and recommendations do not necessarily reflect
                                                                               the views of these organizations.
human health and socioeconomic impacts from the
Deepwater Horizon oil spill. GOMSG-G-21-002.                                   GOMSG-G-21-002 	                        MASGP-21-035       May 2021
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