Western Harbour Tunnel - Project update August 2018 - Roads and ...

Western Harbour Tunnel - Project update August 2018 - Roads and ...
August 2018

Western Harbour
Project update
Western Harbour Tunnel - Project update August 2018 - Roads and ...

 Western Harbour
 Tunnel                    including the Warringah
                           Freeway Upgrade
Western Harbour Tunnel - Project update August 2018 - Roads and ...
Project overview................................................................. 4       Public transport.................................................................. 18
Project benefits....................................................................5     Active transport................................................................. 19
Design changes led by community feedback............. 6                                   Stronger measures on tunnel emissions.....................20
Design facts and map.........................................................8            Design and construction................................................. 22
Project need......................................................................... 9   Western Harbour Tunnel vertical alignment ............ 28
Future Transport 2056.....................................................10              Construction.......................................................................30
Integrated planning........................................................... 12         Immersed tube tunnel construction sequence.......... 31
Sydney Harbour – the challenge....................................14                      Temporary construction sites........................................ 32
Sydney Harbour – the solution....................................... 15                   Safety is the number one priority................................. 43
Beaches Link – a companion project............................16                          Next steps...........................................................................44
Western Harbour Tunnel and Beaches Link map...... 17                                      Environmental impact assessments............................. 45
Western Harbour Tunnel - Project update August 2018 - Roads and ...
Project overview
Western Harbour Tunnel is a           With Western Harbour Tunnel         .
major transport infrastructure        people will spend less time in          Western Harbour
                                      traffic and have more time for
project that will make it easier,                                             Tunnel will:
                                      themselves and their families.
faster and safer to get around
Sydney.                               Western Harbour Tunnel includes         • Create a western
                                      over six kilometres of mainline           bypass of the CBD
Sydney Harbour Bridge and             tunnels as well as upgrading over
                                                                                and take pressure off
Sydney Harbour Tunnel are at the      nine kilometres of surface roads.
heart of Sydney’s road transport                                                the congested Sydney
                                      Largely underground, the                  Harbour Bridge,
                                      Western Harbour Tunnel has
                                                                                Anzac Bridge and
Both are now at over-capacity         been designed to have minimal
and a single incident can have        impacts on communities and to             Western Distributor
a major flow-on effect on travel      minimise property needs.                • Integrate with public
times across the transport
                                      The project includes:                     transport, improve
network and impact our
economy.                                                                        travel times and
                                      Western Harbour Tunnel
                                      – a new tunnel from the Rozelle
                                                                                boost reliability for
As Sydney continues to grow,
                                      interchange, under Sydney                 cross-harbour trips
with more and more trips being
made, so will the challenges to       Harbour to the Warringah                  and the broader
our transport network.                Freeway                                   network
Western Harbour Tunnel is key to      The Warringah Freeway Upgrade           • Provide core capacity
delivering the transport vision for   – streamlining Australia’s                that enables improved
Sydney.                               busiest road.
                                                                                links across Sydney.
It will change the way people
move around Sydney and how
people travel between the North
Shore, the central business
district (CBD) and Western and                                                  Western
Southern Sydney.
                                                                                less time in
                                                                                traffic, more
                                                                                time for you

                      more than

                      4.3 million people
              cross Sydney              Harbour Bridge and Tunnel
                     by car, bus and train every week

4      Western Harbour Tunnel – Project update
Western Harbour Tunnel - Project update August 2018 - Roads and ...
Project benefits
Western Harbour Tunnel delivers                                                                                                                   Streamline
a new crossing of Sydney Harbour                                                                                                                  the Warringah
and creates a western bypass of                                                                                                                   Freeway
the Sydney CBD.                                                                                                                                   •	Safer and simpler journeys
                                                                                                                                                  •	Easier to navigate
The project includes upgrading
                                                                                           Ernest                                                 •	Reduces traffic weaving
four kilometres of Australia’s                     St Leonards                                         St
                                                                                                                                                  •	Optimises traffic flow
busiest road, the Warringah                                                                      St                                                  across three crossings


                                                                                                       Miller S

                                                                                           Berry S
•	New free-flowing,                                                    Waverton
   continuous dedicated bus
   lane on the Warringah
   Freeway from Miller Street
   to Sydney Harbour Bridge                       Birchgrove


                                                                                                                             Sydney Harbour Tun
•	Direct bus access to North
   Sydney for fast interchange                                                                               arb
   with the new Sydney Metro

   and Sydney Trains                                                                                                                               more than
                                                  Balmain                                                                                          2.3 million people

                                                                                                                             cross the Sydney Harbour Bridge and Tunnel

                                                                                                                                                    by car and bus every week


                                                                                                                                      Take pressure off
                                 City West Link
                                                                                                                                      Sydney Harbour
                                                                                                                                      Bridge and Tunnel
     To M4                Lilyfield

                     To M5

                                                       WESTERN          SYDNEY          SYDNEY
                                                       HARBOUR         HARBOUR         HARBOUR
                                                        TUNNEL          BRIDGE          TUNNEL

                                                      Inner West,     Sydney CBD Eastern Suburbs
                                                    West, South West    Pyrmont      Southern Sydney
                                                        Airport      Darling Harbour     Airport

                                                                                                                               Travel time savings
                                                                  More direct                                                                      Rozelle to North Sydney
                                                               harbour crossings
                                                                                                                                                   up to 10 minutes
                                                                                                                                                  	Chatswood to Airport
active                                             Change how we cross                                                                              up to 21 minutes
transport                                          Sydney Harbour                                                                                 	Mosman to Airport
•	Dedicated cycleway between                      •	Take pressure off Sydney                                                                      up to 18 minutes
   Miller Street, Cammeray Park                       Harbour Bridge and Tunnel,
   and Falcon Street                                  Anzac Bridge and Western
                                                                                                                                                  	Olympic Park to North Sydney
                                                      Distributor, easing congestion                                                                up to 13 minutes
•	Improved connections over the
   Warringah Freeway at Ridge Street,              •	Providing an alternative way                                                                	Manly to Parramatta
   Ernest Street and High Street                      to get to Sydney Airport                                                                       up to 25 minutes

                                                                                         Western Harbour Tunnel – Project update                                                  5
Western Harbour Tunnel - Project update August 2018 - Roads and ...
Design changes led by community feedback
In March 2017, the NSW
Government released a project
concept and started detailed
design work on the Western
Harbour Tunnel project.
Since then, there has been
extensive community
engagement, geotechnical testing,
field studies and market sounding
with the finance and construction
This project update provides an
overview of how the proposed
design has evolved, incorporating
feedback from community and
stakeholder groups over the past
Roads and Maritime Services
want to hear what you think
about where we are up to. We will
shortly commence community
engagement on the design
presented in this project update.
Once we have heard your
feedback, we will continue to
refine the design. The NSW
Government will then progress         Aerial view of Birchgrove
this refined design through the
planning assessment process.
This will include the exhibition of   Inner West
Environmental Impact Statements
(EISs) when the community can
                                      What we heard                     How the design addresses this
provide formal feedback.
                                      Do not use Birchgrove Oval for    No proposal to use Birchgrove
                                      construction purposes             Oval for construction

    What we’ve heard                  Keep heavy construction traffic   No tunnel spoil transport
    Extensive engagement has          off the streets of Balmain and    through Balmain or Birchgrove
                                      Birchgrove                        local streets
    included over 5000 face-
    to-face conversations via                                           Water transport to be used
                                                                        wherever possible
    a series of 16 community
    feedback sessions,
                                      Concerns about air quality and    Ventilation facility will be
    12 shopping centre
                                      the proposed location of a        located at the planned Rozelle
    displays, workshops and           ventilation facility in Rozelle   Interchange
    meetings with schools and                                           Air quality has been assessed
    community groups.                                                   as part of the WestConnex
                                                                        M4-M5 Link EIS and is also
    We have made significant                                            being addressed in the Western
    changes to the design                                               Harbour Tunnel environmental
    based on what we                                                    assessment
    have heard from the                                                 No additional facilities required
    community.                                                          for the Western Harbour Tunnel
                                                                        in the Inner West

6      Western Harbour Tunnel – Project update
Western Harbour Tunnel - Project update August 2018 - Roads and ...
Cammeray and North Sydney

What we heard                                      How the design addresses this

Minimise the impact to St Leonards Park and        Motorway facilities located at Cammeray Golf Course
Anzac Park                                         next to the Warringah Freeway – not St Leonards Park
                                                   Temporary impact to St Leonards Park in the sloping
                                                   area between the bowls club and the Warringah
                                                   Minimal, permanent impact generally along the
                                                   Warringah Freeway
                                                   Minimal temporary impact to Anzac Park for
                                                   installation of drainage and kerb realignment

Concerns about air quality and the proposed        Ventilation facilities will be located near the tunnel
location of ventilation facilities in Cammeray     ramps, in the Warringah Freeway corridor
                                                   An air quality assessment, taking into account
                                                   local conditions (including topography), is being
                                                   undertaken and will be detailed in the EIS

Desire for improved active transport connections   Dedicated cycleway between Miller Street, Cammeray
                                                   Park and Falcon Street and improved connections
                                                   over the Warringah Freeway at Ridge Street, Ernest
                                                   Street and High Street


                                                          Western Harbour Tunnel – Project update           7
Western Harbour Tunnel - Project update August 2018 - Roads and ...
Design facts and map

     Western Harbour Tunnel

     Western Harbour Tunnel                                                        6.5 kilometres                            Three lanes each way

                                                                                                                             Major streamlining, improved
     The Warringah Freeway Upgrade                                                 4 kilometres
                                                                                                                             way-finding, reduced merging
                                                                                                                                                                                                           Spit Bri

                                                          Gore Hill Freeway                                                                             Northbridge

                                Lane Cove
                                                                  St Leonards
                                                                                    Crows Nest                          St
                                                                                                                                                                     Spit Bridge

                                                                                                                             Miller S


                                                                                                                                                                                   Balgowlah Heights
                                                           Artarmon                                                                                   Neutral Bay
                                                    Gore Hill Freeway                                                  Northbridge
                                                                                                                 Berry S       RAMP



                                                                                                                   Sydney                   High St           Cremorne Point
                                      Lane Cove
                                                            St Leonards
                                                                          Crows Nest    St
                                                                                             Miller St


                                                                                                                   Neutral Bay
                                                                 Birchgrove          Berry StRAMP
                                                                                                                  Bridge                              Sydney
          DrummoyneWoolwich                                                           Sydney                High St          Cremorne Point           Harbour                      Sydney Harbour
         M4 WestConnex                                                                Sydney
                                                            Birchgrove               Harbour
            Parramatta                                                                Bridge                          Sydney                                                                 Vaucluse
                 Drummoyne                        Rozelle                                                             Harbour                   Sydney Harbour
              Penrith                       Rozelle Balmain                                                                                                                                                Point Pi
                                            Interchange                            Pyrmont                                                                          Point
                  M4 WestConnex                                                                                                                                                      Darling Point
                     Blacktown                 Rozelle
                       Penrith              Rozelle          Anzac Bridge                                                          Potts
                                                                                                                                                                     Point Piper
                    Lilyfield               Interchange                  Pyrmont                                                   Point
                                                                                                                                                  Darling Point
                                       City West Link                                                                                    M5 WestConnex
                                                          Anzac Bridge                               Glebe Point                              Airport
                                         City West Link                                                  M5 WestConnex                      Port Botany
                                                            Glebe              Glebe Point                    Airport                      Campbelltown
                                                                                                            Port Botany

Legend        Western Harbour Tunnel                                WestConnex                                                  Motorways
                                                                                                                                                          0            1km          2km         N

                                                                                                                                Major roads                                                     0            1km
            Harbour  Freeway Upgrade
                        Tunnel                                             WestConnex                                                                              Motorways
     Warringah Freeway Upgrade                                                                                                                                     Major roads
   8      Western Harbour Tunnel – Project update
Western Harbour Tunnel - Project update August 2018 - Roads and ...
Project need
As Sydney’s population grows,
our economy and jobs will also        Western Harbour Tunnel:
grow, as will the number of trips
made in and around Sydney              upports the Greater Sydney
                                      S                                  ‘Crucially the western bypass
every day.                            Region Plan                        of the CBD provides the
                                      (Greater Sydney Commission,        opportunity to remove
Congestion costs our economy          2018) vision for access by         through-traffic from sensitive
around $6.1 billion a year.           public transport to the Eastern    residential and commercial
By 2030, this cost is expected        Harbour City, including            precincts, improving public
to hit $12.6 billion a year.          Sydney Harbour, St Leonards,       amenity and enabling the
Motorway connections, as part of      Chatswood and Macquarie Park.      allocation of more surface
an integrated transport network,                                         road space to public transport,
                                       upports the Eastern City
                                      S                                  walking and cycling’
provide critical support to a
                                      and North District Plans
growing economy in a global                                              Supports customer outcomes
                                      (Greater Sydney Commission,
city like Sydney.                                                        Future Transport 2056
                                      2018), special objectives to
Western Harbour Tunnel is a key       maintain the Harbour City’s        including enabling 30-minute
initiative for Sydney’s integrated    economic success and support       access to jobs and services by
transport network. It will relieve    sustainable growth of strategic    public transport, improving
congestion, improve access            centres across the North           the legibility of the transport
by public transport to jobs           District. By reducing pressure     network and improving
and services and increase the         on arterial roads, the project     freight journey times by
efficiency of the freight network.    also facilitates improvements      better separating local and
                                      to places in the Eastern City      through-traffic.
The project has been identified as
an infrastructure priority by both    and North Districts.
                                                                          ligns with Infrastructure
the NSW and Commonwealth              Aligns with the State              Australia’s Priority List
Governments.                          Infrastructure Strategy            which is developed by this
It supports the NSW Government’s      (INSW 2018)                        independent infrastructure
strategic objectives for              This strategy recognises that      advisor to define the nation’s
Greater Sydney and delivers           the Western Harbour Tunnel         infrastructure priorities.
on recommendations made by            will considerably strengthen       The project is listed as a
Infrastructure Australia.             the capacity and resilience of     priority initiative.
                                      the Sydney motorway network.
In 2018, the NSW Government
delivered a long term planning
and transport blueprint, releasing:
•    reater Sydney Commission’s
    Greater Sydney Region
    Plan and District Plans,          The NSW Government is              Over the next four years, a
    which establish a vision for      investing a record $51.2 billion   total $556.2 million has been
    Sydney as a productive,           over four years to 2021/22 for     allocated for the Western
    sustainable metropolis of         public transport and roads.        Harbour Tunnel and Beaches
    three cities where people                                            Link Program.
    can access jobs and services      This represents a $9.8 billion,
    within 30-minutes by public       or 23.6 per cent increase on the   A total of $130 million has
    transport                         four years to 2020/21 included     been allocated for the 2018/19
                                      in the 2017/18 NSW State           financial year for planning and
•   Future Transport 2056            Budget.                            early works for the Western
    (see page 10).                                                       Harbour Tunnel and Beaches
                                      The total amount is comprised
                                      of $26.6 billion for public
                                      transport and $24.6 billion for

                                                             Western Harbour Tunnel – Project update       9
Western Harbour Tunnel - Project update August 2018 - Roads and ...
Future Transport 2056

     By 2056, NSW will have             motorways are identified as           Within the 10-kilometre area
     more than 12 million               strategically significant roads       around metropolitan centres,
     residents and Sydney will          that move people and goods            city-serving corridors will be able
     become a global city of            rapidly over long distances.          to support higher frequency,
     eight million people,              Movement corridors and
                                                                              reliable on-street public
     similar in size to London          motorways are highly important
                                                                              transport while city-shaping
     or New York.                       for the movement of people and
                                                                              motorways divert major traffic
                                                                              away from centres.
     Planning and investment for        goods, with a key role to provide
     Greater Sydney will focus          efficient movement across the         This is our vision for the
     around the three cities concept    road network where there is little    integrated network around the
     – the Western Parkland City,       interaction with adjacent land        Harbour CBD where the network
     the Central River City and the     use. As such motorways provide        of new motorways, including
     Eastern Harbour City.              a critical function in taking long    WestConnex and Western
                                        distance through-traffic off          Harbour Tunnel will support high
     The NSW Government’s
                                        surface roads when access to          volume and capacity of private
     Future Transport Strategy is an
                                        places is not required.               vehicles, road-based public
     overarching strategy supported
                                                                              transport and freight movement.
     by a suite of plans to achieve     The Future Transport vision for
                                                                              At the same time they will enable
     a 40-year vision for our           the transport network is one
                                                                              busy surface roads, such as
     transport system.                  where different road and rail links
                                                                              Parramatta Road, Victoria Road
                                        form part of an integrated and
     Future Transport has been                                                and Military Road, to support
                                        connected network across the
     developed in close collaboration                                         more on-street public transport
                                        Greater Sydney region with each
     with the Greater Sydney                                                  to provide reliable access to land
                                        of the three cities in a hierarchy
     Commission, Infrastructure NSW,                                          uses along these roads.
                                        of corridors performing different
     the NSW Department of Premier
                                        functions.                            Motorways such as Western
     and Cabinet and the NSW
                                                                              Harbour Tunnel support
     Department of Planning and         Motorways can support a
                                                                              successful places, a key
     Environment.                       city-shaping function as they
                                                                              outcome sought from Future
                                        facilitate higher speed and
     Future Transport 2056 identifies                                         Transport 2056. They provide
                                        volume linkages between
     Western Harbour Tunnel as                                                for a through-traffic bypass of
                                        cities and centres. While
     a committed infrastructure                                               places such as the Sydney CBD,
                                        motorways provide access
     initiative along with the F6                                             facilitate a 30-minute city by
                                        across the metropolitan area
     Extension, Sydney Metro West                                             allowing greater surface priority
                                        and to and from regional NSW,
     and Parramatta Light Rail.                                               for public transport, and create
                                        as part of this vision, they are
                                                                              the opportunity for better places,
     As part of the Movement and        complemented by city-serving
                                                                              for example at Neutral Bay
     Place Framework outlined in        corridors better suited to
                                                                              or Rozelle.
     Future Transport 2056,             accessing centres.

10       Western Harbour Tunnel – Project update
Artist’s impression of proposed Victoria Cross interchange. Image courtesy Sydney Metro
Integrated planning
As a large urban expanse,                 WestConnex
Greater Sydney is reliant on              With the direct connection to the
strategic centres across the              WestConnex Motorway via the
metropolitan area to provide              Rozelle Interchange, the Western
employment and services.                  Harbour Tunnel will form a new
                                          motorway-standard western
Ensuring these centres are                bypass of the Sydney CBD and
connected with each other                 improve the performance and
and the rest of Sydney by an              function of the heavily congested
effective integrated transport            Anzac Bridge, Western
network is fundamental to                 Distributor and Sydney Harbour
supporting access to jobs,                Bridge corridor. This will benefit
housing, recreation and services,         existing bus customers on these
facilitating business-to-business         routes and provide access to
                                                                                                                                            NORTH WE
connections and attracting                Sydney’s motorway network                                                                        PRIORITY LA
                                                                                                                                           RELEASE A
investment.                               west and south.
This requires a range of transport        Sydney Metro West
modes, including mass transit
solutions such as heavy rail or           Western Harbour Tunnel will                          PENRITH
metro rail, and other solutions,          provide opportunities to connect                                                      St Marys

including bus, light rail,                centres north of Sydney Harbour
motorways and active transport.           with the proposed Sydney Metro                             M4

                                          West line via Western Harbour                                      North South
                                                                                                                                       WESTERN SYDNE
Western Harbour Tunnel                    Tunnel.
                                                                                                             Rail Line
complements other major
NSW Government initiatives:
Sydney Metro                                                                               WESTERN

                                                                                           SYDNEY                           Badgerys
Enables direct connections                                                                 AIRPORT                          Creek                       C
to Sydney Metro, for example                                                                                           WESTERN
interchange for Beaches Link                                                                              Bringelly    SYDNEY
express buses at Victoria
Cross station in North Sydney,                                                                                             WESTERN SYDNEY
                                                                                                                           PRIORITY GROWTH
increasing the metro catchment                                                                                                   AREA

and providing a fast, one-transfer                                                               The Northern Road

journey between the Northern                                                                                                  SOUTH WEST
                                                                                                                            PRIORITY GROWTH
Beaches and Greater Sydney.                                                                                                       AREA

Beaches Link will provide the
opportunity to further the
benefits of the new Northern
Beaches B-Line by enabling
express services through Beaches
Link and reduced congestion on
existing arterial routes.


 Artist’s impression of proposed Victoria Cross interchange. Image courtesy Sydney Metro

12       Western Harbour Tunnel – Project update

                                                                                                                                                         Legend                                       NN
                                                                                                                                                            Existing     motorways/highways

                                                                                                                                                           Projects completed
                                                                                                                                                      Projects completed
                                                                         Hornsby                                                                                  WestConnex New M4 widening
                                                     Hornsby                       M1                                                     Mona Vale         WestConnex   New M4 widening
                                                                                                                                                               M5 widening
 Cudgegong                                                      M1                                                               Mona Vale                  M5 widening
                                                                                                                                                           Public transport in delivery
 AND                                                                                                                                                  Public transport
                                                                                                                                                                B-Line in delivery
                                                                                                                                                                Sydney Metro Northwest
                                          etro                                      Wahroonga                                                               B-Line
                                      ey M                     NorthConnex
                                 Sydnhwest                                                                                                                        Sydney Metro City and Southwest
                                                                                                                                                            Sydney Metro Northwest
                   etro          Nort                            Wahroonga                                      Frenchs Forest
               ey M                     NorthConnex                                                                                                               City & South East Light Rail
         Sydnhwest                                                                                                                                          Sydney Metro City and Southwest
         No rt                                                                                    Frenchs
                                                                                                NORTHERN       Forest
                                                                 West Pennant Hills                                         B-Line                          City transport
                                                                                                                                                          Public  & South East   Light Rail
                                                                                                                                                                           in planning
                                      Baulkham Hills                                             HOSPITAL                                                         Parramatta Light Rail
                                 M2        West Pennant Hills                   NORTHERN                                         Brookvale
                                                                                                                   B-Line                             Public transport
                                                                                                                                                                 Sydney in planning
          BLACKTOWN                                                              BEACHES                                                                                Metro West
              Baulkham Hills                                   Epping
                                                                                 HOSPITAL                                                                       North South
                                                                                                                                                            Parramatta      RailRail
                                                                                                                                                                        Light    Line
                                GREATER                        Carlingford                                 Chatswood Brookvale
                                                                                                                         Balgowlah                          Sydney Metro West
     M4 Smart Motorway        PARRAMATTA
                                    Epping                                                                                                                 Motorway projects in delivery
                                                                                                                        Spit Bridge                         North South Rail Line
                                                                                                          Artarmon                                                NorthConnex
EY GREATER M4                         Carlingford                                          Chatswood
                                  Westmead                                                                        Balgowlah                                       WestConnex New M4 tunnel
 PARRAMATTA                                 Holroyd
                                                                         SYDNEY                                                                       Motorway projects in delivery
                                                                         OLYMPIC                                 Spit Bridge                                      WestConnex New M5
                                                                         PARK             Artarmon                                                          NorthConnex
                                                  W                                                                                                               WestConnex M4-M5 Link
         Westmead                                Ne estC                                                                                                    WestConnex   New  M4 tunnel
                                                      M4onne           Homebush         Drummoyne
                                                                                                                                                               The Northern Road
               Holroyd                                   wi x
                                                           de          West                                                                                    M4 Smart Motorway
                                                                                                                                                            WestConnex  New M5
                                                     PARK ing         W                                                 SYDNEY
                            W                                         Ne estCo            Rozelle                        CITY                               WestConnex M4-M5 Link
                           Ne estC                                   ext w M4 nnex                                                                         Major transport projects in planning
                              w on                                      ens tun                                                                              The Northern Road
                                 M4 ne               Homebush               ion ne
                                                                     Drummoyne     l WestConnex
Cecil Hills                        wi x                                                                                                                           Warringah Freeway Upgrade
                                     de              West                             M4-M5 Link                                Bondi Junction               M4 Smart Motorway
                                          g      W                                                          SYDNEY              GREEN SQUARE
                                                                                                                                                                  Western Harbour Tunnel

                                                 Ne estCo             Rozelle
                                                                       tro west                              CITY               /MASCOT                           Beaches Link
rfield                                                              Me     h
                                                ext w M4 nnex ydney d Sout                                                      RANDWICK              Major transport  projects
                                                                                                                                                                F6 Extension      in planning
                                                                                                                                                                             – Stage 1
                                                   ens tun S y an                                         Mascot
         LIVERPOOL                            Bankstownion neCit                Sydenham                                        HEALTH AND
                                                              l WestConnex                                  St Peters                                          F6 Extension
                                                                                                                                                            Warringah       – Kogarah
                                                                                                                                                                      Freeway         to Loftus
                                                                 M4-M5 LinkWolli Creek                      InterchangeBondi   Junction                           M12
                                                               Beverly Hills                                                                                Western Harbour Tunnel
                                                                                                                       GREEN SQUARE                               Sydney Gateway
                                M5 Widening     M5                                    ex                                     AIRPORT
                                                    tro west                       onn                                 /MASCOT                              Beaches Link
                                          Revesby Me Riverwood
                                                       th                       stC 5                                                                             The Northern Road
                                               ney Sou                        We w M                                   RANDWICK                             F6 Extension – Stage 1
                                          Sydy and                            Ne         Mascot                                                                 T4 and T8 Rail Upgrades
                    Bankstown              Cit               Sydenham
                                                          Hurstville                                                   HEALTH AND                           F6 Extension  – More
                                                                                                                                                                More Trains Kogarah   to Loftus
                                                                                              St Peters
                                T4 and T8 Rail Upgrades        Wolli Creek                  Interchange
                                                                                              KOGARAH                  EDUCATION
                   Glenfield                                                                                                                                M12
                                More Trains Beverly    Hills
                                            More Services                                  HEALTH AND                            BOTANY
                                                                                            EDUCATION                  SYDNEY
                                                                                                                       La Perouse                          Growth areas
                                                                                                                                                            Sydney Gateway
     M5 Widening         M5                                        ex                                                  AIRPORT
                                  Riverwood                     onn                                                                                               North West Land Release Area
                  Revesby                                    stC 5                                                                                           The Northern Road
                                                           We w M
                                                           Ne                                                                                                   Western Sydney Priority Growth Area
                                                                                                                                                             T4 and T8 Rail Upgrades
                                          Hurstville                                                                                                         More Trains
                                                                                                                                                                South    More
                                                                                                                                                                      West      Services
                                                                                                                                                                           Priority Growth Area
     T4 and T8 Rail Upgrades                                                 KOGARAH                                    PORT
d                                                                                                                       BOTANY                                    Western Sydney Airport
     More Trains More Services                 SUTHERLAND                  HEALTH AND
                                                                            EDUCATION                       La Perouse                                Growth areas
                                                                                                                                                                  Western Sydney Employment Area

                                                                                                 Cronulla                                                   North West Land Release Area

                                                                                                                                                            Western Sydney Priority Growth Area
                                                                                                                                                            South West Priority Growth Area
                                                                                                                                                            Western Sydney Airport
                                                                                                                                                            Western Sydney Employment Area



                                                     Port Kembla,


                              Wollongong,                                                                                   Western Harbour Tunnel – Project update                                 13
                              Port Kembla,
Sydney Harbour – the challenge

 Warringah Freeway

Over 250,000 vehicles cross           The Sydney Harbour crossings        It also supports access to key
the harbour on Sydney Harbour         serve motorists going to, from      employment areas, such as North
                                                                          Sydney, St Leonards, Chatswood
Bridge and Harbour Tunnel             and around the Sydney CBD.
                                                                          and Macquarie Park and provides
every weekday.                                                            access to Lane Cove Tunnel,
                                      We rely on the Sydney Harbour
When Sydney Harbour Bridge            crossings for access to the         Pacific Highway, Brook Street
opened in 1932 it carried 11,000      Sydney CBD and for trips that       and Military Road.
vehicles each day. Today it carries   bypass the Sydney CBD.              The Warringah Freeway has
over 160,000 vehicles each day.       Serving these dual functions        evolved over time to cater
The Sydney Harbour crossings          adds to pressure on these roads     for increased traffic and new
are near capacity and vulnerable      and contributes to congestion       connections. The result is a busy
to incidents and delays.              of Sydney Harbour Bridge and        and complex road that requires
                                      Sydney Harbour Tunnel, as well as   drivers to frequently merge and
A single peak-hour incident           Western Distributor and             weave across multiple lanes.
causes flow-on impacts that           Anzac Bridge.
can severely affect traffic across                                        As Sydney’s population and
Sydney for hours.                     The Warringah Freeway is one        economy grows, pressure on
Buses travelling on Sydney            of Australia’s busiest and most     roads is increasing.
Harbour Bridge into the Sydney        complex roads.
                                                                          In the next 15 years there will be
CBD experience high rates of
                                      It is a corridor of critical        over 30 per cent more trips being
travel-time variability.
                                      importance to the Sydney            made around Sydney each day.
                                      transport network, providing        This will put further pressure on
                                      access to both Sydney Harbour       the Sydney Harbour crossings and
                                      crossings and supporting over       the Warringah Freeway, leading
                                      600 inbound buses in the            to travel time deterioration and
                                      morning peak.                       increased vulnerability to delays.

On average
2014 and 2017

1,400 Sydney
incidents on
                 and theWarringah
                 Freeway every year
                                                          average annual cost to
                                                           the economy in 2036       $66.4m
14      Western Harbour Tunnel – Project update
Sydney Harbour – the solution

                                  A new crossing of Sydney Harbour and
 Western Harbour                  western bypass of Sydney CBD
 Tunnel                           For the first time, people will be
 •   A new motorway tunnel        able to take the most direct route
     connection across            for their trip:
     Sydney Harbour between
     the Rozelle Interchange      •   Going to or from the west,                      WESTERN          SYDNEY          SYDNEY
                                                                                      HARBOUR         HARBOUR         HARBOUR
     and the Warringah                inner west, south west, the                      TUNNEL          BRIDGE          TUNNEL

     Freeway near North               airport and Bays Precinct –                    Inner West,     Sydney CBD Eastern Suburbs
     Sydney                           take the Western Harbour                     West, South West
                                                                                                    Darling Harbour
                                                                                                                    Southern Sydney
 •   Forms a new western
     bypass of the Sydney         •   Going to or from the eastern
     CBD, providing an                suburbs, southern Sydney and
     alternative to the heavily       the airport – take the Sydney
     congested Sydney                 Harbour Tunnel
                                                                                                   More direct
     Harbour Bridge,              •   Going to or from the Sydney                               harbour crossings
     Western Distributor              CBD and Pyrmont – take                                  including two routes
     and Anzac Bridge                 Sydney Harbour Bridge.                                    to Sydney Airport
 •   Reduces pressure and
     provides faster and more
     reliable journeys on roads
     around the Sydney CBD

 •   Increases the resilience
     of the road network to
     incidents and delays

 •   Provides capacity for
     new connections to
     Beaches Link.

 The Warringah
 Freeway Upgrade
 An upgrade to Australia’s
 busiest road between
 Sydney Harbour Bridge
 and Naremburn:

 •   Easier to navigate with
     improved wayfinding and
     reconfigured lanes

 •   Provides a free-flowing      Morning peak travel times in 2027, with and without Western Harbour Tunnel and Beaches Link
     continuous bus lane          (WHTBL)
     southbound on the
     Warringah Freeway                                                       Without               With              Percentage
                                   Origin              Destination           WHTBL                 WHTBL             faster
     – removing weaving
     between buses and
                                   Rozelle             North Sydney              24 mins              15 mins             40%
     other traffic

 •   Improves active transport
                                   Mosman              Sydney Airport            48 mins             30 mins              38%
     links along and across
     the Warringah Freeway,
     including at Ridge Street,    Olympic Park        North Sydney               37 mins             24 mins             34%
     High Street and
     Ernest Street.
                                  * Based on 2027 traffic forecasts.

                                                                 Western Harbour Tunnel – Project update                              15
Beaches Link – a companion project
Beaches Link is being designed        With Beaches Link, people will
as a companion project to             spend less time in traffic and have   Beaches Link will:
                                      more time for themselves and
Western Harbour Tunnel.
                                      their families.                       •	Improve journey
Together, both projects will          Beaches Link includes over 11            times and reliability
deliver major transport benefits      kilometres of tunnels as well as         on critical transport
to Sydney, making it easier,          upgrading over five kilometres of        routes on both sides of
faster and safer to get around.       surface roads.
                                                                               Middle Harbour
                                      Beaches Link will be largely
The two projects interconnect
                                      underground and its design has
                                                                            •	For the first time,
with each other on the Warringah                                               provide a motorway
                                      been improved as a direct result
Freeway, delivering free-flowing                                               link between the
                                      of community feedback. This fresh
travel between the Northern
                                      design work has minimised the            Northern Beaches and
Beaches and the Sydney CBD/
                                      surface impacts and reduced              the rest of Sydney
WestConnex interchange at
                                      property needs.
Rozelle.                                                                    •	Relieve traffic pressure
                                      Beaches Link
Heavily constrained routes to                                                  on the North Shore
the Northern Beaches impact           A new tunnel from the Northern
on all road users including bus       Beaches, under Middle Harbour.        •	Integrate with
commuters and Military Road and                                                Sydney’s public
                                      It will connect to the Gore Hill
Warringah Road are currently
                                      Freeway for travel between               transport network
among Sydney’s most congested                                                  (bus, metro and rail)
                                      Manly, the Northern Beaches to
roads.                                                                         to deliver significant
                                      Chatswood, Macquarie Park and
Areas such as Mosman,                 North West Sydney.                       improvements for
Willoughby, Artarmon and the                                                   bus services.
                                      It will also connect to the
Northern Beaches run the risk of
                                      Warringah Freeway for journeys
lagging behind the rest of Sydney
                                      to North Sydney, Sydney CBD and
because of poor transport.
                                      Sydney’s south and south west.
Beaches Link is key to delivering
this transport vision.
                                      For further detail on                   Beaches
It will unlock new levels of access
                                      Beaches Link go to
                                      www.rms.nsw.gov.au/whtbl                Link
to jobs, recreation and services,
                                      .                                       less time in
including health and education,
across Sydney.                                                                traffic, more
                                                                              time for you


       69,000 vehicles
                               a day cross    Spit Bridge
                  forecast to carry       80,000 vehicles by 2037
                                                     with 43 bus routes

16     Western Harbour Tunnel – Project update
Western Harbour Tunnel and Beaches Link map:                                                                                                    Oxford Falls

combined projects
Western Harbour                                         Davidson

Tunnel has been                                                                                                    Northern
developed with Beaches
Link as part of a program
                                                                                                                                                                  ga h Road
                                                                                         Frenchs Forest

of works due to the
design interface at the                                                                                                                        Frenchs Forest
                                                                                                                                               Mona Vale
Warringah Freeway.                                                           Forestville
                                                                                                                                               Terrey Hills

                                                                                                                                                   Allambie Heights
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Curl Curl

                                                                                                                                        t Pa
                                                                                                 Killarney Heights                                                               Manly

                                                                                                                                                                                 Dee Why

                                 Roseville                                                                                                          North


                                                                                         Castle Cove                                                                          ridg

                                                                                                                                                                           t B iation
                                                                                                                                                                         rn Dev

                                                                                                                                                                    Cr Bu
                                                                               Middle Cove
                                                   Chatswood                                                              Harbour                                                                                 Manly
                                                                                                                                                                       Sydney Road

                                                                                                   Castlecrag                       Seaforth                                  Balgowlah

                                                        Lane Cove Tunnel                                                                                        Spit Bridge
                                                                                                                                                                              Balgowlah Heights
                                  Gore Hill Freeway                                                      Northbridge

                                                                                                Sydney CBD

                                                                                                North Sydney


                    Lane Cove     Royal North
                                Shore Hospital
                                          St Leonards
                                                                               St                                                                     Mosman
                                                        Crows Nest             St
                                                                             Miller St

                                                                                         RAMP                                    Cremorne

                                                                                                       Neutral Bay
                                                                     Berry StRAMP

                                                                           North                                                                                                                           Watsons Bay
      Woolwich                                                             Sydney
                                                                                            High St            Cremorne Point

                                         Birchgrove                   Harbour
                                                                       Bridge                         Sydney                                                                                           Vaucluse
 Drummoyne                                                                                            Harbour                Sydney Harbour

M4 WestConnex
   Blacktown                 Rozelle
     Penrith              Rozelle                                                                                                                               Point Piper
                          Interchange                  Pyrmont                                                    Point
                                                                                                                                   Darling Point

                                        Anzac Bridge
                       City West Link                                                    M5 WestConnex
                                          Glebe                Glebe Point                    Airport
                                                                                            Port Botany

                                                                                                                                                                     0                  1km            2km          N
         Beaches Link                                     Wakehurst Parkway Upgrade                                                 Motorways
         Western Harbour Tunnel                           WestConnex                                                                Major roads
         Warringah Freeway Upgrade                        Northern Beaches Hospital roadworks

                                                                                                                       Western Harbour Tunnel – Project update                                                            17
Public transport
Western Harbour Tunnel and            Opportunities also exist to
the upgrade of the Warringah          connect centres north of Sydney     Metro and
                                      Harbour with the proposed
Freeway will deliver wide-
                                      Sydney Metro West line via          Sydney Trains
ranging public transport              Western Harbour Tunnel,
benefits to Sydney.                   enabling simple one-transfer        Work on the Warringah
                                      journeys to a wider range of jobs   Freeway will include a new,
Western Harbour Tunnel will take
                                      and services.                       uninterrupted bus lane from
pressure off the Sydney Harbour
                                                                          Cammeray to the Sydney
Bridge and Sydney Harbour             Both the Western Harbour Tunnel
                                                                          Harbour Bridge which will
Tunnel, Anzac Bridge and              and the Warringah Freeway
Western Distributor.                  Upgrade will provide new road       feature an access link to
                                      capacity and connectivity for       North Sydney.
Improved travel speeds and
                                      express bus routes between
reliability on these corridors                                            This will allow express buses
                                      key centres, with all proposed
will particularly benefit bus                                             from the Northern Beaches
                                      links compatible with Sydney’s
customers to and from the west
                                      bus fleet, including double deck    and North Shore to have
heading towards the Sydney
                                      buses.                              direct access to Sydney
CBD, including those currently
using buses on Victoria Road,         Specifically, the project creates   Trains at North Sydney
the City West Link and the            the potential to introduce direct   station and the new Sydney
Anzac Bridge.                         express bus access between          Metro at Victoria Cross.
                                      the Inner West and Lower
This is because traffic heading
                                      North Shore.
across the Harbour will effectively
be diverted away from the Anzac       This creates the opportunity to
Bridge and Western Distributor        introduce new express services to
and into Western Harbour Tunnel.      key employment and education
                                      centres, directly linking North
A new free-flowing, continuous
                                      Sydney (and beyond) to The
dedicated bus lane will be a
                                      Bays Precinct, the University of
feature of the Warringah Freeway
                                      Sydney, and Royal Prince Alfred
This new continuous bus lane
                                      The ability for bus ‘through’
extending from Miller Street
                                      customers to bypass the Sydney
to Sydney Harbour Bridge will
                                      CBD will also reduce pressure
improve CBD access for bus
                                      on transport services and
                                      infrastructure within the CBD.
The project will provide efficient
access to North Sydney for buses
accessing the precinct, and a fast
interchange with Sydney Metro
(at Victoria Cross metro station)
and Sydney Trains (at North
Sydney station) – opening up
easy access to Sydney Metro
and Sydney Trains stations right
across Sydney.

                                       B-line bus

18     Western Harbour Tunnel – Project update
Active transport
Western Harbour Tunnel
delivers 2.5 kilometres of
new or upgraded cycleways
and pedestrian paths.

Artist’s impression: Ernest Street Land bridge

Improvements along the                      North Shore cycleway                 •    rnest Street Bridge across
Warringah Freeway will align with           •    New infrastructure and              the Warringah Freeway will be
the proposed North Shore Link                    improvements will contribute        upgraded to link Cammeray
Cycleway, identified as a strategic              to North Shore Link Cycleway       Golf Course with Anzac Park,
link in Sydney’s Cycling Future.                                                     connecting local communities
                                            •    Ridge Street Bridge will be         and schools
These new active transport                       rebuilt to provide more room
connections will provide new                     for cyclists and pedestrians    •   Improvements will enhance
ways for commuters to travel and                                                     shared active transport
create new paths for recreation.            •    Dedicated cycleway between          crossings of High Street.
                                                 Miller and Falcon Streets

 Existing use of Ernest Street Bridge

                                                                     Western Harbour Tunnel – Project update     19
Stronger measures on tunnel emissions
 Sydney’s air quality                                                                                                           as our population grows, total                               Recent NSW tunnels longer than
                                                                                                                                emissions from motor vehicles                                one kilometre are required to have
 Sydney’s air quality is good                                                                                                   are expected to continue to fall                             zero ramp emissions, whereas
 by national and international                                                                                                  over the next decade due to new,                             outside Australia almost all road
 standards.                                                                                                                     cleaner vehicles replacing older                             tunnels have ramp emissions.
                                                                                                                                technology vehicles.
 In NSW, the Office of                                                                                                                                                                       To achieve zero ramp emissions,
 Environment and Heritage (OEH)                                                                                                 Modern tunnel ventilation                                    jet fans draw in air from the exit
 monitors, analyses and publishes                                                                                                                                                            ramp to ensure a net inflow of
                                                                                                                                Western Harbour Tunnel will be                               air at the ramp so that all tunnel
 information about air quality.
                                                                                                                                designed to achieve:                                         emissions are removed through
 The Environment Protection                                                                                                     •   Strict in-tunnel air quality                             an elevated ventilation facility.
 Authority regulates air quality                                                                                                    limits
 and implements measures for                                                                                                                                                                 This is most efficiently done
 managing and reporting                                                                                                         •   No emissions from ramps                                  when the ventilation facility is
 air pollution.                                                                                                                 •   Emissions from ventilation                               positioned near the exit ramp,
                                                                                                                                    facilities indistinguishable from                        reducing ongoing energy use and
 Despite there being more cars on                                                                                                                                                            improving effectiveness.
                                                                                                                                    background air quality.
 the road, a number of initiatives
 and technological developments                                                                                                 In-tunnel air quality is achieved                            This is why all ventilation facilities
 in both engine emissions and                                                                                                   by ensuring sufficient air flow                              for Western Harbour Tunnel
 fuel quality have resulted                                                                                                     through the tunnel to prevent the                            will be located near tunnel exit
 in substantial reductions to                                                                                                   build up of vehicle emissions.                               ramps.
 Sydney’s vehicle emissions over                                                                                                                                                             Locations of ventilation facilities
                                                                                                                                The air-flow is achieved through a
 the past two decades.                                                                                                                                                                       for Western Harbour Tunnel are
                                                                                                                                combination of traffic flow, tunnel
 Although the number of cars is                                                                                                 size and ventilation design                                  shown on the maps for tunnel
 expected to further increase                                                                                                   (jet fans).                                                  ramps on the following pages.

Australia’s air quality standards
are stringent by global standards
                                    Australian Standard (8 µg/m3)

                                                                     WHO Guideline (10µg/m3)

                                                                                               US National Standard (12µg/m3)

                                                                                                                                                      EU Air Quality Limit (25µg/m3 )

                                                                                                                                                                                             Cars built
                                                                                                                                                                                             after 2013 emit    97% less
                                                                                                                                                                                                           oxides of nitrogen than
     Illawarra                                                                                                                                                                                              vehicles built in 1976
         Perth                                                                                                                                                                               Diesel trucks
San Francisco                                                                                                                                                                                built after 2013
   New York
                                                                                                                                                                                                  92% less              particles
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        of matter
     Montreal                                                                                                                                                                                                           trucks built
        Zürich                                                                                                                                                                                                          in 1996
   Singapore                                                                                                                                                                                 By 2036 there will be a
                  0                                                 10                                                                     20                                           30
Air quality in Sydney and internationally
Annual Average PM 2.5 Concentrations µg/m 3                                                                                                                                                  in PM2.5 vehicle
Source: World Health Organization                                                                                                                                                            emissions since 2003

20         Western Harbour Tunnel – Project update
Western Harbour Tunnel will have            Assessment and regulation                    he NSW Chief Health Officer
elevated ventilation facilities that                                                    will release a statement on the
                                            The NSW Government has
are very effective at ejecting                                                          potential health impacts of
                                            announced stronger measures
tunnel air high into the atmosphere                                                     emissions from tunnel ventilation
                                            on emissions from motorway
through a combination of                                                                facilities.
buoyancy and speed.
                                                                                        The Minister for Planning will
                                            The NSW Environment Protection
Once in the atmosphere, the                                                             not approve a motorway tunnel
                                            Authority (EPA) will regulate the
ejected tunnel air dilutes hundreds                                                     project until the ACTAQ scientific
                                            ventilation facilities of all current
of times as it mixes with the                                                           review is considered.
                                            and future operating motorway
surrounding air and becomes
                                            tunnels in NSW, including the               The Western Harbour Tunnel
indistinguishable from
                                            new Western Harbour Tunnel.                 will be subject to stringent
background levels.
                                                                                        assessment of the tunnel
                                            The EPA will require tunnel
The effectiveness of a ventilation                                                      ventilation systems and ambient
                                            operators to meet air quality
facility design in dispersing tunnel                                                    air quality in surrounding areas.
                                            limits and undertake air quality
air under all operating and weather
                                            monitoring.                                 Further reading
conditions is assessed through
specialised computer modelling              Additional checks will be                   Roads and Maritime interactive
using actual hour-by-hour weather           required before determination               portal on air quality:
data for a full year.                       of the Environmental Impact                 www.rms.nsw.gov.au/airquality
                                            Statements (EISs) for the project.
Once complete, Western Harbour                                                          NSW Chief Scientist and
Tunnel will be continuously                 The Advisory Committee on                   Engineer:
monitored at the ventilation                Tunnel Air Quality (ACTAQ) will             www.chiefscientist.nsw.gov.au/
facilities to control the ventilation       coordinate a scientific review              reports/advisory-committee-on-
system.                                     of the project’s air emissions              tunnel-air-quality
                                            from ventilation facilities.
This will ensure that strict limits
                                            ACTAQ, which advises the
outlined in the approval conditions
                                            NSW Government on tunnel
are complied with at all times.
                                            ventilation design and operation,
Once operating, air quality                 is convened via the Office of
monitoring data will be publicly            the NSW Chief Scientist and
available on the new motorway               Engineer.

                                                                               Emissions readily dispersed

                                                                                                             Air quality monitors

Artist’s impression longitudinal tunnel ventilation system

                                                                      Western Harbour Tunnel – Project update                       21
Design and construction

22   Western Harbour Tunnel – Project update
This project update provides
information about the proposed
reference design for an integrated
transport solution that includes
Western Harbour Tunnel and the
Warringah Freeway Upgrade.
Most of Western Harbour Tunnel
will be deep underground.
Community and stakeholder
input over the last year has
resulted in significant design
changes to the project.
Roads and Maritime wants to
hear what you think about this
proposed reference design.
We will shortly commence
community engagement on
the design presented in this
project update.
The Warringah Freeway Upgrade

        To Sydney Harbour Bridge

The Warringah Freeway                 •   The Warringah Freeway           •   Provides a continuous, free-
Upgrade is the key piece of               Upgrade works extend                flowing southbound bus lane
                                          for around four kilometres          on the Warringah Freeway –
network integration for the
                                          between the northern end of         removing weaving between
Western Harbour Tunnel                    the Sydney Harbour Bridge           buses and other traffic
project and will streamline               and Willoughby Road.
                                                                          •   Improves active transport
operations for Australia’s
                                      Benefits                                links including:
busiest road.
                                      •   Streamlines operations by           –– a dedicated cycleway
Key features                              reducing the number of                 between Miller Street
                                          merges, making it easier               and Falcon Street with
•    The upgrade involves essential       to navigate                            connections to the new
     works to integrate Western                                                  Ernest Street active
     Harbour Tunnel and Beaches       •   Optimises the traffic flow of          transport link and Falcon
     Link with the existing freeway       the three harbour crossings,           Street shared use bridge
     network                              making the network more

24      Western Harbour Tunnel – Project update
Tunnel alignment

                                                                                    Edge of existing road
                                                                                    Bus lane

                                                                                    Motorway Control Centre

                                                                                    Ventilation outlet

                                                                                    Active transport

      Western Harbour Tunnel ramp

                                                                                                            To Lane Cove Tunnel

                                    Western Harbour Tunnel ramp

                                                                                       Western Harbour Tunnel ramps

                                                                      Beaches Link ramps

                                                                       facilities              See page 26 for more detail

    –– upgraded and wider
       Ridge Street bridge for
       pedestrians and cyclists
    –– new shared use path at
       High Street bridge
•   Upgraded and improved
    interchange at Falcon Street
•   Improved bus transit times for
    all buses using the Warringah
•   Direct bus access to
    North Sydney.                          More                        Public                                  Active
                                           community                   transport                               transport
                                           benefits                    friendly                                options

                                                                      Western Harbour Tunnel – Project update                     25

      To Sydney CBD                                                                  To Lane Cove Tunnel

                                                                Beaches Link ramps




                                                                                                               Western Harbour Tunnel ramps

                                                                                                                            Tunnel alignment

                                                                                                                            Edge of existing road
                                                                                                                             Bus lane

                                                                                                                             Motorway Control Centre
                                                   Motorway faci
                                                                lities                                                       Ventilation outlet

                                                                                                                             Active transport

Motorway tunnels for both                               Key features                                       Benefits
Western Harbour Tunnel and                              •   Western Harbour Tunnel                         •     Improves connectivity to
Beaches Link surface in the                                 entry and exit ramps                                 key employment areas of
Warringah Freeway corridor                                                                                       North Sydney and the Sydney
                                                        •   Beaches Link entry and
between Ernest Street and                                                                                        CBD for Northern Beaches
                                                            exit ramps
Miller Street, North Sydney,
                                                        •   Underground ramps between
allowing direct connections to                                                                             •     Provides simple access to
                                                            Western Harbour Tunnel and
the wider Sydney motorway                                                                                        Western Harbour Tunnel for
                                                            Beaches Link                                         North Shore and Northern
                                                        •   Upgraded Ernest Street                               Beaches drivers
This area is proposed to be                                 Bridge, including a                            •     Improves pedestrian and
                                                            9.5-metre-wide active                                cyclist access between
used as both a construction
                                                            transport connection between                         Cammeray Golf Course
site and location of                                        Anzac Park and Cammeray                              and Anzac Park – new and
permanent facilities.                                       Golf Course                                          wider pathways connecting
                                                        •   Motorway facilities for both                         communities
                                                            Western Harbour Tunnel                         •     Tunnel ramp locations
                                                            and Beaches Link within                              maximise the use of the
                                                            the existing Cammeray Golf                           existing road corridor and
                                                            Course and ventilation facility                      minimise private property
                                                            located in the Warringah                             acquisition requirements
                                                            Freeway corridor
                                                                                                           •     Permanent facilities in the
                                                        •   Western Harbour Tunnel                               road corridor and golf course
                                                            motorway control centre                              minimise private property
                                                            next to Ernest Street near the                       impacts
                                                            Warringah Freeway.
Active                                                                                                     •     Provides direct connection
transport                                                                                                        for southbound Beaches
                                                                                                                 Link buses to the Warringah
options                                                                                                          Freeway bus lane.

26    Western Harbour Tunnel – Project update
Rozelle Interchange connection


                                                   e rp

                                                                                       WestConnex New M4 ramps

                                                                                               Tunnel alignment

                                                                                               Edge of existing road

                                                                               N         B     Bus stop

                      Western Harbour Tunnel ramps                                       L     Light rail stop

                                                                                               Ventilation outlet
                                                                                               (As per WestConnex EIS)

                                                                                         WTP   Water treatment plant
 WestConnex New M5 ramps
                                                                                               Active transport

The southern end of the                    Key features                         Benefits
Western Harbour Tunnel                     •   Underground tunnel               •   Provides an alternate route
integrates with WestConnex                     connection to M4–M5 Link             for traffic bypassing the
motorway at the Rozelle                        tunnel (three lanes in each          Sydney CBD, currently using
Interchange.                                   direction)                           the Anzac Bridge, Western
                                                                                    Distributor and Sydney
                                           •   Tunnel ramps surfacing at
Connecting at Rozelle                          City West Link
                                                                                    Harbour Bridge corridor
provides strategic links for                                                    •   Improves connectivity to
                                           •   Overpass for movements from
traffic bypassing the Sydney                                                        key employment areas in the
                                               The Crescent (south) to The
CBD to access the M4                           Crescent (east) at Rozelle
                                                                                    Inner West, South West and
Western Motorway, M5 South                                                          Western suburbs of Sydney
                                           •   Network integration works at
West Motorway and local                                                         •   Further improves traffic flows
                                               the intersection of Johnston
communities in the Inner West.                 Street and The Crescent.
                                                                                    around City West Link and
                                                                                    The Crescent at Rozelle
                                                                                •   Further improves Sydney’s
                                                                                    road freight corridor by
                                                                                    directly connecting with
                                                                                    WestConnex and the broader
                                                                                    Sydney motorway network.

                                                                    Western Harbour Tunnel – Project update              27
Western Harbour Tunnel vertical alignment
  Rozelle to North Sydney
  Most of the project will be deep underground in tunnels. This greatly reduces surface impacts,
  including to private property, communities and the environment.
  The tunnels, built mostly through high-quality Sydney sandstone, will be engineered and constructed
  by industry leaders using world-class technology, and world’s best practice in terms of safety,
  efficiency and road user experience.
  The vertical alignment diagrams show the approximate depth of the tunnels below the surface along
  the alignment of the Western Harbour Tunnel.
  The depths, shown in metres, are measured from ground level to the road surface in the tunnel.

       ROZELLE                                      BALMAIN                             BIRCHGROVE

* All measurements in metres

  28      Western Harbour Tunnel – Project update
(9 metres)
                                                                         Sydney Metro Tunnel

WAVERTON             NORTH SYDNEY                                             CAMMERAY

                     Overview Map




                                          Western Harbour Tunnel – Project update         29
On a global scale, building a         Spoil from tunnels is a clean and         As with many harbours around
major tunnel beneath Sydney           stable fill material, being essentially   the world that have an industrial
Harbour as part of a network          crushed rock, which is generally          heritage, Sydney Harbour has
of new road tunnels will be           beneficially reused at development        levels of contamination in some of
                                      sites across Greater Sydney. Unless       the bed sediments.
a significant engineering
                                      a specific opportunity exists to use
achievement.                                                                    Suitable processes for the
                                      spoil as part of the site restoration,
                                                                                removal and disposal of such
The majority of the project will be   all of the spoil will be transferred
                                                                                sediment, and construction in
in deep tunnels, greatly reducing     away from the construction site
                                                                                such marine environments, are
surface construction impacts and      to suitable end locations.
                                                                                well understood both domestically
the need for private properties.      Tunnelling will take place                and internationally. We have taken
To build the tunnels and surface      24 hours a day, seven days a              expert advice from local and
works, construction sites are         week to deliver benefits as soon          international experts in preparing
needed to ensure that:                as possible; however hours for            our design and proposed
                                      spoil haulage will be limited to          methodology for handling and
•     unnels and surface works
                                      reduce community impacts.                 managing sediment.
     seamlessly integrate with the
     existing road network and        2. Waterway crossings                     Marine sediment removal is
     connect users to destinations                                              done routinely to keep shipping
                                      Building the crossings of Sydney
•    Construction machinery,          Harbour using immersed tube               channels operational, to enable
     equipment and materials can      tunnelling – a proven methodology         infrastructure works, and to
     be stored safely                 adopted on many global road and           remediate marine environments.

•     onstruction personnel have
     C                                rail tunnel projects (including the       Ultimately, these materials
     appropriate amenities            existing Sydney Harbour Tunnel).          are removed from the marine
                                      The construction strategy has             environment, cleaning up the area
•     here is adequate access to
     T                                                                          in which the works were actually
     construction areas for removal   been chosen because it:
     of excavated material and        •   Is most suited to the cross
     delivery of raw materials such        section of a modern motorway         The project team is working
     as concrete and steel                 – reducing excavation and            with key maritime stakeholders,
                                           spoil haulage                        including Port Authority of NSW,
•     here is enough space to
     T                                                                          the Harbour Master and Transport
     build the project safely and     •   Reduces geotechnical risk
                                          associated with tunnelling            for NSW to ensure the appropriate
     efficiently.                                                               management of impacts to
                                          under Sydney Harbour and
All these measures ensure                                                       commercial shipping, ferries,
                                          Middle Harbour – making it
the project can be delivered                                                    recreational activities and other
                                          safer to build
safely while minimising overall                                                 harbour uses.
construction times and levels of      •    rovides the lowest vertical
impact to communities, the road           grades – making it easier for
                                          cars and heavy vehicles and            Construction of an
network and the environment.
                                          reducing vehicle emissions             immersed tube tunnel
Tunnel construction                   •   Provides the shortest and most         • Excavation for the immersed
                                                                                   tube tunnels and their
After extensive assessments               efficient route.
                                                                                   construction will be subject
by a multi-disciplinary team with     Immersed tube tunnels have                   to stringent environmental
local and international experience    been successfully delivered                  safeguards
(including design, construction       in sensitive and highly utilised           • S
                                                                                    eabed excavated to prepare
and environment specialists)          marine environments across the               trench that tunnel units will be
the preferred method for              world, with this experience being            laid into
building the tunnels is:              captured by the project team.              • Immersed tube tunnel units
1. Land tunnels                       The location and technique has                are fabricated elsewhere and
                                                                                    then towed into place above
Using multiple road header            been developed after careful
                                                                                    the excavated trench
machines to cut through               consideration of sensitive
                                      marine habitats, natural water             • Immersed tube tunnel units
sandstone at depths of up                                                          are then lowered one at a time
to 100 metres below Sydney –          flows, contamination, existing
                                                                                   creating the tunnel
methodology proven on all             uses and heritage items, and
                                      will be constructed under strict           • Rock ballast is laid over
road tunnels constructed in                                                        the tunnel units to protect
Sydney to date.                       environmental regulation.
                                                                                   the structure.

30      Western Harbour Tunnel – Project update
Immersed tube tunnel construction sequence

Seabed trench excavation in Sydney Harbour under strict environmental controls

                      Trailer suction
                      hopper vessel for
                      trench excavation

Towing immersed tube tunnel


                      Tugs for
                      towing tube
                      tunnel into

Positioning immersed tube tunnel

                                                   Suspension lines
                                                   for lowering the
                                                   tube tunnel
                                                                        lines to
                                                                        steady the
                                                                        tube tunnel

Adding protective rock layer

                 Work ship                      Multi-purpose
                 with excavator                 pontoon with
                 for rock                       fall pipe for rock
                 transfer                       installation

                                                               Western Harbour Tunnel – Project update   31
Temporary construction sites
The proposed construction           The sites aim to:                           •   Maintain the functionality
sites for Western Harbour                                                           of open spaces as much as
                                    •   Minimise the number of
Tunnel have been carefully              private properties acquired
selected, taking into account                                                   •    rovide opportunities for
                                    •   Minimise impacts to the
community and industry                                                              re-use of the sites post
feedback.                           •   Minimise impacts to the
                                                                                •   Ensure the works can be
Construction sites are                                                              delivered safely.
                                    •   Have good main road or water
temporary. After works have
                                        access to minimise the number
been completed, they will be            of trucks on local streets
remediated for future use.

 Construction site type     Function                                    Key activities

 Land based tunnelling      These sites enable road header              • Tunnel excavation
                            tunnelling to occur below Sydney,           • Tunnel spoil removal
                            as well as fit-out of the tunnels.
                                                                        • Tunnel fit-out (concrete, steel, mechanical
                            The ability to tunnel from multiple sites     equipment)
                            provides significant construction time      • Amenities for workers
                            savings, delivering project benefits
                            sooner and reducing the duration of
                            construction disruption

 Waterway crossings         These sites have two main functions;        • Tunnel excavation
                            enabling the immersed tube tunnels to       • Connecting the water and land tunnels
                            connect with the road header tunnels,
                                                                        • Immersed tube tunnel section fit-out
                            and fit-out of the immersed tube tunnel
                            sections                                    • Tunnel spoil removal
                                                                        • Amenities for workers

 Surface works              These sites enable all surface works like   • Road pavement widening and adjustments
                            road upgrades and widenings required          including temporary traffic staging
                            to deliver the connections road users       • Cut and cover tunnel construction
                            need. The ability to locate these
                                                                        • Bridge construction
                            sites next to surface works activities
                            allows for more efficient construction,     • Drainage construction
                            reducing transportation of machinery        • Utilities relocations
                            and materials through local areas
                                                                        • Amenities for workers

32    Western Harbour Tunnel – Project update
Cammeray Golf Course


Temporary construction site         Key activities                       Reducing our impact
proposed for both tunnelling        •   Entry site for Western Harbour   •   Minimises the requirements for
and surface works for Western           Tunnel road header machines          private property acquisition
Harbour Tunnel, the Warringah           tunnelling north and south       •   Minimises impacts on
                                        from the golf course
Freeway Upgrade and Beaches                                                  St Leonards Park and
Link Tunnel.                        •   Western Harbour Tunnel and           Anzac Park
                                        Beaches Link tunnel fit-out
                                                                         •   Direct access to the Warringah
A number of construction            •   Tunnel spoil removal by truck        Freeway and Ernest Street for
activities have been consolidated       with direct access to arterial
                                                                             spoil haulage and construction
into this site to ensure it is          roads and the motorway
                                                                             delivery – keeping trucks off
used as efficiently as possible.        network
                                                                             local streets
This minimises impacts in other     •   Storage for construction
locations around North Sydney           materials                        •   Acoustic shed for tunnelling
and Cammeray, including to                                                   works to contain noise and
                                    •   Amenities for construction
private property and parks.                                                  dust
                                    •   Construction of the Western      •   No impacts to all-weather
                                        Harbour Tunnel and Beaches           football pitch, skate park or
                                        Link motorway facilities and         tennis courts
                                        ventilation facilities           •   We will work with the golf club
                                    •   Construction of Western              with the objective of allowing
                                        Harbour Tunnel motorway              the golf course to remain open
                                        control centre                       throughout construction
                                    •   Construction of the new          •   Permanent impacts will be
Keep                                    Ernest Street bridge                 significantly smaller than the
trucks off                          •   Construction staging for the
                                        Warringah Freeway Upgrade.
                                                                             temporary construction
local streets                                                                site shown.

                                                             Western Harbour Tunnel – Project update         33
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