ACADEMIC HANDBOOK 2020-2021 - BISHOP'S COLLEGE SCHOOL - ACADEMIC HANDBOOK 2020-2021

 
ACADEMIC HANDBOOK 2020-2021 - BISHOP'S COLLEGE SCHOOL - ACADEMIC HANDBOOK 2020-2021
BISHOP’S COLLEGE SCHOOL – ACADEMIC HANDBOOK 2020-2021

             ACADEMIC HANDBOOK

                         2020-2021

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ACADEMIC HANDBOOK 2020-2021 - BISHOP'S COLLEGE SCHOOL - ACADEMIC HANDBOOK 2020-2021
BISHOP’S COLLEGE SCHOOL – ACADEMIC HANDBOOK 2020-2021

THE MISSION

“We create a caring community of learning and development where cultures connect and
individuals matter. Our commitment to excellence in academics, wellness, athletics,
creativity, and service contributes to a lifetime of engagement and global competence.”

BCS CORE VALUES

Excellence – Community – Character – Leadership

INTRODUCTION

The essence of Bishop’s College School (BCS) is the strength of our academic program. We
teach students to think critically, creatively, and independently. Here, students study in a
vibrant multicultural, collaborative environment, benefiting from the latest in portable
computers, campus-wide wireless access, and other advanced educational technology
available across the curriculum.

Enthusiastic, supportive teachers work closely with students in small classes to develop a
love of learning and academic confidence that enables students to emerge from BCS
prepared to tackle the challenges of university study and to succeed in different roles they
will play as leaders in our global society.

The purpose of this booklet is to help you plan and choose courses for your years at Bishop’s
College School. If you have any questions, please feel free to contact one of the following
individuals:

Head of School                       Mr. Michel Lafrance        (mlafrance@bishopscollegeschool.com)
Director of Academics                Mrs. Roxane Vigneault      (rvigneault@bishopscollegeschool.com)
Assistant to Director of Academics   Ms. Victoria Hill          (vhill@bishopscollegeschool.com)
Head of University Advising          Mr. Robin Barton           (rbarton@bishopscollegeschool.com)
Senior School Academic               Ms. Amber Rommens          (arommens@bishopscollegeschool.com)
Coordinator
School Counsellor                    Ms. Marie-Noëlle Gattuso   (mngattuso@bishopscollegeschool.com)

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BISHOP’S COLLEGE SCHOOL – ACADEMIC HANDBOOK 2020-2021

TABLE OF CONTENTS

                                                                                            Page
                                                                                               #

INTRODUCTION, MISSION, CORE VALUES                             --------------------------     2
ACADEMIC INTEGRITY POLICY                                      --------------------------     4
LEARNING SUPPORT AND INTERVENTIONS                             --------------------------     5
HOMEWORK EXPECTATIONS                                          --------------------------     6
IMPORTANT ACADEMIC DATES
                                                               --------------------------     6
QUEBEC GRADUATION REQUIREMENTS (Grade 11)                      --------------------------     7
QUEBEC MINISTRY EXAM SCHEDULE 2019-2020                        --------------------------     8
SENIOR SCHOOL ACADEMIC PROGRAM                                 --------------------------     9
ENGLISH LANGUAGE PROFICIENCY ASSESSMENT                        --------------------------    10
ACADEMIC OPTIONS AFTER FORM VI                                                               11
ACADEMIC OPTIONS AFTER FORM VII (Grade 12)                     --------------------------    11

THE BISHOP’S COLLEGE SCHOOL CERTIFICATE (VI and VII)           --------------------------    12
THE EFFORT RATING                                              --------------------------    12
MATH STREAMS IN FORMS V AND VI                                 --------------------------    13
MATH STREAMS SCHEMATIC                                         --------------------------    14
BCS COURSE OFFERINGS                                           --------------------------    15
FORM II (GRADE 7)     COURSE DESCRIPTIONS                      --------------------------    16
FORM III (GRADE 8)    COURSE DESCRIPTIONS                      --------------------------    20
FORM IV (GRADE 9)     COURSE DESCRIPTIONS                      --------------------------    24
FORM V (GRADE 10)     COURSE DESCRIPTIONS                      --------------------------    28
FORM VI (GRADE 11)    COURSE DESCRIPTIONS                      --------------------------    32
FORM VII (GRADE 12)   COURSE DESCRIPTIONS                      --------------------------    38

FORM IV COURSE SELECTION FORM: 2019-2020                       --------------------------    42
FORM V COURSE SELECTION FORM: 2019-2020                        --------------------------    43
FORM VI COURSE SELECTION FORM: 2019-2020                       --------------------------    44
FORM VII COURSE SELECTION FORM: 2019-2020                      --------------------------    45

DEFINITION OF TERMS

The duration of secondary school in Quebec is five years and is called Secondary I-V (Sec I-V
for short) or simply Grades 7-11. BCS also offers a Grade 12 Program. The table below
provides clarification of the terminology used in Quebec and by BCS to describe the various
grade levels.

Form II                 Grade 7                 Secondary 1              Cycle 1, Year 1
Form III                Grade 8                 Secondary 2              Cycle 1, Year 2
Form IV                 Grade 9                 Secondary 3              Cycle 2, Year 1
Form V                  Grade 10                Secondary 4              Cycle 2, Year 2
Form VI                 Grade 11                Secondary 5              Cycle 2, Year 3
Form VII                Grade 12

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BISHOP’S COLLEGE SCHOOL – ACADEMIC HANDBOOK 2020-2021

ACADEMIC INTEGRITY POLICY

                             The Bishop’s College School motto:
                                  Recti Cultus Pectora Roborant
                            (Right learnings strengthen the character)

Academic integrity at BCS is paramount and relates closely to the mission and core values of
the school. Incidents such as plagiarism or cheating are considered to be violations of
academic integrity. These acts are regarded with great seriousness and are subject to
disciplinary action.

DEFINITIONS

Plagiarism is presenting another’s ideas or words as one’s own without proper
acknowledgement. It consists of, but is not necessarily limited to:

          copying and pasting from the Internet, a printed source, or other resources
           without proper acknowledgement;
          copying from another student;
          using direct quotations or large sections of paraphrased material in an assignment
           without due acknowledgement;
          translating a text from one language to another without the
           proper acknowledgement
          submitting the same piece of work in more than one course without the
           permission of the teacher(s);
          allowing one’s essay or assignment to be copied by someone else for assessment
           (facilitation);
          buying or selling papers or assignments and submitting them as one’s own for the
           purpose of assessment.

Cheating is committing an act to gain an unfair advantage. It consists of, but is not
necessarily limited to:

          using notes or other memory aids during an assessment without permission;
          copying another student’s work or allowing another student to copy one's work;
          giving unauthorized assistance to another student
           or receiving unauthorized assistance from a fellow student, tutor, or parent to the
           extent that the piece of work is no longer the student’s own work;
          submitting the same piece of work in more than one course without
           the permission of the teacher(s);
          misuse of technology in an academic context;
          using the intellectual property of another individual without
           proper acknowledgement.

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BISHOP’S COLLEGE SCHOOL – ACADEMIC HANDBOOK 2020-2021
PROCESS

Students are expected to behave in accordance with the Academic Integrity Policy. Those found guilty
of violating the Academic Integrity Policy by plagiarising, cheating, or both will be subject to
disciplinary action, which can take many forms. The action taken will be decided upon by the Director
of Academics, in consultation with the student’s teacher. The action will also depend on the severity
of the violation and whether the violation is a first, second, or third offence. The possible disciplinary
actions are listed below.

The student …

•     will receive a warning and will be required to obtain further guidance on academic honesty from
      the Head of Enrichment or the Extended Essay Coordinator.

•     will be required to redo the assignment and a certain number of marks will be deducted.

•     will receive a mark of zero for the work.

•     will be required to attend Saturday Afternoon Detention.

•     will receive an in-school suspension of 3 or 5 days.

•     will receive an off-campus suspension of one week.

The student’s parents will be informed and a copy of the e-mail will be placed into the student’s
academic file. In addition, the student will not be eligible to receive a subject prize in the course in
which they were reprimanded, at the subsequent end-of-term Academic Assembly, including Prize
Day.

Repeated offences could be grounds for expulsion from the school.

Violations of the Academic Integrity Policy discovered at the end of the school year will be dealt with
on a case-by-case basis.

The Academic Integrity Policy has been derived from the following resources:

Princeton University. (2003). Defining and avoiding plagiarism: The WPA statement on best practices. Princeton Writing Program. Retrieved from
www.princeton.edu/writing/university/resources/WPAPlagiarism.pdf

Queen’s University. (2010). University policy on academic integrity, procedures and requirements of faculties & schools. Faculty of Law. Retrieved from
http://www.queensu.ca/calendars/law/Faculty_of_Law_Plagiarism_and_Academic_Dishonesty_Regulations.html

St. Andrew’s College. (2014). Academic integrity. St. Andrew’s College. Retrieved from http://www.sac.on.ca/middle-school/academics/academic-integrity/index.aspx

LEARNING SUPPORT AND INTERVENTION

A student review process is conducted following each reporting period. The purpose of this
review is to discuss strategies to better support student learning. Student support begins
with extra help offered by the teacher within the individual departments.

The R.D.W. Howson Enrichment Centre (EC) is an added support measure put in place for
students at BCS. EC staff work in conjunction with teachers to help students develop the
skills and competencies that instill confidence in their own abilities. The EC provides the tools
students need to excel in their studies and in life. Recognizing that not everyone has the

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BISHOP’S COLLEGE SCHOOL – ACADEMIC HANDBOOK 2020-2021
same learning styles or needs, EC staff work collaboratively with students to help them set
goals, manage their time, rank their priorities, and find strategies to help them succeed
academically.

In some cases where the intervention strategies have not led to student improvement, a
student could be placed on Academic Probation. Students who are on Academic Probation
are monitored by the Director of Academics and the Head of Enrichment. We believe that
with the proper support from both the school and the student’s parents, together with a
sustained effort on the part of the student, improved academic success is an attainable goal.

Contact:

Director of Academics: Ms. Roxane Vigneault (rvigneault@bishopscollegeschool.com)

HOMEWORK EXPECTATIONS

Completion of homework is an important part of student learning. Students are encouraged to use
the BCS Portal to organize and manage their workload.

The completion of homework is monitored on a daily basis. Students who fail to complete assigned
work are required to attend an ‘Early Prep’ after school from 6:30-7:15 PM. ‘Early Prep’ is supervised by
a member of BCS staff.

IMPORTANT ACADEMIC DATES

September 2020                         15 September: First day of classes
                                       8 October: Last day to change courses
                                       7 October: First Effort Ratings

October 2020                           14 October: PSAT exam
                                       23 October: Progress Reports are issued
                                       28 October: Effort Ratings

November 2020                          18 November: Progress Reports are issued
                                       19-20 November: Parent/Teacher Meetings
                                       25 November: Effort Ratings

December 2020                          9 December: Effort Ratings
                                       18 December: End of Term 1

January 2021                           4-8 January: Reading/Prep for Forms V-VII
                                       11 January: Term 2 begins
                                       20 January: Forms II-VI Report Cards are issued
                                       22 January: Form VII Midterm Report Cards are issued

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BISHOP’S COLLEGE SCHOOL – ACADEMIC HANDBOOK 2020-2021
                                     27 January: Effort Ratings

February 2021                        17 February: Effort Ratings

March 2021                           17 March: Effort Ratings
                                     19 March: Parent/Teacher Meetings

April 2021                           21 April: Effort Ratings
                                     23 April: Progress Reports are issued
                                     29 April: Start of IB examinations

May 2021                             12 May: Effort Ratings
                                     IB and MEES exams
                                     26 May: Effort Ratings

June 2021                            9 June: Effort Ratings
                                     BCS and MEES exams

QUEBEC GRADUATION REQUIREMENTS

The Quebec Ministère de l’Éducation et de l’Enseignement supérieur (MEES) awards Secondary School
Diplomas to students who have met certain requirements.

A Quebec diploma (DES) is issued to Form VI (Grade 11) students for the successful completion of:
•     54 credits in Form V (Grade 10) and Form VI (Grade 11)
•     20 of these credits must be at the Form VI level (Grade 11)

Of these credits, the following courses are compulsory:

•      Form V & VI English                                    6 credits
•      Form V & VI French
              Français, langue d’enseignement or              6 credits
              Français, langue seconde (Enrichi) or           6 credits
              Français, langue seconde (Base)                 4 credits
•      Form V & VI Physical Education                         2 credits
•      Form V History (or Histoire) of Quebec & Canada        4 credits
•      Form V Math                                            4 credits   The passing mark is
•      Form V Science and Technology                          4 credits   60% in all subjects
•      Form V & VI Arts Education                             2 credits
•      Form V & VI Physical Education or Ethics               2 credits

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MEES (Uniform) exams

Form VI (Grade 11) Français, langue d’enseignement or Français, langue seconde
Form VI (Grade 11) English Language Arts
Form V (Grade 10) Science
Form V (Grade 10) Math
Form V (Grade 10) History and Citizenship/ Histoire et éducation à la citoyenneté

All schools in Quebec follow the same term weightings (for all levels of study):

Term 1 results count for 20% of a student’s final mark in a subject.
Term 2 results count for 20% of a student’s final mark in a subject.
Term 3 results count for 60% of a student’s final mark in a subject.

At the end of the year, a final mark is calculated by taking into account the results from all three
terms, as well as the MEES uniform exam result, where applicable.

QUEBEC MINISTRY EXAM SCHEDULE 2020-2021

    Monday                Tuesday            Wednesday             Thursday                  Friday
                                                                 April 29, 2021
                                                                Français, langue
                                                                d’enseignement,
                                                                écriture, Sec 5
                                                                (Form VI) Remise
                                                                du dossier
                                                                préparatoire

                                                                  May 6, 2021
                                                                Français, langue
                                                                d’enseignement,
                                                                écriture, Sec 5
                                                                (Form VI)
                                                                Tâche d’écriture
                                                                (9:00 AM-12:15
                                                                PM)

May 14-June 4, 2021 : Français, langue seconde, 5e secondaire, Programme de base, Activité préparatoire et
interaction orale.

                                                                May 13, 2021
                                                                Français, langue
                                                                seconde, base,
                                                                comprehension
                                                                écrite (Form VI)
                                                                (9:00 AM-12:00
                                                                PM)

                      May 18, 2021          May 19, 2021

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BISHOP’S COLLEGE SCHOOL – ACADEMIC HANDBOOK 2020-2021
                    Français, langue      Français, langue
                    d’enseignement,       d’enseignement,
                    lecture, fin Du 1er   écriture, fin Du 1er
                    Cycle (Form III)      Cycle (Form III)
                    (9:00 AM-12:00        (9:00 AM-12:00
                    PM)                   PM)
                                           May 26, 2021          May 27, 2021        May 28, 2021
                                          English Language       English Language    English Language
                                          Arts - Reading         Arts - Production   Arts - Production
                                          (all Form VI)          Preparation         (writing)
                                          (9:00 AM-12:00         (all Form VI)       All Form VI
                                          PM)                    (9:00 AM-12:00PM)   (9:00 AM-12:00 PM)

 June 7, 2021                                                                         June 11, 2021
Français, langue                                                                     History of Quebec
seconde, sec 5                                                                       and Canada (Form
(Form VI) -                                                                          V) (9:00 AM-12:00
Programme de                                                                         PM)
base, production
écrite (9:00 AM-
12:00 PM)

June 14, 2021                             June 16, 2021                               June 18, 2021
Mathematics, Sec                          Science and                                Mathematics Sec 4
4 (Form V)                                Technology Sec 4                           (Form V)
Science Option                            (Form V)                                   CST Option
Mathematical                              Writing                                    Math Reasoning
reasoning                                 (9:00 AM-12:00                             (9:00 AM-12:00 PM)
(9:00 AM-12:00                            PM)
PM)

THE SENIOR SCHOOL ACADEMIC PROGRAM AT BISHOP’S COLLEGE SCHOOL –
FORM VI (GRADE 11) AND FORM VII (GRADE 12)

Bishop’s College School offers two educational pathways to its senior students, which prepares them
well for university study.

  •   BCS students can complete the full IB Diploma Programme, which is a two-year comprehensive
      and balanced course of study that is highly regarded by universities around the world. For
      successful completion of the IB Diploma, the following requirements must be met:
        o One course in each of the six subject groups (with the possibility of taking an extra science
           course in the place of a Fine Arts course). Three courses must be taken at Higher Level,
           and three at Standard Level.
        o Completion of the core requirements:
           o Creativity, Activity, Service (CAS) component
           o The Extended Essay
           o The Theory of Knowledge (TOK) course

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BISHOP’S COLLEGE SCHOOL – ACADEMIC HANDBOOK 2020-2021
For each IB course a student receives a grade from 1 to 7, with 7 being the highest possible score.
Students who successfully complete the six courses, as well as the core requirements, are granted an
IB Diploma.

Please note that BCS students who complete the full IB Diploma will automatically be granted a
High School Diploma from the province of New Brunswick.

The following IB courses, which provide a broad and balanced education program, are offered at BCS:

Group 1: Studies in Language and Literature
       English A: Language and Literature Higher Level (HL) and Standard Level (SL)
       French A: Language and Literature HL and SL
Group 2: Language Acquisition
       French B HL and SL
       French ab initio SL
Group 3: Individuals and Societies
       History HL and SL
       Global Politics HL
       Social and Cultural Anthropology HL
       Business and Management SL and HL
       Psychology SL and HL
Group 4: Sciences
       Physics SL and HL
       Chemistry SL and HL
       Biology SL and HL
       Environmental Systems and Societies SL
Group 5: Mathematics
       Mathematics: Analysis and Approaches SL & HL
       Mathematics: Applications and Interpretation SL & HL
Group 6:
       Visual Arts SL and HL
       Theatre Arts SL and HL
       Music SL and HL

 •   A student who does not wish to complete the full IB Diploma Programme can opt for the second
     option available to BCS students: a High School Diploma that is accredited by the Canadian
     province of New Brunswick. This High School Diploma is recognized internationally.

     Credits in this program are granted by the Department of Education in New Brunswick. These
     credits have authority to count towards the New Brunswick High School Diploma.

     In order to award the New Brunswick High School Diploma, students must earn a total of 17
     credits in grades 11 and 12.

     This High School Diploma can be enhanced by the completion of individual IB course credits.
     The majority of grade 11 and 12 courses follow the IB curriculum. Therefore, a student can
     choose whether to pursue IB course credits for one or more subjects.

     In addition to the IB courses mentioned above, BCS offers the following New Brunswick courses
     in grade 12:

     Film Studies 120
     Introduction to Accounting 120
     Introduction to Environmental Science 120
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BISHOP’S COLLEGE SCHOOL – ACADEMIC HANDBOOK 2020-2021
     Economics 120
     Law 120
     Anthropology 120

     A student who enters BCS in their grade 12 year can earn a High School Diploma from New
     Brunswick, upon successful completion of 9 credits and a passing grade on the English Language
     Proficiency Assessment mentioned below. Courses such as English are compulsory.

English Language Proficiency Assessment
Students must also meet the provincial literacy requirement. In other words, they must pass the
English Language Proficiency Assessment (ELPA), which is an assessment of students’ literacy abilities
based on the Atlantic Canada English Language Arts Curriculum Outcomes (grade 8) and the New
Brunswick Provincial Achievement Standards in Reading (end of grade 8). This aligns with the definition
of functional literacy by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD).

Note:
Bishop’s College School falls within New Brunswick District #99 and has been assigned the school
identifier 0045.

ACADEMIC OPTIONS AFTER SUCCESSFUL COMPLETION OF FORM VI

 Upon successful completion of Form VI, BCS students can consider the following options:

 •   Form VII (Grade 12) Year at BCS:
        o Completion of the requirements for the High School Diploma that is accredited by the
             New Brunswick Department of Education

         o   Completion of the requirements for the International Baccalaureate Diploma
             Programme or individual IB course certificates

         o   Selected high-achieving students in Form VI (at least 80% overall average), who have
             also demonstrated superior organizational and time management skills, may qualify to
             take an entry level university course at Bishop`s University, concurrently with the
             Grade 12 Program. This is called the Bishop’s University Bridge Program.

 •   CEGEP (Collège d’enseignement général et professionnel) is an educational level distinctive to
     the province of Quebec. It offers two-year university preparatory programs. It also offers
     three-year technical programs from which students usually enter the workforce. The minimum
     requirement for CEGEP is a Quebec Secondary School Diploma (DES). Students seeking
     admission to CEGEP apply during the month of February.

 •   Any Grade 12 Program in North America or Europe

 •   A two-year Sixth Form program in the UK

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BISHOP’S COLLEGE SCHOOL – ACADEMIC HANDBOOK 2020-2021
 POST-SECONDARY OPTIONS AFTER FORM VII (GRADE 12) AT BCS

  Upon successful completion of Form VII (Grade 12), BCS students can consider the following
  options.

  •   Entry into universities in Canada, the United States, the United Kingdom and other tertiary
      educational institutions worldwide. The academic programs offered at BCS, namely, the
      International Baccalaureate and the New Brunswick High School Program, are recognized and
      well-respected globally.

  Note: Admission requirements vary among universities and faculties.

  For specific questions regarding university entrance, please contact the Head of University
  Advising, Robin Barton (rbarton@bishopscollegeschool.com).

THE BISHOP’S COLLEGE SCHOOL CERTIFICATES

The Bishop's College School Certificate Form VI (Grade 11)
To obtain the Bishop's College School Certificate Form VI, a student must pass the required courses in
Form VI. In addition, the student must complete a minimum of the Bronze level of the Duke of
Edinburgh Award, complete a community service requirement (a minimum of 15 hours per year*), and
participate in the BCS Cadet program.

* A minimum of 15 hours per year is the requirement for the BCS Certificate Form VI. The Bronze level
of the Duke of Edinburgh Award satisfies this minimum 15 hour requirement. The Silver level includes a
30 hour requirement, and the Gold level includes a 60 hour requirement.

The Bishop's College School Certificate Form VII (Grade 12)
To obtain the Bishop's College School Certificate Form VII, a student must pass the required courses in
Form VII. If a student is at BCS in Form VII for one year, he or she must complete 9 credits, including
English. In addition, the student must complete a minimum of the Bronze level of the Duke of
Edinburgh Award, complete a community service requirement and participate in the BCS Cadet
program.

THE EFFORT RATING

Every second week each student is assessed by their teachers on the basis of academic effort.

A = Excellent Effort. The student goes beyond regular classroom expectations, consistently exhibiting
a determination to give of their best and to do more than is required.

B = Good Effort. The student completes prep on time, participates in class by being on task and
involved, and meets all course expectations.

C = Minimal or Inconsistent Effort. The student exhibits minimal or inconsistent effort, attention
and/or participation. Assignments are done, but they are late or incomplete.

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BISHOP’S COLLEGE SCHOOL – ACADEMIC HANDBOOK 2020-2021
D = Absence of Effort. The student has not fulfilled academic obligations, and absence of effort is
evident. Assignments have not been done. Classroom behaviour and/or participation have been poor.

Students who have two or more ‘A’s’ and nothing less than a ‘B’ in their courses are celebrated for their
good effort, and placed on the effort list. Students who earn 4 ‘C’ ratings or any ‘Ds’ are placed into
School House Prep, where they work in the conference room with a supervisor on duty.

MATH STREAMS IN FORMS V - VII

Quebec Math, Cultural, Social, and Technical      Quebec Math, Science Option (SN) and IB
      Option (CST) and IB Math Studies*               Math Standard and Higher Levels
For students interested in Arts,                 For students interested in research and
Communication, Administration, Humanities.       science.

Enjoy solving problems of a personal or          Enjoy writing proofs and applying research
professional nature and understanding social     protocol as well as analyzing mathematical
issues from a mathematical point of view.        models.

These students do better in math when they       These students do better when applying
are working on problems related to familiar      rules   and  concepts    that  require
issues.                                          abstraction.

* A student in this option can take a ‘bridge’ course if their choice of CEGEP or university program
requires an advanced math course.

Note: To take advanced math or science courses in Form V, VI, or VII, students should maintain a
high average, or seek permission of the department head.

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BISHOP’S COLLEGE SCHOOL – ACADEMIC HANDBOOK 2020-2021

 MATH STREAMS SCHEMATIC

                                           FORM II
                                                               50%-60%
                                                                                  Summer Tutoring
                                                                                  with Learning
                                                                                  Package

                                           FORM III

                                                                50%-60%

                                                                                  Summer Tutoring
                                                                                  with Learning
                                           FORM IV                                Package

                                                               Under                                    Score less
                                                               60%                                      than 60% -
                                                                                                        REDO
                                                                                  Summer
                                                                                  Progam

                       75% or greater                    60%-75 %

                       FORM V–SN                         FORM V–CST
               ≤ 60%                     ≤60%                             ≤ 60%                     ≤ 60%

     Summer                      Summer Bridge Program                            Summer
     Program                                                                      Program

                       FORM VI–SN                        FORM VI–CST
                       (Science)

           FORM VII                        FORM VII                         FORM VII
           IB MATH SL OR HL                IB MATH SL OR HL                 IB MATH SL OR HL

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BISHOP’S COLLEGE SCHOOL – ACADEMIC HANDBOOK 2020-2021
                                                       COURSE OFFERINGS
                Form II           Form III           Form IV           Form V               Form VI                     Form VII
                Grade 7           Grade 8            Grade 9           Grade 10             Grade 11                    Grade 12
                Sec. 1            Sec. 2             Sec. 3            Sec. 4               Sec. 5
                Cycle 1 yr.1      Cycle 1 yr.2       Cycle 2 yr.1      Cycle 2 yr.2         Cycle 2 yr.3

English         English or        English or         English or ESL    English or           English Language Arts or    English Language &
                ESL               ESL                                  ESL
                                                                                            English Language &          Literature
                                                                                            Literature

                                  Français,          Français,         Français,            Français/Français, langue   Français/Français,
Français        Français, FLS
                                  FSL or FLE         FSL or FLE        FSL or FLE           et littérature,             langue et littérature,
French FLS      or FLE
                                                                                            FSL/Français B or           FSL/Français B or
or
                                                                                            FLE/Français ab initio      FLE/Français ab initio
French FLE

                                                                       Math CST             Math CST/Math HL or SL      Math CST/Math HL or SL
Mathematic      Mathematics       Mathematics        Mathematics
                                                                       or                   or                          or
s
                                                                       Math SN              Math SN/Math HL or SL       Math SN/Math HL or SL

                                                                       Integrated                                       Biology
Science         Science &         Science &          Integrated                             Biology
                                                                       Science &
                Technology        Technology         Science &                                                          Chemistry
                                                                       Technology           Chemistry
                                                     Technology
                                                                                                                        Physics
                                                                                            Physics
                                                                       Environmental
                                                                       Science              Environmental Systems       Environmental Systems
                                                                                                                        and Societies
                                                                                            and Societies
                                                                                            Computer Science            Computer Science

Social          Social            Social             History &         History &            Contemporary World/
                                                                                                                        Psychology
Sciences        Science           Science            Citizenship       Citizenship          Monde Contemporain
                                                                                                                        Introduction to
                Univers Social    Univers Social     Histoire et       Histoire et          Éducation financière/
                                                                                                                        Accounting
                                                     éducation à la    éducation à la       Financial Literacy
                                                     citoyenneté       citoyenneté
                                                                                                                        Business &
                                                                                            History
                                                                                                                        Management

                                                                                            Business & Management
                                                                                                                        History

                                                                                            Global Politics
                                                                                                                        Global Politics

                                                                                            Social and Cultural
                                                                                                                        Social and Cultural
                                                                                            Anthropology
                                                                                                                        Anthropology

                                                                                            Psychology
                                                                                                                        Law

Arts            Art/Music         Art/Music/         Art               Art                  Art                         Art
                                  Drama
                                                     Music             Music                Music                       Music
                                                     Drama             Drama                Drama                       Drama
                                                     Robotics                                                           Film Studies
                                                                                            Physical Education and      Physical Education and
Physical        Physical          Physical           Physical          Physical
                                                                                            Leadership                  Leadership
Education       Education         Education          Education         Education
                                                                                            Health and Wellness         Health and Wellness
                                                                                                                        Outdoor Pursuits

Reflection      Ethics            Ethics                               Ethics               Ethics and Theory of
                                                                                                                        Theory of Knowledge
and Inquiry                                                                                 Knowledge

  - - The text in green itlalics denotes courses offered in the Option Bilingue – Bilingual Option Program.
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BISHOP’S COLLEGE SCHOOL – ACADEMIC HANDBOOK 2020-2021

                                      Course Descriptions
FORM II (GRADE 7–CYCLE 1, YEAR 1)–COURSE DESCRIPTIONS

English Language Arts–Form II (632106)
Students read and respond, orally and in writing, to a variety of texts. They are exposed to different
types of literature such as short stories, myths, and selections from Shakespeare, novels, plays, and
poetry. They are encouraged to make connections between their own lives and the literature they are
studying. At all times, they are expected to read their own choice of literature for pleasure and
enrichment.

Students learn the importance of writing to engage and entertain their readers. In the beginning, there
is an emphasis on writing that is informal, reflective, and familiar. During the year, they learn how to
write for different purposes and audiences. Modes of writing practiced at this level are
autobiographies, narratives, poems, descriptions, journals, reports, skits, newspaper articles, and
personal letters. The students will also recognize that writing is a process, and that the final product
is, therefore, the result of a series of writing activities in which they must fully participate.

Oral expression is encouraged and cultivated in all classroom activities. Students participate daily in
class and small-group discussions. They also take part in drama workshops, presentations, and public-
speaking contests.

Finally, students are often asked to represent their ideas in a variety of media, engaging in, for
example, the illustration of stories and poems, and collage and poster making.

English as a Second Language–Form II–Cycle 1 Year 1 (135234)
The ESL course is designed to allow the student to achieve proficiency in conversational and academic
English so as to integrate as quickly and as fully as possible into the content-area subject classes and
the regular BCS English program. In doing so, the student will maintain an English-only environment
while developing their speaking, reading, writing, and listening skills. Each task and project done in the
ESL class will ask the student to draw upon one or more of the three targeted competencies in the
MELS program: Interacts Orally, Writes and Produces Texts, and Reinvests Understanding of Texts.

Such tasks include recognizing and understanding different types of writing (short stories, novels,
poems, plays, speeches, newspaper articles, short research papers), communicating effectively in
social and academic settings, and understanding English at a normal speed, in unstructured and
structured situations (chats with peers, speeches, TV and movie representations, etc.). The student
will also create visual representations to express personal responses to a variety of texts to express
their own message using collages, portfolios, book jackets, posters, etc.

The ESL course is made to teach students how to interact comfortably and confidently with others at
BCS: in the classroom, in the residences, and on sports teams, by understanding the Canadian and BCS
cultures and expectations, but without sacrificing the values of the student’s own cultural heritage.

Français, langue d’enseignement, 1re année du 1er cycle (132108)
Ce cours s’adresse aux élèves qui ont complété le troisième cycle du primaire dans une école
francophone du Québec ou d’ailleurs. L’objectif premier est d’amener ces élèves à développer les
compétences disciplinaires requises : « Lire et apprécier des textes variés », « Écrire des textes variés
» et « Communiquer oralement selon des modalités variées ». Dans leur cheminement personnel, les
élèves devraient atteindre une autonomie qui leur permettra de poursuivre leur apprentissage de tous
les volets de la langue dans les années ultérieures.

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BISHOP’S COLLEGE SCHOOL – ACADEMIC HANDBOOK 2020-2021
Français langue seconde, programmes de base et enrichi–1re année du 1er cycle
Selon le niveau atteint à la fin du 3e cycle du primaire, l’élève sera classé au programme enrichi ou au
programme de base.

Programme enrichi–1re année du 1er cycle (635106)
Ce cours s’adresse soit aux élèves qui possèdent une certaine aisance en français, soit à ceux qui ont
suivi le parcours d’immersion au primaire. Il vise le développement d’habiletés plus complexes, tant à
l’écrit qu’à l’oral. Le programme enrichi développe trois différentes compétences disciplinaires : «
Interagir en français», « Produire des textes variés en français » et « Lire des textes courants et
littéraires en français ». Tout comme les autres programmes, le niveau enrichi permet à l’élève de
s’approprier les compétences générales suivantes: exercer son jugement critique, organiser son
travail, savoir communiquer, et savoir travailler en équipe.

Programme de base–1re année du 1er cycle (634106)
Ce cours s’adresse aux élèves qui ont suivi le programme de base du primaire. Il vise une connaissance
fonctionnelle de la langue qui permet à l’élève de participer à la vie de la communauté francophone. Le
programme de base développe trois différentes compétences disciplinaires : « Interagir en français »,
«Produire des textes variés en français » et « Lire des textes variés en français ». Tout comme les
autres programmes, le niveau de base permet à l’élève de s’approprier différentes compétences
générales suivantes: exercer son jugement critique, organiser son travail, savoir communiquer et
savoir travailler en équipe.

French as a foreign language (634144)
This course is intended for students who have very little or no experience in French. Its principal aim is
to allow students to communicate orally on topics that are relevant to them. They are often
encouraged to work in groups and at other times their projects are individual. Typical topics include:
introducing oneself, the family, school, friends, city and country of origin, sports, food, professions,
heroes, and vacation plans.

Math–Form II–Cycle 1 Year 1 (563106)
The Grade 7 course is designed to provide students with the opportunity to develop, understand, and
use math within a real life context. Most of the work revolves around word problems, based on the
following areas of course content: number theory, decimals, fractions, percentage, rates and ratios,
statistics and probability, coordinate geometry, solid geometry, transformational geometry and plane
geometry, as well as integers and basic polynomials.

General Science & Technology–Form II–Cycle 1 Year 1 (555104)
The objective of this course is to introduce students to science and technology. Specifically, the
technological world, the material world, earth and space, and the living world are examined. Students
engage in both the scientific inquiry process and a technological design process. They examine
questions relating to natural phenomena and analyze them from a scientific or technological point of
view. Finally, they communicate their knowledge in the language of science and technology.

Ethics–Form II–Cycle 1 Year 1 (569102)
The primary aim of this course is to help the youngest, newest students in the school to be
comfortable in their new environment and in themselves. It concentrates on two major themes:
Respect and self-esteem. The course deals with some of the most difficult issues relevant to their
lives. It also looks at the major world religions and some common themes, such as creation stories, to
give them a better understanding of the different cultural backgrounds of the students in our school.

History–Form II–Cycle 1 Year 1 (587103)
Students are encouraged to open up to the world. They use the historical method to examine and
interpret social phenomena that constitute turning points in the history of the Western world, from
prehistorical times to the present. They become aware of the importance of human action in social
change.
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BISHOP’S COLLEGE SCHOOL – ACADEMIC HANDBOOK 2020-2021

Geography–Form II–Cycle 1 Year 1 (595103)
Students study how human beings use, occupy, and take possession of space and transform it into a
territory. Different types of territories in Québec, Canada, and other parts of the world have been
selected for study: urban territory (metropolises, cities subject to natural hazards, and heritage cities),
regional territory (tourist regions, forest regions, energy-producing regions, and industrial regions),
agricultural territory (agricultural territory in a national space and agricultural territory subject to
natural hazards), Native territory, and protected territory. Students learn to understand the
organization of these territories and interpret issues associated with them. These territories are
presented in the same order as in the Geography Program, however, they may be taught in any
sequence. It is up to teachers and cycle teams to decide how to distribute the content based on their
planning needs.

Univers social
Ce cours d’univers social est le résultat du Renouveau pédagogique amorcé par le Ministère de
l’Éducation des Loisirs et des Sports. Ce programme s’échelonne sur une période de deux ans. Il
comprend deux disciplines qui sont la géographie et l’histoire. Le programme est conçu en alternance
dans le but d’assurer la progression de l’élève dans ces deux matières tout au long du cycle.

Histoire–1re année du 1er cycle (087103)
Ce cours d’histoire permet aux élèves de découvrir et de sonder l’histoire du monde, de la préhistoire à
l’époque contemporaine. Pour l’élève, l’objectif est de développer un intérêt pour le passé et de voir
comment le monde actuel se bâtit, s’appuyant sur le développement de civilisations antérieures. Les
principaux domaines d’étude sont la Préhistoire et l’Antiquité. Divers aspects de l’histoire de l’Afrique,
de l’Asie, et de l’Amérique du Sud sont également à l’étude. Avant d’explorer ces thèmes, les élèves
apprennent la méthode et la terminologie historiques appropriées.

Pour chaque civilisation ou période étudiée, les élèves s’impliquent dans des projets variés. Ils
élaborent des notes d’après les lectures faites et des activités en classe, produisent des affiches ou
autres projets d’art qui seront exposés et préparent de courts textes comparatifs. Les élèves sont
aussi mis en contact avec des spécialistes et ont la chance de parfaire leurs connaissances par
certaines visites. Pour chaque unité, les élèves entreprennent un projet de recherche. Les élèves
développent des habiletés de recherche efficaces, apprennent à évaluer les documents de première
et de deuxième main et produisent une bibliographie complète.

Géographie–1re année du 1er cycle (095103)
Ce cours de géographie amène les élèves à développer trois compétences fondamentales à cette
discipline. Dans un premier temps, comprendre l’organisation d’un territoire, ensuite s’interroger sur la
complexité d’un enjeu territorial et, finalement, prendre conscience des problèmes géographiques à
l’échelle planétaire. Pour arriver à ces fins, les élèves étudient, durant l’année, différents types de
territoires tels le territoire urbain, le territoire régional, le territoire agricole, le territoire autochtone et,
finalement, le territoire protégé.

À travers des projets de recherche, l’élève se donne des méthodes de travail, exploite des sources
variées et utilise les technologies de l’information. Concrètement, il décode des paysages, étudie et
produit des cartes, schémas et croquis géographiques, met en relation différentes échelles d’analyse
des territoires et, enfin, évalue les conséquences des actions humaines sur un territoire ainsi que la
portée des solutions à des problèmes planétaires.

Health and Physical Education–Form II–Cycle 1 Year 1 (543102)
Physical education is a participation-based class that will provide opportunity for all students to
develop physical, social, and communication skills. With consideration for the Quebec Education
Program, the courses will be focused on three main competencies:

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BISHOP’S COLLEGE SCHOOL – ACADEMIC HANDBOOK 2020-2021
Movement Skills
The principles of balance and coordination combined with movement skills will be integrated into
different physical activities.

Interaction Skills and Teamwork
Students will interact with others during various physical activities. Emphasis will be placed on plans
of action, communication, and teamwork. Physical activities will focus on cooperation, opposition or a
combination of both. Students must follow a code of ethics and develop strategies that involve
individual and group tactics.

Adoption of a Healthy Lifestyle
Students will be encouraged to examine and document the impact of their lifestyle habits. Through
research and information analysis, students will reflect on their lifestyle habits, especially, physical
activities, diet, substance abuse, sleep, stress, and personal hygiene. A plan of action should be
developed that will contribute to improvement in their overall lifestyle habits and choices. Upon
completion of this Program, students will be able to make positive lifestyle connections that can be
applied in school, family, and community settings.

Music–Form II–Cycle 1 Year 1 (669104)
Students are introduced to the various instruments and make two choices. We do our best to give
them their first choice but it is not always possible. Upon completion of this course students are able
to play a musical instrument with good tone production and various methods of articulation. Students
have an understanding of the basic musical vocabulary and its applications and they are taught proper
instrument care. Basic theory is taught at this level and students use Yamaha Band Method Book 1.
Students in Grade 7 are encouraged to play in the Junior Band after Christmas break.

Art–Form II–Cycle 1 Year 1 (668104)
The Visual Arts program in Grade 7 introduces students to a variety of media including drawing,
painting, sculpture, and collage. Students are encouraged to develop complementary competencies of
personal images, media images, and appreciating images. An example of a Grade 7 assignment is the
Alexander Calder wire and cork circus sculpture project.

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BISHOP’S COLLEGE SCHOOL – ACADEMIC HANDBOOK 2020-2021

FORM III (GRADE 8–CYCLE 1, YEAR 2)–COURSE DESCRIPTIONS

English–Form III–Cycle 1, Year 2 (632206)
English Language Arts
Students read and respond to a variety of texts. They learn to identify specific genres of writing as
they are exposed to short stories, novels, plays, and poetry. They also have the opportunity to read
and discuss articles and essays that relate to specific literary themes and real life issues. Students
learn to develop their initial responses by making connections between their own lives and the
literature they are studying. Throughout the year, they work towards a deeper interpretation and
some evaluation of the prescribed reading, while at the same time, reading their own choice of
literature for pleasure and enrichment.

Students learn the importance of writing to engage and entertain their readers. In the beginning, there
is an emphasis on writing that is informal, reflective, and familiar. During the year, they learn how to
write for different purposes and audiences. Modes of writing practiced at this level are:
autobiographies, narratives, poems, descriptions, journals, expository essays (both formal and
informal), newspaper articles, and personal and business letters. The students will also recognize that
writing is a process and that the final product is therefore the result of a series of writing activities in
which they must fully participate.

Oral expression is encouraged and cultivated in all classroom activities. Students participate daily in
class and small-group discussions, as well as readings and recitations. They also take part in role-
plays, debates, presentations, and public-speaking contests. In addition, there is a media component
to the English program, through which students learn to be active and critical watchers of film, while
learning to deconstruct a variety of media texts. Finally, students are often asked to present their
ideas in forms other than writing. They may illustrate poems and stories, make posters, bookmarks, or
play programs.

English as a Second Language–Form III–Cycle 1, Year 2 (134208)
The ESL course is designed to allow the student to achieve proficiency in conversational and academic
English so as to integrate as quickly and as fully as possible into the content-area subject classes and
the regular BCS English program. In doing so, the student will maintain an English-only environment
while developing his or her speaking, reading, writing, and listening skills. Each task and project done in
the ESL class will ask the student to draw upon one or more of the three targeted competencies in the
MELS program: Interacts Orally, Writes and Produces Texts, and Reinvests Understanding of Texts.

Such tasks include recognizing and understanding different types of writing (short stories, novels,
poems, plays, speeches, newspaper articles, short research papers), communicating effectively in
social and academic settings, and understanding English at a normal speed, in unstructured and
structured situations (chats with peers, speeches, TV and movie representations, etc.). The student
will also create visual representations to express personal responses to a variety of texts to express
their own message using collages, portfolios, book jackets, posters, etc.

The ESL course is made to teach students how to interact comfortably and confidently with others at
BCS: in the classroom, in the residences, and on sports teams, by understanding the Canadian and BCS
cultures and expectations, but without sacrificing the values of the student’s own cultural heritage.

Français, langue d’enseignement–2e année du 1er cycle (132208)
Ce cours s’adresse aux élèves qui ont complété la 1re année du 1er cycle. Il s’inscrit dans la continuité
du développement des compétences disciplinaires « Lire et apprécier des textes variés », « Écrire des
textes variés » et « Communiquer oralement selon des modalités variées ». Tout est mis en œuvre
pour que les élèves consolident et approfondissent leurs connaissances acquises au cours du 1er
cycle. Dans leur cheminement personnel, les élèves devraient atteindre une autonomie qui leur

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BISHOP’S COLLEGE SCHOOL – ACADEMIC HANDBOOK 2020-2021
permettra de poursuivre leur apprentissage de tous les volets de la langue dans les années
ultérieures.

Français, langue seconde, enrichi–2e année du 1er cycle (635206)
Ce cours s’adresse aux élèves qui ont réussi le niveau enrichi en français, langue seconde de la 1re
année du 1er cycle. Il a comme objectif de permettre aux élèves inscrits d’atteindre, à la fin de la 3e
année du 2e cycle, un niveau de compétence permettant à l’élève de poursuivre ses études en
français ou d’exercer sa profession dans un milieu francophone. Le programme enrichi développe trois
différentes compétences disciplinaires : « Interagir en français », « Produire des textes variés en
français » et « Lire des textes variés en français». Tout comme les autres programmes, le niveau
enrichi permet à l’élève de s’approprier les compétences générales suivantes: exercer son jugement
critique, organiser son travail, savoir communiquer, et savoir travailler en équipe.

Français, langue seconde, base–2e année du 1er cycle (634206)
Ce cours s’adresse aux élèves qui ont réussi le niveau de base en français, langue seconde de la 1re
année du 1er cycle. Il a comme objectif de permettre aux élèves inscrits d’atteindre, à la fin de la 3e
année du 2e cycle, un niveau de compétence qui permet de fonctionner efficacement en français. Le
programme de base développe trois différentes compétences disciplinaires : « Interagir en français », «
Produire des textes variés en français » et « Lire des textes variés en français». Tout comme les
autres programmes, le niveau de base permet à l’élève de s’approprier les compétences générales
suivantes: exercer son jugement critique, organiser son travail, savoir communiquer et savoir travailler
en équipe.

French as a foreign language–Form III–Cycle 1, Year 2 (634244)
This course is intended for students who have very little or no experience in French. Its principal aim is
to allow students to communicate orally on topics that are relevant to them. They are often
encouraged to work in groups and at other times their projects are individual. Typical topics include:
introducing oneself, the family, school, friends, city and country of origin, sports, food, professions,
heroes, and vacation plans.

Math–Form III–Cycle 1, Year 2 (563206)
The Grade 8 course is a continuation of the Grade 7 program. The premise is that students are to
relate mathematics to the real world. Therefore questions revolve around areas of concrete
mathematics. Students focus on areas including: various modes of representation, proportions,
similarity transformations, algebraic calculations and equations, transformations on the Cartesian
plane, percent, the circle, probability, and regular polygons.

Science & Technology–Form III–Cycle 1, Year 2 (555204)
This is a continuation of the content and methods introduced in the Science and Technology course
which began in Year 1, Cycle 1. The aim is to continue to help students develop and improve various
competencies related to the investigation of scientific phenomena.

Social Studies–Form III–Cycle 1, Year 2
In keeping with the Ministry of Education reform plan, students in Grades 7 and 8 are considered to be
in a two year program called Secondary Cycle 1. Cycle 1 covers history, geography, and citizenship.
Students use a variety of learning techniques that involve research, group work, and testing in order
to have the capacity to analyse the material being investigated.

Students build upon the skills and knowledge they acquire throughout the two year cycle, thus the
geography component constantly refers back to map reading techniques undertaken in the early
sections of the course.

History (587213)

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BISHOP’S COLLEGE SCHOOL – ACADEMIC HANDBOOK 2020-2021
This history course allows students to discover and explore world history, from prehistoric to
contemporary times. For students, the goal is to develop an interest in the past and see how the world
of today is built, based on the development of earlier civilizations. The main areas of study are
Prehistory, Antiquity, Middle Ages, the Renaissance, Imperialism, and the 20th century. Various
aspects of the history of Africa, Asia, and South America are also under consideration. Before
exploring these themes, students learn the method and the appropriate historical terminology.

For each civilization or period, students are involved in various projects. They prepare notes from the
readings and classroom activities, produce posters or other art projects that will be exposed and
prepare short texts comparative. For each unit, students undertake a research project. Students
develop effective research skills, learn to evaluate primary and secondary source documents and
produce a comprehensive bibliography.

Geography (595203)
This geography course helps students develop three basic skills in this discipline. Students must first
understand the organization of a territory, then consider the complexity of a territorial issue and
finally, become aware of the geographical problems globally. To achieve these ends, students study
different types of territories such as urban land, land area, agricultural land, the indigenous territory,
and finally, the protected territory.

Through research projects the student is given work methods, operates a variety of sources and uses
of information technology. Specifically, the student decodes landscapes, and studies produced maps,
diagrams and sketch maps, connects different scales of analysis of the territories and finally,
evaluates the consequences of human actions on a territory and the scope of solutions to global
problems.

Univers social
Ce cours d’univers social est le résultat du Renouveau pédagogique amorcé par le Ministère de
l’Éducation des Loisirs et des Sports. Ce programme s’échelonne sur une période de deux ans. Il
comprend deux disciplines qui sont la géographie et l’histoire. Le programme est conçu en alternance
dans le but d’assurer la progression de l’élève dans ces deux matières tout au long du cycle.

Histoire–2e année du 1er cycle (087213)
Ce cours d’histoire permet aux élèves de découvrir et de sonder l’histoire du monde, de la préhistoire à
l’époque contemporaine. Pour l’élève, l’objectif est de développer un intérêt pour le passé et de voir
comment le monde actuel se bâtit, s’appuyant sur le développement de civilisations antérieures. Les
principaux domaines d’étude sont le Moyen Age, la Renaissance, l’Impérialisme et le 20e siècle. Divers
aspects de l’histoire de l’Afrique, de l’Asie, et de l’Amérique du Sud sont également à l’étude. Avant
d’explorer ces thèmes, les élèves apprennent la méthode et la terminologie historiques appropriées.

Pour chaque civilisation ou période étudiée, les élèves s’impliquent dans des projets variés. Ils
élaborent des notes d’après les lectures faites et des activités en classe, produisent des affiches ou
autres projets d’art qui seront exposés et préparent de courts textes comparatifs. Les élèves sont
aussi mis en contact avec des spécialistes et ont la chance de parfaire leurs connaissances par
certaines visites. Pour chaque unité, les élèves entreprennent un projet de recherche. Les élèves
développent des habiletés de recherche efficaces, apprennent à évaluer les documents de première
et de deuxième main et produisent une bibliographie complète.

Géographie–2e année du 1er cycle (095203)
Ce cours de géographie amène les élèves à développer trois compétences fondamentales à cette
discipline. Dans un premier temps, comprendre l’organisation d’un territoire, ensuite s’interroger sur la
complexité d’un enjeu territorial et, finalement, prendre conscience des problèmes géographiques à
l’échelle planétaire. Pour arriver à ces fins, les élèves étudient, durant l’année, différents types de

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