Cadastre 2034 Powering Land & Real Property - Cadastral Reform and Innovation for Australia - A National Strategy

Cadastre 2034 Powering Land & Real Property - Cadastral Reform and Innovation for Australia - A National Strategy
Cadastre 2034
Powering Land & Real Property
Cadastral Reform and Innovation for Australia -
A National Strategy

Consultation document                 ANZLIC COMMITTEE ON
April 2014                           SURVEYING & MAPPING
Cadastre 2034 Powering Land & Real Property - Cadastral Reform and Innovation for Australia - A National Strategy
A Vision for Cadastre 2034
   “A cadastral system that enables people to readily and confidently
   identify the location and extent of all rights, restrictions and
   responsibilities related to land and real property.”

Call for Submissions
The ICSM invites your comments on this consultation document.
Your feedback will help us make informed decisions on the final version of
the strategy, ensuring its relevance to the needs of industry, government
and the community.
Please assist us in getting this important strategy right.
Submissions can be made via the ICSM website at or via email to Written submissions can be sent to ICSM Chair,
GPO Box 378, Canberra ACT 2601 Australia.
Contributions are welcome from all interested organisations and people.
The closing date for submissions is 31 July 2014.
Paul Harcombe, ICSM Chair
Cadastre 2034 Powering Land & Real Property - Cadastral Reform and Innovation for Australia - A National Strategy
Table of Contents
Purpose of this Document                                            2
Cadastre 2034: Powering Land and Real Property                      3
Imagine 2034: The Future Can and Must be Anticipated                4
  Quantum leaps in innovation                                       4
  Increasingly vertical lifestyles                                  4
  Personal Positioning                                              4
  Virtual knowledge environments                                    5
  Crowd sourcing and collaboration                                  5
  Securing the future                                               5
Future Proofing the Cadastre                                        6
  Our Vision                                                        6
  Our Role                                                          6
  Our Goals                                                         7
Case for Change                                                      8
  Economic Sustainability                                            8
  Political, Environmental and Social Imperatives                    9
  Community Expectations                                            10
Securing the future                                                 11
  Embedding Enduring Principles through a Strategic Lens Approach   11
Powering the Future: The Framework                                  12
  Goal 1: A fundamental cadastre                                    14
  Goal 2: A multipurpose cadastre                                   16
  Goal 3: A broader cadastre                                        18
  Goal 4: A representational cadastre                               20
  Goal 5: A federated cadastre                                      22
Delivering on Strategy                                              24
  The Delivery Model                                                24
  A Collaborative Approach                                          26
Note to Fellow Professionals                                        27
  Managing Technological Transition                                 27
  Revising the Legislative Framework                                28
  Integrating Rights, Restrictions and Responsibilities             29
  Improving Spatial Accuracy                                        30
  Sustaining the Profession                                         31
Appendix A – Explanation of Terms                                   32
Appendix B – Glossary of Abbreviations                              33
Appendix C – References                                             34

Cadastre 2034 Powering Land & Real Property - Cadastral Reform and Innovation for Australia - A National Strategy
Cadastre 2034 Powering Land & Real Property

    Purpose of this
    Cadastre 2034: Powering Land and Real Property
    has been prepared by the Permanent Committee on
    Cadastre; a subcommittee of the Intergovernmental
    Committee on Surveying and Mapping.
    This document’s purpose is consultative. It represents the first phase in
    seeking broader community input and support for Cadastre 2034.
    The strategy captures the trends and articulates the vision of what we
    believe the community will require of our cadastral system by 2034. It
    identifies where current information falls short of consumer expectations
    today, and considers the user scenarios that will trigger changing needs in
    the future.
    This strategy will assist ANZLIC in the definition of the future state of the
    Land Parcel and Property theme in the ANZ Foundation Spatial Data
    Cadastre 2034 has been developed with input from a New Zealand
    perspective and Trans-Tasman collaboration remains an important feature
    of this strategy.
    ICSM can not deliver Cadastre 2034 alone. It will require the collective
    thinking of government, industry, academia and the broader community
    if we are to create a compelling picture of a desirable future state of our
    cadastral system. Your input is essential to working towards and realising
    our shared aspirations.
    ●   Do you agree with our view?
    ●   Do you support the enduring principles we espouse?
    ●   Are we moving in the right direction?
    ●   Do our goals and objectives reflect your own aspirations?
    ●   What can you contribute?
    ●   Do we have your support?
    Information on how you can participate is available on the inside cover of
    this document. Your feedback will inform the final strategy. I look forward
    to your involvement.

    Paul Harcombe
    Chair, Intergovernmental Committee on Surveying and Mapping (ICSM)

Cadastre 2034 Powering Land & Real Property - Cadastral Reform and Innovation for Australia - A National Strategy
Cadastral Reform and Innovation for Australia - A National Strategy

Cadastre 2034
Powering Land and Real Property
What is the cadastral system?
The cadastral system defines and records the location and extent of property
rights, restrictions and responsibilities. It includes a geometric description
of land and real property boundaries linked to other records describing the
nature of the interests, the ownership or control of those interests, and often
the value of the parcel and its improvements [1, 2].

Why is the cadastral system important?
The cadastral systems of Australia underpin stable and reliable registration
of land based property rights. The cadastral system traditionally serves as
the foundation for effective land tenure transactions and in securing the
legal status of property boundaries. Cadastral systems play a significant and
ongoing role contributing towards the economic and social prosperity we           The modern cadastre
know today and expect in our future.
                                                                                  we know today will
Why should we care about this document?                                           not fulfill community
The proposed Cadastre 2034 strategy anticipates that the modern cadastre          expectations in the
we know today will not fulfil community expectations in the future; we can        future; we can already
already see a gap emerging between what we have and what will be needed.
                                                                                  see a gap emerging
Societal demands will change substantially over the next 20 years as new
                                                                                  between what we
technologies, environmental challenges and social and political influences
gradually transform inherent traditions, practices and thinking. Cadastre 2034    have and what will
responds to these changes and the challenges they represent.                      be needed.
The cadastral system of the future will be a highly influential part of
tomorrow’s lifestyle decision support systems, powering land and real
property management, development and investment; where property and
all other interests on land are managed in an integrated manner.
The challenge facing cadastral stewardship is to manage the convergence
of consumer expectations for integrated social, economic and land related
systems, and opportunities for growth; with the disruption that comes
with the phasing out of one technology and the start of another, as well as
industry reaction arising from doing things differently.
The final version of Cadastre 2034 will guide the evolution of jurisdictional
systems and ensure a coordinated and consistent approach to future
policies, legislation, standards, models and research; and provide clear
direction for the sector as a whole.
The value of Cadastre 2034 is that it establishes a single point philosophy on
what the community can expect and what the government has to deliver in
the future.
Each jurisdiction will then be able to take this high level strategy and work
towards achieving the identified goals from their own unique starting points.
This includes New Zealand, which shares the same vision and expectations
but has a different physical and administrative environment [3].

Cadastre 2034 Powering Land & Real Property - Cadastral Reform and Innovation for Australia - A National Strategy
Cadastre 2034 Powering Land & Real Property

                         Imagine 2034
                         The Future Can and Must be Anticipated
                         In 2034 cadastral systems will be further embedded in our social and
                         economic structures - playing a significant role in traditional land tenure,
                         valuation and utility systems, and in the governance frameworks that
                         stipulate how we develop, use and occupy land. The following will impact
                         on the way we respond as an industry.

                         Quantum leaps in innovation
                         Cadastre 2034 will provide multiple functions that contribute to growth
Our tools will become    in the economy; underpinning entirely new industries in the health,
smaller, faster and be   agriculture and social sectors, achieved through the innovative use of land
                         and real property.
more powerful, and the
                         We are in an era of accelerated technological advancement, distinguished
cadastre will develop
                         not only by new innovations, but by their application, delivery and scale.
into an integrated       By 2034 computers will be characterised by speech (and possibly thought)
knowledge-base that      driven devices with natural language interfaces hard to distinguish from
can be leveraged         human-to-human interactions.

creatively.              Big data sets containing information about land and property will
                         increasingly be collected by sensors in machine readable form and shared
                         directly with data readers and other technologies without requiring
                         human intervention.
                         Our tools will become smaller, faster and be more powerful, and the
                         cadastre will develop into an integrated knowledge-base that can be
                         leveraged creatively.

                         Vertical living lifestyles
                         Cadastre 2034 will need to deliver accurate 3-dimensional digital
                         representations of property boundaries. More people will be living in
                         urban environments and multistorey buildings will have shared services
                         and facilities. Transportation systems will be constructed above ground
                         as skyways to reach upper building levels. Future skyscrapers will be
                         characterised by vertical market farming and used as a community food
                         source in addition to inner city carbon benefits.
                         These vertical living lifestyles will create complex property scenarios that
                         the future cadastral system will need to contend with. New legislation
                         will be required to enable the increasing complexity of land and property
                         ownership to be administered.

                         Personal positioning
                         Transportation systems of the future will require sub-decimetre positional
                         accuracy, like the automated vehicle guidance systems used in agriculture
                         and mining today. They will also need to be integrated with real property
                         data for individualised navigation.

Cadastre 2034 Powering Land & Real Property - Cadastral Reform and Innovation for Australia - A National Strategy
Cadastral Reform and Innovation for Australia - A National Strategy

 Mobile devices will evolve to become advanced personnel positioning
 systems; used by citizens and property developers alike, to accurately
 locate land boundaries and the position of utilities below ground.

 Virtual knowledge environments
 The next generation will be a massively online society permanently
 wearing devices that record, store and index the things we see and
 Our cadastre and related products will not be immune. Land
 information will need to be available ‘on-demand’ to anyone, anyplace,
 anytime. The community will want to be warned immediately of an
 impending threat to their property, such as fire, flood and storm.
 The integration and accessibility of information is key to understanding
 rights, restrictions and responsibilities on land. In the near future
 information about land, and knowledge about what can be done with
 it and by whom, will be instantaneous; potentially warning us if we
                                                                              Securing the future
 enter private, prohibited and unsafe areas.
                                                                              Despite the technological
 The semantic web will play a significant role in simplifying and
                                                                              disruption and changing
 decoding complex data so that it is easily accessible and understood by
                                                                              societal needs that will occur
 the wider community.
                                                                              over the next 20 years, a secure
                                                                              transparent system of land
 Collaboration and crowdsourcing                                              registration will remain an
 In the future our cadastral supply chains will be virtual. Technology        enduring need.
 will enable the digital cadastre to be managed in collaborative              This will be achieved through the
 organisational environments and integrated with rights, restrictions and     continued application of rigorous
 responsibilities in real-time.                                               processes, standards and
 Volunteered geographic information will be an integral component of          policies that will create reliable
 data management and in the collection of interests on land. Automated        and complete information
 solutions will differentiate and integrate information from trusted and      about each parcel of land; and
 non-trusted sources.                                                         through a supporting legislative
                                                                              framework that accurately
 Supply chains will be fully integrated allowing cadastral surveys,
                                                                              reflects evolving community
 development approvals, legal discovery, financing and building
                                                                              needs and aspirations.
 construction to be organised by an individual on a single personal device.

Cadastre 2034 Powering Land & Real Property - Cadastral Reform and Innovation for Australia - A National Strategy
Cadastre 2034 Powering Land & Real Property

                                                Future Proofing
                                                the Cadastre
                                                Permanent Committee on Cadastre
                                                It is essential that our cadastral system endures as a resource for the
                                                continued prosperity of future generations. Stable and reliable property
                                                rights systems are sustained through the cadastral system, which
                                                comprises property boundaries and survey marks, surveying regulations
                                                and standards, and records of surveys (Figure 1). Collectively, these
                                                mechanisms ensure that all land and real property can be easily, uniquely
                                                and accurately identified in a common reference system.

                                                Our Vision
                                                In developing a vision for Cadastre 2034, a fundamental principle is to
                                                recognise that land (and/or real property) is the basis for human activity;
                                                and that having knowledge about land is essential for wise decision
                                                making in a modern society.

                                                  Our Vision is:
                                                  A cadastral system that enables people to readily and confidently
                                                  identify the location and extent of all rights, restrictions and
                                                  responsibilities related to land and real property.

                                                Our Role
Permanent Committee on Cadastre:                Today’s online citizens are able to access location information faster than
From left to right, Michael Burdett (Surveyor
                                                ever before and this trend is set to continue. People want to be more self-
General SA), Dr Don Grant (Surveyor
General New Zealand), Bill Hirst (Surveyor      reliant and have access to the right information and tools to make sound
General ACT), Dr Russell Priebbenow             judgments for themselves.
(Director of Surveys QLD), Paul Harcombe
(Chief Surveyor NSW). Michael Guidici           Determining what information people require and which tools are
(Surveyor General TAS), David Boyle (Deputy     needed in the future, is something this strategy explores. The strategy
Surveyor General VIC), Richard Browne           envisages enhanced methods of access while acknowledging that pricing
(Chief Inspecting Surveyor WA and Chair
                                                and licensing conditions may continue to vary over time and across the
of PCC). Absent: John Tulloch (Surveyor
General VIC), and Garry West (Surveyor          nation. It is time to take stock of where we are, and what we want the
General NT).                                    cadastral environment to look like in the future.
                                                Planning for the future is only one part of the journey. The most important
                                                aspect is taking ownership of the plan and bringing together all facets,
                                                from strategic actions to smart innovations; in order to create a cadastral
                                                system we can continue to be proud of in the future.

                                                  Hence, our mission is:
                                                  To promote and support innovation and provide the leadership,
                                                  coordination and standards necessary to deliver a unified cadastre
                                                  that can be leveraged to find sustainable solutions to meet emerging
                                                  needs and opportunities.

                                                We recognise that if we do not have projects and plans aligned with the
                                                issues, opportunities and needs of the future; then Cadastre 2034, as we
   6                                            imagine it today, is unlikely to be realised.
Cadastre 2034 Powering Land & Real Property - Cadastral Reform and Innovation for Australia - A National Strategy
Cadastral Reform and Innovation for Australia - A National Strategy

      Land Registration System            Land Planning System            Land Valuation System
                                                                                                     Stable and reliable property
                                                                                                     rights systems are sustained
                                         CADASTRAL SYSTEM
                                                                                                     through the cadastral
    Digital representation       Instruments               Information                 Legal
       of land parcels           defining land               delivery               Framework
                                                                                                     system, which comprises
                                                            and access                               several mechanisms to
      Survey marks and             Registered               Records of             Standards for     ensure that all land and
       other physical              Surveyors                 surveys              definition and     real property can be easily,
         evidence of                                                             surveying of land   uniquely and accurately
                                                                                                     identified in a common
                                                                                                     reference system.
                                          Positional Framework

Figure 1: The cadastral system

Our Goals
This strategy takes an all encompassing view of how we design, organise,
access, operate and leverage the cadastral system of the future; doing so in a
way that considers not only the impact on the environment today, but also how
we develop, use and preserve cadastral information resources for the future.
Cadastre 2034 has five goals. Their purpose is to achieve a cadastre that:
●	is   fundamental to land and property ownership and is sustainably managed;
●	is   multipurpose, truly accessible, easily visualised, and readily understood
      and used;
●	is   fully integrated with broader legal and social interests on land;
●	provides   a digital representation of the real world that is survey accurate,
      3- dimensional and dynamic1; and
●     is a federated cadastre based on common standards.
The overarching objectives, and strategic actions and innovations required
to achieve these gaols are detailed in the Strategic Framework and following

Bill Hirst,
Sponsor, Permanent Committee on Cadastre

    3 -dimensional (or 3D) refers to information that contains length, height and depth;
    4-dimensional (or 4D) refers to changes overtime time and thus captures the dynamic
    nature of land and property elements.

Cadastre 2034 Powering Land & Real Property - Cadastral Reform and Innovation for Australia - A National Strategy
Cadastre 2034 Powering Land & Real Property

                            Case for Change
                            Australian States and Territories and New Zealand are
                            recognised as having world class cadastral systems –
                            so why change anything?
                            ●	Firstly, we recognise that the environment in which we operate will
                                 change, and therefore it is important that our cadastral system evolves
                                 in a way that ensures the principles underpinning a transparent,
                                 accessible, efficient and secure system, are economically sustainable.
                            ●	Secondly,    there are political, economic and social imperatives
                                 that require a united response. It is time for jurisdictions to accelerate
                                 their collective efforts in the national interest, in order to meet global
                                 challenges, in addition to national and local issues.
                            ●   	Thirdly, community expectations will evolve and therefore, the
                                  cadastral system must also transform if it is to maintain relevance with
                                  prevailing societal needs.

                            Economic Sustainability
                            The cadastre, in combination with the land registration system, is a
                            powerful economic lever. It assembles, manages and shares information
The cadastral survey and
                            that defines and reinforces property rights. In turn, these property rights
land registration systems   translate into economic development, social stability and physical
allow people, businesses    well-being.
and governments to          In 2013, $1.3 trillion of mortgages were secured against land titles [5]. At the
leverage and manage         same time the total value of all real property held in title in Australia was
                            estimated as $4.7 trillion [6]. Given that the size of the Australian economy is
this huge national asset
                            $1.5 trillion per annum (as at November 2013) [7]; the value of a sustainable
base of $4.7 trillion.      cadastral system is self evident.
                            The cadastral survey and land registration systems allow people, businesses
                            and governments to leverage and manage this huge national asset base of
                            $4.7 trillion.
                            The better the information landowners, investors and land managers have,
                            the better use they can make of this fundamental asset to develop new
                            products and services from land. If our annual return on investment (ROI)
                            could be improved by a relatively modest 0.1 percent, the improved ROI
                            on $4.7 trillion amounts to $4.7 billion per annum. This is a 0.1 percent
                            increase in land value (above normal growth): in the short term through
                            better knowledge of earning capacity and in the long term, through better
                            sustainable management of our natural resources. Improved information
                            can also reduce financing risk on mortgage lending with a possible 0.1
                            percent reduction in mortgage interest rates. By these mechanisms, there
                            could be an annual benefit to the economy of $4.7 billion.

Cadastral Reform and Innovation for Australia - A National Strategy

Currently, our cadastral systems do not adequately capture the
relationships between what can be done on land (rights), what cannot
be done (restrictions) and what must be done (responsibilities). Nor can
we deliver to industry an accurate digital boundary framework and the
assurance that infrastructure delivery and precision farming is being
performed within titled boundaries.
Looking to the future, investment certainty and thus economic
sustainability can be delivered at three levels:
●   o
     n a global level, investor confidence can be increased through

    mortgage-backed securities if the cadastre and land registry are more
    closely coupled with financial and share markets,
●   a t a National Level, by shifting to a more detailed and consistent model
    to improve decision making and usability of the cadastre for trans-
    border land management and development; and                                  Urban infill, high rise
●   a t a jurisdictional level, by increasing productivity and reducing         dwellings, new transit
     transactional costs through improved supply chains, use of community        developments and the
     crowd sourced data, and the elimination of duplicated processes across
     the land and utility sectors.                                               increase in number of
                                                                                 interests on land will put
Political, Environmental and Social Imperatives                                  pressure on our cadastre
Our strategic goals are influenced by political, environmental and social        to become a central
policy including climate change, water security, land development,               decision support tool
urbanisation, emergency management, social inclusion, affordable
                                                                                 for government and the
housing, environmental monitoring and global humanity.
                                                                                 broader community.
The densification of our cities is creating a complex data management
environment that is stretching the current capabilities of our cadastral
system. Housing is set to increase in existing urban areas [8, 9] and become
more diversified. Mixed use precincts will be characterised by greenfield
developments, service clusters, walkable neighbourhoods and transport
corridors enabling equitable distribution of housing and jobs. Planning
restrictions will be dynamic with some precincts commercial by day and
residential by night.
Urban infill, high rise dwellings, new transit developments and the
increase in number of interests on land will put pressure on our cadastre to
become a central decision support tool for government and the broader
To support decision making our cadastre will need to communicate all
rights, restrictions and responsibilities relating to land and do so in a way
that is accurate, readily visualised and includes the dynamic nature of
interests on land.

Cadastre 2034 Powering Land & Real Property

                              Community Expectations
                              Staying abreast of community expectations for land information and
                              having a sense of where the best public value is now and in the future,
                              is a key responsibility of statutory regulators.
                              The main impetus for change is society’s expectation that quality
                              information will be available in a format that can be used to make
                              good decisions for the best use and management of land.
                              There exist various rights, restrictions and responsibilities (RRR) on
                              land, created and managed in legislation and policy that may have an
There exist various           impact on a landowner’s enjoyment of land.
rights restrictions and       These rights, restrictions and responsibilities are not always integrated
responsibilities (RRR)        with the cadastre, nor are they necessarily identified on land titles. This
on land, created and          means they are often not clear to the land purchaser. Interests on land
managed in legislation and    include:
                              ●	rightsunder mining and commercial fishing licences, or licences to
policy that may have an
                                  use water or discharge waste (or not).
impact on a landowner’s
                              ●	responsibilities under different Acts to maintain heritage sites,
enjoyment of land.
                                  public drains, utility poles and other infrastructure.
                              ●	planning  and water restrictions to protect the environment,
                                  including prohibited acts, such as land clearing, water use,
                                  chemical use.
                              ●	land development controls to protect infrastructure against
                                  potential sea level rise and storm surge.
                              ●   fire and flood zones that have specific insurance exclusions.
                              ●	consents  granted under the Environmental Protection and
                                  Resource Management Acts.
                              ●	Native Title   tenure.
                              ●	locationof unexploded ordinance, hazardous materials and
                                  contaminated sites.
                              There will be a significant increase in the amount of legal and
                              environmental information; and the community will expect to be able
                              to easily access this information and be fully informed about associated
                              interests on land.

Cadastral Reform and Innovation for Australia - A National Strategy

Securing the future
Embedding Enduring Principles through
a Strategic Lens Approach
The strategic lens is a concept of management that has different angles
from which strategy can be viewed and implemented. Whilst different
                                                                                These enduring
perspectives are encouraged and welcomed, there are some fundamental
principles that must be incorporated into future innovations to ensure that     principles are the lens
cadastral systems remain secure, accessible, transparent and efficient over     through which ICSM will
time. These enduring principles are the lens through which ICSM will view       view new innovations.
new innovations.
ICSM has applied a strategic lens to this proposed strategy and will
continue this approach to view activities that are defined as contributing to
the transformation and growth of the cadastral business and the profession
as a whole.
The strategic lens will be applied to assess whether new innovations fall
under the umbrella of the final strategy and should be selected for support
by ICSM. Its purpose is to ensure our enduring principles are part of the
design of environments in which cadastral systems are managed.
The ICSM proposed enduring principles are:
●   Certainty in the spatial extent of ownership
●	Uniquely defined land (and/or property) that is common to all registers
    – ownership, valuation, land use
●   Integrity and security of the parcel boundary system
●   Strong relationship between regulators and the industry
●   Appropriate regulatory standards

Cadastre 2034 Powering Land & Real Property

     Powering the Future
     The Framework
     This strategy presents a forward looking framework that is user centric,
     accommodates individual jurisdictional differences and promotes efficient
     and cost effective sustainable cadastral management practices (Figure 2).
     At the same time, it maintains those elements of transparency, integrity
     and security that are vital to a first class land administration system.
     The Cadastre 2034 Framework:
     ●   Establishes a common vision for all jurisdictions.
     ●	Developsan agreed set of enduring principles to preserve the essential
         components of the cadastre.
     ●   Recognises that the cadastre has different aspects and features.
     ●	Expresses  the goals required to achieve a consistent and coordinated
         approach to the transformation of the Australian cadastral infrastructure
         over the next 20 years.
     ●   Incorporates actions and innovations.
     ●	Identifiesthe required outcomes that will guide the governance, policy
         development, standards, research programs and the design of future

Cadastral Reform and Innovation for Australia - A National Strategy

 Recognises that knowledge                            A cadastral system that enables people to readily and confidently
 about land is essential for wise                 identify the location and extent of all rights, restrictions and responsibilities
 decision making in a modern                                            related to land and real property.
 society and that this information
 must endure.

 Enduring Principles:                    Certainty            Uniquely             Integrity and             Strong            Regulatory
 A set of enduring principles           of extent of         defined land            security of          relationship         standards
 to preserve the essential              ownership              parcels               boundary               between
 components of the cadastre.                                                           system           regulators and

 The Cadastre:                        Fundamental           Multipurpose             Broader            Representative           Federated
 The record of land parcels that        Cadastre             Cadastre                Cadastre             Cadastre                Cadastre
 supports tenure (ownership), land
 use and land value.

 Goals:                                Sustainably          Accessible and         Integrated             Models the             Unified
 Define how we design, organise,        Managed            Easily Leveraged           Rights,             Real World            Operation
 access, operate and leverage the                                                Restrictions and
 future cadastre.                                                                Responsibilities

 Actions and innovations:            Optimise supply        Accessible on        Integrate with all     Develop tools        Harmonise data
 Are benchmarked against the             chains            multiple devices      interests on land      for 3- and 4-D        management
 enduring principles to ensure                                                                             cadastre
                                         Develop             Customer-               Develop                                     Federated
 essential components of the
                                       sustainable         centric delivery        standards for        Improve spatial           models
 cadastre persist.
                                     business models           model              indeterminate           accuracy
                                                                                                                                Data access
                                     Reform business           Improve                                 Align legislation        framework
                                         process            discoverability          Vertically        and survey law
                                                                                                                              Deliver agreed
                                                                                 integrate all RRR
                                       Collaborate            Improve                                  Improve vertical       policy direction
                                                              Metadata             Develop RRR             datum
                                       Adopt new                                                                                   Build
                                      technologies           Understand                                  Link geodetic          governance
                                                           customer needs                                and cadastral          framework
                                      Build capacity
                                                                                Time-dependent            frameworks
                                                             Develop an                                                       Apply national
                                         Engage                                   RRR depicted
                                                             investment                                Develop 3D and         standards and
                                                             framework             Develop data         4D standards            guidelines
                                                                                 integration tools       and models
                                                            Provide virtual                                                     Understand
                                                            environments                                Build capacity        broader market

 Outcomes:                            Integrity and             Open,           Integrated rights,     Survey accurate         Unified access
 The required outcomes guide the        resiliency         transparent and       restrictions and      digital cadastre       to jurisdictional
 governance, policy development,                           respect privacy       responsibilities                                 cadastres
                                       Enhanced                                                          3D and 4D
 standards, research programs and
                                      quality of life/      Multipurpose          All interests on      cadastre that        Uniform policies,
 the design of future systems
                                      environment                                  land spatially       models reality        guidelines and
                                                          Readily visualised
                                                                                      depicted                                  legislation
                                      Fiscally sound      and understood                                   Legislation
                                                                                                         for 3D and 4D        Clear roles and
                                        Equitable           Real-time and
                                                                                                          cadastre and        responsibilities
                                                           easily leveraged
                                       Community                                                       land registration
                                                                                                                              Application of
                                     trusted system       Global standards                                   system
                                                                                                                             global standards

Figure 2: The Cadastre 2034 Framework
Cadastre 2034 Powering Land & Real Property

                           Goal 1:
                           A cadastre that is fundamental to land
                           ownership and managed sustainably
                           To retain the integrity and societal benefits of the cadastre, whilst
                           increasing the efficiency and effectiveness of its management and
                           preserving the information resource for future generations.
                           This objective takes an all encompassing view of how efficiently we design,
                           organise and operate the cadastral system of the future. Strategically we
                           need to consider not only the impact on our environment, but also how we
                           develop, use and preserve cadastral information resources.
                           It’s vital that we consider all components of the cadastral system along the
                           entire value chain including the people, programs, processing and storage
                           of information when we commit to improving, automating, sharing and
                           preserving our land and property information.
Sustaining the integrity   Sustaining the integrity of the system over time is paramount.
of the system over time
is paramount.
                           ●   Processes, data and systems have integrity and resiliency.
                           ●	Systems  function in a way that maintain and enhance quality of life
                               and the environment.
                           ●   Financial and risk management practices are sound.
                           ●   Social and intergenerational equity is preserved.
                           ●   The community has a strong sense of trust in the cadastral system.

                           Actions and Innovations
                           ●	Optimise   spatial data supply chains to reduce duplication across the
                               land and utilities sectors and, in doing so, reduce our environmental
                               footprint and increase profit margins.
                           ●	Develop   a sustainable business model to manage and upgrade the
                               cadastre including intellectual property management, return on
                               investment and funding.
                           ●	Reform    business and automate processes to reduce the amount of
                               effort required per land transaction, eliminating red tape and reducing
                               consumer compliance costs.
                           ●	Ensure  record keeping, data storage, legislation and intellectual
                               property and life cycle management systems are aligned with
                               technological advancements.
                           ●   Build skills and knowledge resources aligned to new methods.
                           ●	Invest in public/private partnerships to collaboratively maintain the
                           ●	Develop    a participatory model to include community volunteered data
                               for sustainable data collection of land and property features.

Cadastral Reform and Innovation for Australia - A National Strategy

●	ICSM    Permanent Committee on Cadastre to lead, sustain and be
      accountable for achieving Cadastre 2034.
●     Recognised cadastral custodial responsibilities.
●     Partnerships with relevant agencies, industry groups and community.
●     Adoption and adherance to standards.
●     S trategic approach to investment in research.
●     S ustainable funding model.

Improved government cadastral data management processes, resulting in:
●     R
       educed government administrative effort and better allocation of skills

      and resources.
●     G
       reater responsiveness in land-related processes and more timely land

      supply thereby promoting a competitive economy.
●     M
       ore streamlined government services and reduced transaction times.

●     E nhanced management of community-supplied information.

    Realising Full Automation
    Cadastre 2034 is envisaged as a fully automated cadastral infrastructure where surveyed
    land parcels are registered in real-time directly from the field to the desktop. This means a
    paperless process, void of duplication and with significantly reduced turnaround times.
    Arriving at this point will require      tagging of content. This will         Automated methods are currently
    planned research activities.             prepare the cadastral industry        being developed by Industry.
                                             to use an environment where           The new ePlan lodgement and
    The Cooperative Research Centre
                                             information will be categorised and   validation system will provide
    for Spatial Information (CRCSI)
                                             stored in a way that a computer       a fast, more secure and more
    is supporting the realisation of
                                             can understand as well as a human.    efficient way of processing land
    Cadastre 2034 through its strategic
                                                                                   title plans. Several Australian State
    research priorities in modernising
                                             Next generation Web 3.0 will make and Territory agencies are currently
    our spatial data infrastructure. Peter
                                             information searching much faster. engaging with the surveying
    Woodgate Chief Executive of the
                                             Instead of multiple searches,         industry to integrate ePlan into
    CRCSI has advised that key research
                                             a single complex question will        existing work practices. They are
    projects are focused towards
                                             suffice; “I want to view a property using industry standard software
    improving spatial data supply
                                             for sale in the hills region, with no produced by local vendors.
    chains, building federated spatial
                                             water use restrictions and where I
    models, and developing crowd
                                             can get to work in the city within
    sourcing capabilities and query-
                                             30 minutes. What are my options?”
    based spatial systems.
                                             The Web 3.0 browser will analyse
    These research methods are               your query, search the Internet for
    concentrating on the Web 3.0             possible matches, and organise
    paradigm and the semantic                the results in logical way.

Cadastre 2034 Powering Land & Real Property

                           Goal 2:
                           A cadastre that is multipurpose,
                           accessible, easily visualised and
                           readily understood and used
                           To maximise the potential of the cadastre by creating more options
                           for its use so that it can be leveraged by society economically, socially
                           and environmentally.
                           Ubiquitous access to a multipurpose cadastre will create a more diverse
                           market place – one that meets a wide range of community needs beyond
                           simply recording the extent of land and ownership. The net result of
                           increased availability and useability will be a more diverse and efficient
                           service base that can be used creatively to build new products and services.
                           An easily visualised digital cadastre will generate a stronger community
Improved visualisation     understanding of land and real property ownership. Improved visualisation
techniques are necessary   techniques are necessary to building community knowledge both general
to building community      and professional.
knowledge both general     Outcomes
and professional.          ●	Open    and transparent access to information, balanced with respect for
                               individual privacy.
                           ●   Customer-centric service delivery.
                           ●	A  digital cadastre that can be utilised in multiple environments and
                               easily combined with other information.
                           ●   A digital cadastre capable of being readily visualised and understood.
                           ●	Current information is available in real-time, and easily leveraged
                               and analysed.
                           ●   A digital cadastre that is interoperable with global standards.

                           Actions and Innovations
                           ●	Position the cadastre to deliver on sustainable development objectives
                               by enabling its use in multiple information environments.
                           ●   Establish a customer-centric service delivery approach (see page 24).
                           ●	Develop   methods to serve the cadastre straight to the desktop or
                               portable device of anyone, anytime, anywhere - to maximise use.
                           ●	Improve  the discoverability of the cadastre using next generation
                               semantic web technologies.
                           ●	Make  the reliability of data clear to the community of users so they can
                               make informed decisions on what data will best suit their needs.
                           ●	Understand  the cadastral system’s key value streams in delivering future
                               business opportunities to a modern society.
                           ●	Develop  an investment framework to stimulate new industry through
                               the development of new products and services.
                           ●	Present
                                    the cadastre in virtual knowledge environments so the
                               community can draw the most value from its application.
Cadastral Reform and Innovation for Australia - A National Strategy

●    Strong government, industry, community partnerships.
●    Commitment to transparency reforms and sharing principles.
●    Consistent guidelines and standards.
●    Data access and interoperability frameworks.
●	An   intellectual property culture that supports innovation and
●	Research   into semantic web, data schemas and knowledge

Real-time access to the digital cadastre through various channels,
resulting in:
●    B
      etter use and integration of the cadastre across government, industry

     and the community.
●    M
      eeting community expectations for access to cadastral and land-

     related information anywhere, anytime, and on any device.
●    A
      better understanding of what the social and economic benefits to

     the community are, and how these can be quantified to support future
     triple bottom line reporting.
●    I ndustry value added services and new business opportunities leading
     to a more diverse market place.

    Leveraging the Cadastre
    Inefficient access to land and property information is limiting potential innovation in the
    private sector [10].
    The Ordnance Survey’s (OS)             used to create 3D data files for      making. Owners will be able to
    GeoVation Channel demonstrates         spatial cadastral data management     evaluate different aspects of
    how location information, in           today.                                their property and enhance their
    the hands of developers and                                                  home improvement and land
                                           With ready access to suitably
    entrepreneurs, is delivering new                                             development experience.
                                           formatted land and property data,
    lifestyle products and generating
                                           people will be able to visualise
    innovative solutions to community                                            Augmented reality has reached
                                           and print 3D landscape models of
    challenges today. The latest                                                 a new level of capability with
                                           their property.
    OS product release leverages                                                 mobile devices and high-tech
    spatial information and gaming         This concept is available in an       eyewear, such as GoogleTM Glass[14],
    technology MinecraftTM to build        online environment at Streetmix       now capable of superimposing
    digital landscape models [11].
                                               . The visualization tools allow   information, pictures and video
                                           citizens to design their own          over the physical world in front
    3D printing will take this landscape
                                           local streetscapes. In New            of us. This means visualising and
    modelling to a new level. Models
                                           Zealand, Streetmix is being used      communicating future building
    virtually identical to the real
                                           on transport blogs to present         developments, underground
    thing are built from the bottom
                                           alternative street layouts in         utilities, and rights restrictions
    up, one layer at a time using
                                           Auckland.                             and responsibilities on land
    new fabrication technology and
                                                                                 can be achieved in the field
    intelligent labelling capabilities     New visualisation techniques          by professional users and the
        . This technology extends the      will bring a whole new aspect to      community alike.
    computer aided design techniques       property ownership and decision
Cadastre 2034 Powering Land & Real Property

                             Goal 3:
                             A broader cadastre integrated with
                             legal and social interests on land
                             To integrate the cadastre with knowledge about registered and
                             unregistered land-related rights, restrictions and responsibilities so
                             that people can interact and make wise decisions about land.
                             The cadastre is a fundamental source of land boundary data that can be
                             incorporated within a spatial infrastructure and compared and contrasted
                             with other registered and unregistered interests on land.
                             However, many rights, restrictions and responsibilities (RRR) are not spatially
                             depicted, and some cannot be accessed easily. If we are to improve decision
                             making and make informed use of land, we need to integrate a wider range
                             of interests on land within a broader cadastral framework.
The cadastre is a
fundamental source
                             ●	A cadastre integrated with all rights, restrictions and responsibilities on
of land boundary                land and real property.
data that can be
                             ●	The spatial extent of all interests on land and property are represented
incorporated within a           unambiguously and depicted in a manner that meets the requirements
spatial infrastructure and      of evolving tenures.
compared and contrasted
                             Actions and Innovations
with other registered and
                             ●	Extend  the cadastre to include the spatial extent of de facto and de jure
unregistered interests          rights and interests on land and marine environments.
on land.                     ●	Develop   methods and standards to depict and manage indeterminate
                                ‘fuzzy’ boundaries related to rights, restrictions and responsibilities, such
                                as noise levels.
                             ●	Build
                                    integrated models to enable vertical integration between data
                                themes depicting interests on land.
                             ●	Develop   accuracy standards and models for the definition and
                                depiction of all rights, restrictions and responsibilities in the broader
                             ●	Builda capability to manage the dynamic nature of rights, restrictions
                                and responsibilities, such as daily and seasonal variations.
                             ●	Develop  validation and automatic linking tools for the inclusion and
                                integration of third party data.

Cadastral Reform and Innovation for Australia - A National Strategy

●	ICSM     governance model to sustain and guide inclusion of all rights,
     restrictions and responsibilities in the broader cadastre.
●	ANZLIC/ICSM       policy direction and legal framework for defining the
     extent of all rights, restrictions and responsibilities.
●    An integrated cadastre based on industry standards.
●	Agency      and industry partnerships to fast track spatial depiction of all
     rights, restrictions and responsibilities.
●    ANZ Foundation Spatial Data Framework.

Better government and community decision making, through:
●	Improved    access to information on the rights, restrictions and
     responsibilities pertaining to land and real property, thus reducing
     consumer investment risk.
●	Information     being available in an understandable form making it easier
     for citizens to comprehend government policies and laws.

    Enquiring on Interests
    Landgate’s Interest Enquiry is a spatial information system that leverages the digital cadastre
    as a point of intersection with other datasets to determine if interests overlap. Consumers
    query the register to identify if there is any interest impacting an individual property.

 Interest Enquiry relies on the             risk associated with hazardous         Vertical integration and
 collaborative effort of several            materials.                             the management of spatial
 government agencies that provide                                                  relationships between data
                                            “The system is proving so
 the base datasets, from which the                                                 themes are logistically difficult to
                                            successful that the conveyancing
 property ‘interest’ information is                                                manage when data is streamed
                                            industry are keen for the
 sourced and processed. There are                                                  from different agencies.
                                            inclusion of more interests on
 currently 55 interests available
                                            land as stipulated in government       Research needs to deliver real-time
 including, Aboriginal Heritage,
                                            legislation and policy” advises Mike   data management solutions that
 Bush Forever, Geothermal and
                                            Bradford, Chief Executive Landgate.    enable updates to be automatically
 Mining Titles, Regional Planning
                                                                                   propagated between themes. In
 Schemes and Acid Sulphate Soil
                                            An ultimate goal is to improve         this way, if a cadastral boundary
 Risk zones.
                                            the quality of spatial information     shifts, then so too will the spatial
 The Dampier to Bunbury Pipeline            as this will lead to improved          representation of the interests on
 (Consortium) use Interest                  consumer confidence and trust.         the land, such as heritage precincts
 Enquiry to mitigate the risk that          Currently, spatial information         or planning zones.
 developers will unknowingly                is collected and managed at
 purchase land that falls within their      differing levels of precision.
 hazardous industrial plant buffer          Inaccurate data impacts the
 zone. This buffer is stipulated by         quality of decision making at the
 the Environmental Protection               parcel level.
 Authority as a measure to minimise

Cadastre 2034 Powering Land & Real Property

                             Goal 4:
                             A digital representation of the cadastre
                             that is 3-dimensional, dynamic and
                             survey accurate
                             To modernise the digital representation of the cadastre by
                             incorporating survey accurate, time series, and height data to capture
                             the complexity of our environment.
                             This objective recognises that the digital cadastre is an underutilised
                             community asset due to its current limitation in positional accuracy and
                             because it does not adequately capture the 3-dimensional nature and
                             dynamic characteristics of mixed land use and real property; where land
                             and property have extent, adjacency, height, depth and volume, as well as,
                             usage, materials and condition at any point in time.
                             To create a digital cadastre capable of supporting the changing needs of
                             the community, we need a highly accurate 3-dimensional model; one that
To create a spatial          is able to better manage the ever increasing densification and complexity
cadastre capable of          of future developments both above and below ground.
supporting the changing
needs of the community,
                             ●   A digital cadastre that is survey accurate.
we need a highly
                             ●   A 3-dimensional digital cadastre that aligns with the real-world.
accurate 3-dimensional       ●	A  legislative framework that underpins a 3-dimensional cadastral and
model; one that is able to       land registration system.
better manage the ever       ●	A  digital cadastre that is capable of depicting dynamic (4-dimensional)
increasing densification         elements.
and complexity of future     Actions and Innovations
developments both            ●	Develop   tools and legislation to model, manage, transfer and visualise a
above and below ground.          3 and 4-dimensional property data.
                             ●	Apply   new technologies to improve positional and semantic accuracy
                                 of digital cadastral data, and the currency of the digital cadastre through
                                 implementation of automated processes.
                             ●	Implement   a demand driven spatial upgrade to achieve survey accurate
                                 boundary representation in priority areas.
                             ●	Align   legislation and survey laws with a 3-dimensional cadastre.
                             ●	Develop  accuracy standards and models for the depiction of
                                 3-dimensional property (below and above ground).
                             ●	Propagate the dynamics of the geodetic reference system to cadastral
                                 boundaries in a way that is accurate and transparent to users.
                             ●	Improve the integration of the vertical datum to support complex 3 and
                                 4-dimensional depiction of rights, restrictions and responsibilities.
                               Skills development for land surveying professionals to ensure
                                 3-dimensional system elements are maintained with integrity.
                             ●   Develop a Road Map to manage the transition to new technologies.
Cadastral Reform and Innovation for Australia - A National Strategy

●    Geodetic strategy for a dynamic datum.
●    Industry consultation on revised Survey Law.
●    Research and development into 3 and 4-dimensional digital cadastres.
●    An extended ePlan Framework that includes 3-dimensional elements.

Better managed land and real property, through:
●	The   availability of high quality information to support land use and
     land development decision making.
●	The  ability to visualise land and property in 3-dimensions and as a
     dynamic time series of property events.
●	Clear   representation of common property in complex developments.

    Creating a Virtual World of Property
    In the last 20 years we have seen a significant increase in the number of tunnels, underground
    parking places, shopping malls, aboveground road and railway networks, multistorey
    apartments combining commercial and residential, and roof top gardens. These types
    of infrastructure have one thing in common; their ownership is difficult to register in a
    2-dimensional digital cadastre.
    During this same period               systems [15]. “This research is        The Queensland government
    we have seen a huge leap              showing that it is not just data       is taking advantage of the fact
    in computer graphics and              modelling and visualisation that is    that society has become avid
    visualisation technologies and        proving complex. A 3-dimensional       users of 3-dimensional computer
    in the development of building        cadastre needs to consider policy,     simulated environments, and is
    Information models (BIM). Building    legal and institutional aspects        developing a new look spatial
    information modelling has the         as well,” said Professor Abbas         infrastructure called 3dQLD for
    potential to significantly advance    Rajabifard of the University of        everyday business.
    cadastral data management as it       Melbourne.
                                                                                 The 3dQLD infrastructure
    captures the built environment in
                                                                                 will require land surveying
    3-dimensions.                         This means the cadastral
                                                                                 professionals to incorporate
                                          framework needs to evolve in a
    At the University of Melbourne                                               survey accurate boundaries and
                                          way that satisfies the legal status,
    researchers are investigating                                                3-dimensional measurements into
                                          positional accuracy, registration
    3-dimensional cadastres and                                                  everyday practice resulting in an
                                          of interests and technology
    examining the problems                                                       accurate 3-dimensional cadastre
                                          requirements of a future
    and issues associated with                                                   evolving over time [16].
                                          3-dimensional cadastral system.
    incorporating the third dimension
    into our land administration

Cadastre 2034 Powering Land & Real Property

                           Goal 5:
                           A federated cadastre based on
                           common standards
                           To operate in the national interest and equip society with broader
                           land and real property models to deal with local, cross-jurisdictional
                           and global challenges.
                           We work in a globalised world where making trade between countries
                           simpler is increasingly important to our nation’s business sector. Our
                           community is increasingly mobile and businesses operate across
                           jurisdictions as a single market.
                           Having to deal with individual jurisdictions for land and property
                           developments can be complex due to the different methods of operation
                           and laws. To compete in a global economy, jurisdictions need to consider
                           common trade hubs or single window systems that provide access to
                           nationwide land and property information.
Having to deal with        This is the imperative behind the federated approach to the cadastre.
individual jurisdictions   To understand global and regional issues, the Government needs a
for land and property      Cadastral Framework with which to collect, collate and analyse regional
developments can be        needs. Ultimately, Cadastre 2034 will lead to the provision of seamless
                           access to State and Territory based cadastres to understand and manage
complex due to the
                           trans-boundary issues and address economic, environmental, social and
different methods of       cultural issues in the national interest.
operation and laws.
                           ●   Unified access to jurisdictional cadastres in real-time.
                           ●   Uniformity in polices, standards, guidelines and legislation.
                           ●	Roles  of custodianship and stewardship of a federated cadastre are
                               clearly defined.

                           Actions and Innovations
                           ●	Create harmonised spatial data management processes and federated
                               data models leading to national outcomes.
                           ●	Develop  a Data Access Framework that supports common access to a
                               consolidated version of the broader cadastre.
                           ●	Establish  an agreed policy direction and Governance Framework for the
                               cadastre (land and property data).
                           ●	Develop   standards and guidelines to facilitate data discoverability,
                               access and integration, nationally.
                           ●	Understand   industry and community needs to enable the delivery of
                               future business opportunities in a broader marketplace.

Cadastral Reform and Innovation for Australia - A National Strategy

●     National Collaborative Framework.
●     ANZ Foundation Spatial Data Framework Land and Property Theme.
●     Common vision among stakeholders for a federated cadastre.
●	ICSM    governance framework providing leadership, accountability,
      transparency, openness, integrity and efficiency.
●     Application of open standards/interoperability.
●	Collaboration   to achieve mutual benefits for the public, government,
      and corporations, as well as, the land agencies in each jurisdiction.
●	ICSM   communication framework to ensure a unified vision and
      comprehensive stakeholder engagement.

Improved response to global, regional and trans-boundary issues via:
●     Unified access to nationwide land and property information.
●     Adoption of interoperable standards, models, policies and laws.

    Responding to National Priorities
    Did you know that the regions of Port Phillip and Westernport have the highest primary
    production land values in Victoria, at $17 billion, even though the primary production land is
    the second smallest area in the State?
    According to Mark Lound, Director        information is transformed           A fully integrated land and
    of Environmental Account,                into knowledge though data           property model is currently not
    Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS),   integration; and how this            available nationally. Consumers
    “this and other knowledge can be         knowledge can be used to inform      are required to source data from
    derived through the Land Account         debate on issues that matter         multiple agencies; and collate and
    Victoria, an integrated system of        nationally.                          manage the data independent of
    spatial and statistical information                                           other users. According to Helen
    themes.”                                 Finding solutions to National        Owens, Director Office of Spatial
                                             priorities requires access to        Policy, this is problematic and
    Further analysis of spatial
                                             nationwide data. In the case of      expensive.
    relationships show that the high
                                             land and property, this requires
    value primary production area                                                 ANZLIC in conjunction with the
                                             cross-jurisdiction cooperation
    of Port Phillip and Westernport                                               Office of Spatial Policy, Geoscience
                                             and a consolidated view of State
    is the result of the high value                                               Australia and PSMA Australia, is
                                             and Territory data sets.
    of horticultural crops grown in                                               working toward a Foundation
    the region, the close proximity          Current models require extending     Spatial Data Framework that will
    of markets and infrastructure,           to include vertically integrated     provide access to a national view
    and competition for land near            concepts for evidence-based          of land and property, which can
    Melbourne [17].                          decision making, and not just        be used in multiple applications,
                                             traditional horizontal integration   similarly to the Land Account
    The Land Account Victoria
                                             to address trans-border issues.      Victoria.
    demonstrates how spatial

Cadastre 2034 Powering Land & Real Property

                             Delivering the Strategy
                             The Delivery Model
Delivery of Cadastre         Citizens today have an expectation that government information and
2034 will require holistic   services will be delivered seamlessly and through multiple channels. They
thinking, innovative         are not concerned about which agencies or levels of government deliver
                             the services; but rather that they have access to a consolidated view of
planning and a               all available sources - government, industry and community gathered
collaborative approach       data. They also expect that this information can be relied upon for making
to the stewardship of        sound investment and lifestyle decisions.
information.                 To meet community expectations the cadastral service delivery model of
                             the future will be characterised by:
                             ●   clear custodianship and stewardship;
                             ●	a   mix of authoritative and crowd sourced data with clearly defined origin;
                             ●   seamless nationwide access to multi-agency data;
                             ●   the integration of government information in understandable forms;
                             ●   a financially sustainable maintenance and delivery model
                             ●   real-time data access via multiple channels;
                             ●   a knowledge proposition, not just a standard information offering;
                             ●   a choice of 2, 3 and 4-dimensional virtual models; and
                             ●	a customer-centric service delivery approach where feedback is
                                 embedded at key delivery points.
                             The goals indentified in this strategy are aligned with a culture of reform
                             and innovation along the cadastral information value chain. This is
                             depicted in Figure 3.
                             Delivery of Cadastre 2034 will require holistic thinking, innovative planning
                             and a collaborative approach to the stewardship of information.

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