CARIBBEAN - RENEWABLE ENERGY COUNTRY PROFILES

CARIBBEAN - RENEWABLE ENERGY COUNTRY PROFILES

www.irena.org RENEWABLE ENERGY COUNTRY PROFILES CARIBBEAN September 2012 edition

IRENA Renewable Energy Country Profiles take stock of the latest developments in the field of renewables at country level around the world.Each profile combines analysis by IRENA’s specialists with the latest available country data and additional information from a wide array of sources.The resulting reports provide a brief yet comprehensive picture of the situation with regard to renewable energy,including energy supply, electrical generation and grid capacity, and access.

Energy policies, targets and projects are also considered, along with each country’s investment climate and endowment with renewable energy resources. The energy statistics presented here span the period from 2009 until 2012, reflecting varying timelines in the source material. Since data availability differs from country to country, wider regional comparisons are possible only for the latest year with figures available for every country included. Despite the time lag in some cases, the evident differences and disparities between countries and regions around the world remain striking.

The current package of country profiles is just a starting point. The geographic scope will continue to expand, and existing profiles will be enhanced with new indicators,with the whole series maintained as a live product on the IRENA website (www.irena.org).Your feedback on both the format and the content of these country profiles would be greatly appreciated. Please address any comments to statistics@irena.org.

3,000 6,000 9,000 12,000 15,000 500 1,000 1,500 2,000 2,500 3,000 2010 2009 USD per capita kWh per capita 13,006 Antigua and Barbuda 1,264 Antigua and Barbuda 9,230 2,728 World World 1,251 Caribbean Caribbean 4,778 This Country Profile may contain advice, opinions and statements (“information”) of various information providers.The International Renewable Energy Agency does not represent or endorse the accuracy or reliability of any advice, opinion, statement or other information provided by any information provider or any other person or entity.Reliance upon any such information shall be at the user’s own risk.Neither the International Renewable Energy Agency,nor any of their respective agents,employees,information providers or content providers,shall be liable to any user or anyone else for any inac- curacy,error,omission,interruption,deletion,defect,alteration of or use of any content herein,or for its timeliness or completeness,nor shall they be liable for any failure of performance,regardless of cause,or for any damages resulting therefrom.The information contained herein does not necessarily represent the views of the Members of the International Renewable Energy Agency.The designations employed and the presentation of materials herein do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Secretariat of the International Renewable Energy Agency concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.The term“country” as used in this material also refers, as appropriate, to territories or areas.

RENEWABLE ENERGY COUNTRY PROFILE Figure 1: GDP per capita for 2010 Figure 2: Electricity use per capita for 2009 Bahamas Cuba Dominican Republic St.Kitts & Nevis Antigua & Barbuda Dominica St.Vincent & the Grenadines St.Lucia Barbados Grenada Trinidad & Tobago Haiti Jamaica ANTIGUA & BARBUDA 89,000 Population (2010) 13,006 USD GDP per capita (2010) 1.2 billion USD GDP (2010) ENERGY NATIONAL PROFILE 2009 The Caribbean include Antigua and Barbuda, Bahamas, Barbados, Cuba, Dominica, the Dominican Republic, Grenada, Haiti, Jamaica, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, and Trinidad and Tobago.

œ œ Total Primary Energy Supply: 6.9 PJ - Of which renewables: 0.0 PJ (0.0%) œ œ Energy self-sufficiency: 0.0% œ œ Fuel imports: 143 million USD (25.6% of total imports) œ œ Electricity generation: 119.0 GWh - Of which renewables: 0.0 GWh (0.0%) œ œ Electricity use per capita: 1,264 kWh œ œ Electrical capacity: 27 MW - Of which renewables: 0.0 MW (0.0%) œ œ Electricity access rate: 100% œ œ Share of population using solid fuels: < 5% TARGETS: œ œ No information available

antigua and barbuda Oil 100% Oil 100% IRENA welcomes your comments and feedback at statistics@irena.org POLICIES IN PLACE TO PROMOTE RENEWABLE ENERGY SINCE THE RIO CONFERENCE OF 1992 RENEWABLE ENERGY PROJECTS FROM THE GOVERNMENT AND PRIVATE SECTORS (CAPACITY ADDITIONS): œ œ No information available WORLD BANK EASE OF DOING BUSINESS INDEX FOR 2012: Ranked 57 out of 183 NUMBER OF REGISTERED CLEAN DEVELOPMENT MECHANISM PROJECTS FOCUSING ON RENEWABLE ENERGY: 0 RENEWABLE ENERGY RESOURCES: Wind Solar Hydro Biomass Geothermal Ocean High Medium Low Unknown Not applicable 2009 Draft National Energy Policy submitted 2010 Ratified the IRENA Statute National Energy Task Force established Figure 3:Total Primary Energy Supply* in 2000 and 2009 *excluding electricity trade 2000: 5.1 PJ 2009: 6.9 PJ 2010 Note:The information on resources should be taken as an indication only.

It refers to a general trend of available resources, and does not prejudge the feasibility of individual projects.The thresholds are indicative, and do not refer to any technological choice.The analysis is based on the literature.

Sources: Population and GDP: World Bank; Energy data: IEA, IRENA analysis based on UN data; Share of fuel imports in total imports: World Trade Organisation; Electrical capacity: IEA, EIA; Electricity access rate: World Energy Outlook 2011 database (IEA); Share of population using solid fuels: World Health Organisation;Targets: REN21, IRENA; Policy/legislation: IEA, Reegle, IRENA research; Ease of doing business index: World Bank; Renewable energy projects: Bloomberg New Energy Finance, IRENA research; Clean Development Mechanism projects: UNFCCC; Renewable energy resources: IRENA analysis Units: USD: United States dollar; kWh: kilowatt-hour; GWh: gigawatt-hour (1 GWh=106 kWh);TWh: terawatt-hour (1 TWh=103 GWh); PJ: petajoule; MW: megawatt; GW: gigawatt (1 GW=103 MW).

Please also refer to the glossary for explanations on the terms used in the country profile.

5,000 10,000 15,000 20,000 25,000 1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000 6,000 2010 2009 USD per capita kWh per capita 22,665 Bahamas 5,493 Bahamas 9,230 2,728 World World 1,251 Caribbean Caribbean 4,778 This Country Profile may contain advice, opinions and statements (“information”) of various information providers.The International Renewable Energy Agency does not represent or endorse the accuracy or reliability of any advice, opinion, statement or other information provided by any information provider or any other person or entity.Reliance upon any such information shall be at the user’s own risk.Neither the International Renewable Energy Agency,nor any of their respective agents,employees,information providers or content providers,shall be liable to any user or anyone else for any inac- curacy,error,omission,interruption,deletion,defect,alteration of or use of any content herein,or for its timeliness or completeness,nor shall they be liable for any failure of performance,regardless of cause,or for any damages resulting therefrom.The information contained herein does not necessarily represent the views of the Members of the International Renewable Energy Agency.The designations employed and the presentation of materials herein do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Secretariat of the International Renewable Energy Agency concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.The term“country” as used in this material also refers, as appropriate, to territories or areas.

RENEWABLE ENERGY COUNTRY PROFILE Figure 1: GDP per capita for 2010 Figure 2: Electricity use per capita for 2009 Bahamas Cuba Dominican Republic St.Kitts & Nevis Antigua & Barbuda Dominica St.Vincent & the Grenadines St.Lucia Barbados Grenada Trinidad & Tobago Haiti Jamaica BAHAMAS 343,000 Population (2010) 22,665 USD GDP per capita (2010) 7.8 billion USD GDP (2010) ENERGY NATIONAL PROFILE 2009 The Caribbean include Antigua and Barbuda, Bahamas, Barbados, Cuba, Dominica, the Dominican Republic, Grenada, Haiti, Jamaica, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, and Trinidad and Tobago.

œ œ Total Primary Energy Supply: 33.1 PJ - Of which renewables: 0.3 PJ (1.0%) œ œ Energy self-sufficiency: 1.0% œ œ Fuel imports: 597 million USD (23.1% of total imports) œ œ Electricity generation: 2,139 GWh - Of which renewables: 0.0 GWh (0.0%) œ œ Electricity use per capita: 5,493 kWh œ œ Electrical capacity: 493 MW - Of which renewables: 0 MW (0.0%) œ œ Electricity access rate: 100.0% œ œ Share of population using solid fuels: < 5% TARGETS: œ œ No information available

bahamas Oil 99% Solid biofuels 1% Solid biofuels 1% Coal and peat 0.4% Oil 99% Coal and peat 0.2% IRENA welcomes your comments and feedback at statistics@irena.org POLICIES IN PLACE TO PROMOTE RENEWABLE ENERGY SINCE THE RIO CONFERENCE OF 1992 RENEWABLE ENERGY PROJECTS FROM THE GOVERNMENT AND PRIVATE SECTORS: œ œ 1 MW of wind capacity addition announced (1 project) WORLD BANK EASE OF DOING BUSINESS INDEX FOR 2012: Ranked 85 out of 183 NUMBER OF REGISTERED CLEAN DEVELOPMENT MECHANISM PROJECTS FOCUSING ON RENEWABLE ENERGY: 0 RENEWABLE ENERGY RESOURCES: Wind Solar Hydro Biomass Geothermal Ocean High Medium Low Unknown Not applicable 2008 National Energy Vision 2011 National Energy Policy Note:The information on resources should be taken as an indication only.

It refers to a general trend of available resources, and does not prejudge the feasibility of individual projects.The thresholds are indicative, and do not refer to any technological choice.The analysis is based on the literature.

Sources: Population and GDP: World Bank; Energy data: IEA, IRENA analysis based on UN data; Share of fuel imports in total imports: World Trade Organisation; Electrical capacity: IEA, EIA; Electricity access rate: World Energy Outlook 2011 database (IEA); Share of population using solid fuels: World Health Organisation;Targets: REN21, IRENA; Policy/legislation: IEA, Reegle, IRENA research; Ease of doing business index: World Bank; Renewable energy projects: Bloomberg New Energy Finance, IRENA research; Clean Development Mechanism projects: UNFCCC; Renewable energy resources: IRENA analysis Units: USD: United States dollar; kWh: kilowatt-hour; GWh: gigawatt-hour (1 GWh=106 kWh);TWh: terawatt-hour (1 TWh=103 GWh); PJ: petajoule; MW: megawatt; GW: gigawatt (1 GW=103 MW).

Please also refer to the glossary for explanations on the terms used in the country profile. Figure 3:Total Primary Energy Supply* in 2000 and 2009 *excluding electricity trade 2000: 28.3 PJ 2009: 33.1 PJ

5,000 10,000 15,000 20,000 500 1,000 1,500 2,000 2,500 3,000 3,500 2010 2009 USD per capita kWh per capita 15,035 Barbados 3,481 Barbados 9,230 2,728 World World 1,251 Caribbean Caribbean 4,778 This Country Profile may contain advice, opinions and statements (“information”) of various information providers.The International Renewable Energy Agency does not represent or endorse the accuracy or reliability of any advice, opinion, statement or other information provided by any information provider or any other person or entity.Reliance upon any such information shall be at the user’s own risk.Neither the International Renewable Energy Agency,nor any of their respective agents,employees,information providers or content providers,shall be liable to any user or anyone else for any inac- curacy,error,omission,interruption,deletion,defect,alteration of or use of any content herein,or for its timeliness or completeness,nor shall they be liable for any failure of performance,regardless of cause,or for any damages resulting therefrom.The information contained herein does not necessarily represent the views of the Members of the International Renewable Energy Agency.The designations employed and the presentation of materials herein do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Secretariat of the International Renewable Energy Agency concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.The term“country” as used in this material also refers, as appropriate, to territories or areas.

RENEWABLE ENERGY COUNTRY PROFILE Figure 1: GDP per capita for 2010 Figure 2: Electricity use per capita for 2009 Bahamas Cuba Dominican Republic St.Kitts & Nevis Antigua & Barbuda Dominica St.Vincent & the Grenadines St.Lucia Barbados Grenada Trinidad & Tobago Haiti Jamaica BARBADOS 273,000 Population (2010) 15,035 USD GDP per capita (2010) 4.1 billion USD GDP (2010) œ œ Total Primary Energy Supply: 21.3 PJ - Of which renewables: 1.6 PJ (7.5%) œ œ Energy self-sufficiency: 18.4% œ œ Fuel imports: 19 million USD (1.2% of total imports) œ œ Electricity generation: 1,068 GWh - Of which renewables: 0.0 GWh (0.0%) œ œ Electricity use per capita: 3,481 kWh œ œ Electrical capacity: 239 MW - Of which renewables: 0 MW (0.0%) œ œ Electricity access rate: 100.0% œ œ Share of population using solid fuels: < 5% ENERGY NATIONAL PROFILE 2009 TARGETS: œ œ 30% of electricity generation from renewables by 2012 œ œ 10% of energy use from renewables by 2012 œ œ 20% of energy use from renewables by 2026 The Caribbean include Antigua and Barbuda, Bahamas, Barbados, Cuba, Dominica, the Dominican Republic, Grenada, Haiti, Jamaica, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, and Trinidad and Tobago.

Barbados Oil 81% Natural gas 8% Solid biofuels 9% Solar 2% Solar 2% Oil 89% Natural gas 3% Solid biofuels 6% IRENA welcomes your comments and feedback at statistics@irena.org POLICIES IN PLACE TO PROMOTE RENEWABLE ENERGY SINCE THE RIO CONFERENCE OF 1992 RENEWABLE ENERGY PROJECTS FROM THE GOVERNMENT AND PRIVATE SECTORS: œ œ 10 MW of wind capacity addition announced (1 project) WORLD BANK EASE OF DOING BUSINESS INDEX FOR 2012: Not ranked NUMBER OF REGISTERED CLEAN DEVELOPMENT MECHANISM PROJECTS FOCUSING ON RENEWABLE ENERGY: 0 RENEWABLE ENERGY RESOURCES: Wind Solar Hydro Biomass Geothermal Ocean High Medium Low Unknown Not applicable 1996 Tax deductions for solar water heaters reinstated 2009 Sustainable En- ergy Framework for Barbados National Energy Policy 2007 Note:The information on resources should be taken as an indication only.

It refers to a general trend of available resources, and does not pre- judge the feasibility of individual projects.The thresholds are indicative, and do not refer to any technological choice.The analysis is based on the literature.

Sources: Population and GDP: World Bank; Energy data: IEA, IRENA analysis based on UN data; Share of fuel imports in total imports: World Trade Organisation; Electrical capacity: IEA, EIA; Electricity access rate: World Energy Outlook 2011 database (IEA); Share of population using solid fuels: World Health Organisation;Targets: REN21, IRENA; Policy/legislation: IEA, Reegle, IRENA research; Ease of doing business index: World Bank; Renewable energy projects: Bloomberg New Energy Finance, IRENA research; Clean Development Mechanism projects: UNFCCC; Renewable energy resources: IRENA analysis Units: USD: United States dollar; kWh: kilowatt-hour; GWh: gigawatt-hour (1 GWh=106 kWh);TWh: terawatt-hour (1 TWh=103 GWh); PJ: petajoule; MW: megawatt; GW: gigawatt (1 GW=103 MW).

Please also refer to the glossary for explanations on the terms used in the country profile. Figure 3:Total Primary Energy Supply* in 2000 and 2009 *excluding electricity trade 2000: 16.7 PJ 2009: 21.3 PJ

2,000 4,000 6,000 8,000 10,000 500 1,000 1,500 2,000 2,500 3,000 2010 2009 USD per capita kWh per capita 5,704 Cuba 1,348 Cuba 9,230 2,728 World World 1,251 Caribbean Caribbean 4,778 This Country Profile may contain advice, opinions and statements (“information”) of various information providers.The International Renewable Energy Agency does not represent or endorse the accuracy or reliability of any advice, opinion, statement or other information provided by any information provider or any other person or entity.Reliance upon any such information shall be at the user’s own risk.Neither the International Renewable Energy Agency,nor any of their respective agents,employees,information providers or content providers,shall be liable to any user or anyone else for any inac- curacy,error,omission,interruption,deletion,defect,alteration of or use of any content herein,or for its timeliness or completeness,nor shall they be liable for any failure of performance,regardless of cause,or for any damages resulting therefrom.The information contained herein does not necessarily represent the views of the Members of the International Renewable Energy Agency.The designations employed and the presentation of materials herein do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Secretariat of the International Renewable Energy Agency concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.The term“country” as used in this material also refers, as appropriate, to territories or areas.

RENEWABLE ENERGY COUNTRY PROFILE Figure 1: GDP per capita for 2010 Figure 2: Electricity use per capita for 2009 Bahamas Cuba Dominican Republic St.Kitts & Nevis Antigua & Barbuda Dominica St.Vincent & the Grenadines St.Lucia Barbados Grenada Trinidad & Tobago Haiti Jamaica CUBA 11.3 million Population (2010) 5,704 USD GDP per capita (2010) 64.2 billion USD GDP (2010) ENERGY NATIONAL PROFILE 2009 The Caribbean include Antigua and Barbuda, Bahamas, Barbados, Cuba, Dominica, the Dominican Republic, Grenada, Haiti, Jamaica, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, and Trinidad and Tobago.

œ œ Total Primary Energy Supply: 481.7 PJ - Of which renewables: 76.6 PJ (15.9%) œ œ Energy self-sufficiency: 48.4% œ œ Fuel imports: Not available œ œ Electricity generation: 17.7 TWh - Of which renewables: 672.0 GWh (3.8%) œ œ Electricity use per capita: 1,348 kWh œ œ Electrical capacity: 5.5 GW - Of which renewables: 65 MW (1.2%) œ œ Electricity access rate: 97.0% œ œ Share of population using solid fuels: 5% TARGETS: œ œ No information available

Cuba Coal and peat 0.2% Oil 62% Natural gas 3% Solid biofuels 22% Coal and peat 0.2% Oil 76% Hydro 0.1% Hydro 0.1% Natural gas 8% Solid biofuels 11% Liquid biofuels 5% Liquid biofuels 12% IRENA welcomes your comments and feedback at statistics@irena.org POLICIES IN PLACE TO PROMOTE RENEWABLE ENERGY SINCE THE RIO CONFERENCE OF 1992 RENEWABLE ENERGY PROJECTS FROM THE GOVERNMENT AND PRIVATE SECTORS: œ œ 10 MW of biomass-fired capacity addition announced (1 project) WORLD BANK EASE OF DOING BUSINESS INDEX FOR 2012: Not ranked NUMBER OF REGISTERED CLEAN DEVELOPMENT MECHANISM PROJECTS FOCUSING ON RENEWABLE ENERGY: 1 RENEWABLE ENERGY RESOURCES: Wind Solar Hydro Biomass Geothermal Ocean High Medium Low Unknown Not applicable Figure 3:Total Primary Energy Supply* in 2000 and 2009 *excluding electricity trade 2000: 564.9 PJ 2009: 481.7 PJ Energy Revolution Central Group of Renewable Energies and Energy Efficiency created Ratified the IRENA Statute 2012 2007 2006 Note:The information on resources should be taken as an indication only.

It refers to a general trend of available resources, and does not prejudge the feasibility of individual projects.The thresholds are indicative, and do not refer to any technological choice.The analysis is based on the literature.

Sources: Population and GDP: World Bank; Energy data: IEA, IRENA analysis based on UN data; Share of fuel imports in total imports: World Trade Organisation; Electrical capacity: IEA, EIA; Electricity access rate: World Energy Outlook 2011 database (IEA); Share of population using solid fuels: World Health Organisation;Targets: REN21, IRENA; Policy/legislation: IEA, Reegle, IRENA research; Ease of doing business index: World Bank; Renewable energy projects: Bloomberg New Energy Finance, IRENA research; Clean Development Mechanism projects: UNFCCC; Renewable energy resources: IRENA analysis Units: USD: United States dollar; kWh: kilowatt-hour; GWh: gigawatt-hour (1 GWh=106 kWh);TWh: terawatt-hour (1 TWh=103 GWh); PJ: petajoule; MW: megawatt; GW: gigawatt (1 GW=103 MW).

Please also refer to the glossary for explanations on the terms used in the country profile.

2,000 4,000 6,000 8,000 10,000 500 1,000 1,500 2,000 2,500 3,000 2010 2009 USD per capita kWh per capita 6,964 Dominica 1,229 Dominica 9,230 2,728 World World 1,251 Caribbean Caribbean 4,778 This Country Profile may contain advice, opinions and statements (“information”) of various information providers.The International Renewable Energy Agency does not represent or endorse the accuracy or reliability of any advice, opinion, statement or other information provided by any information provider or any other person or entity.Reliance upon any such information shall be at the user’s own risk.Neither the International Renewable Energy Agency,nor any of their respective agents,employees,information providers or content providers,shall be liable to any user or anyone else for any inac- curacy,error,omission,interruption,deletion,defect,alteration of or use of any content herein,or for its timeliness or completeness,nor shall they be liable for any failure of performance,regardless of cause,or for any damages resulting therefrom.The information contained herein does not necessarily represent the views of the Members of the International Renewable Energy Agency.The designations employed and the presentation of materials herein do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Secretariat of the International Renewable Energy Agency concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.The term“country” as used in this material also refers, as appropriate, to territories or areas.

RENEWABLE ENERGY COUNTRY PROFILE Figure 1: GDP per capita for 2010 Figure 2: Electricity use per capita for 2009 Bahamas Cuba Dominican Republic St.Kitts & Nevis Antigua & Barbuda Dominica St.Vincent & the Grenadines St.Lucia Barbados Grenada Trinidad & Tobago Haiti Jamaica DOMINICA 68,000 Population (2010) 6,964 USD GDP per capita (2010) 472 million USD GDP (2010) ENERGY NATIONAL PROFILE 2009 The Caribbean include Antigua and Barbuda, Bahamas, Barbados, Cuba, Dominica, the Dominican Republic, Grenada, Haiti, Jamaica, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, and Trinidad and Tobago.

œ œ Total Primary Energy Supply: 2.0 PJ - Of which renewables: 0.2 PJ (8.3%) œ œ Energy self-sufficiency: 8.3% œ œ Fuel imports: 41 million USD (17.2% of total imports) œ œ Electricity generation: 92.7 GWh - Of which renewables: 23.2 GWh (25.0%) œ œ Electricity use per capita: 1,229 kWh œ œ Electrical capacity: 24.3 MW - Of which renewables: 4.8 MW (19.8%) œ œ Electricity access rate: > 90% œ œ Share of population using solid fuels: Not available TARGETS: œ œ No information available

Dominicana Oil 89% Hydro 6% Solid biofuels 5% Oil 92% Hydro 4% Solid biofuels 4% IRENA welcomes your comments and feedback at statistics@irena.org POLICIES IN PLACE TO PROMOTE RENEWABLE ENERGY SINCE THE RIO CONFERENCE OF 1992 RENEWABLE ENERGY PROJECTS FROM THE GOVERNMENT AND PRIVATE SECTORS: œ œ No information available WORLD BANK EASE OF DOING BUSINESS INDEX FOR 2012: Ranked 65 out of 183 NUMBER OF REGISTERED CLEAN DEVELOPMENT MECHANISM PROJECTS FOCUSING ON RENEWABLE ENERGY: 0 RENEWABLE ENERGY RESOURCES: Wind Solar Hydro Biomass Geothermal Ocean High Medium Low Unknown Not applicable Figure 3:Total Primary Energy Supply* in 2000 and 2009 *excluding electricity trade 2000: 1.9 PJ 2009: 2.0 PJ 2003 Sustainable Energy Plan prepared Electricity Supply Act amended National Energy Policy drafted 2009 2006 Note:The information on resources should be taken as an indication only.

It refers to a general trend of available resources, and does not prejudge the feasibility of individual projects.The thresholds are indicative, and do not refer to any technological choice.The analysis is based on the literature.

Sources: Population and GDP: World Bank; Energy data: IEA, IRENA analysis based on UN data; Share of fuel imports in total imports: World Trade Organisation; Electrical capacity: IEA, EIA; Electricity access rate: World Energy Outlook 2011 database (IEA); Share of population using solid fuels: World Health Organisation;Targets: REN21, IRENA; Policy/legislation: IEA, Reegle, IRENA research; Ease of doing business index: World Bank; Renewable energy projects: Bloomberg New Energy Finance, IRENA research; Clean Development Mechanism projects: UNFCCC; Renewable energy resources: IRENA analysis Units: USD: United States dollar; kWh: kilowatt-hour; GWh: gigawatt-hour (1 GWh=106 kWh);TWh: terawatt-hour (1 TWh=103 GWh); PJ: petajoule; MW: megawatt; GW: gigawatt (1 GW=103 MW).

Please also refer to the glossary for explanations on the terms used in the country profile.

2,000 4,000 6,000 8,000 10,000 500 1,000 1,500 2,000 2,500 3,000 2010 2009 USD per capita kWh per capita 5,195 Dominican Republic 1,358 Dominican Republic 9,230 2,728 World World 1,251 Caribbean Caribbean 4,778 This Country Profile may contain advice, opinions and statements (“information”) of various information providers.The International Renewable Energy Agency does not represent or endorse the accuracy or reliability of any advice, opinion, statement or other information provided by any information provider or any other person or entity.Reliance upon any such information shall be at the user’s own risk.Neither the International Renewable Energy Agency,nor any of their respective agents,employees,information providers or content providers,shall be liable to any user or anyone else for any inac- curacy,error,omission,interruption,deletion,defect,alteration of or use of any content herein,or for its timeliness or completeness,nor shall they be liable for any failure of performance,regardless of cause,or for any damages resulting therefrom.The information contained herein does not necessarily represent the views of the Members of the International Renewable Energy Agency.The designations employed and the presentation of materials herein do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Secretariat of the International Renewable Energy Agency concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.The term“country” as used in this material also refers, as appropriate, to territories or areas.

RENEWABLE ENERGY COUNTRY PROFILE Figure 1: GDP per capita for 2010 Figure 2: Electricity use per capita for 2009 Bahamas Cuba Dominican Republic St.Kitts & Nevis Antigua & Barbuda Dominica St.Vincent & the Grenadines St.Lucia Barbados Grenada Trinidad & Tobago Haiti Jamaica DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 9.9 million Population (2010) 5,195 USD GDP per capita (2010) 51.6 billion USD GDP (2010) ENERGY NATIONAL PROFILE 2009 The Caribbean include Antigua and Barbuda, Bahamas, Barbados, Cuba, Dominica, the Dominican Republic, Grenada, Haiti, Jamaica, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, and Trinidad and Tobago.

œ œ Total Primary Energy Supply: 338.8 PJ - Of which renewables: 79.2 PJ (23.4%) œ œ Energy self-sufficiency: 23.4% œ œ Fuel imports: 3.7 billion USD (24.3% of total imports) œ œ Electricity generation: 15.0 TWh - Of which renewables: 1,493 GWh (10.0%) œ œ Electricity use per capita: 1,358 kWh œ œ Electrical capacity: 2,973 MW - Of which renewables: 504 MW (17.0%) œ œ Electricity access rate: 95.9% œ œ Share of population using solid fuels: 7% TARGETS: œ œ 10% of electricity generation from renewables by 2015 œ œ 25% of electricity generation from renewables by 2020 œ œ 500 MW of wind capacity by 2015

dominican republic Coal and peat 1% Oil 81% Hydro 1% Solid biofuels 17% Coal and peat 7% Oil 65% Natural gas 5% Hydro 2% Solid biofuels 22% IRENA welcomes your comments and feedback at statistics@irena.org POLICIES IN PLACE TO PROMOTE RENEWABLE ENERGY SINCE THE RIO CONFERENCE OF 1992 RENEWABLE ENERGY PROJECTS FROM THE GOVERNMENT AND PRIVATE SECTORS: œ œ 379 million litres of ethanol per year capacition addition by the end of 2012 (1 project) œ œ About 170 million litres of ethanol per year capacition addition announced (2 projects) œ œ 20 MW of solar photovoltaic capacity addition announced (1 project) œ œ About 400 MW of wind capacity addition announced (8 projects) WORLD BANK EASE OF DOING BUSINESS INDEX FOR 2012: Ranked 108 out of 183 NUMBER OF REGISTERED CLEAN DEVELOPMENT MECHANISM PROJECTS FOCUSING ON RENEWABLE ENERGY: 2 RENEWABLE ENERGY RESOURCES: Wind Solar Hydro Biomass Geothermal Ocean High Medium Low Unknown Not applicable Figure 3:Total Primary Energy Supply* in 2000 and 2009 *excluding electricity trade 2000: 326.8 PJ 2009: 338.8 PJ National Energy Plan 2004-2015 Decree 202-08 implementing Law 57-07 General Electricity Act Renewable Energies Incentive Law 57-07 Ratified the IRENA Statute Decree 566-05 on liquid biofuels blending 2005 2004 2008 2010 2001 2007 Note:The information on resources should be taken as an indication only.

It refers to a general trend of available resources, and does not pre- judge the feasibility of individual projects.The thresholds are indicative, and do not refer to any technological choice.The analysis is based on the literature.

Sources: Population and GDP: World Bank; Energy data: IEA, IRENA analysis based on UN data; Share of fuel imports in total imports: World Trade Organisation; Electrical capacity: IEA, EIA; Electricity access rate: World Energy Outlook 2011 database (IEA); Share of population using solid fuels: World Health Organisation;Targets: REN21, IRENA; Policy/legislation: IEA, Reegle, IRENA research; Ease of doing business index: World Bank; Renewable energy projects: Bloomberg New Energy Finance, IRENA research; Clean Development Mechanism projects: UNFCCC; Renewable energy resources: IRENA analysis Units: USD: United States dollar; kWh: kilowatt-hour; GWh: gigawatt-hour (1 GWh=106 kWh);TWh: terawatt-hour (1 TWh=103 GWh); PJ: petajoule; MW: megawatt; GW: gigawatt (1 GW=103 MW).

Please also refer to the glossary for explanations on the terms used in the country profile.

2,000 4,000 6,000 8,000 10,000 500 1,000 1,500 2,000 2,500 3,000 2010 2009 USD per capita kWh per capita 7,500 Grenada 1,777 Grenada 9,230 2,728 World World 1,251 Caribbean Caribbean 4,778 This Country Profile may contain advice, opinions and statements (“information”) of various information providers.The International Renewable Energy Agency does not represent or endorse the accuracy or reliability of any advice, opinion, statement or other information provided by any information provider or any other person or entity.Reliance upon any such information shall be at the user’s own risk.Neither the International Renewable Energy Agency,nor any of their respective agents,employees,information providers or content providers,shall be liable to any user or anyone else for any inac- curacy,error,omission,interruption,deletion,defect,alteration of or use of any content herein,or for its timeliness or completeness,nor shall they be liable for any failure of performance,regardless of cause,or for any damages resulting therefrom.The information contained herein does not necessarily represent the views of the Members of the International Renewable Energy Agency.The designations employed and the presentation of materials herein do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Secretariat of the International Renewable Energy Agency concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.The term“country” as used in this material also refers, as appropriate, to territories or areas.

RENEWABLE ENERGY COUNTRY PROFILE Figure 1: GDP per capita for 2010 Figure 2: Electricity use per capita for 2009 Bahamas Cuba Dominican Republic St.Kitts & Nevis Antigua & Barbuda Dominica St.Vincent & the Grenadines St.Lucia Barbados Grenada Trinidad & Tobago Haiti Jamaica GRENADA 104,000 Population (2010) 7,500 USD GDP per capita (2010) 784 million USD GDP (2010) The Caribbean include Antigua and Barbuda, Bahamas, Barbados, Cuba, Dominica, the Dominican Republic, Grenada, Haiti, Jamaica, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, and Trinidad and Tobago.

œ œ Total Primary Energy Supply: 4.2 PJ - Of which renewables: 0.3 PJ (6.7%) œ œ Energy self-sufficiency: 6.7% œ œ Fuel imports: 42 million USD (14.5% of total imports) œ œ Electricity generation: 203.0 GWh - Of which renewables: 0.0 GWh (0.0%) œ œ Electricity use per capita: 1,777 kWh œ œ Electrical capacity: 33.2 MW - Of which renewables: 0.0 MW (0.0%) œ œ Electricity access rate: 99.5% œ œ Share of population using solid fuels: Not available ENERGY NATIONAL PROFILE 2009 TARGETS: œ œ 20% of electricity generation and transport energy from renewables by 2020

grenada Oil 92% Solid biofuels 8% Oil 93% Solid biofuels 7% Solar 0.002% IRENA welcomes your comments and feedback at statistics@irena.org POLICIES IN PLACE TO PROMOTE RENEWABLE ENERGY SINCE THE RIO CONFERENCE OF 1992 RENEWABLE ENERGY PROJECTS FROM THE GOVERNMENT AND PRIVATE SECTORS: œ œ No information available WORLD BANK EASE OF DOING BUSINESS INDEX FOR 2012: Ranked 73 out of 183 NUMBER OF REGISTERED CLEAN DEVELOPMENT MECHANISM PROJECTS FOCUSING ON RENEWABLE ENERGY: 0 RENEWABLE ENERGY RESOURCES: Wind Solar Hydro Biomass Geothermal Ocean High Medium Low Unknown Not applicable 2003 Sustainable Energy Plan prepared Energy Policy drafted 2009 National Energy Policy approved by Cabinet 2011 Ratified the IRENA Statute 2011 Note:The information on resources should be taken as an indication only.

It refers to a general trend of available resources, and does not pre- judge the feasibility of individual projects.The thresholds are indicative, and do not refer to any technological choice.The analysis is based on the literature.

Sources: Population and GDP: World Bank; Energy data: IEA, IRENA analysis based on UN data; Share of fuel imports in total imports: World Trade Organisation; Electrical capacity: IEA, EIA; Electricity access rate: World Energy Outlook 2011 database (IEA); Share of population using solid fuels: World Health Organisation;Targets: REN21, IRENA; Policy/legislation: IEA, Reegle, IRENA research; Ease of doing business index: World Bank; Renewable energy projects: Bloomberg New Energy Finance, IRENA research; Clean Development Mechanism projects: UNFCCC; Renewable energy resources: IRENA analysis Units: USD: United States dollar; kWh: kilowatt-hour; GWh: gigawatt-hour (1 GWh=106 kWh);TWh: terawatt-hour (1 TWh=103 GWh); PJ: petajoule; MW: megawatt; GW: gigawatt (1 GW=103 MW).

Please also refer to the glossary for explanations on the terms used in the country profile. Figure 3:Total Primary Energy Supply* in 2000 and 2009 *excluding electricity trade 2000: 3.0 PJ 2009: 4.2 PJ

2,000 4,000 6,000 8,000 10,000 500 1,000 1,500 2,000 2,500 3,000 2010 2009 USD per capita kWh per capita 664 Haiti 36 Haiti 9,230 2,728 World World 1,251 Caribbean Caribbean 4,778 This Country Profile may contain advice, opinions and statements (“information”) of various information providers.The International Renewable Energy Agency does not represent or endorse the accuracy or reliability of any advice, opinion, statement or other information provided by any information provider or any other person or entity.Reliance upon any such information shall be at the user’s own risk.Neither the International Renewable Energy Agency,nor any of their respective agents,employees,information providers or content providers,shall be liable to any user or anyone else for any inac- curacy,error,omission,interruption,deletion,defect,alteration of or use of any content herein,or for its timeliness or completeness,nor shall they be liable for any failure of performance,regardless of cause,or for any damages resulting therefrom.The information contained herein does not necessarily represent the views of the Members of the International Renewable Energy Agency.The designations employed and the presentation of materials herein do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Secretariat of the International Renewable Energy Agency concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.The term“country” as used in this material also refers, as appropriate, to territories or areas.

RENEWABLE ENERGY COUNTRY PROFILE Figure 1: GDP per capita for 2010 Figure 2: Electricity use per capita for 2009 Bahamas Cuba Dominican Republic St.Kitts & Nevis Antigua & Barbuda Dominica St.Vincent & the Grenadines St.Lucia Barbados Grenada Trinidad & Tobago Haiti Jamaica HAITI 10.0 million Population (2010) 664 USD GDP per capita (2010) 6.6 billion USD GDP (2010) The Caribbean include Antigua and Barbuda, Bahamas, Barbados, Cuba, Dominica, the Dominican Republic, Grenada, Haiti, Jamaica, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, and Trinidad and Tobago.

œ œ Total Primary Energy Supply: 108.7 PJ - Of which renewables: 78.2 PJ (71.9%) œ œ Energy self-sufficiency: 71.9% œ œ Fuel imports: 450 million USD (14.3% of total imports) œ œ Electricity generation: 721.0 GWh - Of which renewables: 207.0 GWh (28.7%) œ œ Electricity use per capita: 36 kWh œ œ Electrical capacity: 240 MW - Of which renewables: 62 MW (25.8%) œ œ Electricity access rate: 38.5% œ œ Share of population using solid fuels: 93% ENERGY NATIONAL PROFILE 2009 TARGETS: œ œ No information available

IRENA welcomes your comments and feedback at statistics@irena.org POLICIES IN PLACE TO PROMOTE RENEWABLE ENERGY SINCE THE RIO CONFERENCE OF 1992 RENEWABLE ENERGY PROJECTS FROM THE GOVERNMENT AND PRIVATE SECTORS: œ œ 32 MW of small hydro capacity addition announced (1 project) œ œ 20 MW of wind capacity addition announced (1 project) WORLD BANK EASE OF DOING BUSINESS INDEX FOR 2012: Ranked 174 out of 183 NUMBER OF REGISTERED CLEAN DEVELOPMENT MECHANISM PROJECTS FOCUSING ON RENEWABLE ENERGY: 0 RENEWABLE ENERGY RESOURCES: Wind Solar Hydro Biomass Geothermal Ocean High Medium Low Unknown Not applicable 2008 Draft Energy Policy Note:The information on resources should be taken as an indication only.

It refers to a general trend of available resources, and does not prejudge the feasibility of individual projects.The thresholds are indicative, and do not refer to any technological choice.The analysis is based on the literature.

Sources: Population and GDP: World Bank; Energy data: IEA, IRENA analysis based on UN data; Share of fuel imports in total imports: World Trade Organisation; Electrical capacity: IEA, EIA; Electricity access rate: World Energy Outlook 2011 database (IEA); Share of population using solid fuels: World Health Organisation;Targets: REN21, IRENA; Policy/legislation: IEA, Reegle, IRENA research; Ease of doing business index: World Bank; Renewable energy projects: Bloomberg New Energy Finance, IRENA research; Clean Development Mechanism projects: UNFCCC; Renewable energy resources: IRENA analysis Units: USD: United States dollar; kWh: kilowatt-hour; GWh: gigawatt-hour (1 GWh=106 kWh);TWh: terawatt-hour (1 TWh=103 GWh); PJ: petajoule; MW: megawatt; GW: gigawatt (1 GW=103 MW).

Please also refer to the glossary for explanations on the terms used in the country profile. haiti Oil 23% Hydro 1% Solid biofuels 75% Oil 28% Hydro 1% Solid biofuels 71% Figure 3:Total Primary Energy Supply* in 2000 and 2009 *excluding electricity trade 2000: 84.2 PJ 2009: 108.7 PJ

2,000 4,000 6,000 8,000 10,000 500 1,000 1,500 2,000 2,500 3,000 2010 2009 USD per capita kWh per capita 5,133 Jamaica 1,902 Jamaica 9,230 2,728 World World 1,251 Caribbean Caribbean 4,778 This Country Profile may contain advice, opinions and statements (“information”) of various information providers.The International Renewable Energy Agency does not represent or endorse the accuracy or reliability of any advice, opinion, statement or other information provided by any information provider or any other person or entity.Reliance upon any such information shall be at the user’s own risk.Neither the International Renewable Energy Agency,nor any of their respective agents,employees,information providers or content providers,shall be liable to any user or anyone else for any inac- curacy,error,omission,interruption,deletion,defect,alteration of or use of any content herein,or for its timeliness or completeness,nor shall they be liable for any failure of performance,regardless of cause,or for any damages resulting therefrom.The information contained herein does not necessarily represent the views of the Members of the International Renewable Energy Agency.The designations employed and the presentation of materials herein do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Secretariat of the International Renewable Energy Agency concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.The term“country” as used in this material also refers, as appropriate, to territories or areas.

RENEWABLE ENERGY COUNTRY PROFILE Figure 1: GDP per capita for 2010 Figure 2: Electricity use per capita for 2009 Bahamas Cuba Dominican Republic St.Kitts & Nevis Antigua & Barbuda Dominica St.Vincent & the Grenadines St.Lucia Barbados Grenada Trinidad & Tobago Haiti Jamaica JAMAICA 2.7 million Population (2010) 5,133 USD GDP per capita (2010) 13.9 billion USD GDP (2010) The Caribbean include Antigua and Barbuda, Bahamas, Barbados, Cuba, Dominica, the Dominican Republic, Grenada, Haiti, Jamaica, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, and Trinidad and Tobago.

œ œ Total Primary Energy Supply: 136.4 PJ - Of which renewables: 22.2 PJ (16.3%) œ œ Energy self-sufficiency: 16.3% œ œ Fuel imports: 1.6 billion USD (30.5% of total imports) œ œ Electricity generation: 5.5 TWh - Of which renewables: 201.0 GWh (3.6%) œ œ Electricity use per capita: 1,902 kWh œ œ Electrical capacity: 1,198 MW - Of which renewables: 78 MW (6.5%) œ œ Electricity access rate: 92.0% œ œ Share of population using solid fuels: 16% ENERGY NATIONAL PROFILE 2009 TARGETS: œ œ 20% of primary energy from renewables by 2030 œ œ 15% of electricity generation from renewables by 2020

jamaica Coal and peat 1% Oil 84% Hydro 0.3% Solid biofuels 15% Solid biofuels 16% Coal and peat 1% Oil 83% Wind 0.1% Hydro 0.3% IRENA welcomes your comments and feedback at statistics@irena.org POLICIES IN PLACE TO PROMOTE RENEWABLE ENERGY SINCE THE RIO CONFERENCE OF 1992 RENEWABLE ENERGY PROJECTS FROM THE GOVERNMENT AND PRIVATE SECTORS: œ œ 65 MW of biomass-fired capacity addition announced (2 projects) œ œ 3 MW of wind capacity addition announced (1 project) WORLD BANK EASE OF DOING BUSINESS INDEX FOR 2012: Ranked 88 out of 183 NUMBER OF REGISTERED CLEAN DEVELOPMENT MECHANISM PROJECTS FOCUSING ON RENEWABLE ENERGY: 1 RENEWABLE ENERGY RESOURCES: Wind Solar Hydro Biomass Geothermal Ocean High Medium Low Unknown Not applicable 2009 National Energy Policy 2009-2030 Note:The information on resources should be taken as an indication only.

It refers to a general trend of available resources, and does not prejudge the feasibility of individual projects.The thresholds are indicative, and do not refer to any technological choice.The analysis is based on the literature.

Sources: Population and GDP: World Bank; Energy data: IEA, IRENA analysis based on UN data; Share of fuel imports in total imports: World Trade Organisation; Electrical capacity: IEA, EIA; Electricity access rate: World Energy Outlook 2011 database (IEA); Share of population using solid fuels: World Health Organisation;Targets: REN21, IRENA; Policy/legislation: IEA, Reegle, IRENA research; Ease of doing business index: World Bank; Renewable energy projects: Bloomberg New Energy Finance, IRENA research; Clean Development Mechanism projects: UNFCCC; Renewable energy resources: IRENA analysis Units: USD: United States dollar; kWh: kilowatt-hour; GWh: gigawatt-hour (1 GWh=106 kWh);TWh: terawatt-hour (1 TWh=103 GWh); PJ: petajoule; MW: megawatt; GW: gigawatt (1 GW=103 MW).

Please also refer to the glossary for explanations on the terms used in the country profile. Figure 3:Total Primary Energy Supply* in 2000 and 2009 *excluding electricity trade 2000: 160.6 PJ 2009: 136.4 PJ 2005 National Energy Policy Green Paper (2006-2020) 2006 Centre of Excel- lence for Renewable Energy created 2010 Draft National Renewable Energy Policy 2009 Roll-out of 10% bioethanol blend 2010 Draft National Biofuels Policy Draft National Waste-to-Energy Policy

3,000 6,000 9,000 12,000 15,000 500 1,000 1,500 2,000 2,500 3,000 2010 2009 USD per capita kWh per capita 12,847 Saint Kitts and Nevis 2,095 Saint Kitts and Nevis 9,230 2,728 World World 1,251 Caribbean Caribbean 4,778 This Country Profile may contain advice, opinions and statements (“information”) of various information providers.The International Renewable Energy Agency does not represent or endorse the accuracy or reliability of any advice, opinion, statement or other information provided by any information provider or any other person or entity.Reliance upon any such information shall be at the user’s own risk.Neither the International Renewable Energy Agency,nor any of their respective agents,employees,information providers or content providers,shall be liable to any user or anyone else for any inac- curacy,error,omission,interruption,deletion,defect,alteration of or use of any content herein,or for its timeliness or completeness,nor shall they be liable for any failure of performance,regardless of cause,or for any damages resulting therefrom.The information contained herein does not necessarily represent the views of the Members of the International Renewable Energy Agency.The designations employed and the presentation of materials herein do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Secretariat of the International Renewable Energy Agency concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.The term“country” as used in this material also refers, as appropriate, to territories or areas.

RENEWABLE ENERGY COUNTRY PROFILE Figure 1: GDP per capita for 2010 Figure 2: Electricity use per capita for 2009 Bahamas Cuba Dominican Republic St.Kitts & Nevis Antigua & Barbuda Dominica St.Vincent & the Grenadines St.Lucia Barbados Grenada Trinidad & Tobago Haiti Jamaica SAINT KITTS AND NEVIS 52,000 Population (2010) 12,847 USD GDP per capita (2010) 673 million USD GDP (2010) The Caribbean include Antigua and Barbuda, Bahamas, Barbados, Cuba, Dominica, the Dominican Republic, Grenada, Haiti, Jamaica, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, and Trinidad and Tobago.

œ œ Total Primary Energy Supply: 4.2 PJ - Of which renewables: 0.5 PJ (11.9%) œ œ Energy self-sufficiency: 11.9% œ œ Fuel imports: Not available œ œ Electricity generation: 142.0 GWh - Of which renewables: 0.0 GWh (0.0%) œ œ Electricity use per capita: 2,095 kWh œ œ Electrical capacity: 22 MW - Of which renewables: 0.0 MW (0.0%) œ œ Electricity access rate: 95.0% œ œ Share of population using solid fuels: < 5% ENERGY NATIONAL PROFILE 2009 TARGETS: œ œ 20% of renewable capacity by 2015

st.kitts Oil 84% Solid biofuels 16% Oil 88% Solid biofuels 12% IRENA welcomes your comments and feedback at statistics@irena.org POLICIES IN PLACE TO PROMOTE RENEWABLE ENERGY SINCE THE RIO CONFERENCE OF 1992 RENEWABLE ENERGY PROJECTS FROM THE GOVERNMENT AND PRIVATE SECTORS: œ œ About 160 MW of geothermal capacity addition announced (2 projects) œ œ 5 MW of wind capacity addition announced (1 project) WORLD BANK EASE OF DOING BUSINESS INDEX FOR 2012: Ranked 95 out of 183 NUMBER OF REGISTERED CLEAN DEVELOPMENT MECHANISM PROJECTS FOCUSING ON RENEWABLE ENERGY: 0 RENEWABLE ENERGY RESOURCES: Wind Solar Hydro Biomass Geothermal Ocean High Medium Low Unknown Not applicable 2007 National Action Programme for Combating Desertification and Land Degradation 2012 Tax exemptions for renewable energy equipment approved in cabinet Nevis Geothermal Resources Develop- ment Ordinance 2008 Note:The information on resources should be taken as an indication only.

It refers to a general trend of available resources, and does not prejudge the feasibility of individual projects.The thresholds are indicative, and do not refer to any technological choice.The analysis is based on the literature.

Sources: Population and GDP: World Bank; Energy data: IEA, IRENA analysis based on UN data; Share of fuel imports in total imports: World Trade Organisation; Electrical capacity: IEA, EIA; Electricity access rate: World Energy Outlook 2011 database (IEA); Share of population using solid fuels: World Health Organisation;Targets: REN21, IRENA; Policy/legislation: IEA, Reegle, IRENA research; Ease of doing business index: World Bank; Renewable energy projects: Bloomberg New Energy Finance, IRENA research; Clean Development Mechanism projects: UNFCCC; Renewable energy resources: IRENA analysis Units: USD: United States dollar; kWh: kilowatt-hour; GWh: gigawatt-hour (1 GWh=106 kWh);TWh: terawatt-hour (1 TWh=103 GWh); PJ: petajoule; MW: megawatt; GW: gigawatt (1 GW=103 MW).

Please also refer to the glossary for explanations on the terms used in the country profile. Figure 3:Total Primary Energy Supply* in 2000 and 2009 *excluding electricity trade 2000: 3.1 PJ 2009: 4.2 PJ

You can also read