In MICHIGAN DATA BOOK - What It's Like to Be a Kid in Michigan 2019 - Michigan League ...

 
In MICHIGAN DATA BOOK - What It's Like to Be a Kid in Michigan 2019 - Michigan League ...
2019

         in MICHIGAN
         DATA BOOK
         What It’s Like
         to Be a Kid in
         Michigan
In MICHIGAN DATA BOOK - What It's Like to Be a Kid in Michigan 2019 - Michigan League ...
2019 Kids Count in Michigan
 Advisory Committee
   CHAIR: Michele Corey, Vice President for Programs, Michigan’s Children

   Dr. Jan Amsterburg, Ph.D., Superintendent, Gratiot-Isabella Intermediate School District
   Casey Anbender, J.D., Senior Management Analyst, Child Welfare Services, Michigan Supreme Court
   Stacie Bladen, L.M.S.W., Deputy Director, Children’s Services Administration, Michigan Department of Health and
      Human Services
   Hillary Brandon, M.P.H., Michigan Adolescent Pregnancy and Parenting Program (MI-APPP) Coordinator, Michigan
      Department of Health and Human Services
   Jared Burkhart, Executive Director, Michigan Chapter American Academy of Pediatrics
   Kyle Caldwell, President and CEO, Council of Michigan Foundations
   Annette Chapman, Vice President, Grantmaking and Scholarships, Battle Creek Community Foundation
   David Coulter, Director of External Affairs, Children’s Hospital of Michigan Foundation
   Taryn Gal, Executive Director, Michigan Organization on Adolescent Sexual Health
   Eric A. Guthrie, Ph.D., Michigan’s State Demographer, Bureau of Labor Market Information and Strategic Initiatives,
      Michigan Department of Technology, Management and Budget
   Paula Herbart, President, Michigan Education Association
   Wendy Lewis Jackson, Managing Director, Detroit Program, The Kresge Foundation
   Gilda Z. Jacobs, President and CEO, Michigan League for Public Policy
   Ja’Nel Jamerson, M.A., Executive Director, Flint & Genesee Literacy Network
   Jerry D. Johnson, Assistant Superintendent, Calhoun Intermediate School District
   Amy E. Krug, Managing Director, Ele’s Place Flint
   Mike Larson, President and CEO, Michigan Association of United Ways
   Jodi Latuszek, Juvenile Management Analyst, Trial Court Services, State Court Administrative Office
   Ruben Martinez, Ph.D., Director, Julian Samora Research Institute, Michigan State University
   Lisa McCormick, Director, Office of the Children’s Ombudsman
   David R. McGhee, Associate Vice President of Organizational Excellence & Impact, The Skillman Foundation
   Summer Minnick, Deputy Executive Director and CMO, Michigan Municipal League
   Kendra Moyses, Acting Co-Director, Children and Youth Institute, Senior Extension Educator, Michigan State University
      Extension
   Erica Raleigh, Director, Data Driven Detroit
   Alex Rossman, Communications Director, Michigan League for Public Policy
   Jason Smith, L.M.S.W., Director of Youth Justice Policy, Michigan Council on Crime and Delinquency
   Ann Michele Stacks, Ph.D., Director, Infant Mental Health Program, Merrill Palmer Skillman Institute, Wayne State
      University
   Michele Strasz, Executive Director, Capital Area College Access Network
   Stacey Tadgerson, M.P.A., Director, Native American Affairs, Michigan Department of Health and Human Services
   Cassie Jo Thierfelder, Esq., Policy & Advocacy Specialist, United Way for Southeastern Michigan
   Maxine Thome, Executive Director, National Association of Social Workers/Michigan Chapter
   Holly Wingard, Director of Training and Technical Assistance, Early Childhood Investment Corporation
   Amy Zaagman, Executive Director, Michigan Council for Maternal and Child Health

   Ex-Officio:
   Alicia Guevara Warren, M.P.Aff., Kids Count Project Director, Michigan League for Public Policy
In MICHIGAN DATA BOOK - What It's Like to Be a Kid in Michigan 2019 - Michigan League ...
Acknowledgements
                                      The 2019 Kids Count in Michigan Data Book was written and developed by
We wanted to make this book           Alicia Guevara Warren of the Michigan League for Public Policy with the
as bright and vibrant as Michi-       assistance of League and project staff. Many thanks to Parker James, who
                                      collected and compiled the data. Thank you to Tillie Kucharek and Laura
gan’s kids, so we asked children      Ross, who helped design the book and graphics. Also appreciated are staff
from around the state to submit       members Alex Rossman and Laura Ross for reviewing and editing the data
artwork to show us “what it’s like    book and other League staff for fact-checking.

to be a kid in Michigan.” Their       Thank you to the members of the Kids Count in Michigan Advisory
responses are featured in this        Committee, who have given their time and expertise to help shape the data
                                      book and other project activities throughout the year. We are grateful for
year’s book.                          your thoughtful review of the data book.

                                      We are also so grateful for all of the kids who submitted their artwork for
                                      this year’s book! It is a beautiful display of artistic talent from across the
Kids Count in Michigan is part of     state and across age ranges. Thank you to the parents, teachers and other
a broad national effort to meas-      caring adults for helping with the submission process.

ure the well-being of children at    Generous Supporters of the 2019 Kids Count in
the state and local levels and       Michigan Data Book
use that information to shape         Annie E. Casey Foundation

efforts to improve the lives of       The Max M. and Marjorie S. Fisher Foundation
                                      The Skillman Foundation
children.                             Steelcase Foundation
                                      Michigan Education Association
The project is housed at the          American Federation of Teachers Michigan

Michigan League for Public            Blue Cross Blue Shield of Michigan Foundation
                                      United Way for Southeastern Michigan
Policy, a research and advocacy       DTE Energy Foundation
organization whose mission is         Ford Motor Company Fund
                                      Ruth Mott Foundation
to advance economic security,
                                      Battle Creek Community Foundation
racial equity, health and well-
being for all people in every         The findings and conclusions presented herein do not necessarily reflect
                                      the opinions of our funders.
part of Michigan through policy
change.                               Data Provided by
                                              Center for Educational Performance and Information
                                              Early Childhood Investment Corporation
                                              Michigan Department of Health and Human Services
                                              Michigan Department of Education
                                              Office of the State Demographer

                                       Copyright: Michigan League for Public Policy 2019

                                       Any part of this book may be duplicated and distributed for nonprofit educa-
                                       tional purposes provided the source is credited.

        www.mlpp.org                   Suggested citation: Guevara Warren, Alicia S. 2019 Kids Count in Michigan
                                       Data Book: What It’s Like to Be a Kid in Michigan. Lansing, Michigan: Michi-
                                       gan League for Public Policy.
In MICHIGAN DATA BOOK - What It's Like to Be a Kid in Michigan 2019 - Michigan League ...
Table of Contents

                                             1   Introduction

                                             2   About the Kids Count
                                                 Indicators

                                             3   Using the Data Book

                                             4   Data Into Action

                                             6   Trends in Child Well-Being

                                             7   Background Information

                                             8   Overall Child Well-Being
                                                 County Rankings

                                             9   Child Population

                                             10    Economic Security

                                             16    Health & Safety

                                             22     Family & Community

                    Brook Robinson, Age 18
                                             28     Education

                                             34     Data Definitions
                                                    and Notes
In MICHIGAN DATA BOOK - What It's Like to Be a Kid in Michigan 2019 - Michigan League ...
Introduction

   Michigan is at a crossroads.
   The data is clear and cannot be denied: We know the barriers children face to reaching their
   full potential. Some children face roadblocks along their pathway to success due to their
   family’s income, where they live or because of inequitable access to opportunities based on
   race and ethnicity. Immigrant families have also experienced incredible trauma because of
   federal policy decisions. Policymakers, community leaders and residents have the opportu-
   nity to take action now to support all kids and families.

   Our children are in need of leadership and courage from those with the ability to make
   change and strategic investments. For example, while educational outcomes continue to lag,
   study after study has determined that Michigan has underfunded public schools. Research
   has shown that funding has also not been equitably distributed to reach the students who
   need the most support.1 If Michigan is going to reach its goal of becoming a “Top 10 in 10
   Years” in education, then state leaders should prioritize our kids from cradle to career. The
   data shows that Michigan’s children are struggling in other areas as well—not just in educa-
   tion—pointing to the need for comprehensive solutions that look at the whole child and the
   families and communities that they are a part of.

   As we near the 2020 Census, there is also a responsibility to
   ensure that all people are counted. Young children and those liv-
   ing in high-poverty communities are more likely to be missed.2
                                                                           We can either take
   In Michigan, about 11% of young children live in hard-to-count          the necessary steps
   areas. It’s even higher in Detroit: 70% of young children are           to ensure adequate
   at high risk of being missed. Already undercounted are immi-
   grants and those whose primary language may not be English,             investments in our kids
   and with the proposed inclusion of a citizenship question on            are made, or we can
   the census survey, the undercount will likely be even worse.3
   What’s at stake if all children aren’t counted? Over $4 billion in
                                                                           continue to languish
   federal funding that is based on an accurate count of children          while other states move
   to determine the need for programs and services, including              ahead.
   child care, Medicaid and school lunch. Every child must be
   counted.

   As in previous editions, the 2019 Kids Count in Michigan Data Book lays out the data to help
   illustrate the state of Michigan’s children. The report is a tool to be used to make informed
   policy decisions. The strategies may vary for kids depending on their needs—which are
   identified through the data. However, one thing is clear: Everyone wants every child in our
   state to thrive. We can either take the necessary steps to ensure adequate investments in
   our kids are made, or we can continue to languish while other states move ahead.

                                                                        2019 Kids Count in Michigan Data Book   |   1
In MICHIGAN DATA BOOK - What It's Like to Be a Kid in Michigan 2019 - Michigan League ...
About the Kids Count Indicators
     Economic Security
     Children in Poverty (Ages 0-17)                                 Young Children Eligible for                                  Students Eligible for Free/Reduced-
                 -U.S. Census Bureau, SAIPE-                             SNAP (Ages 0-5)                                                    Price Lunches
    Children growing up in poverty ($24,858                            -MI Dept. of Health & Human Services-                           -Center for Education Performance Information-
    for a family of four in 2017) are much                        The Michigan Food Assistance                             K-12 students from families with incomes below 130%
    more likely than their peers to experi-                       Program (FAP), known as SNAP                             of the federal poverty level are eligible for a fully
    ence stress and deprivation that hinders                      nationally, provides financial assis-                    subsidized lunch. Those from families with incomes
    health, development and readiness                             tance to families with low incomes to                    between 130% and 185% of poverty are eligible for
    for school, and other developmental                           buy groceries, striving to reduce food                   reduced-price lunch. This is commonly used as a
    outcomes.                                                     insecurity.                                              proxy for poverty.

     Health & Safety
    Less Than Adequate Prenatal Care                                   Low-Birthweight                               Infant Mortality                          Child/Teen Deaths
               -MI Dept. of Health & Human Services-                       Babies                             -MI Dept. of Health & Human Services-               (Ages 1-19)
                                                                      -MI Dept. of Health & Human
     Prenatal care increases the chances of a                                                                  Infants who die before their               -MI Dept. of Health & Human Services-
                                                                               Services-
     healthy pregnancy and birth. Adequacy                                                                     first birthday is a child out-              Child and teen death rates
     of prenatal care is based on the Kessner                       Infants born with low                      come, but also an indicator                 from all causes, such as
     Index, which measures adequacy by the                          birthweight (less than 5                   of population health. There                 accidents, illnesses, homi-
     month the care began, number of pre-                           lbs., 8 oz.) are at a higher               are several main causes                     cide and suicide, can reveal
     natal visits and length of the pregnancy.                      risk for physical and de-                  of infant deaths, some                      underlying issues and
     Prenatal care is adequate when it begins                       velopmental delays that                    of which are genetic and                    inequities within communi-
     in the first trimester and includes, on                        hinder growth, school                      others are environmental                    ties, such as neighborhood
     average, at least one or two additional                        readiness and long-term                    factors.                                    safety, access to healthcare
     prenatal visits per month, depending on                        health outcomes.                                                                       or exposure to environmen-
     length of gestation.                                                                                                                                  tal toxins.

     Family & Community
    Births to Teens (Ages 15-19)                           Children in Families                           Children Confirmed as                        Children Placed in Out-of-
         -MI Dept. of Health & Human Services-           Investigated for Abuse/                         Victims of Abuse/Neglect                      Home Care Due to Abuse/
    Teen moms often struggle to                                  Neglect                                 -MI Dept. of Health & Human Services-                  Neglect
    complete high school, live in                       -MI Dept. of Health & Human Services-        Experiencing abuse or neglect                       -MI Dept. of Health & Human Services-
    poverty, and raise a child alone,                  Each reported case of abuse                   as a child is one adverse child-                  Children are removed from their
    making it more difficult for them                  or neglect is investigated and                hood experience (ACE) that                        families and placed in a foster
    to create good early learning                      categorized based on the                      hinders healthy development                       home, relative care, residen-
    environments to ensure their                       evidence collected and the                    and outcomes into adulthood.                      tial care or shelter following
    children are ready and prepared                    safety risk for recurrence of                                                                   substantiated abuse or neglect.
    for school. Babies born to teen                    abuse or neglect.                                                                               This also has an adverse effect
    mothers are more likely to be                                                                                                                      on health, development and
    born too early and/or too small.                                                                                                                   outcomes into adulthood.

     Education
3- and 4-Year-Olds                  Students NOT Grad-                     Third-Graders NOT                          Eighth-Graders NOT                           Students NOT
NOT in Preschool                     uating From High                      Proficient in English                       Proficient in Math                          College Ready
-U.S. Census Bureau, SAIPE-           School on Time                         Language Arts                                 -MI Dept. of Education-                 -MI Dept. of Education-
 Children who partic-                   -MI Dept. of Education-                -MI Dept. of Education-               Proficiency in math by                 Students who meet the
 ipate in high-quality               Students who gradu-               After third grade, students                   the end of middle school               college readiness bench-
 preschool programs                  ate with their cohort             read to learn rather than                     prepares students                      marks are more likely to
 are more likely to                  within four years are             learn to read, making third-                  for high school math                   successfully complete
 be socially and                     more likely to be                 grade reading proficiency an                  courses, increasing                    entry-level college require-
 cognitively ready for               better prepared for               important benchmark of future                 chances of graduation                  ments without remediation
 kindergarten.                       postsecondary educa-              academic outcomes, such as                    and development of basic               courses. Being college
                                     tion or training.                 high school graduation and                    math skills for adulthood.             ready at the start of college
                                                                       long-term economic security.                                                         increases the likelihood of
                                                                                                                                                            postsecondary graduation.

2    |      2019 Kids Count in Michigan Data Book
In MICHIGAN DATA BOOK - What It's Like to Be a Kid in Michigan 2019 - Michigan League ...
Using the Data Book

Since 1992, the Michigan League for Public Policy has produced
the annual Kids Count in Michigan Data Book.
      The book reviews background and trend data to evaluate the well-being of children throughout communities in
      Michigan while identifying policy strategies that could be implemented to improve outcomes. The base period for
      the 2019 book is 2012 compared to 2017, unless otherwise noted. The report analyzes 16 key indicators across
      four domains: 1) economic security; 2) health and safety; 3) family and community; and 4) education. The overall
      child well-being rank is based on a county’s rank in 14 of the 16 measures; infant mortality and child and teen
      deaths are excluded as many counties do not have sufficient data on these two indicators.

      The following data limitations exist, or continue to exist, in this year’s report:

               Children hospitalized for asthma: In 2015, there were changes in the coding, making previous and future
               years incomparable. With this change, the data is only available in a single year, which means that almost
               all counties do not have data available since this data is generally reported in three-year averages.

               Virtual schools: Due to the methodology and available data, virtual schools are included in county
               data according to the location of the virtual school authorizer.

               Program participation in Detroit and Flint: Kids Count in Michigan has been unable to obtain Detroit
               and Flint data for the Food Assistance Program and Family Independence Program despite multiple
               requests. Detroit data are available through December 2016. Flint data remain unavailable at this time.

               M-STEP and college readiness: In September 2018, new disclosure avoidance rules were applied to
               M-STEP and college readiness data. As a result, districts with fewer than 10 test-takers, or where the
               number of students not meeting proficiency or college readiness was suppressed, were excluded
               from analysis. County and city totals are estimations that may exclude some districts, and careful
               consideration should be taken when comparing data across years due to changes in data disclosure.

      Throughout the report, the term “low income” refers to 200% of federal poverty while “poverty” refers to 100%
      of federal poverty. Additionally, please note changes to racial and ethnic terminology. Both the switch to “Latinx”
      to refer to the Hispanic/Latino community and the use of African American, unhyphenated, have been made
      intentionally in the interest of inclusion.

      Data by race and ethnicity is collected and reported differently based on the source, and data labels in charts
      and the narrative may differ to reflect this. The Children’s Services Administration at the Michigan Department
      of Health and Human Services (MDHHS) has made their data available in a detailed breakdown, which is then
      categorized by the League. All children with a race code that includes Hispanic are categorized as “Hispanic,”
      while children with multiple race codes are categorized as “Multiracial.” Children with single race codes are
      categorized accordingly. The MDHHS also includes race codes “Unable to Determine” and “No Match Found,”
      which the League categorizes as “Unable to Determine.” Due to these changes, data prior to fiscal year 2016
      cannot be compared. Additionally, for the first time, Vital Statistics data from the MDHHS was provided in a raw
      format allowing the League to conduct more in-depth analysis by race and ethnicity; however, these data are still
      comparable to previous years.

      Finally, caution should be taken when reviewing rates (e.g., per 1,000 or 100,000), percentages and numbers.
      Small population numbers in some areas of the state often result in data being suppressed, and small numbers
      may cause percentage changes in a rate to appear more significant. Also, keep in mind that some data are based
      on different time frames (e.g., school years, fiscal years, and three-year and five-year averages).

                                                                                2019 Kids Count in Michigan Data Book   |   3
In MICHIGAN DATA BOOK - What It's Like to Be a Kid in Michigan 2019 - Michigan League ...
Data Into
  Action                          Michigan has seen some positive movement in recent years in policy decisions and
            Strategies            investments, yet outcomes for children have been mostly stagnant,           , pointing to the need
        for Improving             to do much more. Data should be used by policymakers to understand where efforts should be
                                  focused in order to support all kids and families across the state. Applying a racial equity
        Overall Child              lens to proposed policies and using two-generation strategies are two approaches that
           Well-Being             should be adopted to improve the overall well-being of kids, families and communities.

Economic Security
Key Findings                                                    Recommendations
  Nearly1 in 5 kids in Michigan live below the
                                                                   Modernize the state’s Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) to allow
                                                                   young workers and childless adults, often noncustodial parents, to
        federal poverty line, which is not an adequate             receive the credit. The EITC helps workers with low wages keep
        measure of the share of families whose basic               more of what they earn to make ends meet. Research shows that
        needs are going unmet.                                     children in families receiving the EITC benefit through improved
                                                                   educational and health outcomes.
        An estimated  23%        of children live in working
                                                                   Ensure access to affordable, high-quality child care by expanding
        families with low incomes who are struggling to
                                                                   income eligibility levels for subsidies and increasing provider
        make ends meet, in part, because of low-wage               reimbursement rates. Child care helps provide early learning
        jobs, unaffordable child care and housing, and a           experiences for children, allows parents to work and benefits
        lack of access to affordable postsecondary training        employers.
        and education programs to help gain the skills
        necessary to obtain a job that pays well.                  Support youth and young adults to access postsecondary training,
                                                                   credentialing and education programs through flexible programming
                                                                   and increased financial aid. Providing multiple paths to access
                                                                   postsecondary programs, like early middle college programs, can
                                                                   help students achieve necessary career skills. It is also important to
                                                                   make college affordable for all students.

Health & Safety

Key Findings                                                    Recommendations
        Significant health disparities exist by race and eth-        Expand home visitation programs and strengthen the system
        nicity for women and children in Michigan.                   by creating a centralized intake process that will ensure
                                                                     families are able to participate in the program that will meet
                                                                     their needs best. Home visiting programs are evidence-based
        African American babies are more than two                    and research shows that they improve outcomes in health,
        times as likely to die before their first birthdays,         economic security and school readiness.
        there is an increasing rate of Latinx infant mor-
        talities and women of color face more barriers to            Restore funding for family planning and pregnancy prevention
                                                                     programs to previous levels. Unintended pregnancy can lead
        accessing adequate prenatal care.
                                                                     to delayed prenatal care and preterm births, which impact

        With a low of 3%  uninsured, Michigan does
                                                                     the health of moms and babies, including maternal and infant
                                                                     mortality.
        well in providing health coverage to chil-
        dren, but more can be done.                                  Under the Children’s Health Insurance Program
                                                                     Reauthorization Act (CHIPRA), states have the ability to
                                                                     provide health coverage to lawfully residing immigrant children
                                                                     before the five-year wait period ends. Michigan should extend
                                                                     coverage to these children to promote better health.
4   |   2019 Kids Count in Michigan Data Book
In MICHIGAN DATA BOOK - What It's Like to Be a Kid in Michigan 2019 - Michigan League ...
Family & Community
Key Findings                                                 Recommendations
  More than 1 in 5 kids in Michigan have experienced two       Raise the age of juvenile jurisdiction from 17 to 18 years old
  or more adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), stressful or            and fully fund its implementation.
    traumatic events impacting long-term well-being.
                                                                        Promote comprehensive strategies to prevent child abuse
    Michigan is one of four states to still automatically prosecute     and neglect, including investments in job training and child
    17-year-old children as adults in the criminal justice system       care, along with positive parenting education, such as home
    regardless of the crime. This law prevents youth from               visitation programs.
    accessing age-appropriate treatment in the juvenile justice
    system and increases trauma for young people while also             Address disparities in the child welfare system through
    leading to higher crime rates and more violent offenses.            appropriate data collection and cultural competency training
    Additionally, the rate of child abuse and neglect has               for workers.

    continued to rise—by 30% from 2012 to 2017—with                     Ensure adequate support for programs that assist foster
    disproportionate impacts on children of color. There are also       youth exiting the system with education, housing and work.
    recent increases in the rate of children placed in out-of-          In Michigan, only 3% of youth transitioning out of foster care
    home care due to abuse or neglect.                                  receive employment assistance, and just 1% receive education

                    58%
                                                                        support.
    Approximately             of young people exit foster care
    because they are emancipated or age out of the system
    without any permanence, meaning without a recognized
    adult parenting relationship in place.

Education
Key Findings                                                          Recommendations
     M-STEP, the state’s standardized assessment on English            Provide sufficient funding for early interventions to improve third-
     Language Arts, math, science and social studies, has been         grade reading using a birth-to-8 framework, including maternal
                                                                       and child health programs, Early On, and affordable, high-
     in place for four years.
                                                                       quality child care and education.

     56% of third-graders test below proficiency in reading.           Ensure that all children from families with low and moderate
                                                                       incomes can receive a high-quality preschool education.
     Over 67% of eighth-graders are not proficient in math.
                                                                       Address the state’s Read by Grade Three law, which will allow
                                                                       for the retention of students reading below grade level in the
     Plus, more than half of Michigan’s 3- and 4-year-olds             upcoming school year by ensuring adequate funding and
     are not enrolled in preschool, which is critical to               support for parents, schools and communities.
     building a strong foundation for learning. Students from
     families with lower incomes face additional barriers to           Adequately fund public schools, targeting resources in high-
                                                                       need areas and fully funding the At-Risk program.
     reaching their potential.

Data Collection
Key Findings                                                           Recommendations
     Data collection by race and ethnicity is inconsistent with        To make informed policy decisions and increase
     federal standards in several state systems, especially in         transparency, robust data must be collected and publicly
     the justice system. Juvenile justice data collection statewide    disseminated, including data by race and ethnicity.
     is also inadequate and requires investment to create a
     streamlined system that is supported at the state and local
     levels.
                                                                                       2019 Kids Count in Michigan Data Book        |   5
In MICHIGAN DATA BOOK - What It's Like to Be a Kid in Michigan 2019 - Michigan League ...
MICHIGAN
                                2019 TRENDS IN CHILD WELL-BEING
                                (All Data Are for 2017 Unless Otherwise Noted)

                                            2012              2016        % change           Child population by race         2012        2016      % change
    P                                                                                                                        173,982     180,051      3.5%
    O Total population                 9,883,360         9,933,445             0.5%          Hispanic 0-17
    P                                                                                        Non-Hispanic 0-17
    U Child population 0-17            2,266,870          2,189,505          -3.4%
                                                                                               • White                    1,591,656     1,518,967    -4.6%
    L • Ages 0-5                          697,840           688,553           -1.3%
    A • Ages 6-12                         889,637           849,758          -4.5%             • African American/Black      408,553     393,828      -3.6%
    T                                                                                          • American Indian              18,919      17,823      -5.8%
    I  • Ages 13-17                       679,393            651,194         -4.2%
    O                                                                                          • Other                        73,760      78,836      6.9%
    N
                                                                      BASE YEAR                              CURRENT YEAR
                                                                 NUMBER           RATE           NUMBER          RATE     RATE CHANGE

ECONOMIC SECURITY                                                        2012                            2017
    Children in poverty, ages 0-17                             549,131           24.7%          416,305          19.6%      -20.6%
 Young children, ages 0-5, in the
		 Food Assistance Program1                                    259,168           36.7%          179,467          26.1%      -28.9%
 Students receiving free/reduced-                                  2011-12 (SY)                    2017-18 (SY)
		 price school lunches2                                        747,630          48.1%          742,922          50.3%       4.7%

HEALTH & SAFETY                                                   2010-12 (avg.)                  2014-16 (avg.)
    Less than adequate prenatal care                             33,431          29.4%           36,926         32.5%       10.6%
    Low-birthweight babies                                        9,599           8.4%             9,637          8.5%       0.6%
    Infant mortality (per 1,000)                                     783           6.9                763         6.7        -2.4%
    Child/Teen deaths, ages 1-19 (per 100,000)                       684         27.5                 630       26.7         -3.2%

FAMILY & COMMUNITY                    (per 1,000)                 2010-12 (avg.)                  2014-16 (avg.)
    Births to teens, ages 15-19                                    9,793         28.1              6,371        19.4        -30.9%
    Child abuse/neglect                                                 2012                             2017
    Children in investigated families                          206,896           90.1           249,110         113.8       26.2%
    Confirmed victims                                           33,565           14.6             41,462        18.9        29.5%
    Children in out-of-home care                                 10,316            4.5            11,209          5.1       13.9%

EDUCATION                                                        2008-12 (avg.)                   2013-17 (avg.)
    3- and 4-year-olds not in preschool                        126,290           51.5%          123,617          52.9%       2.7%
                                                                         2012                            2017
    Students not graduating on time                             30,808           23.8%           24,035         19.8%       -16.6%
                                                                         2016                            2018
    Students not college ready                                   67,878          65.1%           68,757         65.4%        0.5%
    Not proficient (M-STEP)                                        2014-15 (SY)                    2017-18 (SY)
    Third-graders (English Language Arts)                        53,535          49.9%            56,872         55.6%      11.4%
    Eighth-graders (Math)                                        75,854          67.8%            74,265         67.3%       -0.7%

1
  Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program.
2
  Family income is below 185% poverty level.
SY - School Year. | M-STEP - Michigan Student Test of Educational Progress was first administered in 2015.

6     |   2019 Kids Count in Michigan Data Book
MICHIGAN
                                                                                                                         2019 BACKGROUND INFORMATION

FAMILY SUPPORT PROGRAMS                                     NUMBER                RATE                ECONOMIC CLIMATE
Children receiving...                                                                                 Unemployment                                            4.6%
    • Subsidized child care, ages 0-121                       33,648               2.2%               Median household income                            $54,840
    • FIP cash assistance1,2                                  35,448               1.5%               Average cost of full-time child
    • Food Assistance Program           1,3
                                                             509,470             21.9%                 care/month (2018)                                      $563
    • Women, Infants, and Children (WIC)                     270,784              47.3%                • Percent of full-time
                                                                                                         minimum wage (2018)                                35.2%
Children with support owed                                   511,639             20.8%
                                                                                                      Percent of young children
    • Receiving none (% of those owed)                         92,125             18.0%                ages 0-5 in Michigan
    • Receiving less than 70% of amount                      263,182              51.4%                families (2013-17 avg.)
    • Average amount received (month)                            $216                 —                where all parents work                               66.2%

FAMILY AND COMMUNITY                                                                                 NUMBER                  RATE
Births to moms without high school diploma or GED (2014-16 avg.)                                         13,539             11.9%
High-poverty neighborhoods, ages 0-17 (2013-17 avg.)                                                   323,870             15.0%
Household structure, ages 0-17 (2013-17 avg.)
    • Two-parent family                                                                             1,425,045              66.2%
    • One-parent family                                                                                727,831             33.8%
Poverty by household structure, ages 0-17 (2013-17 avg.)
    • Two-parent family                                                                                139,881               9.8%
    • One-parent family                                                                                 319,116            43.8%
English not spoken at home, ages 5-17 (2013-17 avg.)                                                    170,164            10.4%

ACCESS TO HEALTHCARE                                                                                 NUMBER                  RATE
Children with health insurance (2016)                                                                2,195,206             96.9%
Children, ages 0-18, insured by...
    • Medicaid1                                                                                     1,003,645              43.1%
    • MIChild                                                                                            44,170              1.9%
Fully immunized toddlers, ages 19-35 months
    (for the series 4:3:1:3:3:1:4)1                                                                    125,853             75.0%
Lead poisoning in children, ages 1-2
    • Tested                                                                                              93,174           40.4%
    • Poisoned (% of tested) (EBL confirmed by venous)                                                     1,519             1.6%
Children, ages 1-14, hospitalized for asthma (rate per 10,000) (2016)                                      1,979             9.3
Children with special needs
    • Students in Special Education1                                                                    207,315            14.0%
    • Children receiving Supplemental Security Income (rate per 1,000)1                                   41,149            17.7
    • Children, ages 0-2, receiving Early On services (ISD totals)                                       10,527              3.1%

1
  As of December 2017.
2
  Family Independence Program.
3
  State name for the federal Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program, formerly called “food stamps.” Note: Percentages reflect percent of population unless otherwise noted.
See Data Definitions and Notes for details.

                                                                                                                   2019 Kids Count in Michigan Data Book                   |     7
Overall Child
Well-Being
Ranked
                                                              Overall Trend Ranking
                                        Infant Mortality and Child Deaths excluded, Keweenaw excluded

                                                               aw
                                                           een
                                                        Kew

                                           Houghton

                            Ontonagon            Baraga
                                                                                                               Luce
                       Gogebic                                      Marquette
                                                                                     Alger                                          Chippewa
                                                Iron                                          Schoolcraft
                                                                                                                              Mackinac
                                                              Dickinson             Delta
                                                                          e
                                                                          ne
                                                                         mi

                                                                                                                                Emmet

                                                                                                                                               n
                                                                     no

                                                                                                                                             ga
                                                                    Me

                                                                                                                                           oy
                                                                                                                                                       Presque

                                                                                                                                          eb
                                                                                                                                        Ch
                                                                                                                            Charlevoi                    Isle
                                                                                                                                     x

                                                                                                                                                         y
                                                                                                                                                        nc
                                                                                                                                                    ore
                                                                                                                           Antrim        Otsego               Alpena

                                                                                                                                                   ntm
                                                                                                              u
                                                                                                            na

                                                                                                                                               Mo
                                                                                                         ela
                                                                                                        Le

                                                                                                               Grand Kalkaska Crawford Oscoda                    Alcona
                                                                                                    Benzie
          Counties Ranked From 1                                                                              Traverse
          (Best) to 82* (Worst)                                                                                                              n
                                                                                                                                e

                                                                                                                                           mo
                                                                                                                                                                 Iosco
                                                                                                                              ke

                                                                                                              Wexford                              Ogemaw
                                                                                                                            au

                                                                                                                                         om

                                                                                                   Manistee
                                                                                                                           ss

                                                                                                                                        sc
                                                                                                                          Mi

                                                                                                                                     Ro

                     1-20        Counties Ranked                                                                                                         Arenac
                                                                                                Mason       Lake     Osceola      Clare      Gladwin
                           1                                        82                                                                                                        Huron

                     21-40
                                                                                               Oceana Newaygo Mecosta Isabella Midland Bay
                                                                                                                                                                    Tuscola    Sanilac
                     41-60                                                                                                Montcalm
                                                                                                                                         Gratiot
                                                                                                                                                    Saginaw
                                                                                                 Muskegon

                     61-82                                                                                                                                    Genesee Lapeer      St. Clair
                                                                                                                                                         ee

                                                                                                                             Ionia       Clinton
                                                                                                                                                    ass

                                                                                                    Ottawa         Kent
                                                                                                                                                   iaw
                                                                                                                                                   Sh

                                                                                                                                                                                mb

          *Keweenaw County is excluded
                                                                                                                                                                               co

          due to insufficient data.                                                                                               Eaton Ingham Livingston Oakland
                                                                                                                                                                              Ma

                                                                                                        Allegan       Barry

                                                                                                  Van Buren                                  Jackson Washtenaw Wayne
                                                                                                              Kalamazoo Calhoun

                                                                                             Berrien Cass     St. Joseph Branch Hillsdale Lenawee Monroe

               1. 1.
                  Livingston
                     Livingston     111.1. Midland
                                            Midland       221.
                                                            1. Marquette
                                                                Marquette        31.Sanilac
                                                                                31.   Sanilac     41. 4Kalamazoo
                                                                                                        1. Kalamazoo51.         51. Buren
                                                                                                                               Van   Van Buren 61.           61. Crawford72. Oceana
                                                                                                                                                         Crawford                 72. Oceana
               2. 2.
                  Clinton
                     Clinton        12.
                                     12. Lapeer
                                            Lapeer         22. Benzie
                                                          22.   Benzie           32.Chippewa
                                                                                32.   Chippewa    42. 42.  Gratiot 52.
                                                                                                       Gratiot                  52. Alpena 61.
                                                                                                                               Alpena                    Iron61. Iron             73. Calhoun
                                                                                                                                                                         73. Calhoun
               3. 2. Washtenaw
                  Washtenaw          13. Monroe
                                    13.     Monroe        23.
                                                           23. Antrim
                                                                Antrim          33.
                                                                                 33.Menominee
                                                                                      Menominee   43. 43.
                                                                                                       Branch
                                                                                                           Branch 53.           53. Saginaw 63.
                                                                                                                               Saginaw                   Roscommon       73. Clare73. Clare
                                                                                                                                                             63. Roscommon
               4. 4. Ottawa
                  Ottawa             14. Barry
                                    14.     Barry         24.
                                                           24. Ionia
                                                                Ionia           34.
                                                                                 34.Missaukee
                                                                                      Missaukee   44. 44.
                                                                                                       Presque  Isle Isle
                                                                                                           Presque    54.       54. Montcalm 64.
                                                                                                                               Montcalm                  Jackson
                                                                                                                                                             64. Jackson 75. Oscoda
                                                                                                                                                                                  75. Oscoda
                  5.
               5. 6. Oakland
                  Oakland
                     Leelanau
                                     14.
                                    14.
                                     16.
                                            Eaton
                                           Eaton
                                            Macomb
                                                          25.  Lenawee
                                                           25. Huron
                                                          26.
                                                                Lenawee         35. St. Clair
                                                                                 35.Delta
                                                                                36.
                                                                                      St. Clair   45. 45.
                                                                                                       Cass
                                                                                                  46. 46.
                                                                                                           Cass
                                                                                                       Ingham
                                                                                                                      55.
                                                                                                                      56.
                                                                                                                               St.   St. Joseph 65.
                                                                                                                                55.Joseph
                                                                                                                               Osceola          66.
                                                                                                                                                         Genesee
                                                                                                                                                             65. Genesee76. Iosco76. Iosco
                                                                                                                                                         Wayne           77. Schoolcraft
               6. 7.
                  Leelanau          16.    Macomb          26. Otsego
                                                                Huron            36.  Delta                Ingham               56.  Osceola 67.             66. Wayne 78. Manistee
                                                                                                                                                         Gladwin                  77. Schoolcraft
                     Emmet           17. Allegan          26.                   37. Baraga        47. Ontonagon 57.            Cheboygan                     67. Gladwin 79. Muskegon
                                                                                                                                                                                  78. Manistee
               7. 8.
                  Emmet
                     Houghton       17.
                                     18. Allegan
                                            Dickinson      26. Alger
                                                          28.   Otsego           37.Mason
                                                                                38.   Baraga      48. 47.  Ontonagon58.
                                                                                                       Tuscola                  57. Cheboygan68.
                                                                                                                               Berrien                   Gogebic
               8. 9.
                  Houghton
                     Grand Traverse 18.
                                     18. Dickinson
                                            Kent           28. Mackinac
                                                          29.   Alger            38.Arenac
                                                                                39.   Mason       49. 48.  Tuscola 59.
                                                                                                       Newaygo                  58. Berrien 68.
                                                                                                                               Ogemaw                        68.
                                                                                                                                                         Wexford Gogebic 80. Luce79. Muskegon
               9.10.
                  Grand   Traverse
                     Charlevoix     19.    Kent
                                     20. Isabella          29.  Mackinac
                                                          30. Shiawassee         39.  Arenac
                                                                                40. Mecosta       50. BayNewaygo 60.
                                                                                                      49.                       59. Ogemaw 70.
                                                                                                                               Hillsdale                     68. Wexford81. Alcona
                                                                                                                                                         Montmorency              80. Luce
              10. Charlevoix        20. Isabella          30. Shiawassee 40. Mecosta                  50. Bay                   60. Hillsdale 71.            70. Montmorency
                                                                                                                                                         Kalkaska        82. Lake81. Alcona
                                                                                                                                                             71. Kalkaska          82. Lake

8   |   2019 Kids Count in Michigan Data Book
Child Population

     Michigan’s child population continues to decline, with decreases higher than
     18% in some counties.

                                      aw
                                  een
                               Kew                                                                                                                              The state’s child population is mostly
                    Houghton                                                                                                                                    balanced across age groups.

        Ontonagon        Baraga
                                                                                  Luce
                                                                                                                                                                      15-19                                      0-4
    Gogebic                                Marquette
                                                                                                       Chippewa                                                       Years                                     Years
                                                       Alger
                        Iron                                     Schoolcraft
                                                                                                 Mackinac
                                                                                                                                                                      27%                                       23%
                                     Dickinson         Delta
                                                 e
                                                 ne
                                              mi

                                                                                                   Emmet
                                                                                                                   n
                                            no

                                                                                                                ga
                                           Me

                                                                                                               oy

                                                                                                                         Presque
                                                                                                              eb
                                                                                                          Ch

                                                                                               Charlevo                    Isle
                                                                                                        ix
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   5-9
                                                                                                                             y
                                                                                                                            nc

                                                                                                                                                                      10-14
                                                                                                                        ore

                                                                                              Antrim         Otsego               Alpena
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Years
                                                                                                                       ntm
                                                                                 u
                                                                               na

                                                                                                                                                                      Years
                                                                                                                   Mo
                                                                            ela

Change in Child Population                                                                                                                                                                                        24%
                                                                          Le

by County, 2012-2016                                                   Benzie
                                                                                  Grand Kalkaska Crawford Oscoda                   Alcona                             26%
                                                                                 Traverse
                                                                                                                n

      Increase
                                                                                                   e

                                                                                                               mo

                                                                                                                                   Iosco
                                                                                                 ke

                                                                                 Wexford                               Ogemaw
                                                                                               au

                                                                                                             om

                                                                     Manistee
                                                                                              ss

                                                                                                                                                                  Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 2016; Ages 0-19
                                                                                                          sc
                                                                                             Mi

                                                                                                        Ro

                                                                                                                             Arenac
              No Change (0% to +/-1%)                             Mason        Lake     Osceola     Clare Gladwin
                                                                                                                                              Huron

              -1% to -5%                                         Oceana Newaygo Mecosta Isabella Midland Bay
                                                                                                                                       Tuscola Sanilac
              -5% to -9%                                            Muskegon
                                                                                             Montcalm
                                                                                                             Gratiot
                                                                                                                        Saginaw

                                                                                                                                  Genesee Lapeer    St. Clair
              -10% and above
                                                                                                                             ee

                                                                                                Ionia        Clinton
                                                                                                                        ass

                                                                       Ottawa         Kent
                                                                                                                       iaw
                                                                                                                       Sh

                                                                                                                                                   mb

Michigan Rate: -3.4%
                                                                                                                                                   co

                                                                                                    Eaton Ingham Livingston Oakland
                                                                                                                                               Ma

                                                                          Allegan        Barry
Median Rate: -4.8%
                                                                     Van Buren                                  Jackson Washtenaw Wayne
                                                                                 Kalamazoo Calhoun

 Source: U.S. Census Bureau, State and County
 Population Estimates; Ages 0-17                               Berrien Cass St. Joseph Branch Hillsdale Lenawee
                                                                                                                Monroe                                           60,000—or 3%
                                                                                                                                                                 of all children in Michigan were born
                                                                                                                                                                 outside of the United States.

    With a declining child population, still about 1 in 3 are
    kids of color.                                                                                                                                               286,000—or 13%
                                                                                                                                                                 of Michigan kids live in an immigrant
                                                                                                                       0.8%
                                                                                                    8.2%                                                         family, where they or at least one
                                                                                                                                                                 parent was born outside of the
     2016                                    69.4%                                      18.0%                                3.6%
                                                                                                                                                                 country.
                                                                                                        7.7% 0.8%

     2012                                    70.2%                                       18.0%                               3.3%
                                                                                                                                                                 24,000—or 8%
                                                                                                                                                                 of children in immigrant families live
                                                                                                                                                                 with a parent who has been in the
                                                                                                                                                                 U.S. less than five years.
                     White non-Hispanic                        Black non-Hispanic                                 Hispanic
                     Native non-Hispanic                       Other non-Hispanic                                                                                Source: National KIDS COUNT

    Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 2016; Ages 0-17

                                                                                                                                                                 2019 Kids Count in Michigan Data Book                    |   9
Economic
Security

While the child poverty rate is on the
decline, we know that isn’t enough.
The federal poverty level is an outdated measure, plus there continues to be
about 1 in 5 children living in poverty with more young children and children
of color disproportionately impacted. Two-thirds of young children have both
parents in the workforce, yet child care alone can consume more than 35%
of full-time, minimum wage earnings, which equal approximately $1,600 a
month. Positively, Michigan’s median income has
increased by 17% from 2012 to 2017; however, the
county with the largest incomes (Livingston County)                Child care alone can
is 134% higher—more than double—than the county                    consume more than 35%
with the lowest median income (Lake County). There                 of full-time, minimum
has been an uneven recovery in the state’s economy.                wage earnings.
This inequitable distribution of income and resources
results in many negative impacts on children:

• Fewer family resources to provide basic needs, let alone cover expenses
for extracurricular and other enrichment activities that are important for all
kids;
• Increased family financial stress for prolonged periods of time can cause
toxic stress response, which affects child development1;
• School quality varies significantly based on a community’s ability to pay
taxes to support their local districts, as necessary, when state funding has
declined significantly2; and,
• Lack of access to affordable, high-quality child care, healthy foods, adequate
transportation and more all affect children and families and are tied to income.

10 | 2019 Kids Count in Michigan Data Book
Almost half of counties experienced a larger decrease in child poverty
than the state average.
                                                                 aw
                                                             een
                                                          Kew

                                               Houghton

                                  Ontonagon         Baraga
                                                                                                             Luce
                Gogebic                                               Marquette
                                                                                  Alger                                           Chippewa
                                                   Iron                                     Schoolcraft
                                                                                                                            Mackinac
                                                                Dickinson         Delta
                                                                            e
                                                                            ne
                                                                         mi

                                                                                                                              Emmet

                                                                                                                                              an
                                                                       no

                                                                                                                                           yg
                                                                      Me

                                                                                                                                                    Presque

                                                                                                                                           o
                                                                                                                                        eb
                                                                                                                                     Ch
                                                                                                                          Charlevo                    Isle
                                                                                                                                   ix

                                                                                                                                                        y
                                                                                                                                                       nc
                                                                                                                                                   ore
                                                                                                                         Antrim         Otsego               Alpena

                                                                                                                                                  ntm
                                                                                                           u
                                                                                                          na

                                                                                                                                               Mo
                                                                                                      ela

   Child Poverty Rates by
                                                                                                     Le

                                                                                                             Grand Kalkaska Crawford Oscoda                   Alcona
                                                                                                  Benzie
   County                                                                                                   Traverse
                                                                                                                                           n
                                                                                                                              e

                                                                                                                                          mo

                                                                                                                                                              Iosco
                                                                                                                            ke

                                                                                                            Wexford                               Ogemaw
                                                                                                                          au

                                                                                                                                        om

                                                                                                Manistee
                                      Below 17%
                                                                                                                         ss

                                                                                                                                     sc
                                                                                                                        Mi

                                                                                                                                   Ro

                                                                                                                                                        Arenac
                                                                                             Mason        Lake     Osceola     Clare Gladwin
                          6.3% 17%            to 24%               40.7%                                                                                                 Huron

                                      24% to 28%                                            Oceana Newaygo Mecosta Isabella Midland Bay
                                                                                                                                                                  Tuscola Sanilac
                                      Above 28%                                                                         Montcalm                    Saginaw
                                                                                               Muskegon                                 Gratiot

                                                                                                                                                             Genesee Lapeer    St. Clair
                                                                                                                                                        ee

                                                                                                                           Ionia        Clinton
                                                                                                                                                   ass

                                                                                                  Ottawa         Kent
  Michigan Poverty Rate: 19.6%
                                                                                                                                                  iaw
                                                                                                                                                  Sh

                                                                                                                                                                              mb

  Median Poverty Rate: 20.9%
                                                                                                                                                                              co

                                                                                                                               Eaton Ingham Livingston Oakland
                                                                                                                                                                          Ma

                                                                                                     Allegan        Barry

                                                                                                Van Buren                                  Jackson Washtenaw Wayne
                                                                                                            Kalamazoo Calhoun

 Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Small Area Income and                                                                                         Monroe
                                                                                          Berrien Cass St. Joseph Branch Hillsdale Lenawee
 Poverty Estimates

   Families of color face more barriers to economic security, with higher rates having
   low incomes.

                                                                                               74% 70%
Percent of Children in Families
With Less Than 200% of FPL

                                                  2012                2016                                                    64% 60%
                                                                                                                                                                                       56% 54%
                                                                                                                                                                                                  46% 42%
                                                                                                                                                              38%
                                                                                                                                                                       33%
                                                                        28% 28%

                                              *      *
                                              American                  Asian and              Black or                      Hispanic or                     White, non-            Two or more     Total
                                               Indian                     Pacific               African                        Latinx                         Hispanic                races
                                                                         Islander              American
 * No data available
  Source: National KIDS COUNT
                                                                                                                                                                                   2019 Kids Count in Michigan Data Book   | 11
Emily Glas, Age 9

County Summary & Rankings
             2017: Child poverty, ages 0-17                  2017: Young children eligible for food aid (SNAP)

                    Michigan: 19.6%                                             Michigan: 26.1%
 5 Best Counties     Rate     5 Worst Counties       Rate     5 Best Counties    Rate     5 Worst Counties        Rate
   Livingston         6.3%        Lake               38.8%      Livingston        7.5%        Wayne              43.6%
   Clinton            7.7%        Clare              37.8%      Ottawa            8.2%        Lake               43.4%
   Ottawa             8.2%        Roscommon          37.8%      Leelanau        10.1%         Genesee            38.8%
   Oakland            9.3%        Wayne              33.4%      Keweenaw        10.6%         Saginaw            38.6%
   Leelanau          10.9%        Crawford           30.5%      Clinton          11.9%        Iosco              38.6%

 Number of Counties:                                          Number of Counties:
		                                 2012 vs. 2017             		                               2012 vs. 2017
 Ranked                  Changed                 Improved     Ranked                Changed                   Improved

      83                     83                    79              83                    83                    82
12 | 2019 Kids Count in Michigan Data Book
Susan Nasser, Age 4                                                Ciara Sheffey, Age 9

                                                    2017-2018: Students eligible for
                                                       free/reduced-price lunch
                                                           Michigan: 50.3%
                                        5 Best Counties     Rate      5 Worst Counties       Rate

Inequitable distribution                  Livingston        22.3%         Lake              95.3%
of income and resources                   Clinton           31.3%         Oceana            74.8%
results in many negative                  Washtenaw         32.0%         Oscoda            72.5%
impacts on children.                      Oakland           34.7%         Roscommon         72.2%
                                          Ottawa            36.3% 	       Iosco             70.8%

                                        Number of Counties:
                                        		                              2012 vs. 2018
                                         Ranked                 Changed                 Improved

                                            82                     78                    15
                                                          2019 Kids Count in Michigan Data Book     | 13
What does the Federal Poverty Level (FPL)
 mean for a family of four in Michigan?
                                                                           Young children are
                                                                                                                                                                 23%
   200%              150%              100%            50%                 more likely to live in
                                                                           poverty during some
                                                                                                                                                          18%
   $49,716           $37,287           $24,858         $12,429             of their most formative
    a year            a year            a year          a year             years of development.                               Percent in Poverty
   about              about            about           about
  41% of            31% of             20% of          9% of
    kids               kids             kids            kids
                                                                                                                                   Ages 0 to 5         Ages 6 to 17
   Source: National KIDS COUNT, 2017                                      Source: National KIDS COUNT, 2017

                                                                                                                         1 4
                                                                                                                   Nearly in young adults
                                                                                                                   ages 18-24 live in poverty.

                                                                                                                    19.6%
                                                                                                                        of children in Michigan
                                                                                                                        live in poverty.

                                                                                                                           1in 4 children in
                                                                                                                           immigrant families live below
                                                                                                                           the poverty threshold.
                                                                 Gabriel Sheppard, Age 10

Nearly half of children in immigrant families                               More than 1 in 8 young adults ages 16-24 struggle to
live in families with low incomes.                                          access school and work.

                                                                                                                        2012          2016
                                                                         Percent Not Attending School

        53%
                                                 47%                                                                      19%
                                                                              and Not Working

                                                                                                                                 15%             14%
                                                                                                                                                       12%
                                                                                                        8%   7%

           Not Low Income              Low Income                                                       16 to 19           20 to 24              16 to 24

Source: National KIDS COUNT, 2016                                         Source: National KIDS COUNT

14 | 2019 Kids Count in Michigan Data Book
Melody Placeway, Age 13

As poverty rates decline, program participation also down with the exception of
free or reduced-price lunch.
                                                                 2012              2017

                                                                                   4.5%
Family Independence Program (FIP), Ages 0-18
                                                                                 1.5%
                                                                                                                     48.2%
  Free or Reduced-Price Lunch Program, K-12*
                                                                                                                      50.3%
                                                                                                             36.7%
       Food Assistance Program (FAP), Ages 0-5                                                    26.1%

 Women, Infants, and Children Program (WIC),                                                                            51.2%
                                    Ages 0-4                                                                         47.3%
                                                                                  2.9%
                       Child Care Subsidies, Ages 0-12
                                                                                  2.2%

                                                                            Percent Receiving Each Program
*Students receiving due to income eligibility, not community eligibility provisions.

Source: Michigan Department of Health and Human Services and Michigan Department of Education

                                                                                                    2019 Kids Count in Michigan Data Book     | 15
Health &
  Safety
      The health of moms and babies is incredibly
      important to our state.
      Unfortunately, the data show that there is a lot of work to do to ensure that women
      not only have access to prenatal care, but also to family planning options. Both
      have impacts on birth outcomes. Over 30% of births are to women who were not
      planning to become pregnant, which comes with a higher likelihood that prenatal
      care does not begin on time.1 More than 32% of births are to
      women who received less than adequate prenatal care due                    Home visiting programs
      to lack of access, coverage, transportation, irregular work                improve outcomes for
      schedules and more. Women of color experience systemic                     women and children,
      barriers and worse outcomes.                                               addressing prenatal
                                                                                 care, family planning
      Home      visiting   programs      improve     outcomes      for           and much more.
      women and children addressing prenatal care, family
      planning and much more, but the need is much higher
      than the available resources. In 2017, over 245,500
      home visits were made, serving over 24,000 women and 23,000 children.2

      Historically, Michigan has done well in ensuring that children have healthcare
      coverage. In 2016, nearly 97% of children in the state had some type of health
      insurance. About half of states have opted to provide health coverage to immigrant
      children and pregnant women who are lawfully residing, or green card holders,
      without the typical five-year waiting period.3 Michigan has not. During a time of anti-
      immigrant sentiment and policies that threaten the health of immigrant families,
      this is one option the state should take to help improve the well-being of all kids in
      Michigan.

16 | 2019 Kids Count in Michigan Data Book
The majority of counties reported at least one child having lead
                           poisoning, with Cass, Calhoun and Wayne counties reporting that
                           over 3% of children tested were confirmed as poisoned.

                                              aw
                                          een
                                       Kew

                            Houghton

               Ontonagon         Baraga
                                                                                                Luce
           Gogebic                                 Marquette
                                                                     Alger                                           Chippewa
                                Iron                                           Schoolcraft
                                                                                                               Mackinac
                                             Dickinson               Delta
                                                          e
                                                        ne
                                                      mi

                                                                                                                 Emmet

                                                                                                                                 n
                                                     no

                                                                                                                              ga
                                                   Me

                                                                                                                             oy
                                                                                                                                       Presque

                                                                                                                            eb
                                                                                                                        Ch
                                                                                                             Charlevo                    Isle
                                                                                                                      ix

                                                                                                                                           y
                                                                                                                                       nc
                                                                                                                                      ore
                                                                                                            Antrim         Otsego               Alpena

                                                                                                                                     ntm
                                                                                              u
                                                                                             na

                                                                                                                                 Mo
                                                                                         ela
                                                                                        Le

                                                                                                Grand Kalkaska Crawford Oscoda                   Alcona
Confirmed Lead Poisoning                                                             Benzie
                                                                                               Traverse
by County Among Children
                                                                                                                              n
                                                                                                                 e

                                                                                                                             mo                  Iosco
                                                                                                               ke

Tested                                                                                         Wexford                               Ogemaw
                                                                                                             au

                                                                                                                           om
                                                                                   Manistee
                                                                                                            ss

                                                                                                                        sc
                                                                                                           Mi

                                                                                                                      Ro

                                                                                                                                           Arenac
        0%                                                     2+%              Mason        Lake     Osceola     Clare Gladwin
          Zero Confirmed                                                                                                                                    Huron

          Fewer Than 6 Kids Confirmed                                          Oceana Newaygo Mecosta Isabella Midland Bay

           Below 1%                                                                                                                                  Tuscola Sanilac
                                                                                                           Montcalm                   Saginaw
                                                                                  Muskegon                                 Gratiot
          1% to 1.5%
                                                                                                                                                Genesee Lapeer    St. Clair
                                                                                                                                           ee

          1.5% to 2%                                                                                          Ionia        Clinton
                                                                                                                                      ass

                                                                                     Ottawa         Kent
                                                                                                                                     iaw
                                                                                                                                     Sh

           Above 2%
                                                                                                                                                                 mb
                                                                                                                                                                 co

                                                                                                                  Eaton Ingham Livingston Oakland
                                                                                                                                                             Ma

Michigan Rate: 1.6%                                                                     Allegan        Barry
Median Rate: 0.9%
                                                                                   Van Buren                                  Jackson Washtenaw Wayne
                                                                                               Kalamazoo Calhoun

                                                                                                                              Monroe
                                                                             Berrien Cass St. Joseph Branch Hillsdale Lenawee
Source: Michigan Department of Health and Human Services

                           More than

                           93,000                                                                     40.4%
                                                                                                            of all 1- to 2-year-olds are tested for
                                                                                                            possible lead poisoning.
                           1- to 2-year-olds in Michigan
                           are tested for possible lead
                           poisoning.
                                                                                                      44.1%
                                                                                                             of all 1- to 2-year-olds on Medicaid are
                                                                                                             tested for possible lead poisoning.

               Source: Michigan Department of Health and Human Services, 2017

                                                                                                                                                     2019 Kids Count in Michigan Data Book   | 17
Mari Montgomery, Age 12

County Summary & Rankings
2014-2016: Less than adequate prenatal care                        2014-2016: Low-birthweight babies

                  Michigan: 32.5%                                             Michigan: 8.5%
5 Best Counties    Rate      5 Worst Counties       Rate    5 Best Counties   Rate     5 Worst Counties       Rate
  Huron             19.5%       Gratiot             51.1%     Menominee        3.8%        Ontonagon          12.2%
  Oakland           19.6%       Hillsdale           50.9%     Leelanau         4.5%        Oscoda             11.6%
  Chippewa          20.9%       Schoolcraft         50.0%     Missaukee        4.9%        Crawford           11.0%
  Clinton           21.5%       Menominee           49.4%     Otsego           5.2%        Wayne              10.8%
  Crawford          21.7%       Oscoda              49.1%     Dickinson        5.4%        Genesee            10.6%
                                                              Hillsdale        5.4%

Number of Counties:                                         Number of Counties:
                            2010-2012 vs. 2014-2016         		                        2010-2012 vs. 2014-2016

 Ranked                 Changed                 Improved     Ranked               Changed                 Improved

     83                   82                     19              82                   78                   37
18 | 2019 Kids Count in Michigan Data Book
Adrienne Kilmer-Burke, Age 9                                              Rylie Carey, Age 18

             2014-2016: Infant mortality                              2014-2016: Child/Teen deaths, ages 1-19

                  Michigan: 6.7 per 1,000                                        Michigan: 26.7 per 100,000
5 Best Counties       Rate    5 Worst Counties         Rate        5 Best Counties     Rate     5 Worst Counties         Rate
  Isabella             3.5        Gogebic              16.1          Lapeer             11.4        Menominee            48.9
  Midland              3.5        Oceana               12.1          Marquette         16.4         Cass                 45.9
  Marquette            4.2        Saginaw              10.0          Ionia             17.1         Wexford              45.9
  Monroe               4.2        Gladwin                9.7         Newaygo           17.4         Manistee             43.4
  Tuscola              4.2        Wayne                  9.3         Clinton           17.9         Otsego               42.5

Number of Counties:                                                Number of Counties:
		                           2010-2012 vs. 2014-2016                                           2010-2012 vs. 2014-2016

 Ranked                   Changed                 Improved          Ranked                  Changed                Improved

     45                      40                     20                  50                     47                     23
                                                                                 2019 Kids Count in Michigan Data Book     | 19
Navid Ali, Age 16

  Rates of infant deaths have decreased overall, but are rising for some babies
  of color and significant racial and ethnic disparities exist.

                                                                                     2010-2012           2014-2016

                                                                      13.8
    Infant Death Rate Per

                                                                              13.6               12.9
                                                                                          11.0
         1,000 Births

                                                                                                                                 8.6
                            6.9 6.7                                                                                        7.4
                                               5.1 4.8                                                                                    5.9 5.4
                                                                                                             3.4 3.7

                            TOTAL            White, non-            African               American         Asian/Pacific   Hispanic    Arab (all races)
                                              Hispanic           American/Black,        Indian/Native,    Islander, non-
                                                                  non-Hispanic          non-Hispanic         Hispanic

 Source: Michigan Department of Health and Human Services, Vital Statistics

20 | 2019 Kids Count in Michigan Data Book
After declining for two years in a row, child death rates are beginning to climb.

                                                              30

                                         Rates Per 100,000,
                                             Ages 1-19
                                                              20

                                                              10

                                                               0
                                                                       2010      2011     2012           2013     2014        2015          2016

                                        Source: Michigan Department of Health and Human Services, 2016

African American children make up 18% of the
child population, but 28% of child deaths.
                                             8%
                                   2%
                              1%
                                                                                                            Over

                               28%
                                                                                                                12%
                                                                      61%                                           of Michigan births are to
                                                                                                                    mothers born outside of the
                                                                                                                    United States.
                            White, non-Hispanic
                            African American/Black, non-Hispanic
                            American Indian, non-Hispanic
                            Asian Pacific Islander, non-Hispanic
                            Hispanic
   Source: Michigan Department of Health and Human Services, 2016

                                   Women of color face more barriers to prenatal care and experience poorer birth outcomes.

                                                                   Less Than Adequate Prenatal Care         Preterm Births      Low-Birthweight Babies

                                                                                44.4%
                                                                                                   40.7%
                                                                                                                      36.8%                                    35.0%
                            32.5%
   Percent of Live Births

                                                              28.5%                                                                         29.5%

                                                                                     14.0% 14.3%
                                   9.9% 8.5%                                                                                 11.5%
                                                                     8.9% 7.0%                            9.1% 7.2%                  8.6%          8.9% 9.3%         6
                                                                                                                                                                    7.6% 7.3%

                                   Total                        White, non-         African      Latinx/Hispanic American Indian, Asian Pacific                 Arab Ethnicity
                                                                 Hispanic        American/Black,                  non-Hispanic    Islander, non-                  (all races)
                                                                                  non-Hispanic                                       Hispanic

        Source: Michigan Department of Health and Human Services, 2014-2016

                                                                                                                               2019 Kids Count in Michigan Data Book             | 21
Family &
 Community
  Investments in our neighborhoods, schools and
  families are critical to building strong foundations
  for our children.
  Nurturing relationships are also important beginning at birth and through adolescence.
  The development of caring relationships affects development in infants and toddlers and is
  important for youth as they transition into adulthood.1 The interactions children and families
  have with various programs and systems in their communities should reflect this.

  Michigan and the U.S. have made incredible strides in reducing
  unintended teen pregnancy, but the work is not done and there            The amount of trauma
  are threats on the horizon. Expanded access to healthcare                created through these
  and contraception along with funding for evidence-based                  policy decisions and the
  programs are both key strategies to reducing unintended teen
                                                                           impact on the foster care
  pregnancy. There has been a rise in repeat teen pregnancies,
  with more young people having subsequent children before                 system require thoughtful
  reaching adulthood. This points to the need for more resources           and compassionate
  for young parents, whether it is connecting them to child care           solutions.
  and schooling or supporting their family planning decisions.
  Additionally, about 1 in 10 young adults in Michigan are parents
  who face unique barriers that should be addressed.2

  Rates of child abuse and neglect continue to rise and are of significant concern, as are
  recent upticks in the share of children being placed in foster care. Young children and kids
  of color—particularly African American children—are disproportionately impacted, along with
  LGBTQIA+ youth who are not only overrepresented, but also more likely to leave foster care
  without a permanent home.3 Additionally, youth in foster care overall are more likely to age
  out instead of leaving with a stable, permanent family relationship, and few receive needed
  transition support services like employment, education and housing.4

  Increased immigration arrests, detentions and deportations have caused parents and their
  children to become separated. There have been reports of families withdrawing from services
  and/or not attending school because of fear created. Due to a proposed “public charge” rule,
  there’s been evidence of fewer families enrolling in programs intended to improve well-being.
  Plus, the potential end to Temporary Protected Status for immigrants from certain countries
  could impact over a quarter of a million U.S. citizen children.5 The amount of lifelong trauma
  created through these policy decisions and the impact on the foster care system require
  thoughtful and compassionate solutions.

22 | 2019 Kids Count in Michigan Data Book
From 2012 to 2016, the teen birth rate has declined over 30%. Some parts of
                                                  the state experience higher rates with more barrirs to healthcare

                                                                   aw
                                                               een
                                                            Kew

                                                                                                                                                                           From 2012 to 2016, the teen
                                                 Houghton

                                     Ontonagon        Baraga                                                                                                               birth rate has declined over
                  Gogebic                                               Marquette
                                                                                                               Luce
                                                                                                                                    Chippewa
                                                                                                                                                                           30%. Some parts of the state
                                                                                                                                                                           experience higher rates with
                                                                                    Alger
                                                     Iron                                     Schoolcraft
                                                                                                                              Mackinac
                                                                  Dickinson         Delta
                                                                                                                                                                           more barriers to healthcare
                                                                                                                                                                           access.
                                                                              e
                                                                              ne
                                                                            mi

                                                                                                                                Emmet

                                                                                                                                                 n
                                                                         no

                                                                                                                                              ga
                                                                        Me

                                                                                                                                           oy
                                                                                                                                                      Presque

                                                                                                                                         eb
                                                                                                                                       Ch
                                                                                                                            Charlevo                    Isle
                                                                                                                                     ix

                                                                                                                                                        ncy
                                                                                                                                                     ore
                                                                                                                           Antrim         Otsego               Alpena

                                                                                                                                                    ntm
                                                                                                             u
                                                                                                            na

                                                                                                                                                Mo
                                                                                                        e la
                                                                                                       Le
    Live Births to Teens Ages                                                                       Benzie
                                                                                                               Grand Kalkaska Crawford Oscoda                   Alcona
    15-19 Live Births to Teens Ages 15-19,
          by County*,     2014-2016                                                                           Traverse
          2014-2016 Average

                                                                                                                                             n
    Rate Per 1,000 Teens
                                                                                                                                e

                                                                                                                                            mo
                                                                                                                                                                Iosco
                                                                                                                              ke
                                                                                                              Wexford                               Ogemaw
                                                                                                                            au

                                                                                                                                          om
                                     Michigan Rate per 1,000                                      Manistee                 ss

                                                                                                                                       sc
                                                                                                                          Mi

                                                                                                                                     Ro
                                     Teens:19.4                                                                                                           Arenac
                                                                                               Mason        Lake     Osceola     Clare Gladwin
                             6.3 Below 20                            40.7                                                                                                  Huron

                                       20-25                                                  Oceana Newaygo Mecosta Isabella Midland Bay
                                     Median Rate per 1,000
                                                                                                                                                                    Tuscola Sanilac
                                     Teens: 23.2
                                       25-30                                                                              Montcalm
                                                                                                                                          Gratiot
                                                                                                                                                     Saginaw
                                                                                                 Muskegon
                                       Above 30                                                                                                                Genesee Lapeer    St. Clair
                                                                                                                                                          ee

                                                                                                                             Ionia        Clinton
                                                                                                                                                     ass

                                                                                                    Ottawa         Kent
                                                                                                                                                    iaw
                                                                                                                                                    Sh

     *Keweenaw County is excluded
                                                                                                                                                                                mb
    MichiganSource:
              Rate Per   1,000 teens: 19.4
                      Michigan
     due to insufficient data. Department of Health and
                                                                                                                                 Eaton Ingham Livingston Oakland                co
                                                                                                                                                                            Ma
    Median Rate:
             Human 23.2
                      Services                                                                         Allegan        Barry

                                                                                                  Van Buren                                  Jackson Washtenaw Wayne
                                                                                                              Kalamazoo Calhoun

                                                                                                                                             Monroe
                                                                                            Berrien Cass St. Joseph Branch Hillsdale Lenawee
Source: Michigan Department of Health and Human Services

                                                      More young mothers are having additional children during their teen years.

                                                                                                            2010-2012                         2014-2016

                                                                                                                               21.7%
                                                                                            20.6% 21.0%
     Percent of Births, Ages 15-19

                                                                                                                                    20.0%
                                       17.1% 17.5%                                                                                                                        17.8%                      18.0%   18.1% 17.8%
         Repeat Teen Births

                                                                                                                                                                                             15.9%
                                                                     13.4% 14.4%                                                                               14.6%

                                             Total                   White, non-               African      Latinx/Hispanic American Indian, Asian/Pacific                                                   Arab (all races)
                                                                      Hispanic              American/Black,                  non-Hispanic    Islander, non-
                                                                                             non-Hispanic                                       Hispanic
            Source: Michigan Department of Health and Human Services

                                                                                                                                                                         2019 Kids Count in Michigan Data Book              | 23
Rio Tomlinson, Age 16

County Summary & Rankings
                2014-2016: Teen births                         2017: Children in investigated families

                Michigan: 19.4 per 1,000                                  Michigan: 113.8 per 1,000
5 Best Counties      Rate       5 Worst Counties    Rate   5 Best Counties     Rate     5 Worst Counties          Rate
   Livingston         6.3         Schoolcraft       40.7     Keweenaw           40.3        Iosco                250.6

   Washtenaw          6.3         Oceana            39.7     Leelanau           41.1        Lake                 245.4

   Isabella           8.6         Clare             37.2     Livingston         52.4        Montcalm             223.3

   Oakland            9.4         Manistee          35.8     Oakland            56.2        Wexford              215.9

   Houghton           9.7         Oscoda            35.5     Ottawa             65.7        Jackson              215.4

   Ottawa             9.7

 Number of Counties:                                       Number of Counties:
		                            2010-2012 vs. 2014-2016                                       2012 vs. 2017

 Ranked                     Changed             Improved    Ranked                 Changed                  Improved

      82                     82                    76           83                     82                      10
24 | 2019 Kids Count in Michigan Data Book
Ali Mukahhal, Age 5                                            Eleanor Groen, Age 7

  2017: Confirmed victims of abuse/neglect                            2017: Children in out-of-home care

              Michigan: 18.9 per 1,000                                        Michigan: 5.1 per 1,000
5 Best Counties    Rate    5 Worst Counties          Rate      5 Best Counties      Rate      5 Worst Counties       Rate
  Oakland           8.4        Lake                  44.2        Houghton            1.1         Gogebic             20.6
  Clinton           9.0        Gladwin               43.8        Washtenaw           1.8         Cass                14.6
  Houghton          9.2        Alcona                43.6        Clinton             2.0         Crawford            14.1
  Macomb            9.4        Kalkaska              42.2        Missaukee           2.0         Lake                13.4
  Leelanau          9.8        Wexford               41.3        Oceana              2.1         Oscoda              12.8

Number of Counties:                                            Number of Counties:
		                              2012 vs. 2017                  		                                2012 vs. 2017
 Ranked               Changed                 Improved          Ranked                     Changed               Improved

     82                   81                     19                 80                      77                    31
                                                                             2019 Kids Count in Michigan Data Book    | 25
Michaela Enger, Age 10

       A disproportionate number of African American children are placed in foster care, and the share of
       multiracial and White children is increasing.
     Care by Race/Ethnicity

                                                                        50% White, non-Hispanic
      Ages 0-21 in Foster
      Percent of Children

                              46%
                              37%
                                                                        29% African American/Black, non-Hispanic

                              10%                                       13% Multiracial, non-Hispanic
                               6%                                       7% Latinx/Hispanic
                               1%                                       1% American Indian, non-Hispanic
                                2012
                                2012   2013
                                       2013   2014
                                              2014      2015
                                                        2015         2016
                                                                     2016

       Source: National KIDS COUNT

26 | 2019 Kids Count in Michigan Data Book
African American children have systematically been
overrepresented in the total number of victims of abuse
and neglect.
                                           American
                                        Indian/Alaskan
                                            Native
                                             0.4%
                                                  Asian
                                   Multiracial                    Percentage of children who
                                                  0.3%
                                     9.4%                         are confirmed as victims of
                                                                  abuse and neglect.

                                                    African
                                                 American/Black
                                                    27.4%

                                  White
                                  54.7%
                                                                   Latinx/Hispanic
                                                                        6.9%
                                                                        Native
                                                                    Hawaiian/Other
                                                                    Pacific Islander
                                                       Unknown           0.0%
                                                        0.9%

   Source: Michigan Department of Health and Human Services, 2017
                                                                                                                                                             Rebecca Johnson, Age 10

                                                                                                        The rate of children placed in out-of-home care is
                                                                                                        increasing after several years of decline.
                                                                                                                                                                           11,209
                                                                                                      12,000                 10,316             10,264     10,668 10,512               6
                                                                                                                             White      9,970
     The structures and institutions in which                                                         10,000                                                                           5
                                                                                                       Number of Children,

                                                                                                                             53.4%                          4.8      4.8
                                                                                                                                                                                5.1
     our children are growing up—and how                                                               8,000                  4.5        4.4      4.6                                  4
                                                                                                          Ages 0-17

                                                                                                       6,000                                                                           3
     those systems interact with one                                                                   4,000                                                                           2
     another—have an effect on child                                                                   2,000                                                                           1
     development and well-being across                                                                           -                                                                     0
                                                                                                                             2012       2013     2014      2015     2016        2017
     time.
                                                                                                                                      Number of Children          Rate Per 1,000

                                                                                                           Source: Michigan Department of Health and Human Services

     While 10% of all foster children age out, 58% of older foster youth age out. Less than half of children
     are reunified with their families and almost a third are adopted.

                                                                                        2012         2016
    Percent Exiting Foster Care

                                                                                                                                47% 46%

                                  32% 32%

                                                                    10%10%
                                                                                       6% 7%         3% 2%
Education

It isn’t news that our students are struggling
with educational achievement.
In the national 2018 KIDS COUNT Data Book, Michigan ranked 38th in the country
on four measures of educational outcomes—an improvement from 41st the year
before. Yet, the most recent M-STEP results show that nearly 56% of Michigan’s
third-graders are not proficient in reading. This is important as we approach the next
school year, when the Read by Grade Three law will mandate that students are re-
tained if they are more than one grade level behind. There were many well-intended
components of the law, however, sufficient financial resources from the state were
not provided to support our schools to meet these new re-
quirements. Students from families with low incomes and
students of color will be disproportionately impacted if noth-
                                                               wage    earni from families with low
                                                                    Students
ing is changed.                                                     incomes and students of color
                                                                    will be disproportionately
Third-grade reading is built on a strong foundation in early
                                                                 impacted if nothing     is changed.
childhood, which includes healthy births, access to infant
mental health, interventions for developmental delays,
high-quality child care and preschool attendance. The read-
iness gap begins at birth and continues due to a difference
in resources and opportunities.1 These all impact graduation rates and college readi-
ness, which are two other areas in need of attention. To reach educational goals, like
becoming a “Top 10 in 10 Years” state, there also needs to be a focus on systems
that interact with institutions of education.

Several studies now have shown that Michigan is underfunding schools. The state’s
school finance model has not addressed equity and, in fact, support for students with
greater barriers—poverty, language access and more—has diminished relative to
the number of students in need.2 Ensuring that all of our children are well-educated
and prepared for the workforce is critical, regardless of where they live, their family’s
income, or their race and ethnicity.

28 | 2019 Kids Count in Michigan Data Book
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