Data Warehouse Requirements - Version 2.0

 
Data Warehouse Requirements - Version 2.0
EUROPEAN COMMISSION
                               ENTERPRISE AND INDUSTRY DIRECTORATE-GENERAL

                               Aerospace, Maritime, Security and Defence Industries
                               Copernicus : Infrastructures

 Data Warehouse Requirements – Version 2.0

                     Copernicus Data Access
 Specifications of the space-based Earth Observation needs for
                       the period 2014-2020

European Commission, B-1049 Brussels - Belgium. Telephone: (32-2) 299 11 11.
Data Warehouse Requirements - Version 2.0
APPROVAL

                                                 Title:

                             Data Warehouse Requirements – Version 2.0

                                        Copernicus Data Access

           Specifications of the space-based Earth Observation needs for the period 2014-2020

Issue 2                                            Revision number:     0

Author: D. Quintart (ENTR G/3)                     Date: 5/3/2014

Approved by: R. Schulte-Braucks (ENTR G/3)         Date: 5/3/2014

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CHANGE LOG

Reason for change               Issue   Revision   Date

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CHANGE RECORD

      Issue                             Revision

Reason for change                Date   Pages      Paragraph

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Data Warehouse Requirements - Version 2.0
TABLE OF CONTENTS

DATA WAREHOUSE REQUIREMENTS – VERSION 2.0 ............................................. 1

1.   INTRODUCTION ....................................................................................................... 4
     1.1. Background........................................................................................................ 4
     1.2. Scope and objective ........................................................................................... 4
     1.3. Reference documents ......................................................................................... 5
2.   GENERAL DEFINITIONS ......................................................................................... 7

3.   NOTIONS AND CONVENTIONS............................................................................. 9
     3.1. User categories and use purposes ...................................................................... 9
             3.1.1.       Copernicus Services [Copernicus Services] ........................................ 9
             3.1.2.       Institutions and bodies of the Union [Union_Inst] .............................. 9
             3.1.3.       Participants to a research project financed under the Union
                          research programmes [Union_Research_Projects] .............................. 9
             3.1.4.       Public authority [Public_Auth] .......................................................... 10
             3.1.5.       International Organisations and international NGOs
                          [INT_ORG_NGO] ............................................................................. 10
             3.1.6.       Public [Public] ................................................................................... 10
     3.2. Usage types (services) ..................................................................................... 11
             3.2.1.       DISCOVERY Service ....................................................................... 11
             3.2.2.       VIEW Service .................................................................................... 11
             3.2.3.       DOWNLOAD Service ....................................................................... 11
     3.3. Usage rights ..................................................................................................... 12
     3.4. Access to datasets for public tasks and research projects ................................ 12
4.   GENERAL OVERVIEW OF THE REQUIREMENTS............................................ 13
     4.1. CORE datasets ................................................................................................. 13
     4.2. ADDITIONAL datasets with predefined quotas ............................................. 13
     4.3. Access to Contributing Mission data provided under previous phases ........... 14
     4.4. Licensing conditions ........................................................................................ 14
5.   DATASET REQUIREMENTS ................................................................................. 16
     5.1. Overall dataset requirements ........................................................................... 16
     5.2. Overall requirements for CORE datasets ........................................................ 16

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5.3. Dataset requirements for Copernicus Land service over Europe .................... 17
        5.3.2.      Optical HR Pan Europe coverage (HR_IMAGE_2015) .................... 19
        5.3.3.      Optical VHR multispectral and panchromatic coverage over
                    Europe (VHR_IMAGE_2015)........................................................... 25
        5.3.4.      European optical MR1 composites (MR_IMAGE_2015) ................. 30
5.4. Dataset Requirements for Copernicus Global land ......................................... 34
        5.4.1.      Optical  worldwide         HR1               coverage                (HR1
                    _OPTICAL_GLOBAL) ..................................................................... 34
        5.4.2.      Optical     HR2          worldwide                         coverage
                    (HR2_OPTICAL_GLOBAL) ............................................................ 35
        5.4.3.      Optical     MR2           worldwide                        coverage
                    (MR_OPTICAL_GLOBAL).............................................................. 36
        5.4.4.      Optical LR worldwide coverage (LR_OPTICAL_GLOBAL)........... 37
        5.4.5.      SAR MR1 Worldwide coverage (MR1_SAR_GLOBAL) ................ 39
        5.4.6.      SAR LR Worldwide coverage (LR_SAR_GLOBAL) ...................... 40
        5.4.7.      SAR    Altimetry     MR2              Worldwide                  coverage
                    (MR2_ALTIMETRY) ....................................................................... 41
5.5. Fixed / CORE Dataset requirements for marine, atmosphere, climate
     change applications.......................................................................................... 42
        5.5.1.      Sea Ice Monitoring MR1 SAR (MR1_SAR_SEA_ICE) ................... 43
        5.5.2.      Global/Regional Systematic Ocean Colour data (CORE_012) ......... 44
        5.5.3.      Systematic Global and Regional sea surface temperature data
                    (CORE_013) ...................................................................................... 44
        5.5.4.      Systematic Global and Regional Altimeter / Sea Level data
                    (CORE_014) ...................................................................................... 44
        5.5.5.      Data for aerosol monitoring and forecasting (CORE_017) ............... 44
        5.5.6.      Data for sulphur dioxide (SO2) atmospheric composition
                    monitoring and forecasting (CORE_018).......................................... 45
        5.5.7.      Data for formaldehyde (HCHO) atmospheric composition
                    monitoring and forecasting (CORE_019).......................................... 45
        5.5.8.      Data for Ozone (O3) atmospheric composition monitoring
                    and forecasting (CORE_020) ............................................................ 45
        5.5.9.      Data for Carbon Monoxide (CO) atmospheric composition
                    monitoring and forecasting (CORE_021).......................................... 45
        5.5.10. Data for Carbon Dioxide (CO2) atmospheric composition
                monitoring and forecasting (CORE_022).......................................... 45
        5.5.11. Data for Methane (CH4) atmospheric composition monitoring
                and forecasting (CORE_023) ............................................................ 45
        5.5.12. Data for Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) atmospheric composition
                monitoring and forecasting (CORE_024).......................................... 46

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5.6. Archived CORE Datasets ................................................................................ 46
      5.7. Flexible / ADDITIONAL datasets requirements ............................................. 47
               5.7.1.      Overall requirements are: .................................................................. 48
               5.7.2.      Archive rush retrieval ........................................................................ 49
               5.7.3.      New acquisitions in rush mode.......................................................... 49
               5.7.4.      Archive standard retrieval ................................................................. 50
               5.7.5.      New acquisitions in standard mode ................................................... 50
               5.7.6.      Quota management ............................................................................ 52
      5.8. Already acquired ADDITIONAL datasets ...................................................... 53
6.    FUTURE REQUIREMENTS .................................................................................... 53
      6.1. Datasets to be considered for future requirements .......................................... 53
               6.1.1.      Video datasets .................................................................................... 53
ANNEX 1.                   ADDITIONAL DATASET SPECIFICATIONS ............................... 55

ANNEX 2.                   FILE FORMAT CONVENTIONS .................................................... 57

ANNEX 3.     MAP OF "LARGE REGIONS" FOR HR IMAGE 2015 AND
   VHR IMAGE 2015.................................................................................................... 58

ANNEX 4.    MAP OF "ZONES WITH DIFFERENT ACQUISITION
   APPROACHES" FOR HR IMAGE 2015 ................................................................. 59

ANNEX 5.                   HR IMAGE 2015 AND VHR IMAGE 2015: ACQUISITION
   WINDOWS                 61

ANNEX 6.                   NATIONAL PROJECTIONS TABLE .............................................. 64

ANNEX 7.                   DATA QUALITY LAYER ............................................................... 65

ANNEX 8.                   QUALITY BASED COVERAGE PRICING .................................... 66

ANNEX 9.     EXAMPLES OF TYPICAL CLOUD COVER AND HAZE
   SITUATIONS ........................................................................................................... 67

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1.   INTRODUCTION

     1.1.   Background

     For an initial period of 2007-2011, data access management was funded through a
     data access grant between the EC and ESA.

     As from October 2010 the next step of the EC-ESA cooperation, the Delegation
     Agreement [RD1], ensured continuity of the data provision. That new phase was
     intended to widen the scope of the data access to a broader community. It introduced
     the concept of a Data Warehouse, capturing the requirements of the different user
     communities. The Data Warehouse is based on two types of data: (i) a fixed part,
     called 'CORE datasets', which are typically well defined large datasets covering the
     needs of FP7 project participants and other users and (ii) a flexible part called
     'ADDITIONAL' datasets. This approach has proven to be flexible enough to
     accommodate further additional requirements or specific requirements which were
     not covered by the CORE datasets and not known in advance.

     This Data Warehouse v2.0 document builds on the previous experience and contains
     the new Copernicus data requirements for the period 2014-2020 during which time a
     fully operational Copernicus programme will be established. This document also
     addresses access to observation datasets already provided under the previous phases.

     1.2.   Scope and objective

     This document presents the Copernicus requirements for space-based Earth
     Observation data for the period covered by the Copernicus Regulation. It contains
     the requirements collected from Copernicus services and other users requesting
     Earth Observation data, whether financed by the Union or related to policies of the
     Union, like Union-financed research projects and the activities of Union agencies
     (EEA, EMSA, SatCen (previously EUSC), etc.).

     This document has a strong focus on the requirements for Contributing Mission data
     to be procured, it being understood that priority should be given to the use of
     dedicated Copernicus (Sentinel) data wherever feasible. Thus, it may progressively
     evolve towards the consolidation of all satellite data requirements for Copernicus
     services independently of whether licences for the data need to be procured or not. It
     should also be noted that some users are exclusively interested in Earth Observation
     data openly disseminated to ensure that any interested parties questioning the results
     of their analysis may put them to the test using the same Earth Observation data as
     inputs.

     Where datasets need to be procured, licensing conditions are negotiated with
     contributing mission data providers and will depart from conditions of use of
     datasets available under an open data policy. The procurement of datasets requires
     the establishment of a contractual framework between the Copernicus Contributing
     Mission (CCM) Entities, ESA and the users, which should not be confused with the
     Copernicus Data and Information Policy which enshrines free, full and open access.

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Technical specifications should be extracted from the requirements expressed in this
document to ensure the provision or procurement of Earth Observation data from
Copernicus Contributing Missions. ESA plays a key role in the provision of these
Earth Observation data from Copernicus Contributing Missions as captured in the
Delegation Agreement between the Commission and ESA [RD4]. EUMETSAT also
plays an important role in providing Contributing Mission data in accordance with
the Delegation Agreement between the Commission and EUMETSAT [RD5].

The approach suggested in this document aims at deepening, as much as possible,
users' rights along the following major principles:

(1)    A strong emphasis on providing the necessary datasets to ensure the optimal
       functioning of the Copernicus services while mutualising as much as
       possible the needs of different user communities, mainly institutional and
       related to the Space theme of Horizon 2020 research programme;

(2)    The licensed rights must ensure the fulfilment of the Copernicus services'
       operational tasks, the goal is to avoid any restrictions on the dissemination of
       the information extracted from the CCM data by the Copernicus services;

(3)    Predefinition of CORE datasets when the specifications can be provided in
       advance with sufficient detail;

(4)    Bulk agreement for ADDITIONAL datasets with flexible specifications, e.g.
       geographical area, under the establishment of predefined quotas;

(5)    Access to datasets procured in the previous phases of the provision of
       Contributing Mission datasets.

The CORE Datasets are defined in this document. By definition, the ADDITIONAL
datasets are flexible and are not known in advance, therefore technical details cannot
be provided at this stage, but only general requirements and principles on the quota
management mechanism.

As some ADDITIONAL dataset requirements are more precisely defined than
others, it is interesting to provide the available information on these requirements
while, for the time being, leaving them in the ADDITIONAL datasets category.

The approach for the procurement of the two types of datasets will consequently
also be different: CORE datasets can be procured on the basis of pre-defined
specifications, ADDITIONAL datasets through a quota mechanism and bulk
agreements with data providers for the provision of data within a financial envelope.

1.3.   Reference documents

          RD[1]: Commission Delegation Agreement with ESA (2009)

          RD[2] Data Warehouse Document version 1.9

          RD[3] GMES Space Component Data Access Portfolio: Data Warehouse
          2011-2014, GMES-PMAN-EOPG-TN-11-0006, version 2.7.1

          RD[4]: Commission Delegation Agreement with ESA (in preparation)
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RD[5] Commission Delegation Agreement with EUMETSAT (in
preparation)

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2.    GENERAL DEFINITIONS

(1)    Primary Dataset: Any spatial dataset originating from a Copernicus Contributing
       Mission Entity (CCME) and provided by ESA/EUMETSAT/CCME to the
       beneficiary. A Primary Data set is understood to include spacecraft and instrument
       data and is comprised of single-mission Level 1 or Level 2 data (with exceptional
       provision of higher-level products such as single-mission Level 3 data on a case-
       by-case basis).

(2)    Altered Primary Dataset: A dataset derived from a Primary Dataset retaining
       enough information to allow the retrieval of the Primary Dataset (e.g. sensor pixel
       information) and therefore to allow the replication of the Primary Dataset as such.
       Examples: histogram stretched images, ortho-rectified images, resampled and
       rescaled images and mosaics.

(3)    Derived Information, Derived Product or Secondary Dataset: A Dataset or
       information derived from a Primary Dataset or Altered Primary Dataset which
       does not allow the retrieval of the Primary Dataset (e.g. sensor pixel information)
       and therefore does not allow the replication of the Primary Dataset as such.
       Examples: land cover classifications, vegetation indexes.

(4)    Metadata: Information describing spatial data sets and spatial data services and
       making it possible to discover them, populate an inventory with them and use
       them. In the case of spatial datasets, metadata may include a preview of the full
       dataset.

(5)    Union Public tasks: The development, implementation and monitoring of
       policies and related activities as defined by the EC Treaty and subsequent
       Community legislation.

(6)    Spatial Datasets, Spatial Data and Spatial Data Services: As defined in
       Directive 2007/2/EC of 14/3/2007.

(7)    Composite: Multi-scene or multi-image aggregation over the same scene/image.
       Usually used to remove clouds for optical sensor datasets. Can be applied to
       different sensors, but is preferably based on the same sensor. A composite is
       multi-temporal (made of several scenes/images acquired at different dates/times).

(8)    Mosaic: Multi-scene or multi-image aggregation to cover a larger area than a
       given scene/image. Can be applied to different sensors. A mosaic is generally
       mono temporal (or made of scenes/images collected within a given time period
       that can range from a few days to a season).

(9)    Bundled Data Product: Refers to a commercial offer providing all datasets
       acquired simultaneously by the same satellite mission and simultaneously
       covering more than one range of spectral resolutions (e.g. multispectral and
       panchromatic), which are grouped into a single product, but which are still
       comprised of each of the separate spectral bands.

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(10)   Ground sampling distance (GSD): Specifies the extent of a single pixel of the
       sensor(s) that makes the dataset. Pixels are assumed to be square. Unless
       otherwise specified the values are:

       (a)   VHR1: 1m – 4m – 10m – 30m – 100m – 300m

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3.   NOTIONS AND CONVENTIONS

     Many requirements contained in this Data Warehouse document will be used to
     draft the technical specifications for the public procurement of EO remote sensing
     datasets. In this context a number of notions and conventions must be provided and
     are part of the requirements.

     3.1.   User categories and use purposes

     User types are defined below. The sections below also define the usage allowed by
     each user category. User categories are referred to in the specifications by their
     abbreviation in square brackets. These user categories shall only be applied for
     datasets provided under restrictive dissemination conditions by the CCME.
     Wherever contributing mission data providers make available datasets under an
     open data policy, the user indications under licensing requirements are meaningless
     most of the time as all users including the general public may have access to the data
     from the contributing mission data providers.

            3.1.1.   Copernicus Services [Copernicus Services]

            Copernicus Services first established under the EU Regulation 911/2010 and
            then under the subsequent EU Regulation establishing the Copernicus
            programme.

            This category is provided for clarification. Legally speaking, Copernicus
            Services providers are either Institutions and bodies of the Union (see below)
            or their sub-contractors and therefore do not need an extension of licensing
            rights beyond these provided to the [Union_Inst], in particular for already
            acquired licensing rights on datasets from previous Data Warehouse
            exercises.

            3.1.2.   Institutions and bodies of the Union [Union_Inst]

             The institutions and bodies of the Union, as well as their contractors, may
             use the Primary Datasets and Altered Primary Datasets for activities whose
             purpose is within the Union Public tasks (development, implementation and
             monitoring of policies and related activities as defined by the Union Treaties
             and subsequent Union legal acts).

             It includes:

             (1)     The European Institutions set up under the Union Treaties;

             (2)     The European Union Agencies.

            3.1.3.   Participants to a research project financed under the Union research
                     programmes [Union_Research_Projects]

             This includes any natural or legal person officially registered as participant
             of a project funded under the FP7 or Horizon 2020 Space themes.
             Participants in such projects may use the Primary Datasets for activities
             within the project.
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As an option, participants to a project financed under Horizon 2020 outside
 the Space themes may use for activities within the project, already acquired
 Primary Datasets.

3.1.4.   Public authority [Public_Auth]

 Public authorities include:

 (1)     Any government or other public administration of States participating
         in the Copernicus programme, including public advisory bodies, at
         national, regional or local level.;

 (2)     Any natural or legal person performing public administrative
         functions under national law, including specific duties, activities or
         services in relation to a Union policy;

 (3)     Any natural or legal person having public responsibilities or
         functions, or providing public services relating to a Union policy
         under the control of a body or person falling within (1) or (2), such as
         a contractor of a public authority;

 (4)     Any research and academic organisation.

 Public authorities, as well as their contractors, may use the Primary Datasets
 and Altered Primary Datasets for activities whose purpose is within the
 Union Public tasks.

3.1.5.   International Organisations           and      international     NGOs
         [INT_ORG_NGO]

 International Organisations are defined as: Any International Governmental
 Organisation created by an international treaty which can be looked up in the
 UN online database of treaties. Specialised agencies of the UN are included;

 International Organisations, as well as their contractors, may use the Primary
 Datasets for activities whose purpose is within the Union Public tasks.

 The international NGOs are defined as: Any International Non-
 Governmental Organisation specialised in humanitarian, development or
 environmental activities.

 Non-Governmental Organisations, as well as their contractors, may use the
 Primary Datasets for activities whose purpose is within the Union Public
 tasks.

3.1.6.   Public [Public]

 Any natural or legal person.

 In the case that the Download service (see below) is authorised for the
 Public, the use of the Primary Datasets may be limited to non-commercial
 activities.

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3.2.   Usage types (services)

The usage types have been defined adhering to the INSPIRE nomenclature (Article
11(1) (a), (b) and (c) of Directive 2007/2/EC). For each dataset the usage type per
user category should be specified.

       3.2.1.   DISCOVERY Service

        The DISCOVERY service shall make it possible to search for spatial
        datasets and services on the basis of the content of the corresponding
        metadata and to display the content of the metadata.

        All users can access such services.

       3.2.2.   VIEW Service

        The VIEW service shall make it possible, as a minimum, to display,
        navigate, zoom in/out, pan or overlay viewable spatial datasets and to display
        legend information and any relevant content of metadata.

       3.2.3.   DOWNLOAD Service

        The DOWNLOAD service shall enable the beneficiary:

        (1)     to make an unlimited number of copies of the Primary Dataset as
                needed (archiving and backup purposes included);

        (2)     to install on as many individual computers as needed, including
                internal computer network;

        (3)     to alter or modify the Primary Dataset by invoking a computer
                application to produce Altered Primary Dataset and Secondary
                Dataset;

        (4)     to post Metadata of the Primary Dataset or its Altered Primary
                Dataset on an Internet website with the display of a credit in the
                following form: “includes material (c) Mission name (year of
                acquisition), all rights reserved”;

        (5)     to make hard copies or to display on an Internet web site a
                Representation of any extract of the Primary Dataset or its Altered
                Primary Dataset at any resolution, with the display of a credit in the
                following form: “includes material (c) Mission name (year of
                acquisition), all rights reserved”; the data received by client
                applications, through the above Internet posting, should be such that
                it is not possible to recreate the Primary Dataset or Altered Primary
                Dataset (unless that right is provided);

        (6)     to use the Primary Dataset or its Altered Primary Dataset for internal
                or external demonstration purposes;

        (7)     to retain all Intellectual Property Rights associated with any
                Secondary Dataset developed on the basis of the Primary Dataset.
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3.3.   Usage rights

        (a)    The licensed usage rights must ensure the fulfilment of the
               Copernicus services' operational tasks as defined under the
               Copernicus Regulation. In particular the licensed rights shall not
               prevent the generation and dissemination of Copernicus service
               information (derived information from CCM primary datasets used as
               inputs) under a free, full and open dissemination regime in
               application of the Commission Delegated Regulation No 1159/2013
               and the Copernicus Regulation.

        (b)    In the case of the Copernicus Emergency Management Service and
               the Copernicus Security Service, [Public_Auth] shall have access to
               Primary Datasets.

        (c)    When the CCME provides download access to CCM data with the
               authorisation to set up a viewing service for these data, the
               [Union_Inst] will have the right to set up such viewing service.

3.4.   Access to datasets for public tasks and research projects

        The operational nature of Copernicus implies operational access conditions
        to contributing missions. However, some Copernicus users may not need
        access to remote sensing data in operational mode and therefore should also
        enquire about other access schemes to these data.

        – Researchers may benefit from access schemes to EO data designed for
          their needs;

        – Public authorities also benefit from specific access schemes for data
          needs in the accomplishment of their public tasks.

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4.   GENERAL OVERVIEW OF THE REQUIREMENTS

     4.1.   CORE datasets

             The CORE datasets aim at consolidating predefined needs collected from
             Copernicus services and other activities requesting Earth Observation data
             whether financed by the Union or related to policies of the Union, like Union
             financed research projects and the activities of Union agencies (EEA,
             EMSA, SatCen, etc.). This approach allows a more robust and cost-effective
             access mechanism, which will be offered to a broad range of users and
             activities. In particular:

             (1)    For the fulfilment of the data needs for the Copernicus Land
                    Monitoring service, it should cover:

                    (a)    Pan-European (EEA39) High Resolution (HR) cloud free
                           image coverage for the requirements of land cover/land cover
                           change activities (Corine: CLC and CLCC), and 5 High
                           Resolution Layers (HRLs) on land cover characteristics
                           (imperviousness, forestry, agriculture (grasslands), permanent
                           wetlands and small water-bodies. It shall include access to
                           archives.

                    (b)    Full European Very High Resolution (VHR) coverage over
                           Europe (EEA39) matching the requirements of applications at
                           European level (Urban Atlas, Land cover on riparian zones for
                           the purpose of biodiversity monitoring, monitoring of coastal
                           areas, risk areas, protected areas (Natura 2000 sites), Land
                           Parcel Identification and at national level.

                    (c)    For Dynamic Land monitoring: daily Low Resolution (LR)
                           and Medium Resolution (MR) full globe coverage for the
                           production of biogeophysical parameters in the global
                           component of Copernicus Land Monitoring service.

                    (d)    For seasonal vegetation monitoring: monthly to 15-day cloud
                           free composites of Medium Resolution (MR) full European
                           (EEA39) coverage during the vegetation period March-
                           October.

             (2)    For the fulfilment of the data needs of the Copernicus Marine
                    Environment Monitoring, Atmosphere Monitoring and Climate
                    Change services.

     4.2.   ADDITIONAL datasets with predefined quotas

             ADDITIONAL datasets are needed to complement the CORE datasets, as
             many data characteristics are not known in advance (e.g. satellite tasking for
             rapid mapping or security applications, selected areas for biodiversity
             monitoring).

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As for the CORE datasets, these ADDITIONAL datasets are expected to
        fulfil the needs collected from Copernicus services and other activities
        requesting Earth Observation data, whether financed by the Union or related
        to policies of the Union, like Union financed research projects and the
        activities of Union agencies (EEA, EMSA, SatCen, etc.).

        Some assumptions have been made for the specification of requirements:

               The envelope estimates should be made on the basis of a
                combination of statistics and requirements from operational
                Copernicus services, current European research projects, previous
                projects and other related activities;

               The needs of Copernicus services in support to crisis management
                are considered with the highest priority;

               ADDITIONAL datasets covering 'non-crisis' activities (e.g. specific
                requirements for Copernicus Land Monitoring service not covered
                by the CORE datasets) will be provided with medium priority;

               In addition some specific requirements from EU Institutions and
                agencies (e.g. EMSA, SatCen) can be satisfied through the provision
                of ADDITIONAL datasets;

               Horizon 2020 project needs may be covered by ADDITIONAL
                datasets.

4.3.   Access to Contributing Mission data provided under previous phases

        Access to CORE datasets and ADDITIONAL datasets from previous
        acquisition campaigns should be ensured wherever feasible. Where the
        licensing conditions made for the use of these datasets were limited in time,
        the extension of the licence shall be made when the datasets are used in
        recurring monitoring activities and reference. As a principle the licence shall
        not limit in time the use of the datasets by Copernicus.

4.4.   Licensing conditions

        The overall principle should be to have a broad access to CORE datasets,
        whereas access to ADDITIONAL data managed through quotas could be
        more limited.

        Regarding the pan-Europe and Europe CORE datasets (wall-to-wall HR pan-
        Europe coverage, VHR Europe coverage, monthly 15-day HR composites)
        and the Global MR and LR coverage, the licences should include
        unrestricted access to the Primary Dataset for the Copernicus Services,
        Union Institutions, Public Authorities and Union financed research projects.
        This should be the case also for the archived full sub-Saharan HR coverage,
        which also includes access for International organisations and NGOs
        involved in land monitoring activities in these African countries.

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Regarding the ADDITIONAL dataset for emergency service activities
included in Union Public Tasks, the licences should include unrestricted
access to the Primary Dataset for Copernicus services, Union Institutions,
and Union financed research projects, as well as for Member States
authorities willing to benefit from unrestricted access to the Primary Dataset
to ensure an efficient management of emergencies.

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5.   DATASET REQUIREMENTS

     This section provides the definition of required datasets. The objective of this
     section is to present the Copernicus requirements, identifying the criteria, which
     will have a significant impact on the cost of data. This should give sufficient
     details to derive technical specifications as input for the data/licence procurement.

     5.1.   Overall dataset requirements

REQ-5.1.1-1     Use of Sentinel data

               Wherever Sentinel data can be used to fulfil the requirements expressed in
               this document, they should be considered with priority. In view of
               budgetary limitations, some requirements may need a progressive phase-in
               with the availability of Sentinel data fulfilling these needs.

REQ-5.1.1-2     Data archiving and access to archives

               When the licences on satellite datasets need to be procured, the datasets
               must remain accessible as archives for future use by users benefiting from
               the rights attached to the DWH licence.

     5.2.   Overall requirements for CORE datasets

REQ-5.2.1-1     Sensor transitions

               The provision of datasets shall support a seamless transition when satellite
               missions supporting the data provision are replaced by new ones, as far as
               technically possible. The data provision scheme shall thus support the
               parallel provision of data from the old and the new missions for the
               duration necessary to allow cross calibration and comparability of datasets
               (as far as the implication on the budget distribution is reasonable).

REQ-5.2.1-2     Consistency

               During each acquisition campaign the dataset characteristics of procured
               data shall not be modified unilaterally by the data providers.

REQ-5.2.1-3     Formats, INSPIRE metadata and File naming

               CCME data shall be delivered in standard formats; with complete and
               validated INSPIRE compliant metadata. The datasets shall be identified
               according to a standard file naming convention.

               A single, common harmonised format should be considered for the
               delivery of individual files used to provide wall-to-wall coverage of an
               AOI from different missions.

                                               16
5.3.   Dataset requirements for Copernicus Land service over Europe

            The requirements for Copernicus Land service over Europe have been
            drafted within the following boundary conditions:

                    Requirements are based on the knowledge as of today of the pan-
                    European and local Land service configuration for the reference year
                    2015 +/- 1 year. Continuity of a series of existing services for the
                    reference year 2012 +/- 1 year are taken as a baseline, extended with
                    requirements for the 2015 +/-1 reference year.

                   Subject to adaptations as soon as the Sentinel data start to become
                    available: this is expected to considerably improve the acquisition
                    possibilities, and therefore needs a distinction between the periods
                    before and after Sentinel data become available in nominal mode.

                    The land service portfolio for the 2018 +/- 1 reference year is subject
                    to partial continuity, partial changes, following the outcome of a
                    (continuous) process of Land service evolution. The sensor offer will
                    have substantially changed by then. Both conditions entail the need for
                    a revision before starting the 2018 (+/- 1 y) reference year acquisitions.

REQ-5.3.1-1       Preserving spectral information

              Each optical CORE dataset shall be provided as a set of individual images
              (scenes) with separated spectral bands at pixel value (bundled with other
              products if requested or offered) to allow for the maximum level of
              flexibility in automated classification and visual interpretations, including
              future developments.

REQ-5.3.1-2 Standard Formats

              The delivery of each individual file in a dataset shall be provided in a
              single, common harmonised format for level 2 and 3 products. From the
              start of the operational delivery of Sentinel-2 data, the delivery of CCME
              level 2 and 3 products shall meet a standard file format and structure with
              complete and validated INSPIRE compliant metadata, and according to the
              standard file naming convention (see Annex 2).

              The general aim of the harmonisation of file structure, metadata and
              naming shall be to facilitate automation of the retrieval and processing of
              the datasets, as much as possible on a common basis.

              Furthermore, from the start of the operational delivery of Sentinel-2 data,
              each dataset shall be accompanied by a data quality layer, encoded
              according to the specifications in Annex 7.

REQ-5.3.1-3       Reference Year and Repetitiveness

              The acquisition campaigns shall be repeated every 3 years taking the year
              2012 as starting reference year (n-3). To ensure the full coverage of the
              area of interest (AOI), the acquisition campaign shall start the year before
              (n-1). The overall objective shall be to acquire full coverage of the AOI
                                                 17
within the first 2 years. The year after (n+1) may be used for remaining
              gap-filling. Adjustment must be made to make optimal use of available
              SWIR sensors in particular in 2014.

REQ-5.3.1-4       Harmonised Cloud Cover delineation

              For procured optical imagery, a common and consistent way of delineating
              and encoding Cloud Coverage and Cloud shadows shall be put in place,
              taking into account the cloud fringe areas and treat separately the
              indication of cloud shadow areas and the presence of haze in order to
              allow automatic processing of the data. Guidelines on how to identify
              typical Cloud Coverage issues are made available in Annex 9.

REQ-5.3.1-5       Unique and single workflow monitoring tool

              To ensure an adequate management of each step in the full workflow of
              acquisition campaign, pre-processing and information production over
              large territories and involving multiple stakeholder groups, it is mandatory
              to maintain the status of all key steps in the full cycle in a single master
              shape-file, constantly updated during the full cycle of any acquisition
              campaign (yearly basis) with key attributes, allowing all to have access to
              the same comprehensive status overview.

              The acquired scenes shall be referred to in a master shape-file of the
              EEA39 countries in LAEA ETRS89 (EPSG code 3035) as background
              layer, and comprising layers on a per-sensor and per-year basis. Each layer
              shall contain ALL scene footprints taken into consideration for
              programming the acquisitions (each scene being the smallest spatial
              object).

              Separate layers shall be added for gap-filling through archive retrieval
              and/or extensions to other sensors.

              Each footprint shall have as minimum the following list of attributes:

                   Identification of the scene;

                   Date of acquisition;

                   Status of pre-processing;

                   Encoding of cloud cover;

                   Encoding of haze;

                   Encoding of technical quality of image;

                   Availability in the data warehouse;

                   Acceptation/rejection.

                                                   18
Attributes shall be encoded in a semantically standardised structure, thus
          allowing easy search, selection, filtering and combination queries in order to
          facilitate management of the actual status of acquisitions.

          The master shape-file shall be managed by ESA, and constantly updated
          during the acquisition campaign by the CCMEs. The master-file shall be
          accessible for all stakeholders in the process through a point of access
          facility ensuring that all partners at any point of time are dealing with the
          same information content.

REQ-5.3.1-6       Success criteria and remuneration

          For all wall-to-wall optical CORE dataset acquisition campaigns, in order to
          maximise the chances of successful coverage matching the acquisition
          requirements, a new remuneration mechanism shall be applied. Simple per-
          scene remuneration has shown not to be appropriate. Therefore a scheme
          shall be put in place, which, while encouraging data providers to acquire and
          deliver as much images as possible, will reward them in the end according to
          the quality of the best possible coverage accomplished.

          At the end of the acquisition campaign for any year, the data providers
          (CCMEs) shall propose a mosaic composed of all scenes they consider
          matching the acquisition specifications, for assessing the quality parameters,
          which will determine the final price.

          A total of five quality indicators will be evaluated based on the final mosaic:

                   Total coverage achieved;

                   Number of scenes required;

                   Average size of all areas composed of contiguously connected scenes;

                   Max size of the largest data gap (incl. clouds and snow, excl.
                    perennial snow and glaciers);

                   RMS distance (in days) of acquisitions date from target date;

                   Max difference of acquisition date of adjacent pixels.

          An example of a quality based pricing scheme is provided in Annex 8.

         5.3.2.      Optical HR Pan Europe coverage (HR_IMAGE_2015)

          Applications

          Main purposes: continuation of pan-European land services, including
          Corine Land Cover (CLC) and the production of High Resolution Layers
          (HRL) on land cover characteristics by the Union, EEA and Member States.
          These requirements could also partially meet EFFIS requirements.

REQ-5.3.2-1       Sensor acquisition characteristics

                                                 19
Spatial resolution: Sensors between 5m and maximum 30m GSD (ground
          sampling distance) shall be considered. (Remark: the acquisition pixel size is
          linked with the final data product resolution, see Data Product requirements
          below).

          Spectral resolution: Optical multispectral sensors used for all
          HR_IMAGE_2015 acquisitions must have at least one independent spectral
          band centred in each of the following spectral ranges to allow optimal
          analysis of vegetation:

          Green [0.5-0.6μm], Red [0.6-0.68μm], NIR [0.7-0.9μm], SWIR1 [1.5-
          1.8μm]

          Radiometric resolution: minimum bit depth of 7-bits signal dynamic range is
          acceptable, higher bit depth is preferred (e.g. 16-bits).

REQ-5.3.2-2       Areas of Interest (AOI)

          The overall AOI of interest comprises the EEA39 national territories to a
          total of ~6 M km². Within this Area a number of 'large regions' have been
          delineated as acquisition subunits as displayed in Annex 3.

          The overall AOI shall be extended by a 2 nautical miles buffer for the 2014-
          2015 acquisition campaign. From the operational availability of Sentinel-2
          onwards, the standard territorial water of 12 nautical miles into the sea/ocean
          shall be taken as the buffer.

REQ-5.3.2-3       Tasking and Acquisition – Objectives

          The objective of the wall-to-wall CORE HR image acquisition is to cover
          once or twice the entire AOI (depending of the Zone) with:

                   The least possible number of scenes;

                   Coming from the least possible sensors;

                   Leaving only the smallest possible gaps and

                   Being acquired as close as possible to the respective reference date.

          Data acquisition shall start the year before the reference year. The bulk of
          acquisitions shall be within the reference year. The reference year +1 is only
          used for gap-filling, in which case those scenes would receive an additional
          7 days “off date” quality bias. In that case the increase in quality and
          coverage will determine the price.

REQ-5.3.2-4       Acquisition zones

          For the acquisition campaign, separate zones are identified in Annex 4
          covering a range of areas indicatively corresponding with risk levels to
          acquire complete coverage. It comprises a Zone A for the cloudiest areas,
          Zone B for cloud-prone areas, Zone C for the areas with statistically limited
          cloud cover frequencies and Zone D for French DOM situated under the
                                                20
tropics. The requirements for Zone C apply to Zone B and D if not specified
          otherwise.

          To account for differences with respect to phenological effects and
          observation conditions (cloud probability, sun angles) and the resulting
          difficulties to meet the quality requirements, each AOI subunit is assigned to
          one of the following zones:

          Zone A: a minimum of one cloud-free coverage (VNIR + SWIR).

          Areas at northern latitudes and/or with very narrow phenological windows
          and or very difficult observation conditions.

          Zone B: two cloud-free coverages (one VNIR + SWIR; second: preferably
          VNIR + SWIR, but VNIR only acceptable as second choice).

          Areas at mid-latitudes with a high probability of suitable acquisition
          windows during the observation periods.

          Two target dates will be specified, however the completion of the second
          coverage is considered a best effort.

          Zone C: two cloud-free coverages with preferably homogenous sensor
          VNIR + SWIR acquisitions.

          Areas at lower latitudes with extended phenological observation periods and
          predominantly clear sky conditions during those.

          Two target dates will be specified and accordingly two coverages are
          expected.

          Zone D: one cloud-free coverage (VNIR + SWIR).

          Overseas areas (e.g. French DOMs).

REQ-5.3.2-5   Acquisition windows

          The acquisition windows are defined in Annex 5 with extended and narrow
          windows. The starting and ending dates of these extended and narrow
          windows can be subject to modifications with a ten day advance notice to
          allow for extension of acquisition with an earlier start and/or later end.

REQ-5.3.2-6   Acquisition strategy

          Zone A: One VNIR + SWIR coverage in the narrow windows of acquisition;
          multi-mission systematic tasking over the same areas to ensure adequate
          coverage of the cloudiest regions.

          Purchase criteria for Zone A: As a minimum, any part of acquisition (grid)
          with less than the high cloud coverage defined in 'Cloud Cover and Haze'
          requirements as long as it contributes to reaching the goal of one cloud free
          coverage of Zone A.

                                            21
Zone B: A first and most important coverage including VNIR + SWIR shall
          be acquired during the narrow window of acquisition, preferably through
          systematic tasking of one sensor, complemented with speculative tasking
          from other sensors and/or outside the narrow window but still inside the
          extended window.

          The second coverage shall be acquired with ideally 6 weeks, but minimally
          with a 4 week time difference to the first coverage. The second coverage can
          be either upfront or after the first coverage, but within the extended
          acquisition window. Preference is given to VNIR + SWIR. VNIR only is
          acceptable for the second coverage if SWIR is not available (second
          priority).

          Purchase criteria for Zone B: As a minimum, any part of the acquisition grid
          with less than the cloud coverage defined in 'Cloud Cover and Haze'
          requirements as long as it contributes to reaching the goal of completing
          Zone B.

          Zone C: A first and most important coverage including VNIR + SWIR shall
          be acquired during the narrow window of acquisition.

          The second coverage shall be acquired with ideally 6 weeks, but minimally
          with a 4 week time difference to the first coverage. The second coverage can
          be either upfront or after the first coverage, but within the extended
          acquisition window. Preference is given to VNIR + SWIR. VNIR only is
          acceptable for the second coverage if SWIR is not available (second
          priority).

          Purchase criteria for Zone C: As a minimum, any part of the acquisition grid
          with less than the cloud coverage defined in 'Cloud Cover and Haze'
          requirements as long as it contributes to reaching the goal of completing
          Zone C.

          Zone D: One coverage including VNIR + SWIR shall be acquired during the
          extended window of acquisition.

          Purchase criteria for Zone D: As a minimum, any part of the acquisition grid
          with less than the cloud coverage defined in 'Cloud Cover and Haze'
          requirements as long as it contributes to reaching the goal of one cloud free
          coverage of Zone D.

REQ-5.3.2-7   Cloud Cover and Haze

          The maximum cloud coverage allowed is defined as per a grid of 25x25 km
          and varies per Zone A, B. C or D (see Annex 4). It is also a function of the
          spatial distribution of the clouds on the scene (the presence of cloud spread
          all over the scene is not acceptable). This restriction aims at reducing the
          number of scenes to be processed and ensuring processing homogeneity. See
          Guidelines in Annex 9.

                                            22
The overall AOI comprising zones A, B, C, D will be subdivided in a
          uniform grid of 25 km cell side. Grid cells will, according to zone
          dependency, have a maximum allowed Cloud Coverage threshold as follows:

                         Zone A (cloudiest): CC 20% max;

                         Zone B (cloud prone): CC 10% max;

                         Zones C/D (limited cloud): CC 5% max.

          Scenes comprising haze shall be flagged accordingly for further
          consideration, and are subject to rejection by the Copernicus service
          coordinator, in consultation with the service providers implementing the land
          services.

          Presence of perennial snow and glaciers is allowed. However, temporary
          snow, saturated pixels and data gaps have to be included for the above listed
          calculation of the max. allowed percentages.

REQ-5.3.2-8       Illumination/Radiometry

          The sun elevation angle shall be higher than 20° to ensure sufficient
          illumination and to minimize the effect of shadows.

          The off-nadir viewing angle shall be less than 25°.

          Saturated pixels, snow (excl. perennial), clouds and areas with a signal to
          noise ratio of less than 50:1 (at 35% ground reflectance) will count as data
          gaps.

REQ-5.3.2-9       Selection and rejection of scenes

          The data provider must assess the quality of the datasets.

          It is up to the service coordinator, in consultation with the service providers
          to review the scenes proposed by the CCMEs at the end of the acquisition
          campaign on their appropriateness for further processing.

REQ-5.3.2-10 Processing Levels

          The scenes shall be provided with two different levels of processing:

          Level2 (ortho-rectified to ETRS89/ETRS-LAEA)):

                     Ortho-rectified at-sensor radiance values (resampled using cubic
                      convolution method);

                     GCP file with respect to reference data set;

                     INSPIRE compliant metadata.

          Level1 (system correction):

                                                  23
   System corrected and at-sensor radiometric and geometric calibrated
                 data;

                Ortho layer, (i.e. x, y coordinates (ETRS89)) INSPIRE compliant
                 metadata.

REQ-5.3.2-11 Radiometric and atmospheric correction

          A cascade approach may be considered for radiometric and atmospheric
          corrections in decreasing order of priority as follows:

             (a) Atmospheric corrected Surface Reflectance (or Bottom of Atmosphere
                 (BOA)), 16-bit data. However this option requires a well-established
                 method. Atmospheric bands in Sentinel-2 will allow for that, entailing
                 that this option only be considered from Sentinel-2 onwards.

             (b) Top of Atmosphere (TOA) planetary reflectances, 16-bit data. Sensor
                 specific in band solar irradiance values (ESUN) shall be provided.

             (c) ESUN corrected but not solar elevation corrected.

             (d) Radiometric calibrated data with calibration parameters enabling the
                 conversion of image digital numbers (DN) into spectral radiance
                 (W/m2/sr/um). Solar spectral irradiances within each spectral band
                 and the solar elevation for each scene are required to convert the
                 image DNs into TOA (Top Of Atmosphere) reflectance values.

REQ-5.3.2-12 Ortho-rectification

                 Ortho ready processing shall include basic corrections such as
                 rectilinear geometry, radiometric distortion (i.e. source data).

                 Ortho-rectification has to be full-parametric or making use of RPC
                 functions and shall be based on the EU-DEM. In case a different DEM
                 is used it must be supplied with the data.

                 European projection is required for all coverage ETRS89, LAEA
                 (EPSG code 3035). National projection is optional and may be
                 requested on a case by case basis.

                Grid     alignment:  GeoTIFF   key:    The    GeoTIFF     key
                 "GTRasterTypeGeoKey" shall have the value 1, corresponding to
                 "RasterPixelIsArea".

                 Pixel alignment: The values of the coordinates for the upper-left
                 corner (x and y) of the upper-left pixel of an image dataset shall be an
                 integer multiple of the pixel size (resolution) in the corresponding
                 direction (x and y).

                Ortho-rectification accuracy:

                    o Relative accuracy (2014-2015): Reference less than 1 pixel
                      difference with HR_IMAGE_2012.
                                             24
o Absolute accuracy (from S2 onwards): Ortho-rectification must
                       be accurate to less than 0.75 pixel size equivalent RMSE and a
                       max displacement of less than 1.5 pixels in no more than 0.1%
                       of any 50x50sqkm area within the AOI with respect to the
                       reference data set.

REQ-5.3.2-13 Data Products

           Optical multispectral HR data products with a 20 m pixel resolution. GSD of
           the sensor shall be no worse than 1.5 times the product raster width.

           From the operational availability of Sentinel-2 onwards, HR products will be
           delivered at 10 m pixel resolution.

           Level 2 products shall be provided according to standard and harmonised
           format specifications (see Annex 2).

REQ-5.3.2-14 Delivery

           Zone A: After selection, delivery will be made no later than 60 days after
           selection.

           Zone B: To the extent that systematic tasking has been applied for a sensor
           over Zone B, the same delivery requirement shall be maintained as for zone
           A. For non-systematic acquisitions delivery shall be made on a continuous
           basis, but no later than 60 days after the end of the extended acquisition
           windows.

           Zones C: Delivery shall be made on a continuous basis, but no later than 60
           days after the end of the extended acquisition windows.

           For all zones, delivery shall be made per large scale regions (acquisition
           subunits defined in Annex 3).

REQ-5.3.2-15 Licensing (for datasets with restrictive licensing conditions)

           Multi-user DOWNLOAD and VIEW licences shall be acquired to cover as a
           baseline all relevant activities of users in [Copernicus Services],
           [Union_Inst], [Union_Research_Projects] and [Public_Authorities].

           [INT_ORG_NGO] and [Public] shall have access in DISCOVERY mode.

           VIEW mode should however be considered an option towards
           [INT_ORG_NGO] and will be used if affordable.

          5.3.3.   Optical VHR multispectral and panchromatic coverage over Europe
                   (VHR_IMAGE_2015)

           Applications

           Land local component applications for hotspots, i.e. specific areas of interest
           at pan-European level (EEA39) (land cover over riparian zones for the
           purpose of biodiversity monitoring, monitoring of coastal areas, risk areas,
                                              25
protected areas (Natura 2000 sites), Land Parcel Identification…) and at
          national level.

          Land local component applications over hotspots at pan-European level
          (Urban Atlas, Land Parcel Identification…) and at national level.

REQ-5.3.3-1       Sensor acquisition characteristics

          Spatial resolution: pixel sizes up to maximum 2m shall be considered.
          (Remark: the acquisition pixel size is linked with the final data product
          resolution, (see. Data Product requirements below)).

          Spectral resolution: Optical multispectral sensors used for all
          VHR_IMAGE_2015 acquisitions must have at least one independent
          spectral band centred in each of the following spectral ranges to allow
          optimal analysis of vegetation:

          Green [0.5-0.6μm], Red [0.6-0.68μm], NIR [0.7-0.9μm].

          Panchromatic [0.45-0.85μm].

          SWIR1 [1.5-1.8μm] is considered optional. The availability of sensor
          capacities allowing for systematic inclusion without jeopardising other
          requirements shall trigger an investigation by ESA on the feasibility of
          revision of specifications to include SWIR.

          Radiometric resolution: minimum bit depth of 7-bit signal dynamic range is
          acceptable, higher bit depth is preferred, e.g. 16-bit depth.

REQ-5.3.3-2       Areas of Interest (AOI)

          The overall AOI of interest comprises the EEA39 national territories to a
          total of ~6 M km².

          The overall AOI shall be extended by a 2 nautical miles buffer.

REQ-5.3.3-3       Tasking and Acquisition

          Objectives:

          The objective of the wall-to-wall CORE VHR image acquisition is to cover
          once the entire AOI with:

                   The least possible number of scenes;

                   Coming from the least possible sensors;

                   Leaving only the smallest possible gaps and

                   Being acquired as close as possible to the respective reference date.

          Data acquisition shall start the year before the reference year. The bulk of
          acquisitions shall be within the reference year. The reference year +1 is only
          used for gap-filling, in which case those scenes will receive an additional 7
                                                26
days “off date” quality bias. In that case the increase in quality and coverage
          will determine the price.

REQ-5.3.3-4   Acquisition windows

          The acquisition windows are defined in Annex 5 with extended and narrow
          windows. The starting and ending dates of these extended and narrow
          windows can be subject to modifications with a ten day advance notice to
          allow for extension of acquisition with an earlier start and/or later end.

REQ-5.3.3-5   Acquisition Strategy

          The acquisition strategy shall take into account the knock-on effects of
          scattered footprint patterns (i.e. different sensors, different years, different
          seasons), having a multiplicative effect on the coherence and size of working
          units as a collection of images with sufficiently stable characteristics to
          automate classification processes on single selection of areas. This entails
          optimisation of series of acquisitions with regard to the areas as defined in
          Annex 4.

REQ-5.3.3-6   Cloud Cover and Haze

          The maximum cloud coverage allowed per scene is function of the swath of
          the sensor and the percentage of cloud defined per Zone A, B, C or D (see.
          Annex 4). The maximum cloud coverage allowed per scene is also function
          of the spatial distribution of the clouds on the scene (the presence of cloud
          spread all over the scene is not acceptable). This restriction aims at reducing
          the number of scenes to be processed and ensuring processing homogeneity.

          The overall AOI comprising zones A, B, C, D will be subdivided in a
          uniform grid of side 25 km. Grid cells will, according to zone dependency,
          have a maximum allowed Cloud Coverage (CC) threshold as follows:

                    Zone A (cloudiest): CC 20% max;

                    Zone B (cloud prone): CC 10% max;

                    Zones C/D (limited cloud): CC 5% max.

          Scenes comprising haze shall be flagged accordingly for further
          consideration, and are subject to rejection by the Copernicus service
          coordinator, in consultation with the service providers implementing the land
          services.

          Presence of perennial snow and glaciers is allowed. However, temporary
          snow, saturated pixels and data gaps have to be included for the above listed
          calculation of the maximum allowed percentages.

REQ-5.3.3-7   Illumination/Radiometry

          The sun elevation angle shall be higher than 20° (preferable higher than 23°)
          to ensure sufficient illumination and to minimize the effect of shadows.

                                             27
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