Entrepreneuriat et semi-confinement 2020 - HEG-FR

 
Entrepreneuriat et semi-confinement 2020 - HEG-FR
Entrepreneurship Monitor
                                        2018 / 2019
        Global
Acknowledgments
                       ReportMonitor
        Entrepreneurship
        Global                onMonitor
               Entrepreneurship  Switzerland
                                        Suisse
                 2018 / 2019
For a study of this scope, an extra-    elements of this report are based
ordinary contribution on the part of    on the results of the global report
many individuals is necessary. Most     written by Niels Bosma, Stephen
                 Report on Switzerland
importantly, the authors would like     Hill, Aileen Ionescu-Somers, Donna
to thank Project Managers, Raphaël      Kelley, Jonathan Levie, and Anna
Gaudart and Gabriel Simonet, for        Tarnawa of the Global Entrepreneur-
their efficient and effective coordi-   ship Research Association GERA –
nation at the School of Management      Global Entrepreneurship Monitor
Fribourg (HEG-FR).                      2019 / 20 Global Report.

The authors are also grateful to        The report is available online at
GEM project’s coordination team,        www.gemconsortium.org and at
in particular, Chris Aylett, Jonathan   www.heg-fr.ch/GEM. All data used
Carmona, Alicia Coduras, Slavica        in this report are collected and pro-
Singer and Forrest Wright, as well      cessed centrally by the GEM con-
as the sponsors of the GEM project      sortium. The authors have exclusive
at Babson College, Babson Park,         responsibility for evaluating and in-
MA (USA) and the Korea Entrepre-        terpreting the data.
neurship Foundation, Korea. Some

Entrepreneuriat et
semi-confinement 2020                          HAUTE ÉCOLE DE GESTION
                                               HOCHSCHULE FÜR WIRTSCHAFT
                                                                           Fribourg
                                                                           Freiburg
                                               SCHOOL OF MANAGEMENT

                                                                                      1
Entrepreneuriat et semi-confinement 2020 - HEG-FR
Global Entrepreneurship
     Management
     Management   Summary    Monitor
                  Summary//Key
                            Key Results
                                Results
                                     Suisse

     Entrepreneuriat et
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                                                            perception
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                                                    85.8G.
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                                                           % in in Netherlands
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     Perception
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                                            at aa Canada.
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     low
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                                                                               entrepreneurand   and
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     Haute école de gestion Fribourg (HEG-FR) ; www.heg-fr.ch
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     11
        Entrepreneurshipisn’t
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66
 2
Résumé
Acknowledgments
Acknowledgments

  Foraeffets
 Les
For     astudy
           studydu ofofsemi-confinement
                        thisscope,
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                                             extra-
                                                  au       elements
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  importantly,
 été    perceptibles
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                                                  où       Hill,Aileen
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                                                                           entreprises  Levie,en
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                                                                                                and    Anna
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  Gaudart and
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1
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    Suisse.

                                                                                                                 131
1. IntroductionSummary
     Management
     Management     Summary//Key
                             Key Results
                                 Results

     The
      The School
            School of  of Management
                           Management Fribourg  Fribourg       perception
                                                                perception of     of capabilities
                                                                                        capabilities than   than in in
     (HEG-FR),
      (HEG-FR), member
                     member of     of the
                                        the University
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                                                                the previous
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                                                                                            Switzerland’s      per-
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        déclaré une    (HES-SO),
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                                                                ception of
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     ing
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                                                                neurship as    as aa good
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     neurship
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                                                                               Netherlands or        or 69.2
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     Perception
      Perception of of opportunities
                       opportunities isis at
                                          at aa                Canada.
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                                                                                   the other
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              recognizing the
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      preneurial opportunities.
                    opportunities. Switzer-
                                      Switzer-                 are
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                      with 49.2
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     11
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          Entrepreneurshipisn’t
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                                                      orcompanies
                                                         companiesgoing
                                                                   goingthrough
                                                                         throughchange.
                                                                                 change.

66
 4
2.  Changement dans le comportement
 Acknowledgments
Acknowledgments
 entrepreneurial : enquête auprès de la
 population
 Foraastudy
For    studyofofthis
                     2
                 thisscope,
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                                extra- elements
                                        elements ofof this
                                                       this report
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2
    L‘enquête GEM 2020 sur la population adulte (APS), 2008 personnes interrogées.

                                                                                                                   151
Management
     Management Summary
                Summary//Key
                         Key Results
                             Results

     The
      The School
     Figure            of
                        of Management
              1 : Comparaison
            School                  des moyennes
                            Management            Fribourg
                                                         GEM 2019
                                                   Fribourg         perception
                                                                      et GEM 2020of
                                                                    perception            avec
                                                                                         of   capabilities
                                                                                                 un intervalle than
                                                                                               capabilities          than in  in
     de  confiance
     (HEG-FR),
      (HEG-FR), memberde   95%.
                      member of     of thethe University
                                                University the      the previous
                                                                            previous years    years (2018:
                                                                                                        (2018: 36.3   36.3%; %;
     of
      ofApplied
         Applied     Sciences
                       recognition and
                     Sciences
           Opportunity              andArts Arts  Western
                                                   Western
                                             TEA: High growth*      2017:
                                                                    2017:Fear 42.1
                                                                              42.1
                                                                              of      %)
                                                                                       %) but
                                                                                 failure**  but Switzerland’s
                                                                                                   Switzerland’s
                                                                                                   Entrepreneurial        per-
                                                                                                                           per-
                                                                                                                   intentions

     Switzerland
      Switzerland(HES-SO),
       50%               (HES-SO),collected
                                          collecteddata  data ception
                                                                    ception of     of capabilities
                                                                                        capabilities is     is below
                                                                                                                below the   the
     for
      forthe
       45%
          theinternational
                internationalGlobal  GlobalEntrepre-
                                                 Entrepre- European European benchmark, benchmark, and       and clearly
                                                                                                                      clearly
       40%
     neurship
      neurship Monitor
       35%
                     Monitor (GEM).
                                  (GEM). 2015  2015 tele-tele- behind
                                                                    behind the     the very very strong
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                                                                                                                 belief of    of
     phone
      phone interviews
       30%       interviews and   and 36   36 talks
                                               talks with with Americans
                                                                    Americans in        in their
                                                                                             their ownown capacity
                                                                                                              capacity to     to
     experts
      experts revealed
       25%
                     revealed entrepreneurial
                                      entrepreneurial start         start aa business
                                                                                 business (65.5   (65.5%).%). The
                                                                                                                The samesame
       20%
     attitudes,
      attitudes, activities
       15%
                      activities and and aspirations,
                                              aspirations, is       istrue
                                                                        trueof ofpeople
                                                                                    peoplein    inSlovenia,
                                                                                                    Slovenia,Canada,Canada,
     and
      and identified
       10%   identified the  the factors
                                    factors influenc-
                                                  influenc- Australia,
                                                                    Australia,and     andUK. UK.
     ing
      ing the
       5%
           the type
                  type and
                         and extent
                                extent of   of the
                                                the entre-
                                                       entre-
       0%

     preneurial
      preneurial activities.
                2019
                      activities.The
                              2020
                                      The 20192019//2020
                                            2019
                                                        2020 The
                                                          2020
                                                                    The entrepreneurial
                                                                            entrepreneurial intentions
                                                                         2019          2020          2019
                                                                                                          intentions of
                                                                                                                   2020
                                                                                                                              of
     Global
     *Global
        Pourcentage
                   Entrepreneurship
                   Entrepreneurship                Monitor
                      de l‘échantillon TEA (TotalMonitor
                                                                    Swiss
                                                     EntrepreneurialSwiss
                                                                               inhabitants
                                                                                inhabitants
                                                                     Activity) qui
                                                                                                     are
                                                                                    prévoit de créerare
                                                                                                            higher
                                                                                                      plus dehigher
                                                                                                               19 emplois
                                                                                                                         than
                                                                                                                          than
     Report
      Report
        dans leson
                 on  Switzerland
                     Switzerland
                  5 prochaines  années.illustrates
                                          illustratesna-   na- in   in previous
                                                                        previous years, years, but but still
                                                                                                         still below
                                                                                                                below the   the
     tional
     ** Fear ofdifferences
      tional   differences       in
                Failure ou la peurindeentrepreneurial
                                      entrepreneurial               average
                                                                    average
                                       l‘échec chez ceux qui perçoivent            of
                                                                                   of high-income
                                                                                                d‘affaires. economies,
                                                                                        high-income
                                                                           des opportunités                   economies,
     activity
      activity11 between
                   between economies,
                                 economies, reveal-   reveal- contrasting
                                                                    contrastingsharply   sharplywith  withpeople
                                                                                                             peoplein     inIs-
                                                                                                                             Is-
     ing
      ing the
            the factors
                   factors thatthat determine
                                        determine the      the rael raelor orRepublic
                                                                               Republicof      ofKorea.
                                                                                                   Korea.Perceptions
                                                                                                             Perceptions
     nature
      natureand andlevel
                       levelof ofnational
                                  nationalentrepre-
                                                 entrepre- and      and intentions
                                                                            intentions are      are combined,
                                                                                                       combined, with      with
     Les jeunes entreprises existantes ont D’une manière générale, 44% des
     neurial
      neurialactivity,
                  activity,and
                             andidentifying
                                    identifyingpolicy  policy the   the challenge
                                                                          challenge being    being to to see
                                                                                                          see entrepre-
                                                                                                                entrepre-
     bien évidemment ressenti les effets jeunes entrepreneurs s‘attendent à
     implications
      implications for    for enhancing
                               enhancing entrepre-
                                                 entrepre- neurship neurship as       as aa good
                                                                                               good career
                                                                                                        career choice.
                                                                                                                     choice.
     de la crise du coronavirus. La propor- des perspectives de croissance plus
     neurship
      neurshipin    inSwitzerland.
                        Switzerland.                                Only
                                                                    Only 40.240.2%     % view
                                                                                            view entrepreneurship
                                                                                                     entrepreneurship
     tion de jeunes entreprises ayant des faibles en raison de la pandémie
                                                                    as
                                                                    as an an interesting
                                                                               interesting pathway  pathway for    for one’s
                                                                                                                         one’s
     perspectives de croissance rapide et de COVID-19, et 15,9% s‘attendent à
     Self-perception
      Self-perceptionabout     about                                professional
                                                                    professional future      future compared
                                                                                                          compared to         to
     élevée a considérablement dimi- une croissance beaucoup plus fai-
     Entrepreneurship
      Entrepreneurship                                              85.8
                                                                    85.8%  % in  in Netherlands
                                                                                       Netherlands or       or 69.2
                                                                                                                 69.2%   % in in
     nué. Dans l‘enquête de 2019, près ble. 40,5% des jeunes entrepreneurs
     Perception
      Perception of     of opportunities
                            opportunities is          is at
                                                          at aa Canada.
                                                                    Canada. On      On thethe other
                                                                                                 other side,
                                                                                                           side, thethe sta-
                                                                                                                           sta-
     d‘un tiers des start-ups dont l’âge estiment que la création d‘une ent-
     low
      low level,
            level, with
                      with those
                              those interviewed
                                         interviewed in      in tus tusof ofaasuccessful
                                                                                  successfulentrepreneur
                                                                                                     entrepreneurand       and
     n’excédait pas 42 mois prévoyait reprise est devenue beaucoup plus
     Spain
      Spain recognizing
               recognizing the     the fewest
                                           fewest entre-
                                                       entre- media media attention
                                                                                attention for    for entreprenership
                                                                                                       entreprenership
     encore de créer plus de 19 nouveaux difficile en raison de la pandémie et
     preneurial
      preneurial opportunities.
                         opportunities. Switzer-   Switzer- are     areat ataagoodgoodlevel,
                                                                                           level,andandfear
                                                                                                          fearof offailure
                                                                                                                      failure
     emplois au cours des cinq prochaines de ses conséquences économiques.
     land
      land shows,
              shows, with  with 49.249.2%,  %, aa higher
                                                      higher is     islower
                                                                       lowerthan  thanin   inprevious
                                                                                               previousyears.years.
     années. Au début de l‘été 2020, seu- De plus, 20,1% considèrent qu‘il est
     le une start-up sur huit (soit 12%) « plutôt plus difficile » de créer une
     faisait ce calcul.                                            nouvelle entreprise dans le contexte
     11
        Entrepreneurship
         Entrepreneurshipisn’t
                             isn’tonly
                                   onlyabout
                                        aboutfocusing
                                                focusingon onthe
                                                              thestart-up
                                                                  start-up phase,    but
                                                                                      butalso
                                                                                          alsoabout
                                                                            phase,actuelle.
                                                                   de la crise                  aboutbeing
                                                                                                       beingseen
                                                                                                              seenas asaa
        mindset
        mindsetin
                inyoung,
                   young,growing,
                          growing,mature
                                  maturecompanies,
                                         companies,or
                                                    orcompanies
                                                       companiesgoing
                                                                 goingthrough
                                                                       throughchange.
                                                                               change.

66
Acknowledgments
Acknowledgments

  Foraastudy
 Figures
For       study
          2 et 3 :ofofthis
                       thisscope,
                            scope,
                   Informations       anextra-
                                 fournies
                                    an    extra-      elements
                                          par les jeunes          ofof this
                                                         entrepreneurs
                                                     elements           this  report
                                                                           (TEA)
                                                                             report
                                                                                3
                                                                                       are based
                                                                                     are    based
 sur les changements
  ordinary
ordinary      contribution
            contribution  dus on
                              au
                               onCOVID-19
                                   thepart
                                  the    partofof on  onthe
                                                          theresults
                                                               resultsofofthe theglobal
                                                                                   globalreport
                                                                                            report
  manyindividuals
many     individualsisisnecessary.
                            necessary.Most Most written
                                                      written by by Niels
                                                                       Niels Bosma,
                                                                               Bosma, Stephen
                                                                                         Stephen
           Comment vos perspectives de croissance ont-elles changé par rapport
  importantly,the
importantly,        theauthors
                         authorswould
                                    wouldlikelike Hill,
                                                      Hill,Aileen
                                                            AileenIonescu-Somers,
                                                                      Ionescu-Somers,Donna  Donna
                                   à la période pré-COVID-19   ?
totothank
     thankProject
               ProjectManagers,
                         Managers,Raphaël
                                       Raphaël Kelley,Kelley, Jonathan
                                                               Jonathan Levie,Levie, and
                                                                                       and Anna
                                                                                              Anna
  Gaudart and
Gaudart        and Gabriel
                      Gabriel Simonet,
                                Simonet, for  for Tarnawa
                                                      Tarnawaofofthe theGlobal
                                                                          GlobalEntrepreneur-
                                                                                  Entrepreneur-
  their efficient
their    efficient and and effective
                            effective coordi-
                                         coordi- ship shipResearch
                                                            ResearchAssociation
                                                                          AssociationGERAGERA ––
  nationatatthe
nation         theSchool
                     SchoolofofManagement
                                Management Global     Global Entrepreneurship
                                                                 Entrepreneurship MonitorMonitor
                                                                                         1.8%
  Fribourg
Fribourg      (HEG-FR). 28.1%
            (HEG-FR).
           15.9%                                      2019/43.6%
                                                     2019   /20
                                                              20Global
                                                                  GlobalReport.
                                                                            Report.10.6%

  The authors
The      authors are      are alsoalso grateful
                                          grateful toto The         The report
                                                                          report isis available
                                                                                         available online    online atat
  GEM project’s
GEM        project’s coordination
                               coordination team,team, www.gemconsortium.org
                                                                    www.gemconsortium.org and                  and atat
ininparticular,
     particular,
     0%        10%
                         Chris
                       Chris 20%
                                  Aylett,
                                 Aylett,
                                     3 0%
                                            Jonathan
                                           Jonathan
                                               40%         50%
                                                                    www.heg-fr.ch/GEM.
                                                                   www.heg-fr.ch/GEM.
                                                                      60%     70%       80%
                                                                                                   All
                                                                                                 All90%
                                                                                                          data
                                                                                                        data          used
                                                                                                                    used
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  Carmona, Alicia
Carmona,            Alicia Coduras,
                                 Coduras, Slavica
                                               Slavica ininthis        thisreport
                                                                            reportare arecollected
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  Singer
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                                                                                   A peu prèsby   the GEM
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asasthe
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                                              Beaucoup              sortium.The
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                                                                                                              exclusive
atat Babson
       Babson College, College, Babson
                                     Babson Park,  Park, responsibility
                                                                    responsibilityfor  forevaluating
                                                                                            evaluatingand         andin- in-
MAMA (USA)
       (USA) and   and the   the Korea
                                   Korea Entrepre-
                                            Entrepre- terpreting    terpretingthethedata.
                                                                                      data.
  neurship Foundation,
neurship         Foundation,
                        Comment la     Korea.
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                                                   d'entreprise a-t-elle évolué depuis avant la
                                                                      pandémie?

                                                                                                                                       0.9%

                            40.5%                                     20.1%                               32.6%                   6.0%

     0%         10%             20%        30%            40%          50%           60%          70%          8 0%        90%         100%

      Beaucoup plus difficile     Un peu plus difficile    Aussi difficile qu'il y a un an   Un peu moi ns difficile   Beaucoup moins di fficile

3
  Total Entrepreneurial Activity (TEA) : Pourcentage de la population adulte entre 18 et 64 ans qui est impliqué
dans la création d‘une entreprise ou propriétaire-gérant d‘une nouvelle entreprise jusqu‘à 3,5 ans

                                                                                                                                                   171
Management
     Management Summary
                Summary//Key
                         Key Results
                             Results

     The
      The School
            School of
     Néanmoins,           Management
                       of avec     24,2% Fribourg
                           Management           (8,42%
                                               Fribourg      Ilperception
                                                                est également
                                                               perception      of
                                                                                of capabilities
                                                                                     encourageant
                                                                                    capabilities     thanpour
                                                                                                      than   in
                                                                                                              in
     (HEG-FR),
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     fortement       member of
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     of
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                                                 jeunes
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                                                                       moitié%) but
                                                                                  but Switzerland’s
                                                                                 des   jeunes entrepre-
                                                                                       Switzerland’s      per-
                                                                                                          per-
     Switzerland
      Switzerland(HES-SO),
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                            interrogés       (TEA)data
                                      collected       es
                                                   data       ception
                                                             neurs
                                                               ception    of
                                                                          of capabilities
                                                                       interrogés     au début
                                                                              capabilities    is
                                                                                               is below    the
                                                                                                     de l‘été
                                                                                                  below     the
     for
      forthe
          theinternational
     timent     que la crise Global
                international      Global   Entrepre-
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                                                             2020,
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                                                                              56,3%,
                                                                              benchmark,       and
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                                                                                                             le
                                                                                                       clearly
     neurship
     créé
      neurship de Monitor      (GEM).
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                    Monitor     (GEM).    2015
                                           2015 tele-
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                                                   tele-      behind
                                                               behind the
                                                             gouvernement  the very     strong
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                                                                                 very              belief
                                                                                                    belief of
                                                                                             efficacement
                                                                                        strong                of
     phone
      phone interviews
     d’affaires    pour leur and
                interviews      and 36 36 talks
                               entreprise, talks   with
                                               et qu’ils
                                                    with      Americans
                                                             aux    conséquences
                                                               Americans      in
                                                                               in their  own
                                                                                         own capacity
                                                                                   theiréconomiques
                                                                                                 capacityde  to
                                                                                                              to
     ont   l‘intention
     experts
      experts      revealedd‘en profiter
                    revealed                  dans les
                                   entrepreneurial
                                    entrepreneurial          la  pandémie.
                                                              start
                                                               start  aa business
                                                                         business (65.5
                                                                                      (65.5%).
                                                                                             %). The
                                                                                                   The same
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     mois    à venir.
     attitudes,
      attitudes,    activities
                    activities and and aspirations,
                                         aspirations,         is
                                                               istrue
                                                                  trueofofpeople
                                                                            peoplein inSlovenia,
                                                                                        Slovenia,Canada,
                                                                                                     Canada,
     and
      and identified
             identified the the factors
                                 factors influenc-
                                              influenc-       Australia,
                                                               Australia,and andUK.UK.
     ing
      ing the
           the type
                 type and
                        and extent
                              extent of of the
                                            the entre-
                                                  entre-
     preneurial
      preneurial activities.
                     activities.The The 2019
                                          2019//2020
                                                   2020      The
                                                              The entrepreneurial
                                                                     entrepreneurial intentions
                                                                                            intentions of    of
     Global
      Global Entrepreneurship
                  Entrepreneurship Monitor     Monitor       Swiss
                                                              Swiss inhabitants
                                                                        inhabitants are  are higher
                                                                                              higher thanthan
     Report
      Reporton   onSwitzerland
                    Switzerlandillustrates
                                      illustratesna- na-     in
                                                              in previous
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                  between economies,
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                            andidentifying
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     neurship
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                       Switzerland.                          Only
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                                                                      40.2%  % view
                                                                                 view entrepreneurship
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                                                                             Netherlands or   or 69.2
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                       opportunities isis at
                                          at aa              Canada.
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      Spain recognizing
              recognizing the
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                                                                       attention for for entreprenership
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      preneurial opportunities.
                    opportunities. Switzer-
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     11
          Entrepreneurship
          Entrepreneurshipisn’t
                           isn’tonly
                                 onlyabout
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                                                                         throughchange.
                                                                                 change.

66
 8
Acknowledgments
Acknowledgments

  Foraastudy
 Figure
For      4study   ofofthis
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            : Opportunités     scope,an
                              d’affaires an extra- de la
                                         découlant
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                                                                   de   this report
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ordinary       contributionon    onthe thepart
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                d'affaires qui sont actuellement poursuivies dans votre entreprise
  importantly,the
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totothank
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                                                                                                                               191
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                  11
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          CH 7,03 ; moyenne       about
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                                                                                             for entreprenership
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          nouvelles
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        preneurial opportunities.
                            opportunities. Switzer- Switzer- are areat ataagood
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          pandémie de COVID-19                                  gi favorablement à la pandémie de
       – CH 7,03 ; moyenne des pays 		                          COVID-19. Les notes de 7,03 chacune
          sélectionnés 7,22                                     (sur une échelle de 1 à 10) étaient les
      11
         Entrepreneurship
         Entrepreneurshipisn’t
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                                onlyabout
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                                                                  goingthrough
                                                                        throughchange.
                                                                                change.

66
 10
Acknowledgments
Acknowledgments

  Foraastudy
For       studypour
 meilleures      ofofthis
                      this    scope,en
                             scope,
                       la Suisse      antermes
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 nière significative              Simonet,
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                                                         nouvelles opportunités d’affaires.        GERA ––
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                                     noter que              Global Entrepreneurship
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                                                                        des opportunités pendant    Monitor
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                                                                                    des possibilités.
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              meilleure.              team,                 www.gemconsortium.org and
                                                          www.gemconsortium.org                    and atat
ininparticular,
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                  ChrisAylett,
                         Aylett,Jonathan
                                  Jonathan                  www.heg-fr.ch/GEM.
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                                                         En    ce qui concerne la          Allcoopération
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                                                              Suisse encore          une fois un score
  neurship
neurship     Foundation,
            Foundation,       Korea.
                             Korea.
 entreprises établies en raison de la Some
                                     Some                médiocre. Avec un score de 5,92,
pandémie de COVID-19. Une valeur de                      elle se situe juste au-dessus de la
6,39 est enregistrée pour la Suisse,                     moyenne de 5,81, mais reste loin der-
ce qui est nettement supérieur à la                      rière les pays les plus performants.
moyenne (5,56) des pays comparés.                        Bien que diverses tendances rela-
La gestion commune de la crise met                       tives à la durabilité et aux défis
en évidence la solidarité entre start-                   mondiaux se manifestent de plus en
up, PME et grandes entreprises.                          plus fortement, les PME interrogées
Elle confirme la thèse selon laquelle,                   semblent soit ne pas encore s‘en
en Suisse, l‘importance d‘un écosystè-                   rendre compte véritablement, soit
me entrepreneurial peut être la clé du                   l‘ignorer.
succès et d‘une croissance constante.

4
  Allemagne, Israël, Italie, Lettonie, Luxembourg, Pays-Bas, Norvège, Autriche, Suède, Slovénie, Espagne,
États-Unis, Royaume-Uni

                                                                                                                11
                                                                                                                11
Management
      Management Summary
                 Summary//Key
                          Key Results
                              Results

      The
       The School
             School of     of Management
                               Management Fribourg    Fribourg perception
                                                                      perception of      of capabilities
                                                                                              capabilities than    than in  in
      (HEG-FR),
       (HEG-FR), member  member of      of the
                                            the University
                                                   University the     the previous
                                                                            previous years   years (2018:
                                                                                                       (2018: 36.3  36.3%; %;
      of
       ofApplied
      3.2 Applied
           Évaluation  Sciences
                        Sciences       and
                                        andArts
                                              ArtsWestern
                                de l‘environnement    Western    des 2017:
                                                                      2017: 42.1
                                                                               42.1%)
                                                                     entreprises      %) but
                                                                                           but Switzerland’s
                                                                                                  Switzerland’s per-    per-
      Switzerland
       Switzerland(HES-SO), (HES-SO),collected
                                            collecteddata   data •ception
                                                                      ception    of
                                                                        À la suiteof capabilities
                                                                                      capabilities
                                                                                       de la pandémie     is
                                                                                                           is below
                                                                                                                  de the
                                                                                                               below      the
      for
       forthe
           theinternational
      Depuis     international
                    le début de         Global
                                         Global    Entrepre-
                                                    Entrepre- European
                                           la pandémie,                 COVID-19,benchmark,
                                                                      European        benchmark,
                                                                                        le gouvernement    and
                                                                                                            and aclearly
                                                                                                                    clearly
      neurship
       neurship
      les   mesures   Monitor
                       Monitor       (GEM).
                                      (GEM). au
                               adoptées          2015
                                                 2015      tele-
                                                            tele- behind
                                                       niveau         behind      the
                                                                                   the very
                                                                        considérablement   very strong
                                                                                                   strong
                                                                                                    augmenté    belief
                                                                                                                     la of
                                                                                                                belief      of
      phone
       phone interviews
      national    interviews        and
                                      and 36
                      par les gouvernements  36 talks
                                                  talks with ont Americans
                                                            with      Americans
                                                                        digitalisationin
                                                                                       in their
                                                                                            their   own
                                                                                                    own capacity
                                                                                             des règlements  capacity to    to
      experts
       experts
      été  au centre   revealed
                        revealed         entrepreneurial
                                                 dans tous start
                                          entrepreneurial
                               de l‘intérêt                             pouraales
                                                                      start     business
                                                                                 business
                                                                                     entreprises(65.5   %).
                                                                                                         %). The
                                                                                                 (65.5nouvellesThe same
                                                                                                                      same
      attitudes,
       attitudes,
      les  pays. Les   activities
                        activities
                              experts   anddesaspirations,
                                         and      différents is
                                                aspirations,            true
                                                                      iset en of
                                                                         true  ofpeople
                                                                                    peoplein
                                                                               croissance.     inSlovenia,
                                                                                                   Slovenia,Canada,
                                                                                                                  Canada,
      and
       and identified
      pays    ont évaluéthe
              identified         les factors
                                the     factors influenc-
                                        mesures        gouver- –Australia,
                                                     influenc-          CH 5,36 ;and
                                                                      Australia,     and   UK.
                                                                                            UK. des pays
                                                                                      moyenne
      ing
       ing the
            the type
      nementales   type and and extent
                            sur    extent
                                   la   base  of  the
                                               ofde     entre-
                                                   thequatre
                                                         entre-         sélectionnés 5,21
      preneurial
       preneurial activities.
      thématiques:       activities.The   The 2019
                                                2019//2020 2020 The   The entrepreneurial
                                                                             entrepreneurial intentions intentions of       of
      Global
       Global Entrepreneurship
                     Entrepreneurship Monitor                        Swiss
                                                                      Swiss inhabitants
                                                      Monitor L‘évaluation      inhabitants
                                                                                        des mesuresare
                                                                                                    are higher
                                                                                                            higher    than
                                                                                                              gouverne-than
      Report
      •Report    on
                  onSwitzerland
         Le gouvernementSwitzerland        illustrates
                                            illustrates
                                        a décrété       desna-       in
                                                                      in previous
                                                              na- mentalesprevious    years,
                                                                                    par years,   but
                                                                                                  but still
                                                                                          les experts         below
                                                                                                        stillvarie
                                                                                                                below    the
                                                                                                                     gran-the
      tional
       tional
         mesuresdifferences
                differences
                        pour protégerin
                                      in entrepreneurial
                                          entrepreneurial
                                              les employés dement    average
                                                                      averaged‘un of
                                                                                   of high-income
                                                                                         pays à l‘autre,economies,
                                                                                        high-income          economies,
                                                                                                              certaines
      activity
       activity  11
                    between
                     between
         et les clients         des economies,
                                     economies,
                                       entreprises     reveal-       contrasting
                                                                      contrastingétant
                                                        reveal- différences            sharply
                                                                                        sharply    with
                                                                                                mêmewithpeople
                                                                                                            peoplein
                                                                                                           frappantes. inIs-
                                                                                                                           Is-
      ing
       ing  the
             the factors
         nouvelles         et enthat
                     factors      that    determine
                                           determine the
                                    croissance.               the En rael
                                                                      rael or
                                                                            orRepublic
                                                                               Republic
                                                                          général,           of
                                                                                              ofKorea.
                                                                                       la valeur  Korea.
                                                                                                      pour  Perceptions
                                                                                                            Perceptions
                                                                                                               la Suisse
      nature
      –nature    and
         CH 6,5and       level   of  national
                          level of national
                     ; moyenne                     entrepre-
                                       des paysentrepre-
                                                      		             and    intentions
                                                                      andsupérieure
                                                                    est                       are    combined,
                                                                                                      moyenne with
                                                                             intentions àarela combined,                with
                                                                                                                        des
      neurial
       neurial    activity,
                   activity,and
         sélectionnés           andidentifying
                                5,47    identifyingpolicy policy paysthe
                                                                      the challenge
                                                                           challenge
                                                                             de comparaisonbeing
                                                                                            being to to see
                                                                                                        ;see   entrepre-
                                                                                                                entrepre-
                                                                                                           néanmoins,
      implications
       implications for      for enhancing
                                  enhancing entrepre-                neurship
                                                                      neurship as
                                                    entrepre- l‘évaluation           asdesaa good
                                                                                              good
                                                                                              mesures career
                                                                                                       career      choice.
                                                                                                                   choice.
                                                                                                              gouverne-
      •neurship
        Des mesures
      neurship       in        gouvernementales
                      inSwitzerland.
                           Switzerland.                              Only
                                                                      Only 40.2      %% view
                                                                              40.2apparaît view entrepreneurship
                                                                                                   entrepreneurship
                                                                    mentales                       parfois      considé-
      efficaces pour aider les entreprises                           as
                                                                      as anan interesting
                                                                               interesting        pathway
                                                                                                  pathway for    for one’s
                                                                                                                      one’s
                                                                    rablement        plus critique.
      nouvelles
      Self-perception et
       Self-perceptionabouten  croissance
                                  about          à  s‘adapter        professional
                                                                      professional future   future compared
                                                                                                        compared to         to
      aux   réalités
      Entrepreneurship
       Entrepreneurship    économiques.                              85.8
                                                                      85.8% % in in Netherlands
                                                                                      Netherlands or       or 69.2
                                                                                                                69.2%  % in in
      -Perception
         CH 6,11 ; moyenne
      Perception           of            des pays is
                           of opportunities
                                opportunities
                                                        is atat aa Canada.
                                                                      Canada. On    On the
                                                                                         the other
                                                                                                other side,
                                                                                                         side, thethe sta-
                                                                                                                        sta-
      lowsélectionnés
       low level,
             level, with        4,90
                         with those
                                 those interviewed
                                           interviewed in       in tustusofofaasuccessful
                                                                                 successfulentrepreneur
                                                                                                   entrepreneurand       and
      Spain
      •Spain
         Action recognizing
                 recognizing
                     gouvernementale  the
                                       the fewest pourentre-
                                             fewest      entre- media media attention
                                                                                attention for   for entreprenership
                                                                                                     entreprenership
      preneurial
       preneurial
         éviter des pertes opportunities.
                                       massivesSwitzer-
                            opportunities.            Switzer-
                                                       aux           are
                                                                      areatataagood
                                                                                 goodlevel,
                                                                                          level,and
                                                                                                  andfearfearof  offailure
                                                                                                                    failure
      land
       land    shows,
               shows, with
         entreprises          with 49.2
                              nouvelles 49.2%, %,en
                                              et    aa crois-
                                                        higher
                                                         higher is    islower
                                                                         lowerthanthanin  inprevious
                                                                                              previousyears.years.
         sance menacées par le COVID-19.
      – CH 5,67 ; moyenne des pays
      11
         sélectionnés
         Entrepreneurship 4,75
         Entrepreneurshipisn’t
                          isn’tonly
                                onlyabout
                                     aboutfocusing
                                           focusingon
                                                    onthe
                                                       thestart-up
                                                           start-upphase,
                                                                    phase,but
                                                                           butalso
                                                                               alsoabout
                                                                                    aboutbeing
                                                                                          beingseen
                                                                                                seenas
                                                                                                     asaa
         mindset
         mindsetin
                 inyoung,
                    young,growing,
                           growing,mature
                                   maturecompanies,
                                          companies,or
                                                     orcompanies
                                                        companiesgoing
                                                                  goingthrough
                                                                        throughchange.
                                                                                change.

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