EPPEI Eskom Power Plant Engineering Institute - 2015-2016 Programme

EPPEI Eskom Power Plant Engineering Institute - 2015-2016 Programme
Eskom Power Plant
Engineering Institute

2015-2016 Programme

     Eskom Academy of Learning
 Driving towards Engineering Excellence
EPPEI Eskom Power Plant Engineering Institute - 2015-2016 Programme

Acknowledgements                                                      1.
                                                                            Foreword by Sylvia Mamorare
                                                                            EPPEI management report by Malcolm Fawkes

Prof Francis Petersen – University of Cape Town                       3.    Technical committee                                                   5

Prof Ian Jandrell – University of the Witwatersrand                   4.    EPPEI management team                                                 6

Prof LJ Grobler – North-West University                               5.    Specialisation centre strategies                                      7

Prof Sunil Maharaj – University of Pretoria                           6.    Specialisation centre academic representatives                        8

Prof Christina Trois – University of KwaZulu-Natal                    7.    Academic supervisors                                                 16

Prof Willem Perold – Stellenbosch University                          8.    Industrial mentors                                                   17
                                                                      9.    EPPEI student population                                             19

                                                                      10.   Current projects – research topics                                   20
                                                                      11.   Completed projects                                                   80
                                                                      12.   Publication list                                                     98
                                                                      13.   EPPEI Junior Enterprise                                             109
                                                                      14.   Student conferences                                                 112
                                                                      15.   Appendices                                                          116

            Eskom Power Plant Engineering Institute – February 2016
                     Programme                                                                                               EPPEI 2015-2016 Programme   1
EPPEI Eskom Power Plant Engineering Institute - 2015-2016 Programme
1. Foreword by Sylvia Mamorare

    The past year has been riddled with challenges as Eskom has had to tighten its belt in various areas. In      Looking at our accomplishments over the past three years, I am even more convinced of the impact
    times of budget cuts within a business, training and research are usually the first area to be affected. As   that EPPEI will have on the Eskom business in the long term. It has been especially positive seeing the
    the Chief Learning Officer (CLO) of Eskom, I find it particularly heartening that in these tough financial    value added to business units when students return from their research at universities. Some of our
    times, Eskom has remained committed to its training and education initiatives.                                students have been promoted to lead engineers in their field.

    While the Eskom Academy of Learning (EAL) has been affected by budget cuts, it has recognised the             We are indeed seeing the development of experts through the EPPEI initiative as well as the development
    great value that the EPPEI programme has added to both Eskom and EAL, and has shouldered much of              of the knowledge base necessary to take Eskom into the future.
    the financial cuts to protect the EPPEI budget.
                                                                                                                  Yours in continuous learning
    In late 2014 we had to reassess this position and approached universities to work with us to introduce        Sylvia Mamorare
    cost-saving measures. EAL and the universities identified the critical areas of spending to sustain EPPEI.    CLO, Eskom
    Great effort had been made to enrol academic staff, who now have experience in understanding
    the power industry and specifically Eskom’s needs and they are key to EPPEI’s continued success. We
    felt it was important to maintain the crucial relationships between Eskom SMEs, engineers and these
    academics. Therefore we first prioritised the staff in our spending and then the short-term needs in the
    coal power stations at Eskom.

    We are delighted with the commitment and response from universities who have shown their support
    of both EPPEI and Eskom during these trying times. I am happy to report that the partnership between
                                                                                                                        “ I that
                                                                                                                            am happy to report
                                                                                                                                 the partnership
    Eskom and the universities is going from strength to strength.
                                                                                                                       between Eskom and the
    While 2014 has been a difficult year, there have also been some highlights. EAL was very honoured to               universities is going from
    be selected by the Association of Power Utilities in Africa (APUA) as a centre of excellence that will
    provide training to members of APUA. We see EPPEI playing an important role in fulfilling this mandate.
                                                                                                                        strength to strength.
                                                                                                                                          Sylvia Mamorare
    EAL along with the universities have also been working on the business case to extend the EPPEI
    programme for a further five years from 2017 to 2021. This business case will be brought to Exco this
    year for their consideration. EPPEI is now in its fourth year of a five year mandate.

2 EPPEI 2015-2016 Programme                                                                                                                                                                 EPPEI 2015-2016 Programme       3
EPPEI Eskom Power Plant Engineering Institute - 2015-2016 Programme
2. EPPEI management report for 2015                                                                             Technical committee                                                                                   3.
    by Malcolm Fawkes

    EPPEI entered into its third year in 2014. We saw the first and second intakes of master’s students         The EPPEI technical committee met twice in 2014. The members include: Eskom senior management,
    completing their studies towards the end of 2014. It is encouraging to see the quality of academic          EPPEI Technical Committee (TC), academic and industrial coordinators of the specialisation centres
    research work that has been produced in the objective of working on real-world challenges in Eskom’s        and the EPPEI Junior Enterprise. The committee provides a platform where the various specialisation
    plant. Some of the solutions developed through EPPEI research will also be able to be implemented           centres can give feedback to EPPEI management and implement changes for the development of EPPEI.
    into current Eskom projects. In addition, the research will assist South Africa in developing its own
    Intellectual Property in the power industry, one of the Visons of EPPEI. This will enhance the prospects
    of our economy through local manufacture and export of goods and services. Eskom continues to                                                      EPPEI Management
    experience severe technical, financial and manpower constraints. As a result of this, the EPPEI budget        EPPEI Senior Manager                         Malcolm Fawkes
    has been cut by 42%. It has thus been decided that in future the funding available will need to be            EDF Senior Manager, EPPEI                    Louis Jestin
    allocated pro rata to the eight specialisation centres in accordance with Eskom’s current challenges
                                                                                                                  EPPEI Senior Advisor                         Robert Jones and Carolynn Koekemoer
    and in accordance with the capacity of centres to deliver. This has resulted in additional risks to some
    centres in terms of ability to continue with academic appointments, for example. The Eskom restriction
    on manpower numbers has resulted in Line Managers being hesitant to release young engineers for                                                 Eskom Executive Advisors
    postgraduate studies. This is one of the biggest risks for the EPPEI programme. Where possible, and in        Eskom Power Plant Engineering                Titus Mathe
    line with governance requirements, bursaries have been given to non-Eskom students to do research
                                                                                                                  Electrical Engineering                       Prince Moyo
    towards solving Eskom’s technical challenges.
                                                                                                                  RT&D                                         Barry MacColl and Chris Gross
    The central EPPEI coordination office, currently hosted by UCT, and the Coordination and Administration
    (C&A) committee of the six universities provided excellent services to EPPEI in 2014. The purpose             Specialisation Centre           Industrial Coordinator          Academic Coordinator
    of the C&A committee is to share the different administrative activities among the universities. EPPEI
                                                                                                                  Energy Efficiency               Joe Roy-Aikins                  Wim Fuls
    management is very grateful for the continued support and co-operation from the universities and their
                                                                                                                  Combustion Engineering          Anton Hart                      Walter Schmitz
    willingness to assist.The need for better monitoring of student progress has been identified by the C&A
    committee as a priority. On average it is taking longer than two years for students to complete their         Emissions Control               Yokesh Singh                    Stuart Piketh
    research and to complete their final dissertations. Closer monitoring of progress and more coaching           Material Science                Marthinus Bezuidenhoudt         Bernhard Sonderegger
    is required to ensure that their project plan is kept on schedule. It has also been disappointing to note     Asset Management                Mark Newby                      Stephan Heyns
    how many students, relatively, have resigned from Eskom after graduation or during the completion             High Voltage Engineering AC     Abré le Roux                    John van Coller
    phases of research. This has been due partly to personal reasons but in other cases it was felt that          High Voltage Engineering DC     Rob Stephen                     Inno Davidson
    career paths were ‘greener on the other side’. EPPEI will continue to work with Line Management to            Renewable Energy                Zama Luswazi                    Wikus van Niekerk
    see how Eskom can prevent this in future.

    Very good news was received recently that Eskom had approved the continuation of the EPPEI                                                     EPPEI Junior Enterprise Leaders
    programme for another five years until 2021. This continuation was intended from the first approval           EPPEI Junior Enterprise Intake One (2012)         Priyesh Gosai
    in April 2011. Work has started in earnest to get the commercial processes finalised to conclude new          EPPEI Junior Enterprise Intake Two (2013)         Rudzani Mutshinya
    contracts with the six partner universities. The exciting new “Hub-and-Spoke” business model is to be
                                                                                                                  EPPEI Junior Enterprise Intake Three (2014)       Naeem Tootla
    pursued with a Consortium of the universities.This new approach will hopefully see EPPEI prosper until
                                                                                                                  EPPEI Junior Enterprise Intake Four (2015)        Christine Schutte
    it can become financially independent of Eskom in 2022. Exciting times lie ahead.

4 EPPEI 2015-2016 Programme                                                                                                                                                             EPPEI 2015-2016 Programme          5
EPPEI Eskom Power Plant Engineering Institute - 2015-2016 Programme
4. EPPEI management team                                    EPPEI Specialisation Centre (SC)                                                              5.

                                                            •   Eskom specialisation centre in Energy Efficiency                         www.uct.ac.za
             Name     Malcolm Fawkes
                                                                at the University of Cape Town
             Position Senior Manager
                      Eskom Academy of Learning (Midrand)
             Tel      +27 11 655 2552
             Email    FawkesMG@eskom.co.za                  •   Eskom specialisation centre in Combustion Engineering                    www.wits.ac.za
                                                                at the University of the Witwatersrand

             Name     Louis Jestin
             Position EDF Senior Manager, EPPEI             •   Eskom specialisation centre in Emission Control                          www.nwu.ac.za
                      Mechanical Engineering (UCT)              at North-West University
             Tel      +27 21 650 3239
             Email    louis.jestin@uct.ac.za
                                                            •   Eskom specialisation centre in Material Science                          www.uct.ac.za
                                                                at the University of Cape Town
             Name     Robert Jones
             Position Senior Advisor
                      Eskom Academy of Learning (Midrand)
                                                            •   Eskom specialisation centre in Asset Management                          www.up.ac.za
             Tel      +27 13 693 3216                           at the University of Pretoria
             Email    JonesRJ@eskom.co.za

                                                            •   Eskom specialisation centre in High Voltage Engineering (AC)             www.wits.ac.za
             Name     Carolynn Koekemoer                        at the University of the Witwatersrand
             Position Senior Advisor
                      Eskom Academy of Learning (Midrand)
             Tel      +27 13 693 2265
                                                            •   Eskom specialisation centre in High Voltage Engineering (DC)             www.ukzn.ac.za
             Email     koekemCI@eskom.co.za
                                                                at the University of KwaZulu-Natal

             Name     Nicola Taylor
                                                            •   Eskom specialisation centre in Renewable Energy                          www.sun.ac.za
             Position Central Co-ordinator
                      Mechanical Engineering (UCT)              at Stellenbosch University
             Tel      +27 21 650 2119
             Email     nicola.taylor@uct.ac.za

6 EPPEI 2015-2016 Programme                                                                                                    EPPEI 2015-2016 Programme       7
EPPEI Eskom Power Plant Engineering Institute - 2015-2016 Programme
6. EPPEI specialisation centre
    academic representatives

                      EPPEI specialisation centre in Energy Efficiency                 EPPEI specialisation centre in Combustion
                      at University of Cape Town                                       Engineering at University of the Witwatersrand
                                                                                       Name      Walter Schmitz
                      Name         Wim Fuls                                            Position  Coordinator, Professor
                      Position     Coordinator, Senior Lecturer                        Dept      School of Mechanical Industrial and
                      Dept         Mechanical Engineering (UCT)                                  Aeronautical Engineering (Wits)
                      Education    PhD Nuclear Engineering (NWU)                       Education PhD Mech. Eng.
                      Tel          021 650 2600                                        Tel       011 717 7047
                      Email        Wim.fuls@uct.ac.za                                  Email     Walter.Schmitz@wits.ac.za
                      Interests    Thermo-hydraulic process modelling                  Interests Computational Fluid Dynamics

                          Pieter Rousseau           Name      Louis Jestin
                                                                                       Name      Reshendren Naidoo
                          Professor                Position   Professor
                                                                                       Position  Senior Lecturer
                          Mech. Eng. (UCT)          Dept      Mech. Eng. (UCT)
                                                                                       Dept      School of Mechanical Industrial and
                          PhD Mech. Eng. (UP)     Education   PhD Thermophysics
                                                                                                 Aeronautical Engineering (Wits)
                                                              Habilitated Prof
                                                                                       Education MEng Eng. Man. (UP)
                                                              (Marseille University,
                                                                                       Tel       011 717 7358
                                                                                       Email     Reshendren.naidoo@wits.ac.za
                          021 650 5822               Tel      021 650 3239
                                                                                       Interests Numerical Combustion
                          pieter.rousseau@uct.ac.za Email     louis.jestin@uct.ac.za

                                 Partner University:                                   Partner University:
                                 Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University                University of Johannesburg

                      Name         Igor Gorlach
                                                                                       Name       Dr Daniel Madyira
                      Position     Professor & Chair
                                                                                       Position   Lecturer
                      Dept         Mechatronics (NMMU)
                                                                                       Dept       Mech. and Eng. Science (UJ)
                                   Summerstrand Campus (North)
                                                                                       Tel        011 559 4030
                      Tel          041 504 3289
                                                                                       Email      dmadyira@uj.ac.za
                      Email        Igor.Gorlach@nmmu.ac.za

8 EPPEI 2015-2016 Programme                                                                                                            EPPEI 2015-2016 Programme   9
EPPEI Eskom Power Plant Engineering Institute - 2015-2016 Programme
EPPEI specialisation centre
    academic representatives continued...

                     EPPEI specialisation centre in Emission Control at   EPPEI specialisation centre in Material Science at
                     North-West University                                University of Cape Town
                     Name      Stuart Piketh                              Name         Bernhard Sonderegger
                     Position  Coordinator, Professor                     Position     Coordinator, Professor
                     Dept      Unit for Environmental Science and         Dept         Mechanical Engineering (UCT)
                               Management and Chemical Resource           Education    PhD Mech. Eng. Habilitation Mater. Sci.
                               Beneficiation                                           (Graz University of Technology, A)
                     Education PhD (Wits)                                 Tel          021 650 3675
                     Tel       018 299 1582                               Email        Bernhard.sonderegger@uct.ac.za
                     Email     Stuart.Piketh@nwu.ac.za                    Interests    Materials microstructure, electron microscopy
                     Interests Atmospheric and environmental impacts

                     Name      Hein Neomagus
                     Position  Professor                                  Name         Robert Knutsen
                     Dept      School of Chemical and Minerals            Position     Professor, Head of Department
                               Engineering (NWU)                          Dept         Mechanical Engineering (UCT)
                     Education PhD (University of Twente, NL)             Education    PhD (UCT)
                     Tel       018 299 1535                               Tel          021 650 4959
                     Email     Hein.neomagus@nwu.ac.za                    Email        Robert.knutsen@uct.ac.za
                     Interests Coal conversion and characterisation,      Interests    Materials microstructure, electron
                               reactor modelling, membrane processes                   microscopy

                      Partner Universities:
                      University of Venda and                                         Partner University:
                      Vaal University of Technology                                   Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University

                                                                          Name         Dr Johan Westraadt
                     Name       Dr Hilary Limo Rutto                      Position     Senior Researcher
                     Position   Senior Lecturer                           Dept         Centre for High Resolution
                     Dept       Chemical Engineering (VUT)                             Transmission Electron Microscopy
                     Tel        016 950 9598                                           (NMMU)
                     Email      hilaryr@vut.ac.za                         Tel          041 504 2301
                                                                          Email        Johan.westraadt@nmmu.ac.za

10 EPPEI 2015-2016 Programme                                                                                                  EPPEI 2015-2016 Programme   11
EPPEI Eskom Power Plant Engineering Institute - 2015-2016 Programme
EPPEI specialisation centre
    academic representatives continued...

                                                                         EPPEI specialisation centre in High Voltage
                     EPPEI specialisation centre in Asset Management
                                                                         Alternating Current (AC) at University of the
                     at University of Pretoria
                     Name      Stephan Heyns                             Name      John van Coller
                     Position  Coordinator, Professor                    Position  Coordinator, Senior Lecturer
                     Dept      Mechanical and Aeronautical               Dept      School of Electrical and Information
                               Engineering (UP)                                    Engineering (Wits)
                     Education PhD (UP)                                  Education PhD
                     Tel       012 420 2432                              Tel       011 717 7211
                     Email     Stephan.heyns@up.ac.za                    Email     John.vancoller@wits.ac.za
                     Interests Machine and structural health             Interests Power system modelling, high voltage
                               monitoring                                          engineering

                     Name      Bo Xing
                     Position  Senior Lecturer                           Name      Hugh Hunt
                     Dept      Mechanical and Aeronautical               Position  Lecturer
                               Engineering (UP)                          Dept      School of Electrical and Information
                     Education PhD (UJ)                                            Engineering (Wits)
                     Tel       012 0420 2431                             Education MSc(Eng)
                     Email     Bo.xing@upt.ac.za                         Tel       011 717 7254
                     Interests Electrical and electronics engineering,   Email     hugh.hunt@wits.ac.za
                               computational intelligence                Interests High voltage, lightning

                      Partner University:                                        Partner University:
                      Tshwane University of Technology                           Vaal University of Technology

                     Name        Dr Dawood A Desai                       Name        Mr Jerry Walker
                     Position    Acting Section Head Mechanical          Position    Visiting Professor
                     Dept        Mechanical Engineering (TUT)            Dept        Power Engineering – Centre for
                     Tel         012 382 5886                                        Cable Research (VUT)
                     Email       desaida@tut.ac.za                       Tel         016 421 5190
                                                                         Email       jerrywalker@walmet.co.za

12 EPPEI 2015-2016 Programme                                                                                              EPPEI 2015-2016 Programme   13
EPPEI Eskom Power Plant Engineering Institute - 2015-2016 Programme
EPPEI specialisation centre
    academic representatives continued...

                     EPPEI specialisation centre in High Voltage Direct   EPPEI specialisation centre in Renewable Energy
                     Current at University of KwaZulu-Natal               at Stellenbosch University
                     Name        Inno Davidson                            Name      Wikus van Niekerk
                     Position    Coordinator, Senior Lecturer             Position  Coordinator, Professor
                     Dept        Eskom CoE HVDC Engineering (UKZN)        Dept      Centre for Renewable and Sustainable
                     Education   PhD Elec. Eng. (UCT), (SEMAC,                      Energy Studies (SUN)
                                 BC Inst. Technol., Barnaby, CA)          Education PhD Mech. Eng. (University of California,
                     Tel         031 260 7024                                       Berkley, USA)
                     Email       davidson@ukznac.za                       Tel       021 808 4277
                     Interests   Modern power and energy systems,         Email     wikus@sun.ac.za
                                 SMART grid utility
                                                                          Interests Mechanical engineering, renewable energy

                     Name      Andrew Swanson                             Name        Frank Dinter
                     Position  Lecturer                                   Position    Professor, Eskom Chair in CSP
                     Dept      Electrical, Electronic and Computer        Dept        Mechanical and Mechatronic Eng. (SUN)
                               Engineering                                Education   Dr.-Ing (University GH Essen, DE)
                     Education MSc (Wits)                                 Tel         021 808 4024
                     Tel       031 260 2713                               Email       Frankdinter@sun.ac.za
                     Email     swanson@ukzn.ac.za                         Interests   Solar thermal power plants, CSP, storage
                     Interests High voltage engineering                               systems, industrial heat, demand side

                      Partner University:                                 Partner University:
                      Durban University of Technology                     Cape Peninsula University of Technology

                     Name        Mr Eamon Bussy                           Name        Dr Nawaz Mahomed
                     Position    Head of Department                       Position    Dean of Engineering (CPUT)
                     Dept        Steve Biko Campus                        Tel         021 959 6217
                     Tel         031 373 2062                             Email       mahomedn@cput.ac.za
                     Email       eamonb@dut.ac.za

14 EPPEI 2015-2016 Programme                                                                                              EPPEI 2015-2016 Programme   15
EPPEI Eskom Power Plant Engineering Institute - 2015-2016 Programme
7. Academic supervisors                                                                                            Industrial mentors                                                                   8.

    1.   Prof Gary Atkinson-Hope          (Cape Peninsula University of Technology)                                1.   Adam Bartylak               (Eskom)
    2.   Dr Thorsten Becker               (Stellenbosch University)                                                2.   Dr Graeme Chown             (PPA Energy, UK)
    3.   Dr Johan Beukes                  (Stellenbosch University)                                                3.   Assoc Prof Jasper Coetzee   (University of Pretoria)
    4.   Dr BW Botha                      (University of Pretoria)                                                 4.   Steve Conyers               (Eskom)
    5.   Paul Gauché                      (University of Stellenbosch)                                             5.   Roger Cormack               (Eskom)
    6.   Dr Nathie Gule                   (Stellenbosch University)                                                6.   Norman Crowe                (Eskom)
    7.   Prof Albert Helberg              (North-West University)                                                  7.   Gary de Klerk               (Eskom)
    8.   Dr Jaap Hoffmann                 (Stellenbosch University)                                                8.   Manny de Sousa              (Eskom)
    9.   Prof Zhongjie Huan               (Tshwane University of Technology)                                       9.   Philip Doubell              (Eskom)
    10. Prof Hanno Reuter                 (Stellenbosch University)                                                10. Dr Francois du Preez         (Eskom)
    11. Dr Hamed Roohani                  (University of the Witwatersrand)                                        11. Chris Du Toit                (Eskom)
    12. Prof Rotimi Sadiku                (Tshwane University of Technology)                                       12. Naushaad Haripersad          (Eskom)
    13. Prof Christ Storm                 (North-West University)                                                  13. Frans Havinga                (Eskom)
    14. Dr Coenie JH Thiart               (University of Pretoria)                                                 14. Herman Kleynhans             (Tshwane University of Technology/UNISA)
    15. Dr Johan van der Spuy             (Stellenbosch University)                                                15. Mike Lander                  (Eskom)
    16. Assoc Prof Johan Vermeulen        (Stellenbosch University)                                                16. Noel Lecordier               (Eskom)
    17. Dr George Vicatos                 (University of Cape Town)                                                17. Arnoud Madlener              (Eskom)
    18. Prof Krige Visser                 (University of Pretoria)                                                 18. Peter Magner                 (Eskom)
                                                                                                                   19. Dr Marubini Manyage          (Eskom)
    Note: The mentors that have already been listed as coordinators or members of the specialisation centres are   20. Nhlanhla Mbuli               (Eskom)
    not included in this section.                                                                                  21. Dr Thabo Modisane            (Eskom)
                                                                                                                   22. Sidwell Mtetwa               (Eskom)
                                                                                                                   23. Phuti Ngoetjana              (Eskom)
                                                                                                                   24. Ebrahim M Patel              (Eskom)
                                                                                                                   25. Dr Thobeka Pete              (Eskom)
                                                                                                                   26. Carel Potgieter              (Eskom)

16 EPPEI 2015-2016 Programme                                                                                                                                                    EPPEI 2015-2016 Programme   17
Industrial mentors continued...                                                        EPPEI student population                                                                                  9.

    27. Dr JP Pretorius                        (University of Stellenbosch/Eskom)          In early 2015, 21 MSc and 3 PhD students were enrolled at the respective universities as part of intake
    28. Dr Joe Roy-Aikins                      (Eskom)                                     four. A breakdown of the various specialisation centres and the number of students that were placed
                                                                                           in these centres for each intake is shown in the following graph.
    29. Ronnie Scheepers                       (Eskom)
    30. Kobus Smit                             (Eskom)
    31. Riaan Smit                             (Eskom)
                                                                                                  RE – SUN                                                                      Intake 1 (2012)
    32. James Sproule                          (Cape Peninsula University of Technology)
    33. David Tarrant                          (Rotek Engineering)                         HV(DC) – UKZN                                                                        Intake 2 (2013)
    34. Dr Christopher van Alphen              (Eskom)
    35. Willem van der Westhuizen              (Eskom)                                       HV(AC) – WITS
                                                                                                                                                                                Intake 3 (2014)
    36. Chris van Tonder                       (Eskom)
                                                                                                   AM – UP
    37. Kobus Vilonel                          (Eskom)                                                                                                                          Intake 4 (2015)

    38. Nigel Russel Volk                      (Eskom)                                            MS – UCT
    39. Christo van Wyk                        (Eskom)
                                                                                                 EC – NWU
    40. Thomas Will                            (University of Cologne, Germany)
    41. Marthinus Bezuidenhout                 (Eskom)
                                                                                                  CE – WITS
    42. Armien Edwards                         (Eskom)
    43. Nico Smit                              (Eskom)                                             EE – UCT

                                                                                                              0     1     2        3     4     5      6       7     8     9
    Note: The mentors that have been                                                                                          Number of students per intake
    already listed in other sections are not
    included in this list.
                                                                                           This book contains detailed information of the intake four student projects and showcases projects that
                                                                                           have been completed by students from previous intakes.

18 EPPEI 2015-2016 Programme                                                                                                                                       EPPEI 2015-2016 Programme          19
10. Current projects
     Research topics

     1.       Emissions Control                                                                          22   4.      High Voltage Engineering (AC)                                                            64

     EC1 -    Influence of SO3 and moisture content on the resistivity of fly ash from typical                AC1 -   A method for measuring and recording changes on wood pole impedance over time            62
              South African coals                                                                        24   AC2 -   Power exchange optimisation of distributed energy resources utilising smart
     EC2 -    The effects of low quality limestone on the absorber reaction tank sizing                  26           transformers and active voltage regulation                                               64
     EC3 -    Correlating South African fly-ash resistivity with electrostatic precipitator collection
              efficiency                                                                                 28   5.      High Voltage Engineering (DC)                                                            66
     EC4 -    Value-added utilisation possibilities of Coal Combustion Products (CCPs)                   30
     EC5 -    Dissolution kinetics of representative South African lime stones in aqueous solutions      32   DC1 -   Impact of DC options and VSC based facts devices on voltage stability in southern
     EC6 -    Characterising trade-offs between fabric filter bag dimensions, ash collection                          Africa                                                                                   68
              efficiency, associated pressure drop and pulsing behaviour                                 34
                                                                                                              6.      Renewable Energy                                                                         70
     2.       Material Science                                                                           36
                                                                                                              RE1 -   Investigation into the effect of wind on fan performance in an ACC                       72
     MS1 -    FEM modelling of stress, deformation and damage of creep loaded components                      RE2 -   Geographic location optimisation of wind farms in South Africa                           74
              in thermal power plants                                                                    38   RE3 -   Integrated O&M strategy for Sere Wind Farm                                               76
     MS2 -    Experimental investigation of creep damage of a thermally exposed component in                  RE4 -   Life cycle cost of energy technologies (fossil fuel-fired, gas, renewable and nuclear)   78
              coal power plants                                                                          40

     3.       Asset Management                                                                           42

     AM1 - Continuum damage modelling on HP pipework for predicting creep fatigue interaction            44
     AM2 - The effect of non-uniform microstructure on the failure mode of hamer forged
           line hardware failure prediction                                                              46
     AM3 - Vibration monitoring of transformer windings                                                  48
     AM4 - Reliability modelling for the prediction of failure probability of a critical plant at a
           power station                                                                                 50
     AM5 - Eskom high pressure feedwater heater maintenance management optimisation                      52
     AM6 - Develop a troubleshooting guide for vertical spindle roller mills using process history
           data and machine learning                                                                     58
     AM7 - Risks and effects of turbo-generator torsional vibration in an expanding and
           diversifying Southern African electricity gridT                                               60
     AM8 - Evaluation of a viable technique to determine mass flow rate in a pneumatic ash
           conveying system to validate performance requirements                                         62

 20 EPPEI 2015-2016 Programme                                                                                                                                                           EPPEI 2015-2016 Programme   21
Eskom Power Plant Engineering Institute

                               Emissions Control

                                                                               Focus points
                                                                             • Environmental legislation and compliance
                                                                               for air, water and soils
                                                                             • Monitoring of pollutant emissions and
                                                                               environmental impact
                                                                             • Technologies for reduction and control of
                                                                               environmental pollutants (dust, SOx, NOx,
                                                                               Mercury, CO2)
                                                                             • Cost benefit assessment of emissions control
                                                                             • Materials handling of by-products

22 EPPEI 2014-2015
         2015-2016 Programme                                                                                                  EPPEI 22015-2016 Programme   23
                   Influence of SO3 and moisture content
                   on the resistivity of fly ash from typical
                   South African coals

                   Subject background                                                                               •   The resistivity oven will be validated against Leon van Wyk’s results obtained
                                                                                                                        from the Southern Research Institute in the US using the same samples
                   Fly ash resistivity directly influences the efficiency of an Electrostatic Precipitator (ESP).   •   The study will look at resistivity values at a temperature range typical of ESP
                   Resistivity is the measure of the conductibility of a material given as ohm.cm. Future               inlet temperatures in the Eskom fleet and different conditioning concentrations
                   legislation will require ESPs to have optimal performance to comply with particulate                 at these temperatures
                   limit legislation set out by the Department of Environmental Affairs (DEA). SO3                  •   Moisture content will be the first test where after SO3 conditioning will be
                   conditioning is used in Eskom to lower the resistivity of fly ash. Eskom does not have               implemented in the oven and tested
                   data available that shows the effect of various conditioning concentrations on fly               •   The aim is to test 10 fly ash samples. These will be the same samples that Van
                   ash resistivity. This study will generate data required to inject optimal conditioning               Wyk used
                   concentrations for the desired resistivity required.                                             •   Recommendations will be made as to what conditioning concentration is
                                                                                                                        required for optimal resistivity on the various samples
                   Applicability/Benefit to Eskom
                                                                                                                    Expected deliverables
                   •    Resistivity data will enable Eskom to determine the conditioning concentration
                        required to get the fly ash at the desired resistivity for optimal ESP performance          •   Resistivity curve on 10 samples for various SO3 and moisture conditioning
                   •    There is potential for cost reduction from an operating cost perspective as a big               concentrations at various temperatures.
                        reduction in sulphur usage may result in only a small increase in emissions, this
                        has not been quantified in Eskom before. This however will rely on the fly ash
                        elemental characteristics that Leon van Wyk explored
                   •    The resistivity results can be used as an input to an ESP performance prediction
                   •    The modification to the resistivity oven will help in future if testing on new
                        conditioning technology is required                                                                                             Student
                   •    Eskom (or subsidiary) can do resistivity analysis for outside companies as a form                                               Jaco Burger
                        of revenue generation
                                                                                                                                                        Email: burgerjac@eskom.co.za
                   Proposed research                                                                                                                    Industrial mentor
                                                                                                                                                        Ebrahim Patel
                   •    The objective of the research study is to develop a correlation between the                                                     Email: PatelEM@eskom.co.za
                        concentration of SO3 or moisture conditioning and fly ash resistivity
                   •    This project will be carried out in collaboration with the North-West                                                           Academic supervisors
                        University                                                                                                                      Prof Hein Neomagus
                   •    The existing resistivity oven from Eskom RT&D will be modified to                                                               Email: hein.neomagus@nwu.ac.za
                        accommodate ash conditioning

24 EPPEI 2015-2016 Programme                                                                                                                                                              EPPEI 22015-2016 Programme   25
                   The effects of low quality limestone on
                   the absorber reaction tank sizing

                   Subject background                                                                           quality limestone and its validity range is unknown. For sizing of the reaction tank, the
                                                                                                                tool uses several assumptions and subsequent correction factors, based on conditions
                   Sulphur dioxide (SO2) in a coal-fired power plant, is generated as a result of fossil        different from those encountered in South Africa. Eskom will be using this tool to size
                   fuel burning. When emitted into the atmosphere, it is a precursor to acid rain and           and review its FGD plants but it needs to be adjusted for South African conditions.
                   sulphate aerosol particles which have been shown to have environmental, health and
                   hydrological effects. Consequently, the South African government has classified SO2 as       Proposed research
                   criteria pollutant and has imposed limits on its levels both in the atmosphere and at
                   the source.                                                                                  •   Review the absorber sizing tool to determine what correlations, assumptions
                                                                                                                    and correction factors are used and what they are based on
                   Internationally SO2 emissions have been controlled for years using various methods,          •   Obtain information about the reactivity of South African limestones and
                   one of which is a process called Limestone Forced Oxidation (LSFO) Flue Gas                      determine what correction factor(s) (if any), with specific emphasis on reaction
                   Desulphurization (FGD). Since SO2 is an acidic component, it can be neutralized by               tank liquid retention time, need to be applied
                   bringing it into contact with an alkaline. In the LSFO process, limestone is ground, mixed   •   Choose one limestone and experimentally test if the pH correlation is valid
                   with water to form a slurry, and sprayed over SO2 containing flue gas in an absorber.The     •   If the above correlation is not valid - revise/derive a new pH correlation
                   absorber is mostly an open tower with several components with specific functions. At
                   the bottom of the absorber is a reaction tank.The reaction tank fulfils several functions    Expected deliverables
                   namely; 1) a holding tank that provides proper conditions for limestone dissolution,
                   2) compressed air is injected into the contents to ensure oxidation of sulphite (which       •   A revised absorber reaction tank sizing tool applicable to Eskom’s specific needs
                   is difficult to dewater) to form sulphate, and 3) a holding tank to ensure that gypsum       •   A pH correlation (modified/new/ affirmed current correlation)
                   crystals grow to acceptable sizes for dewatering purposes. The resultant product of
                   the process, after undergoing the dewatering step, is synthetic gypsum.
                   The type and quality of limestone used during the process is an important factor in                                                 Rachel Puseletso Godana
                   both the design and operation of the process. South Africa has a number of limestone
                   sources, but compared to international limestone, many of these are considered very                                                 Email: MosianRP@eskom.co.za
                   low quality. The process function at specific pH levels and the size of the reaction tank
                   is a function of the required operating pH level and the rate at which the limestone                                                Industrial mentor
                   dissolves.                                                                                                                          Stefan Binkowski
                                                                                                                                                       Email: Stefan.Binkowski@
                   Applicability/Benefit to Eskom                                                                                                      Academic supervisor Prof
                                                                                                                                                       Ray Everson
                   In 2009, Eskom obtained a tool to size the absorber and reaction tank.This tool uses a                                              Email: Ray.Everson@nwu.ac.za
                   predefined correlation, as a function of several factors, to determine the operating pH                                             Dr Dawie Branken
                   of the reaction during the developmental design phases. This was derived using good                                                 Email: dawie.branken@nwu.ac.za

26 EPPEI 2015-2016 Programme                                                                                                                                                               EPPEI 22015-2016 Programme   27
                   Correlating South African fly-ash
                   resistivity with electrostatic precipitator
                   collection efficiency

                   Subject background                                                                              Proposed research
                   Two thirds of the Eskom fleet currently utilizes electrostatic precipitator (ESP)               The aim of this study is to correlate South African fly-ash resistivity, and the effect
                   technology to capture fly-ash from the flue gas stream exiting the boiler. An important         of moisture thereon, with ESP collection efficiency.
                   design parameter of ESP is resistivity. Resistivity (measured in ohm cm) is an intrinsic
                   material property and denotes a materials ability to oppose the flow of electrons.              The objectives of this study are to:
                   With the new Air Quality Act (AQA) calling for large reductions in emissions it has             • Standardise and validate an experimental method for measuring fly-ash
                   becomes ever more important to better understand fly-ash resistivity, the effect of                 resistivity
                   ambient conditions on resistivity and how fly-ash resistivity influences ESP operation.         • Characterise the effect of the water vapour fraction on fly-ash resistivity
                                                                                                                   • Establish the effect of fly-ash resistivity on ESP collection efficiency
                   Applicability/Benefit to Eskom                                                                  • Propose and validate a simplified ESP model

                   •   Recommissioning of the resistivity oven will facilitate the measurement of                  Expected deliverables
                       current fly-ash resistivity. These values can then be evaluated and compared to
                       the resistivity values with which the ESP plants were designed, giving insight into         •   Resistivity data of three fly-ashes, with varying water vapour fractions
                       current ESP operations                                                                      •   ESP collection efficiencies of the three ashes
                   •   Modification is currently being conducted on the resistivity oven which will better         •   Simplified ESP performance prediction model
                       facilitate flue gas conditioning experiments
                   •   The updated resistivity oven can be used to test martial resistivity for external
                       companies as a form of revenue generation
                   •   Because of limited data, fly-ash resistivity will be measured with varying water
                       vapour fractions. An increase in water vapour fraction will lower fly-ash resistivity
                       values, leading to increased ESP performance. Flue gas conditioning with steam/                                                   Student
                       water can be considered an inexpensive alternative to SO3 conditioning                                                            Jandri Ribberink
                   •   A pilot scale ESP (currently under construction) will be used to better understand
                       the effect of resistivity on ESP performance                                                                                      Email: jandriribberink@gmail.com
                   •   Three different fly-ashes, each with varying ash properties and resistivity values,
                                                                                                                                                         Industrial mentor
                       will be passed through the pilot scale ESP and the performance measured. These
                                                                                                                                                         Naushaad Haripersad
                       experiments will lend insight into the effect of resistivity on ESP collection efficiency                                         Email: HariperN@eskom.co.za
                       (ESP pilot plant offers variable air velocity, geometry, plate to wire spacing and
                       discharge electrode configuration)                                                                                                Academic supervisor
                   •   Once the resistivity data, ash mineralogy and ESP collection data is available, a                                                 Prof HWJP Neomagus
                                                                                                                                                         Email: hein.neomagus@nwu.ac.za
                       simplified model will be developed and validated. The simplified model can then
                       be used to describe current ESP collection efficiencies

28 EPPEI 2015-2016 Programme                                                                                                                                                                  EPPEI 22015-2016 Programme   29
                   Value-added utilisation possibilities of
                   Coal Combustion Products (CCPs)

                   Subject background                                                                       Expected deliverables
                   In order to comply with more stringent air quality standards Eskom will be installing    •   Identify the different uses of CCP’s on a global scale
                   an FGD plant at its new coal fired power stations. The disposal of Coal Combustion       •   Conduct a market situation analysis in South Africa for fly ash and gypsum
                   Products (CCPs), which includes fly ash and the new FGD gypsum, causes significant       •   Characterise the quality of the FGD gypsum at Kusile and the fly ash from Kendal
                   environmental and economic difficulties for Eskom. Only a small fraction of these            and Kusile
                   CCPs are used by other industries whilst the bulk of it is held in ash dams. To reduce   •   A design for wall and/or ceiling insulation products that can be used in low cost
                   the environmental and economic impacts of the disposal, alternative utilisation of           housing applications
                   these CCPs must be investigated.

                   Applicability/Benefit to Eskom
                   Alternative utilisation of these CCPs will benefit Eskom in the following areas:
                   • Reduction in disposal costs of the CCPs
                   • Reduction in land use
                   • Environmental impact reductions and legislation compliance
                   • Socio-economic contribution of Eskom towards the environment and community

                   Proposed research
                   •   Investigate the possibility of designing cost effective insulation products from
                       the FGD gypsum to assist in making offset interventions more efficient. These                                             Student
                       insulation products can be used to improve thermal efficiency in low cost                                                 Christine Schutte
                       housing in South Africa, which will in turn decrease the need for domestic
                       burning                                                                                                                   Email: schuttcr@eskom.co.za
                   •   Investigate the possibility of replacing materials in the South African
                                                                                                                                                 Industrial mentor
                       construction environment with stronger and light weight alternative materials;                                            Naushaad Haripersad
                       especially looking at the possibility of using CCPs in road construction                                                  Email: HariperN@eskom.co.za
                                                                                                                                                 Academic supervisor
                                                                                                                                                 Prof Stuart Piketh
                                                                                                                                                 Email: stuart.piketh@nwu.ac.za
                                                                                                                                                 Prof Hein Neomagus
                                                                                                                                                 Email: hein.neomagus@nwu.ac.za

30 EPPEI 2015-2016 Programme                                                                                                                                                        EPPEI 22015-2016 Programme   31
                   Dissolution kinetics of representative
                   South African lime stones in aqueous

                   Subject background                                                                           •   Evaluation and/or modification of the current absorption reactor at NWU in
                                                                                                                    order to conduct dissolution related testing
                   The amount of SO2 generated during coal combustion is a function of the sulphur              •   Determine chemical, physical and mineralogical properties of low grade limestone
                   content in the fuel. None of Eskom’s current plants were designed with SO2 reduction             by means of XRF, XRD QEMSCAN and other analyses if required
                   in mind and none of these plants will be able to comply with the 500 mg/Nm3 emissions        •   Develop correlations between limestone composition (chemical, mineralogical,
                   limit. Kusile power station is first to be retrofitted for Flue Gas Desulfurisation (FGD),       physical) and parameters that influence the dissolution of limestone
                   followed by Medupi power station during its first General Outage (GO) cycle, while           •   Perform experiments with the current or new laboratory absorption reactor
                   Medupi power station was built as “FGD ready”. The FGD retrofit entails rotating                 setup and adjusted methodology for the determination of dissolution properties
                   the chimney by 180o, lining the chimney flues for operating in both un-saturated and
                   saturated environments, leaving space on the terrace for the FGD island and make             Expected deliverables
                   provision in the plant balance for the support systems such as water, sorbent, waste
                   etc. Limestone is used in the FGD process and introduces CaCO3 to react with the             •   Characterisation of the low grade limestone selected for the FGD process for
                   SO2, removing it from the discharge gas. The use of lower quality limestone will result          inclusion in a process model
                   in cost saving and is therefore important to investigate.                                    •   Comparative evaluation of the dissolution rate of available low grade limestone
                   Applicability/Benefit to Eskom
                   •   The optimisation of water and sorbent resources on the FGD plant process
                   •   Assist in mitigating the risk of resource availability and reducing associated waste
                       management, thereby managing the environmental footprint of the station
                   •   If lower quality limestone sources are found to be viable in the use of FGD, it will
                       have an economic impact which could benefit Eskom
                   Proposed research                                                                                                                Pieter Swart

                   •  Evaluate the dissolution and reactive properties of a low grade limestone, which                                              Email: SwartPB@eskom.co.za
                      serves as a key input for modelling the wet FGD processes
                                                                                                                                                    Industrial mentor
                   • The project will be carried out in collaboration with students at NWU thus
                                                                                                                                                    Naushaad Haripersad
                      familiarising them with the state of research concerning determination of                                                     Email: HariperN@eskom.co.za
                      dissolution capacity of limestone samples from different sources with regards to:
                   ­	 – methods available for measuring dissolution rates                                                                           Academic supervisors
                   ­	 – the equipment used to perform measurements                                                                                  Prof Hein Neomagus
                   	­– establishing the most suitable method to test dissolution after collaboration                                                Email: hein.neomagus@nwu.ac.za
                         between all parties involved.

32 EPPEI 2015-2016 Programme                                                                                                                                                           EPPEI 22015-2016 Programme   33
                   Characterising trade-offs between fabric
                   filter bag dimensions, ash collection
                   efficiency, associated pressure drop and
                   pulsing behaviour

                   Subject background                                                                            •   Determine the effective residual drag across the fabric material
                                                                                                                     – Test the fabric filter beg material for air permeability
                   Within Eskom’s fleet of coal-fired power stations almost two thirds are equipped with         •   Determine the specific resistance coefficient of the ash cake on the material
                   Fabric Filter Plants (FFP’s) to control particulate matter emissions. These stations are          – Determine the K value for the specific resistance coefficient of the ash using
                   Majuba, Arnot, Camden, Duvha units 1 – 3, Grootvlei, Medupi, Kusile, and Hendrina.                   the air permeability rig along with the identified ash for application
                   Duvha units 4 – 6, Tutuka, Matimba, Lethabo, Matla, Kriel, Kendal and Komati are              •   Find the ash concentration at the inlet of the filter bags
                   equipped with Electrostatic Precipitator (ESP’s).                                             •   Determine the different mechanical losses with regard to the different fabric
                                                                                                                     bag sizes
                   Due to poor performance and high emissions, ESP’s can be retrofitted with FFP’s.                  – Use different sized holes in the tube plate and measure the differential
                   To retrofit the ESP’s the discharge electrodes and collecting plates are replaced with               pressure across the tube plate
                   fabric filter bags. The selection of the fabric bag sizes has largely been outsourced and
                   currently no clear selection criteria exist. Within the Eskom fleet there are two types of    Expected deliverables
                   fabric filter systems namely High Pressure Low Volume (HPLV) and Low Pressure High
                   Volume (LPHV). Within Eskom the bag sizes varies from 135 mm nominal diameter to              •   Establish a computational modelling method
                   165mm nominal diameter on the HPLV systems and the typical bag size for the LPHV              •   Build and use an experimental setup to study bag characteristics
                   system in 127mm nominal diameter.                                                             •   Perform a techno-economic evaluation
                                                                                                                 •   Suggest options for the retrofitting of ESP plants
                   Some of Eskom’s power stations equipped with FFP’s are experiencing problems
                   with either flow through the bags or a drop in pressure across the tube plate. The
                   root cause is not clear and is expected to be due to plant modification as well as
                   operational issues. One known contributing factor is the fabric filter size selection, both
                   length and diameter. In this dissertation, the focus will be to study the pressure drop
                   across individual bags and FFP units as a whole.
                                                                                                                                                     Hendrik van Riel

                   Applicability/Benefit to Eskom                                                                                                    Email: vrielhw@eskom.co.za

                   Relevant to Eskom’s existing, ESP to FFP retrofits and new built FFP’s, to reduce
                                                                                                                                                     Industrial mentor
                                                                                                                                                     Leon van Wyk
                   operational costs.                                                                                                                Email: vanwykl@eskom.co.za

                   Proposed research                                                                                                                 Academic supervisors
                                                                                                                                                     Dr Dawie Branken
                   The aim of this study is to establish appropriate design criteria for a FFP in relation                                           Email: Dawie.branken@nwu.ac.za
                   to bag size, costs, fabric bag material, and length versus diameter. The objective                                                Prof Hein Neomagus
                   of this study is to apply Darcy’s law to the various FFP sections and determine                                                   Email: hein.neomagus@nwu.ac.za
                   the effect of each section individually and also the interaction between different

34 EPPEI 2015-2016 Programme                                                                                                                                                            EPPEI 22015-2016 Programme   35
Eskom Power Plant Engineering Institute

                               Material Science

                                                                             Focus points
                                                                           • Physical metallurgy of materials used in the power
                                                                             generation industry
                                                                           • Effects of manufacturing, construction and operation
                                                                             on materials
                                                                           • Welding and heat treatment of metals
                                                                           • Non-destructive evaluation technologies
                                                                           • Damage mechanisms and failure investigations
                                                                           • Plant life management from a materials perspective

36 EPPEI 2014-2015
         2015-2016 Programme                                                                                                EPPEI 22015-2016 Programme   37
                  FEM modelling of stress, deformation
                  and damage of creep loaded
                  components in thermal power plants

                   Subject background                                                                            with experimental results of the damage state (using investigations already made
                                                                                                                 by Eskom or in related EPPEI projects). The components to be investigated are
                   Creep ageing, damage and plastic deformation occurs in components exposed to high             going to be selected in discussion with the student and the industrial mentors.
                   temperatures and pressures. The components involved include turbine rotors, disks
                   and blades, boiler parts and steam pipes. Even at constant load, the temperatures in          Expected deliverables
                   these components are not uniform, and stresses vary significantly locally depending on
                   the geometry. Furthermore, stresses can be uniaxial as well as multiaxial. Load shedding      •   Identification of the components to be investigated
                   leads to additional temperature variations and accompanying thermal stresses in               •   Identification of the most suitable FEM software package
                   the components. It is therefore difficult to reasonably estimate the creep damage             •   Stress analysis of a component at constant load and temperature
                   and remaining lifetime of a component, using conservative safety factors and costly           •   Statistical analysis of the stress states
                   experimental investigations of the local damage states. Finite Element Modeling (FEM)         •   Literature study of creep and damage models considering temperature variations
                   calculations of the stress states can improve this situation greatly by indicating the most       and multiaxial stress states
                   stressed areas within a component. With this knowledge, the experimental damage               •   Implementation of the creep and damage models into the FEM simulations
                   investigation can focus on these specific areas.The same FEM simulations can go a step        •   Comparison with experimental local damage investigations (taken from related
                   further when combined with creep models, and improve the lifetime predictions to a                projects)
                   point where the local temperature and stress states can be considered.The latter part         •   Recommendations on damage and creep models used currently by Eskom
                   is the aim of this project.                                                                   •   Apply the resulting model for an improved prediction of the remaining lifetime of
                                                                                                                     the components
                   This project partially overlaps with an Asset Management topic “Continuum damage
                   modelling on HP pipework for predicting creep fatigue interaction”.

                   Applicability/Benefit to Eskom                                                                                                   Student
                                                                                                                                                    Nicolas Cardenas
                   Improved creep life estimation and life management of creep loaded components
                   across the Eskom fleet. Consideration of the local stress and temperature state. Aged                                            Email: Nicolas.cardenas@
                   components can be handled with greater confidence and improved safety.
                                                                                                                                                    Industrial mentor
                   Proposed research                                                                                                                Marthinus Bezuidenhout
                                                                                                                                                    Email: bezuidM@eskom.co.za
                   Literature study of simple (phenomenological) creep and damage models
                   considering temperature changes and multiaxial stress states. These models                                                       Academic supervisor
                   should be specifically optimised for the components’ materials, i.e. martensitic                                                 Prof Robert Knutsen
                   and bainitic steels. FEM simulations of the (elastic) stress distribution of selected                                            Email: Robert.knutsen@uct.ac.za
                   components. Coupling of the creep models with the FEM simulations. Comparison

38 EPPEI 2015-2016 Programme                                                                                                                                                             EPPEI 22015-2016 Programme   39
                  Experimental Investigation of Creep
                  Damage of a Thermally Exposed
                  Component in Coal Power Plants

                   Subject background                                                                            •   Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM): For more detailed investigating of the
                                                                                                                     microstructure with regards to homogeneity, inclusions, precipitates, quantification
                   Due to high temperature and stresses, material degradation such as creep deformation              of creep pores and damage due to cree
                   and damage are the most prominent problems when estimating the remaining lifetime             •   SEM/Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD): Quantitatively measure dislocation
                   of the components. In addition, the specific shape of the component leads to uneven               densities. Identify recrystallized grains. Eventually will be carried out as Transmission-
                   distribution of the stresses, which in addition can be uniaxial as well as multiaxial.            EBSD to achieve higher resolution
                   Furthermore, material which has been used up to date (21CrMoV57V) is continuously             •   Energy filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM): identify and quantify of
                   replaced by the more modern P91. The components to be investigated are steam                      precipitates, investigate coarsening processes
                   turbine penetrations; however, the applied methodology is applicable to arbitrary
                   types of creep resistant steels. The task of this thesis is to investigate deterioration of   Expected deliverables
                   the materials considering creep and damage. A detailed investigation of the mechanical
                   properties and the microstructure will permit accurate damage characterisation, and,          •   Identification of the critical positions within the steam penetrations with highest
                   at the same time will facilitate separating the effects of stress and temperature (as far         damage
                   as the two effects can be treated individually).                                              •   Improvement of Eskom’s damage investigation techniques
                                                                                                                 •   Detailed investigation of the local microstructural evolution
                   Applicability/Benefit to Eskom                                                                •   Provide quantitative microstructural data for improved creep- and damage models
                                                                                                                 •   Develop an understanding on the impact of temperature and stress on the local
                   Improved creep life estimation and life management of creep loaded components.                    damage
                   Consideration of local stress and temperature state, will improve damage investigation
                   techniques. Aged components can be handled with greater confidence and improved
                   safety. All collected data will contribute to setting up more advanced models on the
                   evolution of microstructural degradation and damage. They can thus be combined
                   with micromechanical models and finally act as part of improved creep models.                                                        Student
                                                                                                                                                        Kashir Singh
                   Proposed research
                                                                                                                                                        Email: kashir.singh@alumni.uct.ac.za
                   This research project deals with the experimental investigation of creep and damage of
                   steam turbine penetrations. Steam turbine penetrations will be provided from Eskom’s                                                 Industrial mentor
                                                                                                                                                        Marthinus Bezuidenhout
                   Lethabo Power Station (Unit 1). In order to accurately characterise the metallurgical
                                                                                                                                                        Email: bezuidM@eskom.co.za
                   damage, the following experimental investigations are proposed:
                   • Metallographic replication: to provide records and information of material                                                         Academic supervisor
                        degradation using microstructure damage and defect analysis                                                                     Prof R Knutsen
                   • Hardness tests: Indicate the thermal softening of the material and can be used                                                     Email: Robert.Knutsen@uct.ac.za
                        to estimate the actual mean temperature to which the material was exposed to
                   • Light microscopy: Investigate the homogeneity of the investigated material and
                        indicate flaws stemming from the initial production process, such as inclusions or

40 EPPEI 2015-2016 Programme                                                                                                                                                                    EPPEI 22015-2016 Programme   41
Eskom Power Plant Engineering Institute

                               Asset Management

                                                                                Focus points
                                                                             • Engineering approach to asset management
                                                                             • Life cycle analysis
                                                                             • Reliability centred maintenance
                                                                             • Optimised management of strategic spares
                                                                             • Preventative maintenance analysis
                                                                             • Condition-based maintenance analysis
                                                                             • Vibration analysis

42 EPPEI 2014-2015
         2015-2016 Programme                                                                                              EPPEI 22015-2016 Programme   43
                   Continuum damage modelling on
                   HP pipework for predicting creep
                   fatigue interaction

                   Subject background                                                                         Expected deliverables
                   The High Pressure (HP) pipework in a power station experiences fluctuating high            •   A method of determining the accumulated creep fatigue damage in HP pipework
                   temperatures and pressures. Replacement of these components is planned according               systems
                   to creep condition monitoring. Due to fatigue damage, which is not monitored,              •   A full FEA model of an existing HP pipework system that can be used for future
                   premature replacement of these components has been experienced. Consequent                     calculations
                   Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) reveals that the difference between creep damage             •   Known feasibility of using such a system for real time condition monitoring of
                   and fatigue damage is not distinguishable and only the total damaged is measured. The          existing HP pipework systems
                   HP piping is a critical component and replacing the pipework requires long outages
                   ultimately leading to extended periods of power load loss. It is desirable that a method
                   for determining, and forecasting, the amount of fatigue damage in the HP pipework is

                   Applicability/Benefit to Eskom
                   This research will provide Eskom with a system to quantify and forecast fatigue damage
                   in HP pipework from operation history. This will also aid in verifying forecasted creep
                   damage in HP piping.

                   Better forecast of total damage will assist with outage planning. Furthermore, the
                   system will use real time indicators to alert power plant personnel to accelerated
                   damage due to operational conditions.
                   Proposed research                                                                                                             Stephen Bydawell

                   •   Research and implement established methods for continuum damage models                                                    Email: BydaweS@eskom.co.za
                       for practical implementations on steady state thermal solutions on HP pipework
                   •   Develop Finite Element Analysis (FEA) of the full HP pipe system and apply the                                            Industrial mentor
                                                                                                                                                 Michael Hindley
                       best suited damage model to the full HP pipe system
                                                                                                                                                 Email: HindleMP@eskom.co.za
                   •   Investigate sensitivity accuracy of the model using plant data creep models and
                       NDT testing preformed on HP piping                                                                                        Academic supervisor
                   •   Using plant data on thermal and pressure cycles to quantify creep-fatigue damage                                          Assoc Prof Schalk Kok
                       in the HP pipework                                                                                                        Email: Schalk.Kok@up.ac.za
                   •   Prescribe required measurements point of measurement that would be required
                       to turn this model into a real time on-line condition monitoring system

44 EPPEI 2015-2016 Programme                                                                                                                                                       EPPEI 22015-2016 Programme   45
                   The effect of non-uniform micro-
                   structure on the failure mode of
                   hamer forged line hardware failure

                   Subject background                                                                          Proposed research
                   The demand for electricity in South Africa had significantly increased to support           To develop a probabilistic failure methodology to address scatter in strength of bow
                   economic growth; hence Eskom had to expand its electrical capacity. To overcome             shackles subjected to cycle loads and exposed to fatigue. Particular attention will be
                   servitude challenges; required a change in Eskom’s overhead line design philosophy,         paid to creation and propagation of fatigue cracks from edges and surface defects such
                   which included the use of larger conductor sizes and longer line spans, resulting in an     as laps with variation in the following:
                   increase in mechanical loading on termination points at towers.                             • Microstructure changes associated with changes in geometry
                                                                                                               • Changes in microstructure properties (tensile, hardness, layer thickness) due to
                   Increasing the strength classes of hardware without or limited changes to existing               variation associated with manufacturing
                   geometry and mass, required unalloyed medium carbon steels to replace low carbon            • Surface defect size that can be tolerated by the mix microstructure
                   steels as material of choice for hamer forged hardware and heat treatment such as           • Location of such surface defects along the load distribution of a bow shackle
                   quench and tempering are used to further improve the strength. As the geometry
                   of most line hardware changes along the profile of a component, heat treatment              Expected deliverables
                   thereof will result in a nonhomogeneous microstructure. Although, the characteristics
                   of the predominant microstructures are known, the characteristics and behaviour of          •   Both the material and mechanical characteristics of current material used for
                   a combination of these predominant microstructures within one component, along                  hamer forged hardware will be known, including the correlation between hardness
                   with possibly manufacturing deviations in mass production are unknown. Resulting                (surface and core) and tensile properties. In addition, the relationship between
                   in a significant degree of uncertainty regarding the performance of hamer forged                microstructure changes and the probability of failure when exposed to typical
                   hardware and especial where hardware such as bow shackles are used as single                    loading experienced under normal operating conditions will be known.
                   attachment point components when exposed to static and dynamic loading under                •   Possible new shackle design to minimise the risk of possible failures of single
                   normal operating conditions.                                                                    attachment hardware.

                   Applicability/Benefit to Eskom
                   Probabilistic failure methodology analyses can be used to determine if existing lines are                                        Jacques Calitz
                   at risk due to deviations in mass production of hardware. By knowing the effect what
                   manufacturing (hammer forging, pickling and galvanizing) and heat treatment would                                                Email: calitzj@eskom.co.za
                   have on the mechanical and material behaviour of hardware would minimise the
                   risk of installing sub-standard hardware, hence minimise the risk of potential failures                                          Industrial mentor
                                                                                                                                                    Dr Michael Hindley
                   when the introduction of alternative heat treatable material is considered to further
                                                                                                                                                    Email: HindleMP@eskom.co.za
                   increases the strength class.
                                                                                                                                                    Academic supervisor
                   In addition, by knowing the typical microstructure that will be obtained with changes                                            Prof Schalk Kok
                   in geometry, as well as the mechanical behaviour of such microstructures, will help to                                           Email: Schalk.Kok@up.ac.za
                   identify critical hardware that requires regular inspection and/or replacement in order
                   to minimise potential failures.

46 EPPEI 2015-2016 Programme                                                                                                                                                            EPPEI 22015-2016 Programme   47
                   Vibration monitoring of
                   transformer windings

                   Subject background                                                                        The secondary objectives of this project are:
                                                                                                             • Determine the natural frequencies of the core and windings
                   Transformers are one of the most expensive and critical pieces of equipment in the        • Conduct a literature study on thermography
                   electricity distribution industry. Ensuring the well-being of transformers will be a      • Record the temperature profiles of the test transformer under the different load
                   resource saving activity for the business. During the last 20 years or so, the reasons        conditions
                   for transformer failures have been extensively researched. No conclusions have been
                   made from this research regarding the failures and the challenges such as premature       Expected deliverables
                   failure of transformers as well as compromised maintenance still remain. The use of
                   condition monitoring information for the identification, preparedness and mitigation of   •   A published MSc thesis
                   transformer failure is an area of interest which this project will investigate.           •   A better overview of plant performance, maintenance as well as design
                                                                                                                 specifications wich will facilitate optimization of asset life through preparedness
                   Applicability/Benefit to Eskom                                                                for plant ageing of failure
                                                                                                             •   Published condition monitoring information for the identification, preparedness
                   •   Optimised asset life, which is of great financial benefit                                 and mitigation of transformer failure
                   •   Better overview of plant performance, maintenance planning and design                 •   Expert skills acquisition on the subject of transformer failures, operations,
                       specifications                                                                            monitoring and maintenance
                   •   Preparedness for plant ageing or failure
                   •   Optimised maintenance and operations
                   •   Expert skills acquisition on the subject of transformer failures, operations,
                       monitoring and maintenanceThis software will equip companies operating power
                       plants to make financially sound operational decisions such as inspection intervals
                       as well as component replacements.
                   Proposed research                                                                                                              Arnold Hayes

                                                                                                                                                  Email: ajjhayes@gmail.com
                   The primary objectives are to:
                   • Conduct a literature study on:
                                                                                                                                                  Academic supervisors
                       o transformers and their operating principles,                                                                             Prof Stephan Heyns
                       o transformer vibrations,                                                                                                  Email: Stephan.heyns@up.ac.za
                       o existing transformer vibration monitoring techniques,
                       o stereophotogrametry
                   • Through physical experimentation this project will measure the core and winding
                       vibrations of a test transformer under different load conditions by making use of
                       high speed cameras. Lay a foundation for succeeding research.

48 EPPEI 2015-2016 Programme                                                                                                                                                          EPPEI 22015-2016 Programme   49
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