Forage Seed 2018 Award winning forage options - germinal.com

 
Forage Seed 2018 Award winning forage options - germinal.com
germinal.com

                          Forage
                          Seed 2018
                          Award winning
                          forage options

Germinal GB
Camp Road
Witham St. Hughs
Lincoln LN6 9QJ
T: +44 (0) 1522 868 714
lincoln@germinal.com
Forage Seed 2018 Award winning forage options - germinal.com
Introduction                                                                    01

Contents                                                                             Time to take a fresh
                                                                                     look at forage

Introduction                                                                   01    Opportunities to increase performance from
Aber High Sugar Grass cutting and grazing mixtures                         02 – 16   homegrown feed have arguably never been
                                                                                     greater in the UK livestock sector, such are
Aber Clover Blends                                                             17
                                                                                     the advances in plant breeding, the variety of
Overseeding                                                                18 – 19   forage crops available, and the new systems
Puna II perennial chicory                                                  20 – 21   of utilisation being successfully adopted.
Tonic plantain                                                                 22    The timing is good – even vital – given the current challenges faced by dairy,
                                                                                     beef and sheep farmers alike. There’s no doubt that a focus on forage is a
Multi-species leys                                                             23    route to more sustainable businesses, whether that’s to combat price
                                                                                     volatility, the rising cost of imported protein, or the loss of subsidies.
Lucerne                                                                    24 – 25   At Germinal we are committed to providing year-round quality forage
                                                                                     solutions, by collaborating with the world’s leading plant breeders and
Forage brassicas                                                           26 – 33   testing the best new varieties in the most innovative systems.
                                                                                     Our Aber High Sugar Grass varieties are proven performers in terms of dry
Anaerobic digestion                                                        34 – 35   matter yield, D-value and ME yield, boosting not only your production from
                                                                                     forage but your environmental credentials too. This has been recognised
Leisure Amenity                                                                36    with the awards highlighted opposite.
                                                                                     These industry leading ryegrasses are complemented by our range of Aber
                                                                                     white clovers, whilst we have led the way with the introduction of alternative
                                                                                     grazing species such as Puna II perennial chicory and Tonic plantain.
                                                                                     In terms of protein crops, we offer the first 4-5 year duration red clovers with
                                                                                     AberClaret and AberChianti, whilst modern lucerne varieties equipped to
                                                                                     perform in our northern European conditions offer another viable alternative.
                                                                                     Forage brassicas are another valuable source of homegrown protein,
                                                                                     offering the versatility to bridge summer grazing gaps, extend autumn
                                                                                     grazing or provide the basis for out-wintering. The hybrid brassicas Swift and
                                                                                     Redstart exemplify our innovative approach in this area.
                                                                                     In our 2018 Forage Seed catalogue, we hope you will find the stimulus to
The innovation and technological advancement demonstrated by the IBERS               take a fresh look at forage. Start by selecting the very best varieties of
Aberystwyth University plant breeding programme in creating Aber High Sugar
                                                                                     the most appropriate solution for your situation. The important stages
Grass has been recognised with seven major agricultural and science industry
                                                                                     of establishment, growing and utilisation will follow more easily if you make
awards since 2003.
                                                                                     the right initial choices.
Aber ryegrass varieties are marketed exclusively by Germinal and feature
throughout the mixtures in the Forage Seed 2018 catalogue.

                                                                                     Ben Wixey
                                                                                     National Agricultural Sales Manager,
                                                                                     Germinal GB
Forage Seed 2018 Award winning forage options - germinal.com
02                                  Aber High Sugar Grass cutting and grazing mixtures                                                      Aber High Sugar Grass cutting and grazing mixtures                                 03

                                      LONG TE RM

                                    Aber HSG 1 Milk                                                                                         Achieving 50% of milk
                                    and Meat Production                                                                                     production from forage
                                    Aber HSG 1 is a long term, general purpose mixture for milk and
      Includes
                                    meat production.
     AberZeus
       HSG                                                                                                                                  Improving grassland production and grass
      See page 11
                                    Ideal for grazing, the mixture also offers the potential for a heavy silage cut in
                                    late May. Ideally suited for set stocking, it can be grazed with cattle, ewes or                        utilisation have been central to Lancashire dairy
                                    used to finish lambs. Aber HSG 1 produces a dense sward which will resist
                                    poaching and with good management will maintain its quality for 5 – 7 years.                            farmer Richard Corlett’s success in increasing
                                    Puna II perennial chicory can be included for added drought tolerance and
                                    sward variety.                                                                                          milk production from forage.

Fig 01.                                                                                                                                     His 220-cow Holstein Friesian herd is now up to 52% of production from forage
                                        Kg/acre             Variety                         Type                            Heading Date    (over 4,300 litres from a herd yield of around 8,500 litres), up from 25% in 2009.
Long term general
purpose mix:                              4.0               AberZeus HSG                    Perennial Ryegrass                  25 May      More regular grassland reseeding, using quality leys such as Germinal’s Aber
                                          3.0               AberWolf HSG                    Perennial Ryegrass                  27 May      HSG 4 Dairy System, has been a key part of his strategy, along with overseeding
                                                                                                                                            white clover. He’s also had a focus on soils (soil testing, liming as required, sward
                                          3.0               AberGreen HSG                   Perennial Ryegrass                  29 May
                                                                                                                                            lifting to address compaction), cut silage earlier for better quality, and created
                                          4.0               AberGain HSG                    Perennial Ryegrass (T)              04 Jun
                                                                                                                                            better access to grazing.
                                          1.0               AberDairy                       White Clover Blend

                                         15.0
T = Tetraploid

                                    Heading date average for Aber HSG 1 is 29 May for central Britain.
                                    When cutting for silage, aim to cut 5-10 days before average heading date for optimum quality.
                                    Optimum spread of heading dates within mixtures for grazing and cutting results in better performance
                                    of the leys.

Fig 02.                                                                                                   MAY JUNE

Aber HSG 1          10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Milk and Meat
Production:                                OPTIMAL CUTTING
Spread of                                      WINDOW
heading dates

                                    Key benefits in summary
                                    • Combines an outstanding grazing yield for the mixture of 106%
                                      and a grazing D-value of 77.7
                                    • 100% Aber HSG grasses
                                    • Correct balance of diploid and tetraploid varieties
                                    • High palatability and increased dry matter intakes
                                    • Reduced nitrogen losses to the environment
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04                                     Aber High Sugar Grass cutting and grazing mixtures                                                                                           Aber High Sugar Grass cutting and grazing mixtures                                                      05

                                        ME DIUM TE R M                                                                                                                               LO N G T E R M

                                       Aber HSG 2 Early Cut                                                                                                                         Aber HSG 2 Later Cut

                                       Aber HSG 2 Early Cut is a specialist silage mixture for those                                                                                Aber HSG 2 Later Cut is a specialist silage mixture for those
                                       aiming to cut a very high quality crop from the end of April to                                                                              aiming to cut a very high quality crop in mid-to-late May.
                                       mid May.
                                                                                                                                                                                    Combining the outstanding Aber High Sugar Grass AberGain with other
                                       Combining the outstanding hybrid Aber High Sugar Grass AberEcho with                                                                         compatible Aber HSG perennial ryegrasses, this mixture delivers quality and
                                       compatible Aber perennial ryegrasses, this mixture delivers quality and                                                                      yield and can persist for 5 years - twice as long as Italian ryegrass based
                                       yield and can persist for 3-4 years – twice as long as Italian ryegrass based                                                                swards. Aber HSG 2 Later Cut is a straight grass mixture that will perform
                                       swards. Aber HSG 2 Early Cut is a straight grass mixture that will perform                                                                   under medium and high levels of nitrogen. AberClaret red clover can be
                                       under medium and high levels of nitrogen. AberClaret red clover can be                                                                       included, whilst for those seeking longer lasting specialist silage mixtures
                                       included, whilst for those seeking longer lasting specialist silage mixtures we                                                              we recommend Aber Red 5 HSG.
                                       recommend Aber Red 5 HSG.
                                                                                                                                               Including red clover in              The addition of red clover at 3kg/acre within the Aber HSG 2 mixtures will
Including red clover in                The addition of red clover at 3kg/acre within the Aber HSG 2 mixtures will                              your cutting mixtures                increase the yield and quality of your silage.
your cutting mixtures                  increase the yield and quality of your silage.
                                                                                                                                                                                    More farmers are choosing to include red clover in their cutting mixture to:
                                       More farmers are choosing to include red clover in their cutting mixture to:                                                                 • Increase overall forage production potential
                                       • Increase overall forage production potential                                                                                               • Improve the protein content of silage
                                       • Improve the protein content of silage                                                                                                      • Reduce protein losses in the clamp
                                       • Reduce protein losses in the clamp                                                                                                         • Benefit from red clover’s ability to contribute over 150 kgN/ha of nitrogen
                                       • Benefit from red clover’s ability to contribute over 150 kgN/ha of nitrogen                                                                  through fixation
                                         through fixation                                                                                                                           • Improve soil structure and drought tolerance
                                       • Improve soil structure and drought tolerance
                                                                                                                                               Fig 06.
Fig 04.                                                                                                                                                                                 Kg/acre             Variety                          Type                           Heading Date
                                           Kg/acre             Variety                          Type                           Heading Date    Aber HSG 2
Aber HSG 2                                                                                                                                     Later Cut:                                 5.0               AberGain HSG                     Perennial Ryegrass (T)             04 Jun
Early Cut:                                   5.0               AberEcho HSG                     Hybrid Ryegrass (T)                15 May
                                                                                                                                                                                          5.0               AberBite HSG                     Perennial Ryegrass (T)             04 Jun
                                             5.0               AberEve HSG                      Hybrid Ryegrass (T)                21 May
                                                                                                                                                                                          5.0               AberChoice HSG                   Perennial Ryegrass                 09 Jun
                                             5.0               AberClyde                        Perennial Ryegrass (T)             24 May
                                                                                                                                                                                         15.0
                                                                                                                                               T = Tetraploid
                                            15.0
T = Tetraploid
                                                                                                                                                                                    Heading date average for Aber HSG 2 Later Cut is 6 June for central Britain.
                                       Heading date average for Aber HSG 2 Early Cut is 21 May for central Britain.                                                                 When cutting for silage, aim to cut 5-10 days before average heading date for optimum quality.
                                       When cutting for silage, aim to cut 5-10 days before average heading date for optimum quality.                                               Optimum spread of heading dates within mixtures for grazing and cutting results in better performance
                                       Optimum spread of heading dates within mixtures for grazing and cutting results in better performance                                        of the leys.
                                       of the leys.

Fig 05.                    APRIL MAY                                                                                                           Fig 07.                                                                           MAY JUNE

Aber HSG 2          27 28 29 30 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28                                     Aber HSG 2          15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 14 15
Early Cut:                                                                                                                                     Later Cut:
Spread of                                    OPTIMAL                                                                                           Spread of                                                         OPTIMAL CUTTING
heading dates                                CUTTING                                                                                           heading dates                                                         WINDOW
                                             WINDOW

                                       Key benefits in summary                                                                                                                      Key benefits in summary
                                       • AberHybrid High Sugar Grass content                                                                                                        • 100% Aber HSG content
                                       • Compatible heading date varieties                                                                                                          • Compatible heading date varieties
                                       • Over twice the persistency of Italian ryegrass leys                                                                                        • Over twice the persistency of Italian ryegrass leys
                                       • Suitable for combination with red clover                                                                                                   • Suitable for combination with red clover
                                       • Aber High Sugar Grasses enhance fermentation, especially when red                                                                          • Aber High Sugar Grasses enhance fermentation, especially when red
                                         clover is included                                                                                                                           clover is included
                                       • Very high ME yield
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06                                 Aber High Sugar Grass cutting and grazing mixtures                                                      Aber High Sugar Grass cutting and grazing mixtures                           07

                                    ME DIUM TE R M

                                   Aber HSG 2 Multi Cut                                                                                    Striving for low-cost dairying

                                   Aber HSG 2 Multi Cut is a specialist silage mixture for farmers                                         Reducing cost of production is a major
                                   aiming to produce large quantities of leafy high-quality silage
                                   from multiple cuts during the period of peak grass growth.
                                                                                                                                           objective for Farms Manager John Owen,
                                   The mixture contains intermediate and late heading Aber High Sugar Grass
                                                                                                                                           who runs spring and autumn calving herds
                                   varieties that provide abundant early season growth, and maintain quality
                                   and yield throughout the season. A balance of diploid and tetraploid varieties
                                                                                                                                           at the Gelli Aur campus at Coleg Sir Gâr,
                                   provides the optimum combination of good ground cover, persistency, high                                Carmarthenshire, on a fully commercial basis.
                                   D-value and outstanding silage yields.
                                   Aber HSG 2 Multi Cut is suited to an early May first cut, frequent following
                                                                                                                                           On-going development work is looking at methods to reduce silage feeding
                                   cuts, with three cuts in the clamp by mid-to-late June. Swards will be
                                                                                                                                           frequency to a weekly event, and this summer he has overseen comparisons
                                   suitable for late season grazing if required.
                                                                                                                                           between conventional 3-cut precision chopped grass harvesting and a lower-
                                                                                                                                           cost multiple cut system using a forage box.
                                                                                                                                           Underpinning his low-cost forage-based system is a commitment to reseeding,
Fig 08.                                                                                                                                    using modern Aber perennial ryegrass leys that provide the optimum
                                       Kg/acre             Variety                          Type                           Heading Date    combination of yield and quality, season long production, persistency and the
Aber HSG 2                                                                                                                                 ability to continue performing as medium/long term leys.
Multi Cut:                               3.5               AberClyde HSG                    Perennial Ryegrass (T)             25 May

                                         4.0               AberZeus HSG                     Perennial Ryegrass                 25 May

                                         3.5               AberAvon HSG                     Perennial Ryegrass                01 June

                                         4.0               AberGain HSG                     Perennial Ryegrass (T)            04 June

                                        15.0
T = Tetraploid
                                   Heading date average for Aber HSG 2 Multi Cut is 29 May for central Britain.
                                   When cutting for silage, aim to cut 10-15 days before average heading date for optimum quality.
                                   Optimum spread of heading dates within mixtures for grazing and cutting results in better performance
                                   of the leys.

                                                                                                                           MAY JUNE

Fig 09.
                 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 1 2 3 4 5
Aber HSG 2
Multi Cut:                                               OPTIMAL CUTTING
Spread of                                                    WINDOW
heading dates

                                   Key benefits in summary
                                   • Ideal for frequent early season cutting whilst avoiding stemmy later
                                     season growth
                                   • Very high ME yield/ha
                                   • Combines outstanding silage performance with dense and
                                     persistent sward
                                   • Suitable for combination with 4-5 year Aber red clovers
                                   • Aber High Sugar Grass content enhances silage fermentation
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08                                    Aber High Sugar Grass cutting and grazing mixtures                                                                                        Aber High Sugar Grass cutting and grazing mixtures                                                      09

                                        LONG TE RM                                                                                                                                LO N G T E R M

                                      Aber HSG 3 Long Term Grazing                                                                                                              Aber HSG 3 + Timothy

                                      The biggest selling mixture in the Aber HSG range, Aber HSG 3                                                                             Aber HSG 3 Long Term Grazing is the most popular mixture
                                      Long Term Grazing is for cattle or sheep systems aiming to                                                                                in the Aber HSG range, being ideally suited to cattle or sheep
                                      maximise returns from grazing, whether rotational or set stocked.                                                                         grazing where the aim is to maximise returns using either a
                                                                                                                                                                                rotational or set stocked system.
                                      Aber HSG 3 is made up exclusively of Aber High Sugar Grass diploid
                                      perennial ryegrasses, which have the highest ratings for grazing quality and                                                              With all the attributes of Aber HSG 3, this mixture has the addition of
     Includes                         yield on the Recommended List. This mixture is unrivalled for persistency                                                                 Timothy, a grass that will add ‘bottom’ to the sward and provide greater
     AberZeus                         under grazing; managed well it can continue to perform for 7 to 10 years,                                                                 tolerance to wet conditions. Presto is chosen for its excellent spring growth
       HSG                            giving you maximum yields of the highest quality grazing. AberWolf HSG,
      See page 11
                                                                                                                                                                                and palatability.
                                      one of the outstanding perennial ryegrasses on the Recommended List,
                                      is included for the first time this year.
                                                                                                                                              Fig 12.
                                                                                                                                                                                    Kg/acre             Variety                         Type                            Heading Date
Fig 10.                                                                                                                                       Aber HSG 3
                                          Kg/acre             Variety                         Type                            Heading Date    + Timothy:                              3.0               AberZeus HSG                    Perennial Ryegrass                  25 May
Aber HSG 3:                                                                                                                                                                           3.0               AberWolf HSG                    Perennial Ryegrass                  27 May
                                            3.0               AberZeus HSG                    Perennial Ryegrass                  25 May
                                                                                                                                                                                      2.0               AberGreen HSG                   Perennial Ryegrass                  29 May
                                            3.0               AberWolf HSG                    Perennial Ryegrass                  27 May
                                                                                                                                                                                      3.0               AberAvon HSG                    Perennial Ryegrass                  01 Jun
                                            2.0               AberGreen HSG                   Perennial Ryegrass                  29 May
                                                                                                                                                                                      2.0               AberChoice HSG                  Perennial Ryegrass                  09 Jun
                                            3.0               AberAvon HSG                    Perennial Ryegrass                  01 Jun
                                                                                                                                                                                      1.0               Presto                          Timothy
                                            3.0               AberChoice HSG                  Perennial Ryegrass                  09 Jun
                                                                                                                                                                                      1.0               AberPasture                     White Clover Blend
                                            1.0               AberPasture                     White Clover Blend
                                                                                                                                                                                     15.0
                                           15.0
                                                                                                                                                                                Heading date average for Aber HSG + Timothy is 30 May for central Britain.
                                      Heading date average for Aber HSG 3 is 31 May for central Britain.
                                                                                                                                                                                When cutting for silage, aim to cut 5-10 days before average heading date for optimum quality.
                                      When cutting for silage, aim to cut 5-10 days before average heading date for optimum quality.
                                                                                                                                                                                Optimum spread of heading dates within mixtures for grazing and cutting results in better performance
                                      Optimum spread of heading dates within mixtures for grazing and cutting results in better performance                                     of the leys.
                                      of the leys.

                                                                                           MAY JUNE                                                                                                                                  MAY JUNE

Fig 11.                                                                                                                                       Fig 13.
                    12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15                                           12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
Aber HSG 3 Long                                                                                                                               Aber HSG 3
Term Grazing:                                                                                                                                 + Timothy:
Spread of                                                                                                                                     Spread of
heading dates                                                                                                                                 heading dates
                                      Key benefits in summary                                                                                                                   Key benefits in summary                                 Benefits of Timothy
                                      • Combines a very good grazing yield for the mixture of 103%                                                                              • Combines a very good grazing                          • Good tolerance of wet conditions
                                        and an outstanding grazing D-value of 77.4                                                                                                yield and an outstanding grazing                      • Excellent spring growth
                                      • Outstanding autumn production for the mixture                                                                                             D-value
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • High palatability
                                      • 100% Aber HSG diploid perennial ryegrasses                                                                                              • Outstanding autumn production
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Adds extra ‘bottom’ to swards
                                                                                                                                                                                  ensures strong extended grazing
                                      • Very persistent sward with good ‘bottom’                                                                                                                                                          to reduce the impact of poaching
                                                                                                                                                                                  potential
                                      • High palatability and dry matter intakes
                                                                                                                                                                                • Very persistent sward with
                                      • Reduced nitrogen losses to the environment                                                                                                good ‘bottom’
                                      • Persists for up to ten years                                                                                                            • High palatability and dry
                                                                                                                                                                                  matter intakes
                                                                                                                                                                                • Reduced nitrogen losses
                                                                                                                                                                                  to the environment
                                                                                                                                                                                • Persists for up to ten years
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10                                    Aber High Sugar Grass cutting and grazing mixtures                                                      Aber High Sugar Grass cutting and grazing mixtures                            11

                                       LONG TE RM

                                      Aber HSG 4 Dairy System                                                                                 AberZeus: The best
                                                                                                                                              Aber HSG to date
                                      Aber HSG 4 Dairy System is a mixture for milk producers who
      Includes
                                      are aiming for one or two high quality silage cuts followed by the
     AberZeus
       HSG                            best possible rotational grazing.                                                                       The Aber High Sugar Grass AberZeus is the latest
      See page 11
                                      First cut will be mid-to-late May, with the option of a second cut approximately
                                                                                                                                              top-performing variety from the award-winning
                                      4 – 5 weeks later, or alternatively commence rotational grazing. The Aber HSG                           IBERS Aberystwyth University breeding programme
                                      varieties selected for this mixture significantly out-perform other grasses for
                                      grazing quality and grazing yields. This year Aber HSG 4 is further improved                            to enter the independent Recommended Grass and
                                      by the introduction of AberWolf HSG, the stand-out grass on the latest UK
                                      Recommended Lists.
                                                                                                                                              Clover Lists (England and Wales).

                                                                                                                                              An intermediate diploid perennial ryegrass, AberZeus excels under grazing
                                                                                                                                              management, with an overall dry matter yield of 107% against control
Fig 14.                                                                                                                                       varieties and a D-value of 77.5. This combination of production and quality
                                          Kg/acre             Variety                          Type                           Heading Date
                                                                                                                                              gives AberZeus an unrivalled ME yield of 108% of controls.
Aber HSG 4
Dairy System:                               3.0               AberZeus HSG                     Perennial Ryegrass                 25 May
                                                                                                                                              It is also a strong performer both early and late in the grass growing
                                            2.0               AberWolf HSG                     Perennial Ryegrass                 27 May      season, with spring production at 115% of controls and autumn
                                            3.0               AberGain HSG                     Perennial Ryegrass (T)             04 Jun      production at 113% of controls. AberZeus has been bred for improved
                                            2.0               AberBite HSG                     Perennial Ryegrass (T)             04 Jun
                                                                                                                                              ground cover and persistency, alongside production and quality, and has
                                                                                                                                              good resistance to the common diseases of grassland.
                                            4.0               AberChoice HSG                   Perennial Ryegrass                 09 Jun

                                             1.0              AberDairy                        White Clover Blend                             The variety is one of the highest on the list for resistance to Crown Rust,
                                           15.0                                                                                               and early data shows it is also performing well against Drechslera.
T = Tetraploid

                                      Heading date average for Aber HSG 4 is 2 June for central Britain.                                      AberZeus is included in a number of Aber HSG mixtures for 2018.
                                      When cutting for silage, aim to cut 5-10 days before average heading date for optimum quality.
                                      Optimum spread of heading dates within mixtures for grazing and cutting results in better performance
                                      of the leys.

                                                                                     MAY JUNE

Fig 15.
                    14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
Aber HSG 4
Dairy System:                      OPTIMAL CUTTING
Spread of                              WINDOW
heading dates

                                      Key benefits in summary
                                      • Long-lasting ley with outstanding quality
                                      • Top yields of high ME silage at first cut
                                      • For cutting and rotational grazing
                                      • 100% Aber HSG perennial ryegrasses
                                      • Balance of diploid and tetraploid varieties
                                      • High palatability and dry matter intakes
                                      • Extended spring and autumn grazing
Forage Seed 2018 Award winning forage options - germinal.com
12                                   Aber High Sugar Grass cutting and grazing mixtures                                                      Aber High Sugar Grass cutting and grazing mixtures                          13

                                      ME DIUM TE R M

                                     Aber Red 5 HSG Quality Silage                                                                           Achieving the optimum
                                                                                                                                             forage balance
                                     Aber Red 5 HSG offers a significant breakthrough in silage
      Includes
                                     production, providing for the first time a mixture including
     AberZeus
       HSG                           4-5 year persistency red clover.
      See page 11
                                     Aber Red 5 HSG overcomes the normal restriction of red clover leys,
                                     extending the life of the red clover component beyond the normal
                                     2-3 years up to five years with the inclusion of AberClaret.
                                     It is also now time to rethink the grasses that are paired with red clover.
                                     AberClaret can last five years, so the grasses must too. Aber Red 5 therefore
                                     includes intermediate and late perennial ryegrass which will also improve
                                     silage quality especially in the second cut.

Fig 16.
                                         Kg/acre             Variety                         Type                            Heading Date
Aber Red 5 HSG
Quality Silage:                            2.0               AberZeus HSG                    Perennial Ryegrass                  25 May

                                           3.0               AberWolf HSG                    Perennial Ryegrass                  27 May

                                           4.0               AberGain HSG                    Perennial Ryegrass (T)              04 Jun

                                           2.0               AberClaret                      Red Clover

                                           1.0               AberChianti                     Red Clover

                                          12.0
T = Tetraploid
                                     When cutting red clover for optimum quality silage, aim to cut when 25% of clover flowers show.
                                     Optimum spread of heading dates within mixtures for grazing and cutting results in better performance
                                     of the leys.

                                                                                                                   MAY JUNE

Fig 17.
                    7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Aber Red 5 HSG
Quality Silage:
Spread of
heading dates
                                                                                                                                             Cheshire dairy farmer David Symms believes
                                     Key benefits in summary                                                                                 high protein red clover and Aber High Sugar
                                     • Red clover with potential for five years persistency
                                     • 100% Aber HSG perennial grasses
                                                                                                                                             Grass makes the perfect mix for quality silage
                                     • Balance of diploid and tetraploid varieties compatible with long lasting                              and a balanced ration.
                                       red clover
                                     • 150kgN/ha nitrogen fixed from red clover                                                              It’s proving an effective formula for his 220 Holstein Friesian milking herd,
                                     • Reduced nitrogen losses to the environment                                                            allowing control of costs without any detriment to performance.
                                     • Aber High Sugar Grasses enhance fermentation, especially when red                                     “We’re reducing bought-in feed and maintaining yields and milk quality,”
                                       clover is included                                                                                    he says. “Quality silage is also helping us to improve herd fertility.”
                                                                                                                                             The current silage mixture includes Aber High Sugar Grass hybrid
                                                                                                                                             tetraploids and intermediate diploid perennial ryegrasses, with AberClaret
                                                                                                                                             red clover.
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14   Aber High Sugar Grass cutting and grazing mixtures                                                           Aber High Sugar Grass cutting and grazing mixtures                                                      15

                                                                                                                    M E D IU M / LO N G T E RM

       New generation                                                                                             Aber HSG 6 Tetraploid
       long term red clovers
                                                                                                                  Aber HSG 6 Tetraploid is a dual purpose cutting and grazing
                                                                                                                  mixture comprising late heading tetraploid varieties that offer
       One of red clover’s traditional shortcomings                                                               a very high yield and quality combination.
       is its relatively short persistence, typically                                                             A compact heading date range in the first week of June makes this mixture
       remaining in the sward for just two to three                                                               ideal for very late first cuts. With the high ranking AberGain HSG, AberBite
                                                                                                                  HSG and AberPlentiful HSG as its component perennial ryegrasses, this
       years when a longer productive life would make                                                             mixture provides access to some of the newest Aber High Sugar Grasses
       it more compatible with medium term leys.                                                                  on the Recommended List.

       Now, a new generation of red clovers is being bred at IBERS
                                                                                 Fig 18.
       Aberystwyth University, with the first varieties AberClaret and                                                Kg/acre             Variety                          Type                           Heading Date
       AberChianti now on UK Descriptive Lists and commercially                  Aber HSG 6
       available in Germinal’s Aber Red 5 HSG mixture.                           Tetraploid:                            5.00              AberGain HSG                     Perennial Ryegrass (T)             04 Jun

                                                                                                                        4.25              AberBite HSG                     Perennial Ryegrass (T)             04 Jun
       AberClaret and AberChianti are the first of a new generation of red                                              5.00              AberPlentiful HSG                Perennial Ryegrass (T)             06 Jun
       clovers bred and selected by plant breeders at IBERS to last 4 years
                                                                                                                        0.75              AberDairy                        White Clover Blend
       and longer in a cutting sward, and to be significantly more tolerant
                                                                                                                       15.00
       of grazing by dairy animals. Dry matter yields in IBERS long term         T = Tetraploid
       trials were in excess of 14,500kg of dry matter in the fourth year and                                     Heading date average for Aber HSG 6 is 5 June for central Britain.
       averaged over 13,500kg in each year of the trial. Over the four years,                                     When cutting for silage, aim to cut 5-10 days before average heading date for optimum quality.
       AberClaret totalled around 60tDM/ha compared with 40-45tDM/ha                                              Optimum spread of heading dates within mixtures for grazing and cutting results in better performance
       from the controls.                                                                                         of the leys.

       With greater persistency of red clover remaining a key objective, the
       latest breeding work at IBERS is focused in particular on resistance to
       the soil borne pathogens Sclerotinia and stem nematode.                                                                                               MAY JUNE

                                                                                 Fig 19.
                                                                                                  16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
                                                                                 Aber HSG 6
                                                                                 Tetraploid:                                          OPTIMAL CUTTING
                                                                                 Spread of                                                WINDOW
                                                                                 heading dates

                                                                                                                  Key benefits in summary
                                                                                                                  • Very high first cut yield and D-value
                                                                                                                  • Exclusively Aber High Sugar Grass tetraploid varieties
                                                                                                                  • Late heading varieties to ensure highest quality for later cuts
                                                                                                                  • High palatability and dry matter intakes
                                                                                                                  • Reduced nitrogen losses to the environment
                                                                                                                  • Suitable for cutting and rotational grazing
Forage Seed 2018 Award winning forage options - germinal.com
16                                   Aber High Sugar Grass cutting and grazing mixtures                                                                           AberClover Blends                                                                      17

                                      ME DIUM / LO N G T E R M

                                     AberXtend HSG Extended Grazing                                                                                               AberClover Blends

                                     At last, you can extend your grazing season, without                                                    The role of clover   The roles of white and red clovers in modern sustainable
      Includes
     AberZeus
                                     compromising persistence, grazing yield and grazing quality.                                                                 livestock farming are growing as new varieties offering higher
       HSG                                                                                                                                                        yields and greater persistency become available.
      See page 11                    AberXtend HSG is the Aber HSG mixture for livestock farmers aiming to
                                     increase yields and lengthen the grazing season. The Recommended Lists                                                       Varieties of white clover bred at IBERS Aberystwyth University lead the way
                                     in both the UK and Ireland show how varieties such as AberDart HSG and                                                       and are now, for example, achieving optimum targets of a 30-35% contribution
                                     AberGain HSG top the lists for spring and autumn performance, but there is                                                   to total sward dry matter under a range of management systems.
                                     absolutely no compromise on the other main performance criteria, with top                                                    Grass and clover breeding at Aberystwyth has always maintained a strong
                                     scores for grazing D-value, ME yield and overall dry matter yields. With the                                                 affinity with real agricultural practice, which means selection and testing
                                     appropriate management, AberXtend HSG can perform to a high standard                                                         takes into account performance in the silo and in the rumen, as well as in
                                     for 5 – 7 years.                                                                                                             the field under animal grazing and/or cutting regimes. This co-ordinated
                                                                                                                                                                  approach ensures the new varieties meet farmers’ needs.
                                                                                                                                                                  Aber grass and clover mixtures are offered as standard with a recommended
                                                                                                                                                                  AberClover blend. However, specific blends of white or red clover can be
Fig 20.                                                                                                                                                           requested to suit a particular farming system or requirement.
                                         Kg/acre             Variety                         Type                            Heading Date
AberXtend
                                                                                                                                                                  Formulated from a combination of medium plus small leaf size Aber white clover
HSG Extended                               5.0               AberDart HSG                    Perennial Ryegrass                  24 May
                                                                                                                                                                  varieties, providing a blend suitable for the dairy farm where high production is
Grazing:                                   5.0               AberZeus HSG                    Perennial Ryegrass                  25 May                           required under cattle grazing and cutting regimes. Good production from early spring
                                           4.0               AberGain HSG                    Perennial Ryegrass (T)              04 Jun                           provides a balanced sward and good support for high yielding companion grasses.
                                           1.0               AberPasture                     White Clover Blend                              Fig 22.
                                                                                                                                                                          %                                  Variety
                                          15.0                                                                                               AberDairy:
T = Tetraploid                                                                                                                                                           50%                                 AberHerald (medium leaf)
                                     Heading date average for AberXtend HSG is 28 May for central Britain.                                                               50%                                 AberDai (medium leaf)
                                     When cutting for silage, aim to cut 5-10 days before average heading date for optimum quality.
                                     Optimum spread of heading dates within mixtures for grazing and cutting results in better performance
                                     of the leys.                                                                                                                 Aber white clover varieties provide a unique blend of small and medium leaf size clovers
                                                                                                                                                                  selected for their suitability for cattle set stocking and rotational sheep grazing.
                                                                                                                                             Fig 23.
                                                                                                                   MAY JUNE                                               %                                  Variety

Fig 21.                                                                                                                                      AberPasture:                15%                                 AberDai (medium leaf)
                    7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
                                                                                                                                                                         45%                                 AberHerald (medium leaf)
AberXtend
HSG Extended                                                                                                                                                             30%                                 AberPearl (small leaf)
Grazing:                                                                                                                                                                 10%                                 AberAce (small leaf)
Spread of
heading dates                        Key benefits in summary
                                                                                                                                                                  Small leaf size Aber white clover varieties combined with a medium leaf size variety
                                     • Mixture averages an outstanding 109% of control varieties on
                                                                                                                                                                  provide a blend suitable for sheep systems, ranging from continuous to rotational
                                       the Recommended List for early grazing yield and 111% for                                                                  grazing on either upland or lowland farms. Inclusion of the new hybrid white clover
                                       autumn production                                                                                                          AberLasting, the first to be developed with rhizomatous root characteristics, gives
                                     • The best Aber HSG perennial grasses selected for spring and                                                                increased persistency and drought tolerance.
                                       autumn yield                                                                                          Fig 24.
                                                                                                                                                                          %                                  Variety
                                     • Outstanding season-long yield and quality
                                                                                                                                             AberSheep:                  25%                                 AberDai (medium leaf)
                                     • High palatability and dry matter intakes
                                                                                                                                                                         35%                                 AberPearl (small leaf)
                                     • Reduced nitrogen losses to the environment                                                                                        10%                                 AberLasting (small-medium leaf)
                                                                                                                                                                         30%                                 AberAce (small leaf)

                                                                                                                                                                  Benefits of AberClover Blends
                                                                                                                                                                  • Boosts output of milk and meat              • Performs reliably on most soil types and
                                                                                                                                                                    from forage                                   under most management systems
                                                                                                                                                                  • Improves soil structure                     • Tolerates moderately high applications
                                                                                                                                                                  • Improves the quality of grazing               of nitrogen fertiliser
                                                                                                                                                                  • Helps to maintain a balanced grass/         • Reduces fertiliser requirements
                                                                                                                                                                    clover sward
18               Overseeding                                                                       Overseeding                                                                19

                 Overseeding

                 Where a full reseed is impractical or unwarranted, short term
                 productivity can be improved through a number of different
                 overseeding methods. When overseeding, it pays to use the
                 best available varieties that have been selected specifically for
                 the purpose.

Fig 25.
                    Kg/acre       Variety                  Type                     Heading Date
Aber HSG
Long Term            3.0          AberClyde                Perennial Ryegrass (T)      24 May
Overseeding:         3.0          AberGain HSG             Perennial Ryegrass (T)      04 Jun

                     4.0          AberBite HSG             Perennial Ryegrass (T)      04 Jun

                    10.0
T = Tetraploid

                 Key benefits in summary
                 • 100% tetraploids for rapid establishment
                 • Perennial ryegrasses for persistency
                 • High ranking Aber HSG varieties

Fig 26.
                    Kg/acre       Variety                  Type                     Heading Date

                                                                                                   Overseeding helps
Aber HSG
Short Term           2.0          Dorike / AberTorch       Italian Ryegrass (T)        16 May
Overseeding:

                                                                                                   cut feeding costs
                     4.0          AberEve                  Hybrid Ryegrass (T)         21 May

                     4.0          AberNiche                Festulolium                23 May

                    10.0
T = Tetraploid

                 Key benefits in summary
                 • Rapid establishment
                                                                                                   Improvement of in-bye acres by pan-busting,
                 • High yielding under cutting                                                     liming and overseeding has created savings in
                 • New festulolium for increased rooting                                           bought-in feed after just one year on Donald
                                                                                                   McDonald’s Highland sheep farm.

                                                                                                   More productive swards have resulted in concentrate feeding to weaned
                                                                                                   lambs being delayed by a full month at the start of the winter, saving
                                                                                                   money in the short term and creating the opportunity to increase stocking
                                                                                                   rates in future.
                                                                                                   Top-ranking Aber High Sugar Grasses are being used in the overseeding
                                                                                                   programme, with white clover either included in the mix or stitched in later.
20   Puna II perennial chicory mixtures                                                                   Puna II perennial chicory mixtures                                               21

     The leading perennial chicory                                                                        Puna II perennial chicory mixtures
     for UK farmers
                                                                                     Fig 27.
                                                                                                             Kg/acre                           Variety               Type
                                                                                     Lamb Finisher:
     Puna II is the leading perennial chicory variety,
                                                                                                               1.00                            Puna II               Perennial Chicory
                                                                                                               2.00                            AberClaret            Red Clover

     selected through a long term breeding                                                                     1.25                            AberChianti           Red Clover
                                                                                                               1.00                            Tonic Plantain
     programme in New Zealand for its nutritive                                                                5.25

     value, productivity, palatability and persistency.
                                                                                                          Key benefits in summary
                                                                                                          • 2-3 years, intensive finishing mixture
     It is a broad-leaved perennial forage crop that can be grown in the UK as a
     pure stand or as a key part of mixed swards with clover, or grass and clover,                        • Red clover can contribute up to 150kgN/ha
     for medium-long term rotational grazing (2-5 year persistency). Perennial                            • Full production from May to September
     chicory should not be confused with short-lived common chicory grown                                 • High protein forage suitable for finishing early lambs
     unsuccessfully previously.
     Selection strategy in breeding Puna II has included tolerance to the fungal
     disease Sclerotinia, which causes plant death, and an erect growth habit to
                                                                                     Fig 28.
     improve compatibility with ryegrass.                                                                    Kg/acre                           Variety               Type
                                                                                     Lamb Finisher             1.00                            Puna II               Perennial Chicory
     Key benefits of Puna II                                                         with White Clover:
                                                                                                               1.50                            AberChianti           Red Clover
     • Outstanding animal performance (e.g. lamb growth rates of 300-400g/day)                                 1.00                            AberClaret            Red Clover
     • Yields up to 15tDM/ha in a season; crude protein up to 25%; D-value 70-80                               1.00                            Aran                  White Clover

     • High mineral content, including zinc, potassium and copper                                              1.00                            Tonic Plantain
                                                                                                               5.50
     • Good tolerance to drought, acid soils and major pests
     • Rapid regrowth after grazing
     • Reduces the effect of internal parasites                                                           Key benefits in summary
     • Provides high quality feed through the summer                                                      • As Lamb Finisher, but with the benefit of white clover to improve ground
                                                                                                            cover during late season
     • Does not cause bloating
                                                                                                          • 2-3 years duration

                                                                                     Fig 29.
                                                                                                             Kg/acre                           Variety               Type
                                                                                     Livestock Grazer/         2.00                            AberEcho HSG          Hybrid Ryegrass (T)
                                                                                     Beef Finisher/
                                                                                                               2.00                            AberEve HSG           Hybrid Ryegrass (T)
                                                                                     Puna II HSG
                                                                                     Medium Term Ley:          4.00                            AberWolf HSG          Perennial Ryegrass
                                                                                                               0.75                            Puna II               Perennial Chicory
                                                                                                               1.50                            Aran                  White Clover
                                                                                                               1.00                            Tonic Plantain
                                                                                                              11.25
                                                                                     T = Tetraploid

                                                                                                          Key benefits in summary
                                                                                                          • 3-4 year medium term ley
                                                                                                          • Ideal for lambs, beef youngstock – finishing (or calves) or flushing ewes
                                                                                                          • The grasses in this mixture offer improved grazing and ground cover
                                                                                                            in autumn
22                 Tonic plantain                                                                                           Multi-species leys                                                                    23

                   Tonic plantain                                                                                           Multi-species leys

                   Tonic plantain is a broad leaved perennial                                            Grazing Ley        High ranking ryegrass varieties are combined with a diverse
                                                                                                                            range of plant species suited to lower input systems in this long
                   forage herb that is an ideal companion in mixed
                                                                                                                            term grazing mixture.
                   species swards with Aber red and white clovers                                                           Performance is achieved due to the complementary characteristics of
                   and Aber High Sugar Grasses.                                                                             different plant types, allowing leaf and root architecture to maximise the
                                                                                                                            use of light, moisture and nutrients above and below ground.

                   Plantain is a coarse rooted plant that is well adapted to a range of soil types.
                   With similar total annual yields to Puna II perennial chicory, it has slightly        Fig 31.
                                                                                                                               Kg/acre           Variety             Type                          Heading Date
                   better spring and autumn growth.
                                                                                                         Grazing Ley:            3.0             AberWolf HSG        Perennial Ryegrass              27 May
                   Tonic plantain is highly productive and provides high quality feed that can                                   3.4             AberStar HSG        Perennial Ryegrass              25 May
                   boost liveweight gain in livestock. It is ideally suited to intensive or rotational                           1.0             Presto              Timothy                          8 June
                   grazing systems, with rapid regrowth post-grazing in dry summers.                                             0.6             Puna II             Perennial Chicory
                                                                                                                                 1.0             Tonic               Plantain
                   Key benefits of Tonic plantain
                                                                                                                                 1.5             AberPasture         White Clover Blend
                   • More milk or meat production                                                                                1.5             AberClaret          Red Clover
                   • Increased daily liveweight gain                                                                            12.0
                   • Heavier weights at weaning
                   • High dry matter production from early spring to late autumn
                   • Reduces the effects of internal parasites
                                                                                                         Cutting Ley        This cutting version of the multi species mixture concept
                   • High in minerals, especially copper and selenium
                   • Very palatable
                                                                                                                            includes a vetch and an annual white clover to provide a boost
                                                                                                                            in dry matter production in the first year.
Fig 30.                                                                                                                     The mixture combines high ranking ryegrass varieties and other plant
                                                                                                                            species, with the different characteristics of varying plant types allowing leaf
Sheep grazing on                                                                                                            and root architecture to maximise the use of light, moisture and nutrients
a multi-species                                                                                                             above and below ground.
sward including
Tonic plantain:
                                                                                                         Fig 32.
                                                                                                                               Kg/acre           Variety             Type                          Heading Date
                                                                                                         Cutting Ley:            3.0             AberWolf HSG        Perennial Ryegrass              27 May
                                                                                                                                 3.0             AberStar HSG        Perennial Ryegrass              25 May
                                                                                                                                 1.0             Presto              Timothy                          8 June
                                                                                                                                 1.0             Tonic               Plantain
                                                                                                                                 1.5             AberPasture         White Clover
                                                                                                                                 1.5             AberClaret          Red Clover
                                                                                                                                 5.0             Early English       Vetch
                                                                                                                                 1.0             FiXatioN            Balansa Annual White Clover
                                                                                                                                17.0

                                                                                                         Fig 33.
                                                                                                                               Kg/acre                                 Herb

                                                                                                         Herb option (for        0.6                                   Burnet
                                                                                                         Grazing Ley or          0.4                                   Alsike Clover
                                                                                                         Cutting Ley):
                                                                                                                                 0.3                                   Sheep’s Parsley
                                                                                                                                 0.2                                   Yarrow
                                                                                                                                 0.5                                   Birdsfoot Trefoil
                                                                                                                                 2.0
24                                                Lucerne                                                                    Lucerne                                                                        25

                                                  Lucerne                                                                    High protein forage solution

                                                  Lucerne is a nitrogen-fixing legume, most commonly grown as
                                                  a stand-alone crop for cutting and with some grazing potential.

Varieties selected                                TIMBALE
for UK conditions                                 • Excellent nutritional value (thin stemmed with good leaf retention)
                                                  • Good disease resistance
                                                  • High yielding

                                                  GALAXIE
                                                  • Exceptional yields
                                                  • Good disease resistance

                                                  GALAXIE MAX
                                                  • A blend of Timbale and Galaxie
                                                  • Two of the leading lucerne varieties with cold tolerance for northern
                                                    European climates

Pre-inoculated                                    Timbale, Galaxie and Galaxie Max from Germinal are pre-inoculated and
and treated seed                                  treated with SAS Energy:
                                                  • Unique Seed Applied Solution (SAS Energy) to improve
                                                    lucerne establishment
                                                  • Multi-layered permeable coating with 100% active ingredients
                                                  • Essential minerals and trace elements specific to lucerne requirements
                                                  • Stimulates early vigour and improves root and leaf development

Optimum seed rate                                 • Timbale, Galaxie and Galaxie Max are sold in Precidose packs
                                                  • Precidose ensures optimum plant population and prevents problems
                                                    due to over or under seeding
                                                  • Easy to use; 2 Precidose packs per hectare in good conditions
                                                  • Increase to 2.3 packs/ha for later sowing or heavier conditions

Proven performance                                In trials, SAS Energy treated seed drilled at Precidose rates achieved:
                                                  • 14% INCREASE IN PLANT ESTABLISHMENT
                                                  • 6% INCREASE IN FIRST CUT DRY MATTER YIELDS                               Over the last six years, lucerne has become a
                                                                                                                             major year-round component of the milking cow
                                                                                                                             forage ration at Harper Adams University farm.

                                                                                                                             Fed in the milking ration at a forage dry matter ratio of one-part lucerne to
                                                                                                                             three parts forage maize, it provides both protein and digestible fibre for a
                                                                                                                             380-cow herd averaging 10,000 litres a year.
                                                                                                                             “Apart from reducing our bought-in protein, lucerne is a good source of
                                                                                                                             digestible fibre and it allows us to maximise the maize in the ration,” says
                                                                                                                             assistant farm manager Chris Ruffley.
                                                                                                                             The farm grows around 45ha of the variety Galaxie as a four-year crop,
Improved development of roots and foliage is                                                                                 which yields 12-15tDM/ha of 22% crude protein forage.
seen in the lucerne seedlings on the right as a
result of Precidose seed treatment
26   Forage brassicas                                                                                                               Forage brassicas                                     27

     Grow your own protein                                                                                                          Planning your brassica crops
     to cut costs of production
                                                                                                                                                       Regrowth         Sowing to
                                                                                                                                                       Potential *      Grazing Period
     High protein forage brassicas present a
     significant opportunity to drive down costs                                                                                                             Nil          8 Weeks
                                                                                                                                                          Vollenda          Appin
     of production, yet are not grown on a large                                                                                                           Stego            Stego

     majority of livestock farms.                                                                                               Summer/
                                                                                                                                Early Autumn
                                                                                                                                Jun - Sep
                                                                                                                                                                          10 Weeks
     According to Germinal’s 2017 Forage Use Survey, less than a third of UK                                                    Stubble turnip                              Swift
     livestock farmers are growing forage brassicas, with fewer still tapping into                                              Forage rape                                Redstart
                                                                                                                                Hybrid brassica
     the benefits of other homegrown high protein sources, such as red clover
     and lucerne.
                                                                                                                                                            High
     With growing uncertainty over agricultural support and the likelihood of                                                                              Swift          12 Weeks
     continued commodity price volatility, livestock farmers need to reduce their                                                                          Appin           Vollenda
     reliance on bought-in feed and fertiliser, and become more self-sufficient.                                                                          Redstart

     “Homegrown forage protein crops will reduce the need for bought-in protein,
     which will always be expensive and susceptible to price volatility, and there
     are additional benefits too, such as improved soil fertility, soil structure and
     pest control,” says Germinal GB’s Ben Wixey.
                                                                                          When do
     “There are now many modern forage brassica varieties that offer an                   you require
     excellent source of protein and can boost productivity as summer catch               your brassica
     crops, autumn grazing or even out-wintering. These brassicas also work               crop?
     very effectively as break crops in grassland reseeding, helping to reduce
     the threat of common pests such as leatherjackets and frit fly. This is more                                                                      Regrowth         Winter
     important as chemical pest control options become more restricted.”                                                                               Potential *      Tolerance

     Mr Wixey points out that the varying attributes and agronomy of forage                                                                                 Nil              Low
     proteins means farmers should make the decision on which crop to grow                                                                                 Bittern         Vollenda
     based on individual farm conditions and requirements.                                                                                                Vollenda
                                                                                                                                                          Triumph
     “Look at where you can start building protein crops into a rotation if that fits
                                                                                                                                Autumn/
     with your system. When growing any crop, it’s important to pick the right                                                                                              Good
                                                                                                                                Winter
     field and grow it well. It’s also important to know how much you are growing,                                                                                          Swift
                                                                                                                                Oct - Feb
     to utilise it effectively and ensure you have enough of the crop to make a                                                                          Moderate           Appin
     difference in the ration.”                                                                                                 Stubble turnip                             Redstart
                                                                                                                                Hybrid brassica         Maris Kestrel
                                                                                                                                Kale
                                                                                                                                Triumph
                                                                                                                                Fodder beet
                                                                                                                                                                            High
                                                                                                                                                            High
                                                                                                                                                                         Maris Kestrel
                                                                                                                                                           Swift            Bittern
                                                                                                                                                           Appin           Triumph
                                                                                                                                                          Redstart       Fodder beet

                                                                                        *Rate and extent of regrowth depends on weather conditions.
28              Forage brassicas                                                                         Forage brassicas                                        29

                Forage brassica options                                                                  Forage brassica options

Maris Kestrel   Maris Kestrel is established as the leading kale variety in the UK     Swift             Swift is the first of a revolutionary range of
Kale            and is suitable for all classes of stock.                              Hybrid brassica   interspecies (rape x kale) hybrids developed in
                                                                                                         New Zealand to provide a new generation of
                Sow at 2-3kg/acre from May to the end of June. Feed from July to the
                following March.                                                                         flexible and cost effective forage crops.
                Main uses                                                                                Sow at 2-3kg/acre from May to the end of August. Feed
                • Ideal for out-wintering                                                                from July to the following March.
                • Good later summer/early autumn feed for cattle or sheep                                Main uses
                • Solution to late season grazing deficits                                               • High energy grazing for cattle and sheep
                Key benefits                                                                             • Summer, autumn and winter grazing
                • Outstanding leaf-to-stem ratio                                                         • Ideal for out-wintering systems
                • High whole plant D-value                                                               Key benefits
                • Vigorous early growth                                                                  • Fast and vigorous growth
                • Resistant to lodging                                                                   • Winter hardiness
                • Good winter hardiness                                                                  • Regrowth potential
                • Long utilisation period                                                                • Good late season yield potential
                • Available with Cruiser SB                                                              • High energy and good protein source

Bittern         Bittern is a medium height kale with the versatility to be used        Redstart          Redstart is from the same breeding line as
Kale            either for grazing or as a game cover crop.                            Hybrid brassica   Swift and offers similarly flexible and cost
                                                                                                         effective solutions to year-round quality forage
                Sow at 2-3kg/acre from May to the end of June. Feed from September
                to the following March.                                                                  supply, but with higher feed quality.

                Main uses                                                                                Sow at 2-3kg/acre from May to the end of August. Feed
                • Maintenance for dry cows                                                               from July to the following March.
                • Game cover                                                                             Main uses
                • Cattle grazing following game cover use                                                • High energy grazing for cattle and sheep
                Key benefits                                                                             • Summer, autumn and winter grazing
                • Good leaf-to-stem ratio (44-48% leaf)                                                  • Ideal where fast growth is required,
                                                                                                           such as upland situations
                • Excellent palatability (high stem sugar content)
                • Winter hardy with very good frost tolerance                                            Key benefits
                • Added versatility due to club root resistance                                          • Very rapid and vigorous growth
                • Medium height with good lodging resistance                                             • Winter hardiness
                                                                                                         • Regrowth potential
                                                                                                         • Good late season yield potential
                                                                                                         • High energy and good protein source
30               Forage brassicas                                                                                 Forage brassicas                                                            31

                 Forage brassica options                                                                          Forage brassica options

Stego            Stego is a high yielding forage rape ideally suited to finishing               Appin             Appin is a fast growing leafy grazing turnip providing a rapid
Forage rape      lambs as summer or autumn grazing.                                             Grazing turnips   source of palatable, easy-to-digest fodder for sheep and cattle.
                 Drill at 2.5kg/acre (or broadcast at 4kg/acre) from March to July. Feed from                     Drill at 2kg/acre (or broadcast at 3kg/acre) from March to mid September.
                 June to December.                                                                                Feed from May to December.

                 Main uses                                                                                        Main uses
                 • Autumn / winter brassica for lamb finishing                                                    • Catch crops for overcoming summer grazing shortfalls
                 • Extended grazing for cattle                                                                    • Versatile autumn/winter grazing that reduces concentrate feeding period
                                                                                                                  • Autumn / winter brassica for worm free lamb finishing
                 Key benefits
                                                                                                                  • Extended grazing for cattle
                 • High leaf-to-stem ratio
                 • High stem digestibility, so low plant residues after grazing                                   Key benefits
                 • Excellent disease resistance, including mildew                                                 • Vigorous establishment and quick maturity
                                                                                                                  • Wide sowing window
                                                                                                                  • Multi-crowned with excellent regrowth potential
Vollenda         Vollenda is a high yielding stubble turnip offering cost effective                               • Good root anchorage
Stubble turnip   feeding solutions in summer, autumn or winter for sheep or cattle.
                 Drill at 2kg/acre (or broadcast at 3kg/acre) from March to August. Feed from   Triumph           Triumph is a very high yielding, yellow-fleshed, first crop swede,
                 June to December.
                                                                                                Swede             suitable as over-winter grazing for all classes of stock.
                 Main uses
                                                                                                                  Drill from mid-May to the end of June at 250g/acre (precision drilled).
                 • Catch crops for overcoming summer grazing shortfalls
                                                                                                                  Graze from November through to March.
                 • Versatile autumn/winter grazing that reduces concentrate feeding period
                 • Valuable source of clean (worm free) grazing for lambs                                         Main uses
                                                                                                                  • High energy winter grazing for cattle and sheep
                 Key benefits
                 • Easy to establish (undersown or scratched into stubbles)                                       Key benefits
                 • Early vigour variety suitable for May sowing (July feeding)                                    • Very high dry matter yields
                 • Winter hardy variety ideal for later drilling (Nov – Jan feeding)                              • Winter hardy
                 • Good resistance to bolting                                                                     • Good dry rot and mildew tolerance
                                                                                                                  • Available with Cruiser seed treatment
32                     Forage brassicas                                                                                       Forage brassicas                                                           33

                       Brassica mixtures                                                                                      Out-wintering stands
                                                                                                                              test of time
                       Brassica mixtures are being used increasingly by livestock
                       farmers and are an effective way of tailoring a grazing crop
                       more precisely to specific circumstances.
                       Individual crops including kale, forage rape and turnips have their own
                       strengths but also grow well in combination and, as such, offer advantages
                       in a similar way to herbage mixtures.

Potential advantages   • Increased forage choice for livestock
of brassica mixtures   • Higher dry matter intakes
                       • Greater overall production per hectare
                                                                                                                              Four years’ experience of out-wintering in-calf
Fig 34.
                           Mixture                                  Weight                                                    dairy heifers on brassicas have convinced Hugh
Winter Feed:               Bittern kale                             1.0kg                                                     McClymont, farm manager at SRUC’s Crichton
                           Swift hybrid brassica                    1.0kg
                       		                                           2.0kg/acre                                                Royal Farm, of the merits of this low-cost system.
                       Main use                                     Key features
                       • Out-wintering for all ruminant livestock   • A winter hardy blend of palatable fodder                Strip-grazing Redstart or Swift hybrid brassica, with big baled silage pre-
                                                                    • Yield potential of over 12 tonnesDM/ha                  placed as supplementary fodder, has brought about tangible savings in
                                                                                                                              roof space, bedding, muck handling and spreading, with no detriment to
Fig 35.
                           Mixture                                  Weight                                                    the cattle.
Late Sown                  Swift hybrid brassica                    0.75kg                                                    “We’ve had no health problems and heifers calve down the following spring
Winter Feed:
                           Redstart hybrid brassica                 0.75kg                                                    without difficulty at around BCS 3, having on average achieved their lifetime
                           Appin grazing turnip                     0.65kg                                                    growth rate target of 0.8kg/day,” he reports. “It takes about an hour each day
                           Maris Kestrel kale                       0.10kg                                                    to move the fence, but that’s time well spent looking at the stock.”
                       		                                           2.25kg/acre
                                                                                                                              Key points on site selection, he says, are to choose relatively free-draining
                       Main use                                     Key features                                              fields with shelter from well-grown hedges, good access to water and a
                       • Out-wintering for sheep or cattle          • Fast growing fodder for late sowing
                                                                                                                              run-back area.
Fig 36.
                           Mixture                                  Weight
Summer                     Appin grazing turnip                     0.5kg
Multigraze:
                           Swift hybrid brassica                    1.0kg
                           Stego rape                               0.9kg
                           Maris Kestrel kale                       0.1kg
                       		                                           2.5kg/acre

                       Main use                                     Key features
                       • Early lamb finishing                       • A blend of fast growing grazing turnips and
                       • Supplementary summer grazing for dairy       forage rape with the added high yield, quality
                         or beef cattle                               and regrowth potential of Swift
                                                                    • Regrowth potential

Fig 37.
                           Mixture                                  Weight
Autumn                     Swift hybrid brassica                    1.25kg
Multigraze:
                           Appin grazing turnip                     0.90kg
                           Maris Kestrel kale                       0.10kg
                       		                                           2.25kg/acre

                       Main use                                     Key features
                       • Late lamb finishing                        • A blend that combines the winter hardiness and
                       • Flushing ewes                                quality feed value of Swift for later grazing and the
                       • Improving late season grazing when grass     rapid establishment of Appin grazing turnip
                         growth is declining
34                 Anaerobic digestion                                                                                   Anaerobic digestion                                                         35

                   Grass as a feedstock for                                                                              Aber High Sugar Grass for AD
                   anaerobic digestion
                                                                                                                         As with the supply of feed for livestock, where well managed
                                                                                                                         Aber HSG leys are the cheapest source of nutrition for meat
                   Anaerobic digestion (AD) is a growth area in renewable energy                                         and milk production, Aber HSG offers great potential for
                   with increasing numbers of farm businesses involved with their                                        biogas production.
                   own units or by growing feedstock.
                                                                                                                         Studies carried out at IBERS show that Aber HSG ryegrasses perform well
                   The use of grass leys as a feedstock is attracting interest due to the range                          compared to general grassland mixtures. All the Aber HSG varieties out-
                   of advantages offered:                                                                                performed mixed grassland with the conclusion that higher water soluble
                   • Grass as a crop is relatively cheap and easy to grow in our climate and                             carbohydrate content in grass has a positive effect on both the yield and
                     soil types                                                                                          rate at which biogas is produced.

                   • It is cost effective compared to other biogas fuels (see Fig. 38)                                   To help answer outstanding questions, Germinal is setting up further
                                                                                                                         research at IBERS comparing Aber HSG varieties with alternative feedstocks
                   • Equipment and infrastructure to grow and handle this feedstock is already                           that have a range of D-values and at varying harvest dates.
                     in place
                   • Grass can be used fresh (offering the highest rate of gas production) and
                     would be cut and carried on a rotational basis; it can also be stored and       Aber HSG mixtures   Aber High Sugar Grass varieties that have been bred for higher water
                     used as silage                                                                  for AD              soluble carbohydrate (sugar) content and rank high for D-value offer the
                                                                                                                         ideal combination of characteristics for an AD feedstock, whether ensiled
                   • Medium and long term grass leys offer a more environmentally sustainable                            or as a fresh crop.
                     option than crops requiring annual cultivations
                   • Grass leys allow more opportunity to spread the waste products from             Fig 39.
                                                                                                                          Kg/acre              Variety                      Type
                     the digesters, whether that is liquid or solid, without the need to plough
                                                                                                     AD Short term:        4.0                 AberEcho HSG                 Hybrid Ryegrass (T)
                     back under
                                                                                                                           5.0                 AberEve HSG                  Hybrid Ryegrass (T)
                   • Blackgrass control:                                                                                   5.0                 AberNiche                    Festulolium
                     - Medium to long term grass leys cut three or more times a year will reduce                          14.0 kg
                                                                                                     T = Tetraploid
                       the blackgrass seed production; by constantly cutting the ley there is
                       little if any seed returning to the soil
                                                                                                     Fig 40.
                                                                                                                          Kg/acre              Variety                      Type
                     - The viability of old undisturbed blackgrass seed within soil reduces
                       by 70% per annum, meaning after the 3 plus years of grassland, the            AD Medium term:       6.0                 AberEcho HSG                 Hybrid Ryegrass (T)
                       blackgrass seed populations are reduced dramatically                                                8.0                 AberMagic HSG                Perennial Ryegrass
                                                                                                                          14.0 kg
                     - 65% to 75% of blackgrass volunteers germinate in the autumn, so               T = Tetraploid
                       establishing your grass ley in the spring (even under-sown to a cereal
                       crop) will help to further reduce the blackgrass populations                  Fig 41.
                                                                                                                          Kg/acre              Variety                      Type

                                                                                                     AD Long term:         5.0                 AberMagic HSG                Perennial Ryegrass
Fig 38.            		                        Estimated
                                                               Cost     Methane    Methane   Cost                          4.0                 AberGreen HSG                Perennial Ryegrass
                   		                       Fresh Weight
                                                              £/Acre    M3/Tonne   M3/Acre   £/M 3
Comparative        		                    (Tonnes/Acre/Year)                                                                5.0                 AberBite HSG                 Perennial Ryegrass (T)
costs of methane     Spring Barley              10            £480.00     108       1080     £0.44                        14.0 kg
                                                                                                     T = Tetraploid
production:
                        (35%DM)                 12            £480.00     108       1296     £0.37

                     Spring Triticale           12            £485.00     108       1296     £0.37

                        (35%DM)                 14            £485.00     108       1512     £0.32

                   Winter Hybrid Rye            14            £535.00     108       1512     £0.35

                        (35%DM)                 16            £535.00     108       1728     £0.31

                   		                           18            £535.00     108       1944     £0.28

                    Hybrid Ryegrass             26            £635.00     90        2340     £0.27

                        (25%DM)                 28            £635.00     90        2520     £0.25

                   		                           30            £635.00     90        2700     £0.24
36   Leisure Amenity

     Leisure Amenity mixtures                                                             Find out more

     Germinal supplies a wide range of amenity mixtures for                               Should you require any more information or to request a selection of free
     equestrian, sports grounds, landscaping, turf and conservation.                      brochures and technical guides, please visit our website:
     These mixtures bring together species to suit the different                          www.germinal.com
     applications. All varieties are BSPB listed.

                                                                                                  @wearegerminal
     Horse Paddock                             WF1 Flowering Meadow
     A resilient mixture providing season-     Rapid establishment to produce
     long nutritional grazing and the          a first-year display and with
     potential for hay production. The         perennials for longer term
     high density of ground cover helps to     colour and persistency.
     resist poaching.
                                                                                          Contacts:
                                               WFG2 Flowering Meadow
     Allsport Ryeblend                         Combines the wild flora species of
                                                                                          Ben Wixey
     A very resilient and rapidly              WF1 with ornamental grasses to
                                                                                          National Agricultural Sales Manager
     establishing sward suitable for all       provide a grassland meadow mixture
                                                                                          T: 07990 578550
     new sports pitches and for the            suitable for acidic soils.
     repair of existing grounds.
                                                                                          William Fleming
                                               WFG6 Heavy Clay Soils
                                                                                          Scotland and North East England
     Popular Hardwearing                       Varieties selected for their suitability
                                                                                          T: 07971 640428
     An attractive and resilient sward that    to heavy clay soils. Extra attention is
     establishes quickly and is suitable for   required when preparing seedbeds in
                                                                                          Helen Mathieu
     lawns, parks and sports pitches.          heavy clay soils to ensure optimum
                                                                                          Central, Eastern and North West
                                               soil moisture for a medium tilth.
                                                                                          England and North Wales
     Emerald Multiscape
     A high quality turf with high shoot       WFG9 Wetland and Pond Areas
                                                                                          T: 07866 456056
     density and year-round greenness,         Suitable for aquatic habitats and damp
     suitable for all soil types.              low lying sites, edge of ponds, rivers
                                                                                          Bill Reilly
                                               and ditches. Avoid establishment
                                                                                          Southern England and South Wales
     Low Maintenance Fineturf                  when there is risk of flooding.
                                                                                          T: 07713 878069
     A fine textured and resilient sward
     with good winter colour and reduced       WF10 Cornfield Annuals
                                                                                          Head office:
     mowing requirement.                       A mixture for recreating the colour
                                                                                          lincoln@germinal.com
                                               of cornfield annuals, once a feature
     Shaded Areas                              of traditional farming areas. Ideal for
     A fine leaved sward with good ground      sowing on its own or supplementing
     cover, suitable for dry, shaded and       perennial mixtures that are slower
     low nutrient areas.                       to establish.

     Prestige Golf & Bowling Greens
     A dense disease resistant sward
     with uniform surface that withstands
     close mowing and looks attractive
     throughout the season.

     Wildflower Conservation
     Contains cornfield annuals to provide                                                Aber® and Aber® HSG are registered trademarks of Germinal Holdings Ltd.
     quick establishment and first year
                                                                                          The mixtures in this brochure are correct at the time of going to press and the supplies of the
     colour. Perennial species provide
                                                                                          varieties used in the mixtures should be adequate for this season. If, however, we do run short
     colour and persistency in future years.
                                                                                          of some, they will be replaced by the next best variety on the Recommended List.
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