HARVARD REFERENCING GUIDE - Academic Services - UCA

 
HARVARD
 REFERENCING
 GUIDE

University      Academic Services
for the
Creative Arts
CONTENTS
WHAT IS HARVARD REFERENCING?                   3            Exhibition (Visited)                  15
WHY REFERENCE?                                 3            Film (Physical and online)            16
CITATIONS                                      4            Game (Physical and online)            17
What is a citation?                            4            Lectures and talks                    17
                                                            Music and other audio (Physical and
How to write citations                         4                                                  17
                                                            online)
   Citing direct quotations                    4            Music performance (Attended)          18
   Citing indirect quotations (Paraphrasing)   5            Online video                          18
   Citing two or more authors                  6            Radio (Broadcast, online and podcasts) 18
   Citing multiple works by an author
                                               7            Television (Broadcast and online)     19
   with the same year of publication
   Citing a chapter from a book                7            Theatre and dance performance         20
   Citing an author quoting someone else       7            Theses (Print and online)             20
   Citing with a company name                  7            Translated text (Print and online)    20
   Citing a work with no identifiable
                                               7        Example bibliography                      23
   author or publication date
   Citing a film or television programme       7        REFERENCING IMAGES                        24
   Citing multiple authors within a single
                                               8        What is a list of illustrations?          24
   citation
BIBLIOGRAPHIES                                 9        Writing figure numbers and captions 25
What is a bibliography?                        9        How to write your list of illustrations   25
How to write references                        9        References different images sources       26
Writing references: the most
                                               10           Images scanned from a book            26
popular sources
                                                            Images scanned from a magazine or
   Books (Print and online)                    10                                                 26
                                                            journal
   Book chapters                               11           Images obtained online                27
   Journal articles (Print and online)         11           Film, television and game stills      27
   Newspaper articles (Print and online)       12           Maps (Print and online)               28
   Websites                                    13           Screenshots                           28
Writing references: other sources              14           Unpublished photographs               29
   Acts of Parliament                          14       Example List of Illustrations             29
   Archive material                            14       FURTHER GUIDANCE                          30
   Artwork in exhibitions                      14       REFERENCING TOOLS                         30
   Conference proceedings                      15       REFERENCING QUICK GUIDE                   31
   Emails                                      15

                                                    2
WHAT IS HARVARD REFERENCING?
Harvard referencing is the method by which you acknolwedge using someone else’s writing, work, or
ideas in your own academic writing while studying at UCA. The Harvard system consists of two main
components:

   •   Citations. Citations are used in the body of your writing to show when you have referred to
       someone else’s writing, work or ideas. They usually consist of the author’s surname, year of
       publication, and page number (where applicable) and are contained within brackets. Each of your
       citations should link to a corresponding entry in your bibliography.
   •   Bibliography. A bibliography is a list of all the sources that you used or consulted to complete
       your assignment. The bibliography should be arranged in alphabetical order and contains more
       detail on your sources, including how you accessed them.
If you use images you will also need to reference them separately using captions and a list of illustrations.
This is covered later in this guide (Click here to find out how to reference images).

WHY REFERENCE?
Making sure that you accurately cite and reference the writing, work and/or ideas produced by somebody
else is an essential part of academic writing. Here are some reasons why it is so important:

   •   Avoid plagiarism. Using citations and referencing accurately will help you avoid accusations of
       plagiarism because it gives you a means to fully acknowledge your sources.
   •   Support your argument or claim. Referencing other authors in your work demonstrates that
       your argument is based on existing knowledge and helps demonstrate that you have carried out
       appropriate research.
   •   Demonstrate your honesty & integrity. As a student at UCA you are expected to comply
       with student regulations and, as a future creative professional, referencing accurately is a way to
       demonstrate your professionalism, honesty and integrity.
   •   Demonstrate the breadth of your research. Your referencing allows you to show what
       research you have done while completing your assignment.
   •   Source checking. Your lecturers will be interested to see what kind of sources you have used,
       and your referencing allows other people to do this too; this is all part of good academic practice.

          What is plagiarism?
           Plagiarism is deliberately or accidentally presenting someone else’s writing, work or ideas as if
           they are your own. It is also possible to self-plagiarise by submitting an assignment that you have
           previously submitted at UCA or at another institution. Plagiarism is a very serious offence that can
           lead to you having to re-submit your work, receiving a zero grade, and, in some situations, being
           expelled from the university. Making sure that your Harvard referencing is accurate is the way to
           avoid accusations of plagiarism.

           If you’d like more information on UCA’s Academic Misconduct Regulations and other policies and
           procedures, please follow this link:
           https://www.uca.ac.uk/quality-assurance-enhancement/university-regulations-policies-and-procedures/

                                                        3
CITATIONS

What is a citation?
A citation is used in the body of your writing to indicate when you have referred to someone else’s
writing, work or ideas. Your citations provide some basic information about the sources you used but are
intended to link to your bibliography, which contains more detailed information about your sources and
how you accessed them.

How to write citations
Your citations have to be written in a particular way but this can change depending on the kind of source
you are using, how many authors they have, and how you are integrating them into your work. The
citation used for most sources consists of the author’s surname, the year of publication and the page
number (where applicable) contained within round brackets, and formatted exactly like this:

                                              (Butler, 2006:8)
You should use citations to acknowledge your sources when using direct quotations and when
paraphrasing. The rest of this section will address some of the common questions raised on writing
citations. If you are placing your citation at the end of a sentence then the full-stop should be placed after
the final bracket of your citation, not within the citation.

Citing Direct Quotations
Quoting someone’s exact words is called a direct quotation and these are placed within double speech
marks. The citation normally appears at the end of your quotation, like this:
“whatever biological intractability sex appears to have, gender is culturally constructed” (Butler, 2006:8)
If you include the author’s name in your writing then it is possible to put the citation directly after the
surname, like in these examples:
The architect Daniel Libeskind (1997:153) argues that “in representing the making of architecture as an
autonomous activity (having more affinity to technique than science) this thinking intentionally narrows
itself to a process of datecollecting operations.”
David Olusoga (2016:97) states how “those who did escape slavery in Britain, like those who were freed
with no trade, education or support, lived lives that were extremely hard.”
If your direct quotation is more than three lines long then it should be indented to stand out from the
rest of your writing, like this:
       “There is no doubt that machine learning has the power to transform industries, either
       augmenting humans or replacing them in certain tasks. However, this should not happen until
       researchers find ways to make algorithms more understandable and, in turn, more accountable”
       (Fan, 2019:72)

                                                       4
If a quote is too long for your needs you can use a partial quotation instead by removing irrelevant
portions of text and replacing the missing parts with three full stops, like in these examples:
“The function of the culture industry is…to organize leisure time in the same way as capitalist
industrialization has organised work time. Work under capitalism stunts the senses; the function of the
culture industry is to continue the process” (Storey, 2017:11)
“On the contrary we can only understand an effective and dominant culture if we understand the real
social process on which it depends…educational institutions are usually the main agencies of the
transmission of an effective dominant culture” (Williams, 2005:38-39)

Citing Indirect Quotations (Paraphrasing)
An indirect quotation is when you explain someone’s writing, work or ideas in your own words. This is
also known as paraphrasing. There is no need to use double quotation marks but you must still include a
citation. Paraphrasing is more complex than changing the occasional word, you must be able to convey
the author’s original meaning while summarising or simplifying their writing. For example, here is a direct
quotation:
        “Of course, if women could subvert so-called masculine traits by adapting and adopting masculine
        fashions, then it was also possible for men to procure feminine styles for themslves, and, as the
        century progressed, the cries of ‘gender confusion’ by media and academic commentators
        became increasingly loud” (Arnold, 2001:101)
This direct quotation could be paraphrased like this:
Increasing discourse surrounding gender emerged as the traditional distinctions between male and
female fashion became blurred (Arnold, 2001:101).
Or, like this:
Traditional notions of gender were challenged by women wearing fashions usually intended for men and
men wearing fashions usually intended for women (Arnold, 2001:101).
Paraphrasing depends upon your own writing style and vocabulary but it is important that you do not
misrepresent the original source and that you remember to acknowledge your source using a citation.

Citing two or more authors
If your source has two authors then you include both names in your citation, like the following examples:
                                      (Ambrose and Harris, 2015:24)
                                   (Harryhausen and Dalton, 2005:116)
If your source has more than two authors then you can write the name of the first author followed by et
al., which is an abbreviation of a Latin phrase meaning “and others.” Et al. should be placed in italics:
                                          (Kotler et al., 2012:15)

                                                        5
Citing multiple works by an author with the same
publication date
If you have used multiple works by the same author(s) but published in the same year it can be difficult to
differentiate them since the Harvard system relies on surname and year of publication. You can get
around this by adding an alphabetical letter at the end of the year of publication, starting with a:
                                             (Trafford, 2019a)
                                            (Trafford, 2019b:38)
If you’re using a company name rather than a personal name this rule still applies:
                                              (Mintel, 2019a)
                                              (Mintel, 2019b)

Citing a chapter from a book
Some books have an overall editor but chapters written by different authors, these are known as edited
collections. If you are not sure whether the book you are using is an edited collection, take a look at the
table of contents to see whether the they include authors’ names alongside the chapter titles.
When citing a chapter from a book, use the author of the chapter and not the overall editor of the book
for your citation. For example, the book Thinking Through Fashion, edited by Agnès Rocamora and
Anneke Smelik, contains a chapter called ‘Michel Foucault: fashioning the body politic’ by Jane Tynan. The
citation for this example would be: (Tynan, 2016:187)

Citing an author quoting someone else
It is sometimes necessary to cite an author already quoting somebody else, this is sometimes called
secondary referencing or an indirect citation. Your tutor may prefer that you use the original source,
rather than the work of the person quoting them, so always check with them to be sure.
As an example, Rosalind Gill, in her book Gender and the Media uses the following quote by Judith
Williamson:
“it used to be an act of daring on the left to claim enjoyment of Dallas, disco dancing or any other piece of
mass popular culture. Now it seems to require equal daring to suggest that such activities, while certainly
enjoyable, are not radical” (Williamson, 1986b:14)
If you wanted to use this quote in your own writing then your citation would be like this:
                               (Williamson, 1986b:14 cited in Gill, 2007:16)
You use the citation details of the original quote but then use the words “cited in” to indicate the source
you got it from. In this instance, the only book you would need to enter in your bibliography would be the
one written by Rosalind Gill.

                                                      6
Citing with a company name
It is better to use the name of a person, where possible, but there are sometimes cases where you can
use a company name instead. For example, you may need to do this if using published reports by a
company, charity or other organisation when they have not listed a named author, or if you use an article
from a website and there is no personal author indicated. Here are some examples:
                               (Deloitte, 2019:34)      (Rolling Stone, 2019:5)
                                  (Kering, 2019)            (Refuge, 2018:1)

Citing a source with no identifiable author or
publication date
It is always better to include accurate information in your citations but there may sometimes be
situations where there is no author or publication date listed. If you find yourself in this situation, you can
use the following abbreviations instead:
If there is no author indicated and it’s not possible to use a company name instead then use s.n. instead,
this is a Latin abbreviation for the phrase “without a name”:
                                                (s.n., 2019:43)
If there is no date indicated then use s.d., a Latin abbreviation for the phrase “without a date”:
                                               (Jones, s.d.:32)
It is better to use these sparingly, only when absolutely necessary, because your tutor may question the
quality of your sources if you are unable to identify this information.

Citing a film or television programme
Films and television programmes are one of the few exceptions to the usual citation format. Instead of
using an author’s name, you simply use the name of the film or television programme (written in italics)
and the year it was released, like this:
                              (Green Book, 2018)           (The Red Turtle, 2016)
                              (HyperNormalisation, 2016)       (Chernobyl, 2019)
If you would like to refer to a specific episode in a multi-series television programme then you can include
the season and episode number in your citation too:
                            (Orange is the New Black: Season 5, episode 6, 2017)
                               (Game of Thrones: Season 3, episode 7, 2013)

                                                       7
Citing multiple authors within a single citation
You can refer to multiple authors within the same citation if paraphrasing, this is typically done as part of
a literature review. You simply include your citations in the standard format but separate them using a
semi-colon. They should all be included with a single set of round brackets, like in this example:
Our notions of gender are culturally constructed (West and Zimmerman, 1987:126; Butler, 2006:8)

                                                      8
BIBLIOGRAPHIES
What is a bibliography?
A bibliography is a list of all the sources referred to or consulted in order to complete your assignment.
Your bibliography must be:

   •   Alphabetical (A-Z). Your bibliography must be arranged alphabetically by author’s surname in
       ascending order. That means that you start with names beginning with A, so Adams should appear
       before Zhou and Berger should appear before Greer. Company names and titles of films and tv
       shows should also be placed in the correct alphabetical order.
   •   Formatted correctly. Your references must be written in a particular way, with specific bits of
       information placed in the correct order. It is important that you stick to the examples in this guide,
       making sure that brackets, full-stops and other characters are placed correctly.
   •   Placed at the end of your assignment. Your bibliography must be placed on a new page at
       the end of your assignment. If your assignment includes appendices, place your bibliography at
       the end of your assignment but before the appendices.
   •   Must match your citations. Every citation used in your writing should have a corresponding
       bibliography entry. Make sure that the year of publication and surnames in your citations match
       those in your bibliography.
   •   Excluded from your word count. Your bibliography should not be included in the word count
       for your assignment.

How to write references
Before writing your references, you will need specific bits of information that will vary depending on the
kind of source you are using. For all your references you will need to start with the following:

   •   Author and/or editor
   •   Year of publication / creation / broadcast
   •   Title
   •   Information on how and when the source was published.
Your references must be written in a particular way, with all the required information placed in the
correct order. For example, this is a breakdown of a book reference:

                                                      9
Writing references: the most popular sources

Books (Print)
Information Required                   Examples
Name of the author(s)                  Dyer, R. (2004) Heavenly bodies: film stars and society. (2nd ed.) London:
Year of publication                    Routledge.
Title of book
Edition (if applicable)                Olusoga, D. (2016) Black and British: a forgotten history. London: Pan
Place of publication                   Books.
Name of publisher
                                       Posner, H. (2015) Marketing fashion: strategy, branding and promotion.
                                       (2nd ed.) London: Laurence King.

Notes

Author(s) Name – Enter the surname first, followed by initials. Initials should always have a full stop after them.
For multiple authors, follow the same format but separate them with a coma, like this: Jones, A., Bloggs, J..
Edition – The edition should be placed in round brackets. Only include major numbered editions.
Place of publication – This should be the town or city where the publisher is based. If multiple cities are listed
then choose the most local one, for example some publishers have offices in London, New York and Paris, but
you should choose London unless you purchased your copy in another country. If the town or city duplicates one
known in the UK, for example, Cambridge, Massachusetts in the United States of America, then it is fine to
include the state abbreviation and country, if necessary, like this: Cambridge, MA, USA. If no location is indicated,
use s.l. instead.

Books (eBooks/online)
Information Required                   Examples
Name of the author(s)                  Entwistle, J. (2015) The fashioned body. (2nd ed.) London: Polity Press. At:
Year of publication                    https://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/ucreative-
Title of book                          ebooks/detail.action?docID=1983497 (Accessed 29/08/2019).
Edition (if applicable)
Place of publication                   Hoskins, S. (2018) 3D printing for artists, designers and makers. London:
Name of publisher                      Bloomsbury Visual Arts. At:
Web Address (URL)                      https://www.bloomsburycollections.com/book/3d-printing-for-artists-
Date accessed                          designers-and-makers/ch2-an-overview-of-current-3d-printing-
                                       technologies-what-each-offers-and-how-they-might-develop-in-the-future
                                       (Accessed 29/08/2019).

Notes

Edition – The edition should be placed in round brackets. Only include major numbered editions.
Date Accessed – This date should indicate when you were last able to access your source.

                                                         10
Book Chapter
Information Required                   Examples
Name of the chapter author(s)          Tynan, J. (2006) ‘Michel Foucault: fashioning the body politic’ In:
Year of publication                    Rocamora, A. and Smelik, A. (eds.) Thinking through fashion: a guide to
Title of chapter                       key theorists. London: I.B. Tauris. pp.184-199.
Name of the editor
Title of book                          Hall, S. (2018) ‘The whites of their eyes: racist ideologies and the media’
Edition (if applicable)                In: Dines, G. et al. (eds.) Gender, race and class in media. (5th ed.) London:
Place of publication                   Sage. pp.90-92.
Name of publisher
Page range of chapter
Notes

Author(s) – Use the author(s) of the chapter rather than the editors of the overall book. Put the surname first,
followed by the initials.
Year of publication – This is usually the year of publication of the overall book.
Edition – Only include major numbered editions, if applicable.
Place of publication – See entry for books.
Page range – You must include the page range of the chapter. That is the page number that the chapter starts
on, and the page number that it ends on, separated by a hyphen.

Journal Article (Print)
Information Required                   Examples
Name of article author(s)              Christensen, L. H. (2019) ‘Curating the poster: an environmental approach’
Year of publication                    In: Design Issues 35 (2) pp.17-27.
Title of article
Title of journal                       Smith, K. (2018) ‘Honky tonk hairdos: Winifred Atwell and the
Volume number                          professionalization of black hairdressing in Britain’ In: Fashion Theory 22
Issue number                           (6) pp.593-616.
Page range of article
                                       Liao, S. X. T. (2016) ‘Japanese console games popularization in China:
                                       Governance, copycats, and gamers’ In: Games and Culture: a journal of
                                       interactive media 11 (3) pp.275-297.

Notes

Title of article – The title of your article must be placed in single speech marks (‘ ’).
Volume and Issue numbers – You can write these in shorthand form, for example Volume 23 Issue 4 can be
written as 23 (4).
Title of journal – The title of journal should be italicised.
Page range – You must include the page range of the article. That is the page number the article starts on and
the page number ends on, separated by a hyphen.

                                                        11
Journal Article (Online)
Information Required                   Examples
Name of article author(s)              Nolen, S. B. et al. (2015) ‘Situating motivation’ In: Educational Psychologist
Year of publication                    50 (3) pp.234-247. At: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx? direct=
Title of article                       true&db=ehh&AN=110025837&site=ehost-live (Accessed 28/08/2019).
Title of journal
Volume number                          Barton, G. and Hosea, B. (2017) ‘Animation as mindful practice’ In:
Issue number                           Animation Practice, Process & Production 6 (1) pp.149-171. At:
Page range of article                  https://doi.org/10.1386/ap3.6.1.149_1 (Accessed 28/08/2019).
Web address (URL / DOI)
Date accessed                          Rabbat, N. O. (2018) ‘Edward Said’s orientalism and architectural history’
                                       In: Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians 77 (4) pp.388-396. At:
                                       https://jsah.ucpress.edu/content/77/4/388 (Accessed 28/08/2019).

Notes

Title of article – The title of your article must be placed in single speech marks (‘ ’).
Volume and Issue numbers – You can write these in shorthand form, for example Volume 23 Issue 4 can be
written as 23 (4).
Title of journal – The title of journal should be italicised.
Page range – You must include the page range of the article. That is the page number the article starts on and
the page number ends on, separated by a hyphen.
Web address (URL / DOI) – This should be the direct web address (URL) to the journal article, do not use a link to
the journal landing page or contents page. If your journal article contains a DOI then you have the option of
including that instead.
Date Accessed – This date should indicate when you were last able to access your source.

Newspaper and magazine articles (Print)
Information Required                   Examples
Name of article author(s)              Moore, S. (2019) ‘Britain’s lost women: the lives and work of previously
Year of publication                    obscure 17th Century female artists are explored in a London exhibition’
Title of article                       In: FTWeekend 29/06/2019 p.15.
Title of newspaper
Date of publication                    Woode, D. (2019) ‘Bank of England takes steps to contain consumer panic
Page number/page range of article      over Brexit’ In: i 12/03/2019 p.10.

Notes

Title of article – The title of your article must be placed in single speech marks (‘ ’).
Title of newspaper– The title of journal should be italicised.
Date of publication – This should be the exact date the newspaper was printed.
Page number / page range – You must include the page number or page range of the article. The page range is
the page number the article starts on and the page number ends on, separated by a hyphen.

                                                        12
Newspaper and magazine articles (Online)
Information Required                     Examples
Name of article author(s)                Hirsch, A. (2019) ‘We have to avoid integration becoming another form of
Year of publication                      racism’ In: The Guardian 13/09/2019. At:
Title of article                         https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2019/sep/13/integration-
Title of newspaper                       racism-assimilation-britain-heritage (Accessed 13/09/2019).
Web address (URL)
Date accessed                            Mahtani, S., Liang, T. (2019) ‘Under Hong Kong’s streets, the subway
                                         becomes a battleground for protesters and police’ In: The Washington
                                         Post 12/09/2019. At:
                                         https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/asia_pacific/under-hong-kongs-
                                         streets-the-subway-becomes-a-battleground-for-protesters-and-
                                         police/2019/09/11/a29eac2a-d0c7-11e9-a620-0a91656d7db6_story.html
                                         (Accessed 13/09/2019).
Notes

Title of article – The title of your article must be placed in single speech marks (‘ ’).
Title of newspaper – The title of journal should be italicised.
Web address (URL) – This should be direct link to the article that you used.

Websites
Information Required                     Examples
Name of page author(s)                   Seymour, T. (2019) After the fall: documenting the end of the caliphate. At:
Year of publication                      https://www.bjp-online.com/2019/08/ivor-prickett/ (Accessed
Title of page                            28/08/2019).
Web address (URL)
Date accessed                            Staugitis, L. (2019) Lush botanical forms translated into abstract
                                         embroideries by Helen Wilde. At:
                                         https://www.thisiscolossal.com/2019/08/embroideries-by-helen-wilde/
                                         (Accessed 28/08/2019).

                                         Stella McCartney (2019) Sustainability: mission statement. At:
                                         https://www.stellamccartney.com/experience/en/sustainability/mission-
                                         statement/ (Accessed 28/08/2019).

Notes
This referencing format can be used for social media sources such as blogs, Twitter, and Instagram as well as
reports published by Mintel, Deloitte and LS:N Global.

Author – Use a named author wherever possible. If no named author is indicated, use the company name or
website name instead. The company name should be written with correct grammar, for example, the website
www.christiandior.com would be written as Christian Dior.
Title of the page – This should be the heading of the page, indicating what it contains. If the webpage you are
using is a sub-section of a larger section, use a colon ( : ) to express it as a subtitle.
Year of publication – If no date of publication is indicated and the information seems current then use the year
accessed. If the information seems dated and there is no date indicated, use s.d. instead.
Date accessed - The date accessed should indicate when you were last able to access your source online.

                                                           13
Writing references: other sources

Acts of Parliament
Information Required                   Examples
Name of the Act                        The Data Protection Act (2018) Elizabeth II. Ch. 2. At:
Year of publication                    http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/2018/12/contents (Accessed
Name of reigning monarch               16/09/2019).
Chapter
Web address (URL)                      The Equality Act (2010) Elizabeth II. Ch. 5. At:
Date accessed                          http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/2010/15/contents (Accessed
                                       16/09/2019).
Notes

Name of act – This should be placed in italics.
Name of reigning monarch – The name of the monarch during whose reign the act was passed. Any act created
since 1952 would be under Elizabeth II.
Web Address (URL) – This should be the direct link to the act you are referring to.

Archive material
Information Required                   Examples
Author / creator’s name                Wilding Davison, E. (1912) Writing relating to imprisonment (Prison diary).
Year of publication / creation         [pencil manuscript and carbon-copy typescript] Papers of Emily Wilding
Title of item                          Davison 7EWD. London School of Economics: Women’s library.
Medium
Archive name and number                Godfrey, B. (c1970) Roobarb dressed as ‘Ziggy Starburst’ and holding a
Location of archive                    guitar. [pencil drawing] University for the Creative Arts: Bob Godfrey
Name of library / archive              Archive.
Notes

Medium – The kind of item you are referring to, in general terms, e.g. manuscript, drawing, letter, artefact.

Artwork in exhibitions
Information Required                   Examples
Artist or photographers name            Blake, W. (1827) ‘Europe’ Plate i: Frontispiece, ‘The Ancient of Days’.
Year of creation                       [Relief etching with ink and watercolour on paper] London: Tate Britain.
Title of work                          11/09/2019 – 02/02/2020.
Medium
Location of exhibition                 Van Gogh, V. (1888) Sunflowers. [Oil on canvas] London: National Gallery.
Name of gallery or museum
Date of Exhibition (If applicable)     Calder, A. (c1930) Mobile. [Metal, wood, wire and string] London: Tate
                                       Modern.
Notes

Date of Exhibition – If the artwork is being displayed in a temporary exhibition include the dates the exhibition
was on display.

                                                        14
Conference Proceedings
Information Required                    Examples
Author’s name                           Ampanavos, S. and Markaki, M. (2014) ‘Digital cities: towards a new
Year of publication                     identity of public space’ In: Cairns, G. (ed.) The MeDiated City Conference
Title of paper                          Proceedings. Ravensbourne University, London. 01-03/04/2014. London:
Editors (if applicable)                 Architecture, Media, Politics Society. At: http://architecturemps.com/wp-
Conference title / document title       content/uploads/2016/08/Architecture-MPS-1-Mediated-City-1-1.pdf
Date of conference                      (Accessed 28/08/2019).
Place of publication
Name of publisher                       Higgins, L. (2019) ‘The marketplace and I: a disability arts methodology’ In:
Web Address (URL) (If applicable)       Egan, J. (eds.) 52nd Annual Academy of Marketing Conference Proceedings.
                                        Regent’s University, London. 02-04/07/2019. London: Academy of
Date accessed (if applicable)
                                        Marketing. At: https://issuu.com/regentscollege/docs/academy_of_
                                        marketing_conference_pro (Accessed 28/08/2019).

Notes

Conference title / document title – This field can be the name of the conference or the name of the proceedings
as published. It should be placed in italics.
Web address and date accessed – These are only required if you accessed the proceedings online. The date
accessed should indicate when you were last able to access your source online.

Emails
Information Required                    Examples
Author’s name                           Badger, I. (2019) Re: Harvard Referencing Guide. [Email sent to Parfitt, M.
Year the e-mail was sent                12/07/2019].
Subject of email
Medium                                  Fitzwater, L. (2019) Re: Akala’s new book, Natives. [Email sent to Parfitt,
Date the e-mail was sent                M. 20/03/2019].

Exhibition (Visited)
Information Required                    Examples
Name of artist / designer               Blake, W. (2019) William Blake. [Exhibition] London: Tate Britain.
Year of exhibition or visit             11/09/2019 – 02/02/2020.
Title of exhibition
Place of exhibition                     V&A (2019) Videogames: Design/Play/Disrupt. [Exhibition] London: V&A.
Name of gallery / museum                08/09/2018 – 24/02/2019.
Date of exhibition (if applicable)

Notes

Name of artist / designer - If the exhibition was not dedicated to a single artist place the name of the gallery or
museum first (see 2nd example above).
Date of Exhibition – If the artwork is being displayed in a temporary exhibition include the dates the exhibition
was on display.

                                                         15
Film (Physical format)
Information Required                   Examples
Title of film                          Selma (2014) Directed by DuVernay, A. [DVD] London: Pathe.
Year of publication / release
Name of Director                       Stalker (2002) Directed by Tarkovsky, A. [DVD] London: Artificial Eye.
Format
Location of studio                     Thor: Ragnarok (2017) Directed by Waititi, T. [Bluray] London: Marvel
Name of Studio / Production            Studios.
Company

Notes

Title of film – The title should be placed in italics.
Year of release – The date the film was released in the format that you are using.
Name of director – The name of the director should be placed surname first, followed by initials.
Format – The format should be entered within square brackets. You should indicate whether you watched the
film on DVD, Bluray, VHS etc.
Location of Studio / Production Company – This is the town or city where the film studio is based. If they are a
multi-national company you can use the city where their regional office is based.

Film (Online)
Information Required                   Examples
Title of film                          Ex Machina (2014) Directed by Garland, A. [Netflix] At:
Year of publication / release          https://www.netflix.com/watch/80023689 (Accessed 28/08/2019).
Name of Director
Format / Medium                        Hanna Arendt (2013) Directed by Von Trotta, M. [Kanopy] At:
Web address (URL)                      https://ucreative.kanopy.com/video/hannah-arendt-3 (Accessed
Date accessed                          28/08/2019).

                                       The True Cost (2015) Directed by Ross, M. [Amazon Prime Video] At:
                                       https://www.amazon.co.uk/gp/video/detail/B07PNN73T6/
                                       ref=cm_sw_em_r_pv_wb_U52Q9g4lbx8xE (Accessed 28/08/2019).

Notes

Title of film – The title should be placed in italics.
Year of release – This should be the date the source you’re using was released.
Format / Medium – The format / medium should be placed in square brackets. This should indicate the online
service through which you accessed the film, e.g. Netflix, Amazon Prime, etc.
Name of director – The name of the director should be placed surname first, followed by initials.
Web address (URL) -

                                                        16
Game (Physical format and online)
Information Required                  Examples
Title of game                         Illyriad (2011) [Browser-based] London: Illyriad Games Ltd. At:
Year of publication / release         https://www.illyriad.co.uk/ (Accessed 23/09/2019).
Console / format
Location of studio                    Minecraft (2011) [PC] Stockholm: Mojang.
Name of studio
Web address (URL) (if applicable)     Pokémon Go (2016) [Android] San Francisco: Niantic.
Date accessed (if applicable)
                                      Zelda: Link’s Awakening (2019) [Nintendo Switch] Tokyo: Nintendo EPD,
                                      Grezzo.

Notes

Title of game – The title should be placed in italics.
Year of release – This should be the date the game you’re referring to was released.
Console / format – You should indicate the console that you used to play this game or in what format you
accessed it, e.g. PS4, PC, Broswer-based etc.

Lectures and talks
Information Required                  Examples
Name of lecturer                      Labaki, N. (2018) Screenwriters’ lecture series. [London: Princess Anne
Year of lecture                       Theatre 25/11/2018].
Title of lecture or subject
Place of lecture                      Otobong, N. and Barlow, A. (2019) In conversation: Otobong Nkanga. [St.
Medium                                Ives Tate 21/09/2019].
Date lecture took place
                                      Schjerfbeck, H. (2019) A conversation between two industries: art and
                                      fashion. [London: Royal Academy of Arts 23/10/2019].

Music and other audio (Physical format)
Information Required                  Examples
Name of artist                        Beyoncé (2016) Lemonade. [CD] New York: Columbia Records.
Year of release
Title of single / album               Justice (2016) Woman. [12” Vinyl] Paris: Ed Banger, Because Music.
Medium / Format
Location of studio / distributor      Roy Kettle (2017) British bird sounds on CD: the definitive audio guides to
Name of studio / distributor          birds in Britain. [Sound effects CD] London: British Library Publishing.

Notes

Title of single / album – The title should be placed in italics.
Medium / Format – Place the medium or format in square brackets, as above. You should indicate the format of
the album or single that you used, e.g. CD, Vinyl.
Location of studio / distributor – This should the town or city where the record label or distributer is based.

                                                       17
Music and other audio (Online)
Information Required                      Examples
Name of artist                            Christine and the Queens (2018) Chris. [Download] Paris: Because Music.
Year of release                           At: https://www.amazon.co.uk/Chris-Explicit-Christine-
Title of single / album                   Queens/dp/B07F6N722S/ (Accessed 19/09/2019).
Medium
Location of studio / distributor          Bob Dylan (2014) The essential Bob Dylan. [Download] New York:
Name of studio / distributor              Columbia Records. At: https://www.apple.com/uk/itunes/ (Accessed
Web address (URL)                         19/09/2019).
Date accessed
                                          Solange (2016) A seat at the table. [Streaming] New York: Saint, Columbia
                                          Records. At: https://open.spotify.com/album/3Yko2SxDk4hc6fncIBQlcM
                                          (Accessed 19/09/2019).

                                          Sound Effects (2016) Cinematic trailer music for media: trailer hit 20.
                                          [Download] s.l.: Fain Studio. At:
                                          https://soundcloud.com/soundeffectsformovies/trailer-hit-20 (Accessed
                                          19/09/2019).
Notes

Name of artist – The name of the artist should be included as a corporate author rather than surname, followed
by initials. For example, write George Ezra and not Ezra, G.
Title of single / album – The title should be placed in italics.
Medium / Format – Place the medium or format in square brackets, as above. You should indicate whether your
music was downloaded or streamed.
Web address (URL) – This should be the direct link to the album, if possible. If not, simply link to the provider
used.

Music performance (Attended)
Information Required                      Examples
Name of artist / festival                 George Ezra (2019) [Isle of Wight: Isle of Wight Festival 15/06/2019].
Year of performance / festival
Location of performance / festival        Kurt Vile (2019) [Manchester: Albert Hall 10/11/2018].
Name of venue (if applicable)
Exact date of performance / festival      Reading Festival (2019) [Reading: Little John’s Farm 23/08/2019].

                                          Saul Williams (2016) [London: The Garage 06/04/2016].

Notes
Use this referencing format for live performances of music and festivals.

Name of artist – The name of the artist should be included as a corporate author rather than surname, followed
by initials. For example, write George Ezra and not Ezra, G.
Location of performance / festival – The town or city where the performance/festival took place.
Name of venue – The name of the venue where the performance took place.
Location, name of venue and date – These should all be placed within square brackets.

                                                             18
Online video
Information Required                  Examples
Title of video                        Childish Gambino – This is America (2018) [Music Video] At:
Year of publication / upload          https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VYOjWnS4cMY (Accessed
Medium                                23/09/2019).
Web address (URL)
Date accessed                         Investigating the impacts of urban green spaces on wellbeing (2013)
                                      [Online Video] At: https://vimeo.com/64293418 (Accessed 23/09/2019).

                                      La Maison en Petits Cubes (2012) [Short Animation] At:
                                      https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jhQ75OV4VRs (Accessed
                                      23/09/2019).

                                      L’Oréal Age Perfect Golden Age (2016) [Advertisement] At:
                                      https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3XanitYoSTA (Accessed 23/09/2019).

Notes

Title of video – The title should be placed in italics.
Medium – State what kind of video you are using, e.g. music video, short animation, advertisement. If you’re not
sure how to classify the medium of the video, use Online Video.

Radio (Broadcast and online) and podcasts
Information Required                  Examples
Title of podcast / radio show         The Chris Moyles Show (2019) [Radio programme] Radio X 23/09/2019. At:
Year of publication                   https://www.globalplayer.com/catchup/radiox/uk/b8G7abG/ (Accessed
Medium / format                       23/09/2019).
Name of radio channel / service
Web address (URL)                     Switch off with Konnie Huq: Scroobius Pip (2019) [Podcast] BBC Sounds
Date accessed                         16/07/2019. At: https://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p07gn5wz
                                      (Accessed 23/09/2019).

Notes

Title of podcast / radio show – The title should be placed in italics.
Medium / format – The medium should be placed in square brackets and should indicate what kind of source
you are using, for example, a podcast or radio programme.
Web address (URL) – This should be the direct link to the podcast or radio programme as you accessed it online.

                                                       19
Television shows (Broadcast and online)
Information Required                      Examples
Name of television programme              The Great British Bake-Off: Series 3, episode 4 (2019) [Television
Series and episode numbers (if            programme] Channel 4 17/09/2019.
applicable)
Year of broadcast / release               Jesy Nelson: ‘Odd one out’ (2019) [Television programme] BBC 1
Name of channel / online service          12/09/2019.
Exact date broadcast
Web address (URL) (if applicable)         Good Omens: Episode 2 (2019) [Television programme] Amazon Prime
Date accessed (if applicable)             31/05/2019. At:
                                          https://www.amazon.co.uk/gp/video/detail/B07FM7PHLQ/ (Accessed
                                          23/09/2019).

Notes

Name of channel / online service – If you viewed a broadcast channel then use the name of the channel, if you
viewed it online then you can use the name of the service used, e.g. iPlayer, Amazon Prime, Netflix etc.
Web address (URL) and date accessed – Only required if you viewed the television show online.

Theatre and dance performance (Attended)
Information Required                      Examples
Title of production                       Hamlet (2015) Directed by Turner, L. Written by Shakespeare, W. [London:
Year of performance / festival            Barbican 15/10/2015].
Name of director / choreographer
(if applicable)                           Onegin (2020) Choreographed by Cranko, D. [London: Royal Opera House
Name of writer (if applicable)            18/01/2020].
Location of performance
Name of venue                             Translations (2019) Directed by Rickson, R. Written by Friel, B. [London:
Exact date of performance                 National Theatre 11/05/2018].

Notes
Use this referencing format for live performances of music, dance, theatre and festivals.

Title of tour / performance / festival – This should be placed in italics.
Name of director / choreographer – Only required for theatre or dance performances.
Name of writer (if applicable) – Only required for theatre performances.
Location of performance / festival – The town or city where the performance/festival took place.
Name of venue – The name of the venue where the performance took place.

                                                             20
Theses and dissertations (Print and online)
Information Required                   Examples
Name of author                         Hubbard, A. (2018) How does the representation of women in celebrity
Date of publication                    culture reflect the ideals of successful femininity. [BA dissertation]
Title of thesis / dissertation         University for the Creative Arts.
Academic level and document type
Name of awarding institution           Meechao, K. (2018) A study of stakeholders’ experience of the
Web address (URL) (if applicable)      architectural design process to stimulate an interactive form of
Date accessed (if applicable)          communication. [PhD thesis] University for the Creative Arts / University
                                       of Brighton. At: https://research.uca.ac.uk/4843/ (Accessed 19/09/2019).

                                       Preston, D. (2018) The logic of corporate communication design. [PhD
                                       thesis] University of the Arts London. At:
                                       http://ualresearchonline.arts.ac.uk/14189/ (Accessed 19/09/2019).

Notes

Title of thesis / dissertation – The title should be placed in italics.
Academic level and document type – Write the academic level in abbreviated form and indicate what kind of
document it is… e.g. MA dissertation, PhD thesis.
Web address (URL) – Only include the web address (URL) if you are accessing the thesis or dissertation online.
This should the direct link to the thesis or dissertation or its landing page if posted to an online repository.
Date accessed - The date accessed should indicate when you were last able to access your source online.

Translated text (Print)
Information Required                   Examples
Name of author                         Barthes, R. (1983) The fashion system. Translated by Ward, M. and
Year of publication                    Howard, R. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Title of book
Name of translator                     Deleuze, G. (2004) The logic of sense. Translated by Lester, M. London:
Year of translation (if applicable)    Continuum.
Location of publisher
Name of publisher                      Freud, S. (2003) Beyond the pleasure principle and other writings.
                                       Translated by Reddick, J. London: Penguin.

Notes
Use this referencing format for major works that have been translated professionally and published. If you
translated part of a book using Google Translate then see the section below on Translated text (Online).

Title of book – This should be placed in italics.
Year of publication – The year of publication should be the year the translated edition was published.

                                                        21
Translated text (Online)
Information Required                   Examples
Name of author                         Boyer, B. (2007) Snobisme et vêtement de lux. [in French] (Snobbism and
Year of publication                    luxury clothes). Translated by Google Translate. At:
Title in original language             https://translate.google.co.uk/translate?hl=en&sl=fr&u=
Original language                      https://www.brown.edu/Research/Equinoxes/
Title in English                       journal/Issue%25209/eqx9_boyer.html&prev=search (Accessed
Translated by (if applicable)          19/09/2019).
Web address (URL) (if applicable)
Date accessed (if applicable)          Leaman, G. (2019) Ty hwnt i ffiniau: cenedlaetholdeb a’r argyfwng
                                       hinsawdd. [in Welsh] (Beyond borders: nationalism and the climate crisis).
                                       Translated by Parfitt, M. At:
                                       https://pedwargwynt.cymru/dadansoddi/gol/tu-hwnt-i-ffiniau-
                                       cenedlaetholdeb-ar-argyfwng-hinsawdd (Accessed 19/09/2019).

Notes
Use this referencing format for text that you have translated using Google Translate or for text that you, or
someone else, have personally translated.

Title in original language – The original title should be placed in italics.
Original language – The original language should be indicated within square brackets, preceded by the word in.
Title in English – The translated version of the title should be placed within brackets and placed in italics.
Translated by – If you translated the text using Google Translate or Google’s “Translate this page” option then
use Google Translate as the name of the translator. If you translated the text yourself, or someone did it for you,
then you should put their names here instead.
Web address (URL) – If you used the “Translate this page” option on Google then use the web address (URL) to
the source as translated, otherwise include the direct address of the untranslated source.

                                                        22
Example Bibliography

Adichie, C. A. (2014) We should all be feminists. London: Fourth Estate.
Christine and the Queens (2018) Chris. [Download] Paris: Because Music. At:
https://www.amazon.co.uk/Chris-Explicit-Christine-Queens/dp/B07F6N722S/ (Accessed 19/09/2019).
Entwistle, J. (2015) The fashioned body. (2nd ed.) London: Polity Press. At:
https://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/ucreative-ebooks/detail.action?docID=1983497 (Accessed
29/08/2019).
Hall, S. (2018) ‘The whites of their eyes: racist ideologies and the media’ In: Dines, G. et al. (eds.) Gender,
race and class in media (5th ed.) London: Sage. pp.90-92.
Mahtani, S. and Liang, T. (2019) ‘Under Hong Kong’s streets, the subway becomes a battleground for
protesters and police’ In: The Washington Post. At:
https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/asia_pacific/under-hong-kongs-streets-the-subway-becomes-a-
battleground-for-protesters-and-police/2019/09/11/a29eac2a-d0c7-11e9-a620-
0a91656d7db6_story.html (Accessed 13/09/2019).
Posner, H. (2015) Marketing fashion: strategy, branding and promotion. (2nd ed.) London: Laurence King.
Smith, K. (2018) ‘Honky tonk hairdos: Winifred Atwell and the professionalization of black hairdressing in
Britain’ In: Fashion Theory 22 (6) pp.593-616.
Stella McCartney (2019) Sustainability: mission statement. At:
https://www.stellamccartney.com/experience/en/sustainability/mission-statement/ (Accessed
28/08/2019).
The True Cost (2015) Directed by Ross, M. [Amazon Prime Video] At:
https://www.amazon.co.uk/gp/video/detail/B07PNN73T6/ ref=cm_sw_em_r_pv_wb_U52Q9g4lbx8xE
(Accessed 28/08/2019).
Thor: Ragnarok (2017) Directed by Waititi, T. [Bluray] London: Marvel Studios.
Trafford, J. (2019a) Against green nationalism. At:
https://www.opendemocracy.net/en/opendemocracyuk/against-green-nationalism/ (Accessed
19/09/2019).
Trafford, J. (2019b) ‘Empire’s new clothes: after the “peaceful violence” of neo-liberal coloniality’ In:
Angelaki: Journal of theoretical humanities 24(1) pp.37-54. At:
https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/0969725X.2019.1568732 (Accessed 19/09/2019).
Williams, R. (2005) Culture and materialism. London: Verso.

                                                      23
REFERENCING IMAGES
When using images within your written work it is essential that you reference your image sources
accurately. This is a very similar process to writing citations and a bibliography for text sources. There are
two main components used to reference your images:

    •   Image number and caption. Place a figure number, caption and the year the image was
        produced directly beneath each image.
    •   List of illustrations. Your list of illustrations is a detailed list of your image sources and how you
        accessed them. It should be arranged by figure number, in ascending order.
The method shown in this guide is the formal method of referencing images based on the Harvard system
and is suitable for referencing images used within essays or dissertations. This method is not necessarily
suitable for all assignments, such as reports that contain a lot of visual material, so your tutors may
recommend a more suitable way of referencing images.
You can refer to, or highlight, images that you’ve included in your written work by writing (See Fig. x),
where x is the figure number of the image. Like in this example:
Many of Delacroix’s paintings contain orientalist themes (See Fig. 1)

What is a list of illustrations?
A list of illustrations is a list of all the visual and image sources used in your written assignment. Your list
of illustrations must be:

    •   Arranged by figure number. Unlike a bibliography, a list of illustrations is arranged by figure
        number, starting with the first, in ascending order.
    •   Placed at the end of your assignment but before your bibliography. Your list of
        illustrations should be placed before your bibliography at the end of your assignment.
    •   Formatted correctly. Your image references must be written in a particular way, with specific
        bits of information placed in the correct order. It is important that you stick to the examples in
        this guide, making sure that brackets, full-stops and other characters are placed correctly.
    •   Must match your image captions. Every image caption included within your writing should
        have a corresponding entry in your list of illustrations. Make sure that all of the basic information
        in your captions matches that in your list of illustrations
    •   Excluded from your word count. Your list of illustrations should not be included in the word
        count for your assignment.

Writing figure numbers and image captions
Each image should have its own figure number and the numbers are allocated by order of appearance.
The first image in your written work will be Figure 1, the second will be Figure 2, followed by Figure 3,
Figure 4 and so on. You should clip the word Figure to the shortened form, Fig. but remember to include
the full stop at the end.

                                                       24
If the image you are using is a named photograph or work of art, you should use that name as its caption.
If your image does not have a name, your caption should simply describe what the image is. The caption
must be placed in italics.
The year of publication / creation should be placed in round brackets directly after your caption.
You should place the figure number, caption and year of publication directly beneath each image, like in
the following example:

                                    Fig. 1 Blank image placeholder (2019)
If you are using Microsoft Word to write your assignment, right-click on an image and select the option to
“Insert caption…”. This will allow you to choose where your captions appear, the image label (which you
may need to change to display as Fig.) and will automatically update the numbers as you add new images.

How to write your list of illustrations
For each reference in your list of illustrations you will need specific bits of information that will vary
depending on the kind of image you are using. You will need to start with the following:

   •   Name of the Artist / Photographer / Creator
   •   Year the artwork was created
   •   Title of artwork
   •   Information on how the image was published.
Your list of illustration references must be written in a particular way, with all the required information
placed in the correct order. For example, this is the breakdown of a reference for an image found online:

                                                       25
Referencing different image sources

Film, television and game stills (Physical and online)
Information Required                  Examples
Title or description of image         Fig. 1 Panoramic view of Memphis in Assassin’s Creed: Origins (2018)
Year of creation                      [Game still, PS4] In: Assassin’s Creed: Origins. Montreuil, France: Ubisoft.
Medium / format
Title of film, TV show or game        Fig. 2 Thandie Newton in Westworld (2018) [Television still, Bluray] In:
Location of studio / distributor      Westworld: Season 2. New York: HBO.
Name of studio / distributor
                                      Fig. 3 Saoirse in the sea (2016) [Film still, DVD] In: Song of the Sea. Paris:
                                      Studiocanal.

Notes

Title or description of image – Briefly describe the contents of the image.
Year of creation – The year the film, television show or game was released in the format you are referring to.
Medium / format – You should indicate whether you are referring to a film, television or game and in what
format. For films and television this could be DVD, Bluray or VHS. For games, it could be which console or game-
platform.

Images scanned from a book
Information Required                  Examples
Name of artist / creator              Fig. 4 Greenfield, L. (2010) Will.i.am, 35, in his home recording studio, Los
Year of creation                      Angeles. [Photograph] In: Greenfield, L. (2017) Generation Wealth.
Title of artwork                      London: Phaidon.
Medium
Author of book                        Fig. 5 Koelbl, H. (1987) Gaza Strip, Intifada. [Photograph] In: Misselbeck, R.
Year of publication                   (2001) 20th Century Photography: Museum Ludwig Cologne. Köln: Taschen.
Title of book                         p.359.
Edition (if applicable)
Location of publisher                 Fig. 6 Lange, D. (1937) Rex Theatre for Coloured People, Leland,
Name of publisher                     Mississippi. [Photograph] In: Pardo, A. and Golbach, J. (Eds.) (2018)
Page number                           Dorothea Lange: Politics of Seeing. London: Barbican Centre, Prestel.
                                      p.129.

Notes

Title of artwork – This should be placed in italics.
Medium – Indicate what kind of medium you are referring to… e.g. is it a painting, a photograph, a collage. This
should be placed in square brackets.

                                                        26
Images scanned from a magazine or journal
Information Required                       Examples
Name of artist / creator                   Fig. 7 Yogantha, V. (2018) Untitled, portrait of Indian woman.
Year of creation                           [Photograph] In: Aperture 234 p.115.
Title of image / artwork
Medium                                     Fig. 8 Burberry advertisement featuring Adwoa Aboah (2018)
Name of magazine / journal                 [Advertisement] In: Love 19 p.43.
Volume and issue numbers (if
applicable)                                Fig. 9 Framestore VR Studio (2014) VR Experience created for the film
Page number                                Interstellar. [Photograph] In: Creative Review 37(8) p.146-147.

Notes

Name of artist / creator – Try and identify the name of the artist / creator but if that’s not possible place the title
of the image first instead, as in the second example above.
Year of creation – This should be the year that the photograph / artwork was produced.
Title of image / artwork – This should be placed in italics.
Medium – Indicate what kind of medium you are referring to… e.g. is it a painting, a photograph, a collage.

Images obtained online
Information Required                       Examples
Name of artist / creator                   Fig. 10 L’Oréal (2019) Karl Lagerfeld x L’Oréal Paris Color Riche Lipstick.
Year of creation                           [Advertisement] At: https://www.instagram.com/p/B24ZQOaHRGf/
Title of image / artwork                   (Accessed 27/09/2019).
Medium
Web address (URL)                          Fig. 11 Crocker, T. (2019) Goldsmith Street. [Photograph] At:
Date accessed                              https://www.architecture.com/-/media/gathercontent/riba-liverpool-city-
                                           tours/image-one/1goldsmithstreettimcrockerjpg.jpg (Accessed
                                           27/09/2019).

                                           Fig. 12 O’Keeffe, G. (1919) Series 1, No. 8. [Oil on canvas] At:
                                           https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Georgia_O%27Keeffe,_Series
                                           _1,_No._8.jpg (Accessed 27/09/2019).

                                           Fig. 13 Clement, J. (2019) Global social network penetration rate as of
                                           January 2019, by region. [Chart] At:
                                           https://www.statista.com/statistics/269615/social-network-penetration-
                                           by-region/ (Accessed 27/09/2019).
Notes

Title of image / artwork – Use the image or artwork’s official title where possible but otherwise use a brief
description of what the image or artwork is. This should be placed in italics.
Medium – Indicate what kind of medium you are referring to… e.g. is it a painting, a photograph, a collage. This
should be placed within square brackets.
Web address (URL) – This should be the direct web address (URL) to the image itself or the page that contains it.

                                                            27
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