Hertfordshire Traffic and Transport Data Report - 2018 View Report - Hertfordshire County ...

 
Hertfordshire Traffic and Transport Data Report - 2018 View Report - Hertfordshire County ...
Hertfordshire Traffic and
Transport Data Report
2018

View Report

Hertfordshire Transport Planning & Data Team
August 2018 | Version 1
Based on 2017 data
Hertfordshire Traffic and Transport Data Report - 2018 View Report - Hertfordshire County ...
contents

                                                                                        Congestion, Growth            Travel Behaviour                                          Information and
                   Introduction                    Traffic Flow                                                                                         Sustainable Transport
                                                                                        and Air Quality               & Choice                                                  Appendices

              1.1 Background                    1.2 Headline Facts                 1.3 Data Sources

           Contents
           1. Introduction                               3. Congestion Growth,                               5. Sustainable Transport
                                                            and Air Quality
             1.1   Background                                                                                   5.1   Cycling
                                                              3.1    Network Performance
             1.2   Headline Facts                                                                               5.2   Walking
                                                              3.2    Growth Forecasts
             1.3   Data Sources                                                                                 5.3   Buses
                                                              3.3    Congestion Indicators
                                                                                                                5.4   Rail
                                                              3.4    Air Quality
           2. Traffic Flow                                                                                      5.5   Mobility as a Service and Shared Mobility
                                                              3.5    Low Emission Vehicles

             2.1   Traffic Flow by Road Class
                                                                                                             6. Information
             2.2   Goods Vehicles                        4. Travel Behaviour                                    and Appendices
             2.3   Powered Two-Wheelers
                                                            & Choice
                                                                                                                6.1   Glossary
             2.4   Road Network & Urban Rural                 4.1    Vehicle Ownership
                                                                                                                6.2   Road Hierarchy Definitions
             2.5   Key Routes                                 4.2    Work Journeys
                                                                                                                6.3   Technical Data
             2.6   Traffic Flow by District                   4.3    School Journeys
                                                                                                                6.4   Index
                                                              4.4    Mode Share
                                                                                                                6.5   Information Sources
                                                              4.5    Speed Compliance
                                                                                                                6.6   Contact Details and Translation
                                                              4.6    Accessibility and Mobility Vehicles

                                                                                                                                                                                          2
contents

                                                             Congestion, Growth   Travel Behaviour   Sustainable   Information and
                    Introduction        Traffic Flow
                                                             and Air Quality      & Choice           Transport     Appendices

                 1.1 Background      1.2 Headline Facts   1.3 Data Sources

           1. Introduction

           1.1      Background

           1.2      Headline Facts

           1.3      Data Sources

                                                                                                                             3
contents

                                                                             Congestion, Growth              Travel Behaviour                                                      Information and
                  Introduction                  Traffic Flow                                                                                   Sustainable Transport
                                                                             and Air Quality                 & Choice                                                              Appendices

               1.1 Background               1.2 Headline Facts            1.3 Data Sources

           1.1 Background
           With over one million residents (Census 2011),          One of the biggest challenges the county                     Prosperity
           Hertfordshire has the sixth largest population of       experiences is the additional traffic caused by              • Better links between towns & cities
           any highway authority in the country (excluding Met     population growth (14% from 2003 to 2017).
                                                                                                                                • Reduced need to travel
           Counties). Instead of one dominant settlement there     With around 100,00 new homes and 80,000 new
           are over a dozen medium sized towns, as well as         jobs proposed to be delivered by 2031 (Comet R3 Nov17)       • Resilient and reliable network
           large rural areas. The proximity to London creates      (equating to a 21% increase in population to 1.43            • Less car dependent and more integrated, accessible
           large commuting flows, distorting the provision for     million by 2039) this will only compound the existing          & sustainable transport
           local transport.                                        issues on the network, particularly during peak              • Positioned in the Golden Triangle (London, Oxford
                                                                   times.                                                         and Cambridge)
           The settlement pattern of Hertfordshire, with its
           widespread towns and a vertically orientated            Collection and analysis of meaningful travel                 • Increased business and tourism opportunities
           transport system has created a complicated pattern      information is therefore vital when developing
                                                                                                                                Place
           of movement, heavily reliant on personal motor          travel plans and policies. This process has become
           vehicles that lead to local congestion.                 increasingly important over the last few years in            • Limited impacts of climate change
                                                                   connection with the publication of key transport             • Development and regeneration
           Furthermore Hertfordshire facilitates movement
                                                                   policy documents and strategies.                             • Improved local environment and green infrastructure
           to some key strategic economic areas in the
           UK. Issues on these networks can have serious           The Local Transport Plan (LTP4), covering the                • Heritage and places of character retained
           implications for the economy, Hertfordshire residents   period from 2018 – 2031, sets out how transport can
                                                                                                                                • Adequate, affordable & environmentally sensitive housing
           and users of the network.                               help deliver a positive future vision of Hertfordshire:
                                                                                                                                People
           Whilst Hertfordshire County Council (HCC), as           “We want Hertfordshire to continue to be a
           the Highway authority is responsible for A, B, C                                                                     • Improved quality of life
                                                                   county where people have to opportunity
           and most unclassified roads (see appendix 6.3.3),       to live healthy, fulfilling lives in thriving,               • Vibrant and healthy communities
           Trunk roads (including Motorways) are operated          prosperous communities.”                                     • Active and inclusive transport
           by Highways England (i.e. M25, M1 and the A1).
           However there are some HCC roads that function as       Further to this vision, the plan is split into three         • Varied and accessible employment opportunities
           separate arteries to the Trunk road network, such as    themes, which outline the objectives as follows:             This report outlines the main findings from traffic
           the A10. Further information on this can be viewed                                                                   data collected in 2017, informing the LTP4 strategy.
           in the key routes section of this report (2.5
           Key Routes).

                                                                                                                                                                                             4
contents

                                                                             Congestion, Growth            Travel Behaviour                                            Information and
                    Introduction                   Traffic Flow                                                                           Sustainable Transport
                                                                             and Air Quality               & Choice                                                    Appendices

                1.1 Background                 1.2 Headline Facts         1.3 Data Sources

           1.2 Headline Facts
           2. Traffic Flow                                              per cent of total UK greenhouse gas emissions,            in East Herts and the lowest levels are found in
                                                                        whilst transport is responsible for 26% of all            Stevenage and Watford.
           1.   Between 2016 and 2017 there has been an                 CO2 emissions.
                increase in overall traffic levels of 2.3% in                                                                 18. 89% of journeys by Hertfordshire residents are
                Hertfordshire.                                      10. Nationally 12% of PM10 and PM2.5 are caused               less than 20 miles and 26% of journeys are less
                                                                        by road transport, whilst 51% of NOx is caused            than 3 miles.
           2.   Hertfordshire 2017 traffic flows have surpassed         by transport.
                pre-recession levels and are now at a record                                                                  19. In Hertfordshire, 72% of primary school children
                high, which also mirrors national traffic trends.   11. There are 32 locations in Hertfordshire that              travel to school sustainably, whilst 79% of
                                                                        exceed emission thresholds, of these, all but one         secondary school children travel sustainably in
           3.   2017 traffic has increased on all road types in         are related to NOx.                                       2017.
                Hertfordshire except from C roads. Flows on
                motorways have increased by 5%.                     12. In 2017 Hertfordshire accounted for 2% of all         20. In 2017, 79% of drivers are compliant with the
                                                                        newly registered low emissions vehicles in                speed limit in Hertfordshire, which is below the
           4.   HGV traffic increased by 9% from the previous           the UK. Whilst in Hertfordshire 30% of all low            2020 target of 83%.
                year; however they are still lower than pre-            emission vehicles were registered in Watford.
                recession levels                                                                                              5. Sustainable Transport
                                                                    13. Nationally HGVs account for 21% of road
           5.   The county’s trunk roads carry almost three             transport NOx emissions, while making up just         21. Cycling levels fell in 2017 compared to 2016,
                times the national levels of vans (LGVs)                5% of vehicle miles.                                      however these are still higher than pre-2008
           6.   Hertfordshire Van (LGV) traffic fell by 1.5%                                                                      levels.
                                                                    14. In both the UK and Hertfordshire, 99% of HGVs
                between 2016 and 2017, which is the first               are diesel.                                           22. In 2017, bus usage levels fell nationally by 2%
                reduction in several years.                                                                                       and by 5% in Hertfordshire compared to the
                                                                    15. Watford has the lowest average speed across
           7.   Highest average traffic flows in Hertfordshire                                                                    previous year.
                                                                        the peak times, followed by St Albans and then
                take place on rural ‘A’ roads, followed by urban        Bishop’s Stortford. St Albans has the lowest          23. For the first time in 10 years, annual rail
                ‘A’ roads.                                              average speed on A roads throughout the day.              numbers have decreased nationally, whilst in
                                                                                                                                  Hertfordshire rail numbers increased by 1.5%
           3. Congestion Growth and Air Quality                     16. Average speeds on A roads in Hertfordshire are
                                                                                                                                  which is a slowdown in growth from previous
                                                                        lower than the East of England average
           8.   By 2031 traffic is forecast to grow in                                                                            years.
                Hertfordshire by 18%.                               4. Travel Behaviour & Choice                              24. 4% of car journeys are shared in Hertfordshire
           9.   Nationally carbon dioxide (CO2) is the most         17. The highest levels of car ownership are found
                dominant greenhouse gas accounting for 81

                                                                                                                                                                                    5
contents

                                                                             Congestion, Growth            Travel Behaviour                                            Information and
                  Introduction                  Traffic Flow                                                                              Sustainable Transport
                                                                             and Air Quality               & Choice                                                    Appendices

               1.1 Background                1.2 Headline Facts           1.3 Data Sources

           1.3 Data Sources
           Local Transport Plan (LTP)                              vehicle ownership levels. This version of the Traffic      National Travel Survey (NTS)
           The Local Transport Plan and its supporting             and Transport Data Report includes Census 2011             National Travel Survey (NTS) is a household
           strategies set out the overarching transport strategy   data. Specific Census source tables are referenced         survey designed to monitor long-term trends in
           and framework for Hertfordshire. LTP4 is the new        through the document.                                      personal travel.
           version of the LTP and sets out a programme of
           policies and schemes that the County Council and        TEMPro and National Trip End Model (NTEM)                  Active Lives Survey (APS)
           its partners intend to deliver.                         TEMPRO is a DfT program that provides projections          Active Lives Survey (ALS) measures the number
                                                                   of growth over time from the National Transport            of adults taking part in sport across England and
           County Travel Survey (HCTS)                             Model for use in local and regional transport models.      also provides data for important measures of public
           The County Travel Survey was first conducted in         It presents projections of growth in planning data,        health and active travel on behalf of Public Health
           Hertfordshire in 1999 by HCC, primarily to support      car ownership, and resultant growth in trip-making         England and the Department for Transport.
           work on the Local Transport Plan. The survey was        by different modes of transport under a constant-
           repeated during October and November in 2002,           cost assumption. Data in this report is based on the       HCC Tracas database
           2005, 2009, 2012 and most recently 2015 when            latest version of NTEM and Tempro (version 7.2).           Database developed to hold traffic data and used to
           questionnaires were posted randomly to 19,000                                                                      produce various figures within this report.
           households across Hertfordshire. Overall 3,483          HCC Corporate Plan (2017-2021)
                                                                   The Corporate Plan sets out Hertfordshire’s vision         Labour Force Survey
           surveys were returned, equating to 16,748 recorded
                                                                   over the next few years and identifies key priorities      The Labour Force Survey (LFS) is a survey of the
           trips and an 18% response rate. This survey
                                                                   to enable this vision. The plan is split into 4            employment circumstances of the UK population.
           provides useful information on access to transport
           and the travel patterns of Hertfordshire residents      ambitions; Thrive, Prosper, Be Healthy & Safe and          Transport Statistics Great Britain (DfT)
           and allows analysis of travel trends. The next          to Take Part.
                                                                                                                              Describes the major statistical trends in the British
           County Travel Survey will be conducted in autumn                                                                   transport sector. The latest version was published in
                                                                   Vehicle Statistics (DVLA & DfT)
           2018. Specific HCTS source tables are referenced                                                                   July 2018.
                                                                   Statistics on licensed road vehicles and new
           through the document.                                   vehicle registrations derived from data held by
                                                                                                                              Annual Operator Survey
           Census 2011                                             the Driver and Vehicle Licensing Agency (DVLA),
                                                                                                                              Provides data on bus passenger in Hertfordshire.
           The national census is carried out every 10 years       which administers vehicle registration and licensing
           by the Office of National Statistics (a Central         records in the UK.                                         Lennon ticketing data
           Government organisation) and provides a wide                                                                       Train station entry and exit data
           range of demographic information for the UK
           population. The main transport related statistics
           focus on method and distance travelled to work and

                                                                                                                                                                                 6
contents

                                                                            Congestion, Growth            Travel Behaviour                                               Information and
                   Introduction                 Traffic Flow                                                                             Sustainable Transport
                                                                            and Air Quality               & Choice                                                       Appendices

               1.1 Background                1.2 Headline Facts          1.3 Data Sources

           1.3 Data Sources cont.
           TrafficMaster GPS data                                  Travel Patterns                                           a cordon of count sites around the town centre
           Journey time data used to identify average link         As part of the development of the Countywide Model        between the hours of 07:00 – 10:00 on a single
           speeds and the time spent travelling.                   (COMET) data from mobile phones, the Census and           weekday in a neutral month (i.e. one which avoids
                                                                   the County Travel Survey was analysed to identify         any events that significantly affect traffic flow, such
           School Hands-Up Survey (SHUS)                           key movement patterns across the county. This has         as school holidays).
           The SHUS is an annual survey of school pupils that      been summarised in a travel patterns report, which
           documents how they travel to school.                    is available via www.hertfordshire.gov.uk/trafficdata     Figure 1.3.1 shows the geographical distribution
                                                                                                                             of the traffic count sites and gives an indication
           Network Management Strategy                             Traffic Count Programme                                   of where there have been large changes in traffic
           A daughter document of the Local Transport Plan.        The Council’s main source of information is obtained      flow over the last year. More information about the
           The Traffic Management Act 2004 introduced the          from the ongoing Traffic Count Programme which            traffic count programme can be found in Appendices
           Network Management Duty which requires traffic          primarily monitors road traffic levels and vehicle        6.3.1 and 6.3.2. Further detail of the locations and
           authorities to maintain expeditious movement            type. Automatic Traffic Counters (ATCs) are               information on daily traffic flow levels and be found
           of traffic on roads. The strategy also documents        located across the county, spread across all road         on HCC’s website at:
           the Road Hierarchy, the Primary Route Network,          types. These sites are monitored annually and are
           Diversion Routes, New Roads and Streetworks             supplemented by Highways England sites on the             www.hertfordshire.gov.uk/trafficmap
           and Permitting of Hertfordshire’s roads. This report    motorway network. The council also has monitoring
           contains information on traffic-flows and congestion    programmes for both speed and cycling. Information
           which is critical for the effective implementation of   on all of these programmes are within this report.
           the Network Management Duty.
                                                                   TravelWise Urban Cordon Surveys
           Hertfordshire Transport Asset Management                The TravelWise Urban Cordon Surveys are carried
           Policy (HTAMP)                                          out on a three year rolling programme for all major
           A daughter document of the LTP. The Hertfordshire       towns in Hertfordshire (Appendix 6.3.14). For each
           Transport Asset Management Policy aims to deliver       town, the number of people travelling by car, bus,
           a well maintained and fit for purpose network           motorcycle, bicycle, and on foot is monitored at
           through an asset management approach.

                                                                                                                                                                                   7
contents

                                                                                                                                 Congestion, Growth                                                                        Travel Behaviour                                                                  Sustainable                                        Information and
                        Introduction                                      Traffic Flow
                                                                                                                                 and Air Quality                                                                           & Choice                                                                          Transport                                          Appendices

                   1.1 Background                                    1.2 Headline Facts                                  1.3 Data Sources

           1.3 Data SourcesTraffic
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     ¯
                             cont. Count Comparison 2016 to 2017                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      "
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                                              Increase in Traffic Flow of more than 5%
                                                                #
           Figure 1.3.1 - Traffic Count Site Locations Map
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                                                                 "       Minimal Change in Traffic Flow                                                                                                                             "
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           Crown copyright and database rights 2014 Ordnance Survey 100019606.                                                   "            "                           " "                 ""
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           use of this data is subject to terms and conditions. You are not permitted to copy,                                                    "           """             "
           sub-licence, distribute or sell any of this data to third parties in any form.                                 "

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          8
contents

                                                                                Congestion, Growth           Travel Behaviour          Sustainable            Information and
                 Introduction               Traffic Flow
                                                                                and Air Quality              & Choice                  Transport              Appendices

             2.1 Traffic Flow
                                   2.2 Goods Vehicles              2.3 Powered Two-Wheelers          2.4 Road Network & Urban Rural      2.5 Key Routes   2.6 Traffic Flow by District
             by Road Class

                                                                                                                 2. Traffic Flow

           2.3%
                                                        Hertfordshire Van (LGV) traffic fell by
                                                        1.5% between 2016 and 2017, which
                                                        is the first reduction in several years                  2.1      Traffic Flow by Road Class
           rise
           Traffic levels grew
           by 2.3% between
                                                                                                                 2.2      Goods Vehicles
           2016 and 2017
                                                        The county’s trunk roads carry almost                    2.3      Powered Two-Wheelers
                                                        three times the national levels of vans

                                                                                                                 2.4      Road Network & Urban Rural
           Hertfordshire traffic                        HGV traffic increased
           levels have surpassed                        by 9% from the previous
           pre recession levels
           and are now at a
                                                        year; however they are
                                                        still lower than
                                                                                                                 2.5      Key Routes
           record high                                  pre-recession
                                                        levels
                                                                                                                 2.6      Traffic Flow by District

           Between 2003 and                             The county’s trunk roads carry
           2017 population                              almost three times the national
           in Hertfordshire                             levels of vans.
           has grown by
           14%, whilst traffic
                                      15%
           has grown by 9%
           during this period

                                      9%

                                                                                                                                                                         9
contents

                                                                                                          Congestion, Growth                Travel Behaviour                        Sustainable                         Information and
                   Introduction                   Traffic Flow
                                                                                                          and Air Quality                   & Choice                                Transport                           Appendices

                2.1 Traffic Flow
                                         2.2 Goods Vehicles         2.3 Powered Two-Wheelers                                     2.4 Road Network & Urban Rural                       2.5 Key Routes                2.6 Traffic Flow by District
                by Road Class

           2.1 Traffic Flow by Road Class
           The most easily observed characteristic of traffic is        been added to the analysis as they give a more                                             Figure 2.1.1 shows average AAWD per unit length
           flow. Two common measures are Annual Average                 complete picture of motorway flows in the county.                                          of road by road type, both in Hertfordshire and Great
           Week Day flow (AAWD) and Annual Average Daily                This distorts some of the growth figures for the                                           Britain. Comparisons suggest that the Hertfordshire
           Traffic flow (AADT). The former is derived from              motorway and trunk road categories and where                                               motorway, trunk and principal A road network carry
           observations between 06:00 and 22:00 on each                 relevant explanatory footnotes have been added to                                          traffic flows which are over double the national
           weekday, the latter from the total flow observed             the figures.                                                                               average.
           over a year. Hertfordshire County Council generally
           quotes the AAWD for a road, as peak traffic flows
           are better represented.                                       Figure 2.1.1 - Average AAWD per Unit Length of Road by Road Type
           Between 2016 and 2017 there have been a number                                                                           Hertfordshire 2017         Great Britain 2017
           of changes to the road network which may have                                        120,000
           affected the traffic flows in particular areas. In May                                             106,098
           2017 the M1 – A5 link was opened to the north of
                                                                                                100,000
           Dunstable. Complementary measures included
           detrunking of the A5, running between Markyate and
                                                                     AAWD/Unit Length of Road

           M1 junction 9 and the reclassification of the A5 to                                   80,000                                                                                           Source:
                                                                                                                                                                                                  *DfT (2018 Transport Statistics
           the A5183. Furthermore the A4146 was reclassified                                                                                                                                      Great Britain) Tables:
           to the B440 from Leighton Buzzard to Hemel                                                                                                                                             TRA0204, RDL0201
                                                                                                 60,000                                                                                           HCC’s TRACAS database
           Hempstead and there was an introduction of a HGV                                                                                                                                       (annual traffic count
           ban in Water End. All of which have affected traffic                                                      41,021                                                                       programme)
           routeing on the M1 and in the Dacorum area.                                           40,000
                                                                                                                                                                                                  N.B Figure 2.1.1 is derived
                                                                                                                                                                                                  using a different calculation
           In Watford, the Health Campus link road (Thomas                                                                     21,419                                                             methodology to that of figure
           Sawyer Way) opened in November 2016 and is                                            20,000                                                                                           2.1.3 in order for it to be
                                                                                                                                        11,703
           likely to have affected traffic patterns west of the                                                                                   8,683                8,316
                                                                                                                                                                                                  comparable to Great Britain
                                                                                                                                                                                                  data
           town centre.
                                                                                                     0
           Data has also become available from two additional                                               Trunk - Motorway    A Road             B Road               C Road
                                                                                                                & A Road
           M25 motorway sites in 2017 and these have
                                                                                                                                          Road Type

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    10
contents

                                                                                                     Congestion, Growth                      Travel Behaviour                                                  Information and
                             Introduction                         Traffic Flow                                                                                                   Sustainable Transport
                                                                                                     and Air Quality                         & Choice                                                          Appendices

                         2.1 Traffic Flow
                                                        2.2 Goods Vehicles           2.3 Powered Two-Wheelers                    2.4 Road Network & Urban Rural                       2.5 Key Routes       2.6 Traffic Flow by District
                         by Road Class

                   2.1 Traffic Flow by Road Class cont.
                   Figure 2.1.2 shows that the county has a wide                       with average flows of 170,000 vehicles per day                                around 1.3 million persons entering and leaving the
                   range of flows on the motorway network and range                    in 2017. This is around 17% more than flows in                                county each day.
                   from 49,000 vehicles per day on the A1(M) up to                     2002 when the road was carrying around 140,000
                                                                                                                                                                     Vehicle kilometres are determined by multiplying
                   169,000 vehicles per day on the M1. There are also                  vehicles per day (pre widening).
                                                                                                                                                                     the AAWD on a given road section by the total
                   wide variations in flows on the A road network.
                                                                                       There are 47 Automatic Count (ATC) sites located                              length of the road. Vehicle kilometres represents
                   Figure 2.1.3 shows the average AAWD for each                        around the perimeter of Hertfordshire. The combined                           the distance travelled on each section of the road
                   road classification in the county, showing the large                average flow through these sites just over 1 million                          network and provides a measure of the overall
                   differences in flow for the strategic road network                  vehicles per day. The average vehicle occupancy                               loading on a daily basis.
                   compared to local routes. Site 102 on the M1                        factor in Hertfordshire is 1.21 persons per vehicle
                   junction 6a - 7, is the busiest site in the programme               (see Appendix 6.3.15). This suggests an average of
2.1.2
                                                                                             2.1.3
                   Figure 2.1.2 - County Traffic Flow Ranges Graph                                   Figure 2.1.3 - Annual Average Weekday Flows by Road Classification Graph
                   180                                                                                      120,000   113,381
                                169
                   160
                                                                                                            100,000
                   140

                   120                                                                                       80,000
                                113
                                                                                                     AAWD

                   100                                                                                       60,000

                    80                                                                                                              44,665

                                                                                                             40,000
                                                64                                                                                                 32,129
                    60
                                                             56
                                49                                                                                                                                 17,588
                                                45                                                           20,000
                    40
                                                                                                                                                                              9,713         8,631
                                                25
                    20                                       22              20        17                         0
                                                             7               10        9                               Trunk -      Trunk         Primary          Other     B Road         C Road
                     0                                                       1         1                              Motorway        A            A Road          A Road
                           Trunk -          Trunk A      A Road         B Road      C Road
                          Motorway                                                                                                                     Road Type

                   Source: HCC’s TRACAS database (annual traffic count programme)                     Source: HCC’s Tracas database (annual traffic count programme)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          11
contents

                                                                                   Congestion, Growth                   Travel Behaviour                                                                                    Information and
                   Introduction                   Traffic Flow                                                                                                                      Sustainable Transport
                                                                                   and Air Quality                      & Choice                                                                                            Appendices

                2.1 Traffic Flow
                                         2.2 Goods Vehicles          2.3 Powered Two-Wheelers                  2.4 Road Network & Urban Rural                                          2.5 Key Routes                  2.6 Traffic Flow by District
                by Road Class

           2.1 Traffic Flow by Road Class cont.
           Figure 2.1.4 shows that Hertfordshire has a                Figure 2.1.4 - Classified Road Length (km)                                                    Figure 2.1.5 - Change in Vehicle Kilometres
           classified road length in excess of 1800km,
           with A and C Roads making up the majority of the                         9%                                                                       40.0
           classified network.                                                      Trunk - Motorway                                                                             37.51       +2.3%         38.37
           It should be noted that whilst unclassified roads                        and A Road                 29%
                                                                                    167                                                                      35.0
                                                                                                               A Road                                                              7.04       -2.1%         6.88
           make up the majority of the road network (see
                                                                                                               544
           Appendix 6.3.3) there are a limited amount of                                                                                                     30.0
           monitoring sites located on unclassified roads and                                                                                                                      2.83      +1.4%
                                                                                                                                                                                                            2.87

                                                                                                                                   Million Vehicle Kms/Day
           therefore do not provide a representative sample.
                                                                                                                                                             25.0
           For the purposes of this report where there are                                                                                                                                                 11.66
                                                                                                                                                                                 11.54       +1.0%
           traffic counts on unclassified roads these have been                                                                                              20.0
           analysed as C roads.
           Figure 2.1.5 shows the Vehicle kilometres by road                                                                                                 15.0
           type across the county. Between 2016 and 2017                                                                                                                                                                        C Road
           there has been an increase in overall traffic levels of                                                                                           10.0                                                               B Road
           2.3%, which is a result of increases of flows on the                                                                                                                  16.10        +5.4%        16.97
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                A Road
           motorway, which increased by over 5%.                                                               18%                                            5.0
                                                                          44%                                  B Road                                                                                                           Trunk - Motorway
           Around 75% of all kilometres travelled per day                 C Road                                                                                                                                                & A Road
                                                                                                               330                                            0.0
           across the county in 2017 took place on a Trunk                828
           or A Road. This reflects the success of the county                                                                                                            Hertfordshire 2016           Hertfordshire 2017
           council’s policy to encourage traffic to use major                                                                                                                                 Year
           routes for long journeys. The C road network makes         Source: HCC’s TRACAS database (annual traffic
                                                                      count programme) - Excludes unclassified roads                                                Source: HCC’s TRACAS database (annual traffic count programme) N>B
           up most of the remaining 25% and shows that local
           roads in the county experience high traffic flows in                                                                                                     N.B Excludes two new motorway sites to provide a direct comparison with
                                                                                                                                                                    2016 figures.
           many areas.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       12
contents

                                                                                                                                           Congestion, Growth                   Travel Behaviour                                                 Information and
                                                   Introduction                                 Traffic Flow                                                                                                      Sustainable Transport
                                                                                                                                           and Air Quality                      & Choice                                                         Appendices

                                                2.1 Traffic Flow
                                                                                      2.2 Goods Vehicles                    2.3 Powered Two-Wheelers                  2.4 Road Network & Urban Rural                2.5 Key Routes           2.6 Traffic Flow by District
                                                by Road Class

                                        2.1 Traffic Flow by Road Class cont.
                                        There is a correlation between transport, traffic                                    level. In Hertfordshire GVA increased by 4.4% from                       grew by 1.2%. Traffic on the Strategic Road Network
                                        flow and the economy. According to ONS (which                                        2015 to 2016 (Table 4 - NUTS3 Growth in Gross                            carries one third of all motorised traffic in England,
                                        uses GDP and the Labour Market as a guide to the                                     Value Added Income Approach).                                            with motorways carrying 1.4% more traffic than in
                                        economy), the UK economy suffered an economic                                                                                                                 2016.
                                                                                                                             Great Britain road traffic estimates for 2017 show
                                        downturn between 2008 and 2009 and did not return
                                                                                                                             that motor vehicle traffic was at a record high with                     Figure 2.1.6 shows the overall trend in
                                        to pre-recession levels until mid-2013. National GDP
                                                                                                                             327.1 billion vehicle miles travelled (1.3% higher)                      Hertfordshire’s traffic flow with 2003 as a base
                                        levels for 2017 increased by 1.8% from the previous
                                                                                                                             compared to the previous year.                                           year. From 2003 traffic flows gradually increased in
                                        year. Whilst GDP is an indicator for the economy at
                                                                                                                                                                                                      the county until 2007 when there was a reduction
                                        a national level, Gross Value Added (GVA) is used                                    Furthermore national van traffic grew by 2.7%,
                                                                                                                                                                                                      corresponding with the UK recession.
                                        as an economic indicator at regional and authority                                   higher than any other vehicle type, whilst lorry traffic
                                                                                                                                                                                                      Flows continued to decline until 2013, when there
                                                                                                                                                                                                      was an increase in traffic flow aligning with the
      2.1.6
                                        Figure 2.1.6 - Historical Trends of County and National Traffic                                                                                               upturn of the UK economy. This increase has
                                                                                                                                                                                                      continued, with the 2017 data indicating that traffic
                                                                                                                                                                                                      flows have surpassed pre-recession levels and are
                                                                              Hertfordshire           Trunk without 2 new motorway sites          Great Britain                                       now at a record high, which also mirrors national
                                          115
                                          113
                                                                                                                                                                                                      traffic trends.
                                          110                                                                                                                                                         Please note that Figure 2.1.6 includes two new
                                                                                                         Recession
                                          108
              Growth Index (1995=100)

                                                                                                                                                                                                      motorway sites, so the growth shown in 2017 is
                                          105
                                                                                                                                                                                                      greater than reality. The dashed line shows what this
                                          103
                                          100
                                                                                                                                                                                                      would look like without these sites and represents
                                           98                                                                                                                                                         the 2.3% growth in traffic from the previous year.
                                           95
                                           93
                                           90
                                           88
                                           85                                                                                                                     Footnote: Graph includes two new
                                           83                                                                                                                     motorway sites, so the growth
                                                                                                                                                                  shown in 2017 is greater than
                                           80                                                                                                                     reality. The dashed line shows
                                                  2003

                                                         2004

                                                                2005

                                                                       2006

                                                                               2007

                                                                                        2008

                                                                                               2009

                                                                                                       2010

                                                                                                              2011

                                                                                                                     2012

                                                                                                                             2013

                                                                                                                                    2014

                                                                                                                                           2015

                                                                                                                                                  2016

                                                                                                                                                         2017

                                                                                                                                                                  what this would look like without
                                                                                                                                                                  these sites and represents the
                                                                                                                                                                  2.3% growth in traffic from the
                                        Source: DfT (2018Transport Statistics Great Britain) Table TRA0204. HCC’s TRACAS database                                 previous year.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            13
contents

                                                                                                                             Congestion, Growth                   Travel Behaviour                                                   Information and
                                                Introduction                          Traffic Flow                                                                                            Sustainable Transport
                                                                                                                             and Air Quality                      & Choice                                                           Appendices

                                             2.1 Traffic Flow
                                                                          2.2 Goods Vehicles                   2.3 Powered Two-Wheelers                  2.4 Road Network & Urban Rural         2.5 Key Routes                   2.6 Traffic Flow by District
                                             by Road Class

           2.1.7

                         2.1 Traffic Flow by Road Class cont.

                                                                       Trunk - Motorway                     Trunk without 2               A Road                 B Road              C Road     Figure 2.1.7 - Historical
                                                                       & A Road                             new motorway sites                                                                  Trends of County Traffic
                                             140                                                                                                                                                by Road Class

                                                                                                                                                                                                Footnote: Shows large changes in
                                             130                                                                                                                                                flows on Motorways and A roads
                                                                                                                                                                                                between 2006 and 2007, this was
                                                                                                                                                                                                due to the destrunking of the A10.
                   Growth Index (1995=100)

                                             120

                                             110

                                             100

                                              90

                                              80

                                              70
                                                      2003

                                                                2004

                                                                       2005

                                                                               2006

                                                                                          2007

                                                                                                     2008

                                                                                                               2009

                                                                                                                      2010

                                                                                                                               2011

                                                                                                                                       2012

                                                                                                                                                  2013

                                                                                                                                                          2014

                                                                                                                                                                   2015

                                                                                                                                                                           2016

                                                                                                                                                                                     2017
                         Figure 2.1.7 shows changes in traffic levels by road                                    It should be noted that the large growth in A
                         type, highlighting that traffic levels in 2017 have                                     road traffic and reduction in Motorway and
                         experienced increases from 2016 levels on all road                                      Trunk road traffic between 2006 and 2007 is
                         types apart from C roads.                                                               due to the effect of the de-trunking of the A10
                                                                                                                 (a key route through the county).

                         DfT (2018Transport Statistics Great Britain) Table TRA0204. HCC’s TRACAS database

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                14
contents

                                                                                             Congestion, Growth                Travel Behaviour                                                         Information and
                    Introduction                       Traffic Flow                                                                                               Sustainable Transport
                                                                                             and Air Quality                   & Choice                                                                 Appendices

                2.1 Traffic Flow
                                              2.2 Goods Vehicles             2.3 Powered Two-Wheelers                 2.4 Road Network & Urban Rural                 2.5 Key Routes               2.6 Traffic Flow by District
                by Road Class

           2.1 Traffic Flow by Road Class cont.
           On many roads, cars and vans can account for more                                     Figure 2.1.8 - Vehicle Mode Split by Road Type
                                                                                     2.1.8
           than 80% of vehicles (see Appendix 6.3.15).
           This can mask trends of other travel modes when
           looking at the overall changes in levels of flow.                                     100%                                                        3%            2%
                                                                                                                                      6%            3%
                                                                                                                          6%
           Figure 2.1.8 displays vehicle classifications by                                                 12%                                    10%                     10%
                                                                                                  90%                                                        11%
                                                                                                                                      8%
           road type with A roads shown as per the Road                                                                  15%
           Hierarchy (see section 2.4).                                                           80%       16%

           HGVs and LGVs make up almost 30% of vehicles                                           70%
           on Motorways, which is double the proportion found
           on more minor roads.                                                                   60%

                                                                                                  50%
           *Please note that Figures based on the mannual classified count                                                                         86%       85%           86%
                                                                                                  40%                                84%
           programme, so are therefore unaffected by the two additional                                                  77%
           motorway sites added as these do not include a classification.                                   71%
                                                                                                  30%                                                                                     HGV

                                                                                                                                                                                          LGV
                                                                                                  20%
                                                                                                                                                                                          PSV
                                                                                                  10%
                                                                                                                                                                                          Motorcycles
                                                                                                   0%
                                                                                                                                                                                          Car
                                                                                                         Trunk Rd - Trunk Rd - Primary A          Other A   B Road       C Road
                                                                                                         (Motorway)     (A)

                                                                                                 Source: MCC monitoring programme

                                                                                                                                                                                                                 15
contents

                                                                                                                       Congestion, Growth                            Travel Behaviour                                              Information and
                                          Introduction                             Traffic Flow                                                                                                     Sustainable Transport
                                                                                                                       and Air Quality                               & Choice                                                      Appendices

                                       2.1 Traffic Flow
                                                                          2.2 Goods Vehicles               2.3 Powered Two-Wheelers                          2.4 Road Network & Urban Rural            2.5 Key Routes          2.6 Traffic Flow by District
                                       by Road Class

              2.2 Goods Vehicles
              Table TSGB0401 shows the amount of domestic                                                   Table RFS01 and RFS02 show that 147 billion                                  more stress on road surfaces than many other
              freight moved by mode by year. In 2016 a total of                                             tonnes of goods were moved by road nationally in                             vehicle types. As a result of this Policy 16 of LTP4
              196 billion tonne kilometres (btkm) of goods were                                             2017,which was a slight decrease from 148 in 2016.                           seeks to manage freight by “Encouraging Heavy
              moved in Great Britain. Of this Road accounted for                                            Table RFS0122 shows that 17.8 million tonnes of                              Goods Vehicles to use the Primary Route Network”
              76% (148 btkm), Rail 9% (17 btkm) and Water 15%                                               goods were moved in the Eastern Region (including                            (See Figure 2.4.1).
              (30 btkm). It should be noted that since 2013 piped                                           Hertfordshire), which equates to 12% of the UK total
                                                                                                                                                                                         Figure 2.2.1 demonstrates that the county’s Trunk
              goods has not been calculated but accounted for 5%                                            in 2017. In Hertfordshire 3 billion tonnes of goods
                                                                                                                                                                                         roads carry over three times the national level of
              of the total in 2012.                                                                         were moved in 2017, which represents 2.7% of the
                                                                                                                                                                                         HGVs, with A roads carrying almost double the
                                                                                                            national total.
              Compared to 2006 (when this was 64%) there has                                                                                                                             national levels.
              been an increase in the proportion of total goods                                             The COBA manual states a Heavy Goods Vehicle
                                                                                                                                                                                         Figure 2.2.2 shows that over 90% of total HGV
              moved on the roads in 2017 (76%).                                                             (HGV) is a commercial vehicle over 3.5 tonnes. Due
                                                                                                                                                                                         kilometres travelled per day take place on the
                                                                                                            to their size and weight, HGVs impose significantly
                                                                                                                                                                                         Trunk road or A road network.

              Figure 2.2.1 - Average Flow of HGVs by Road Type                                                         2.2.2
                                                                                                                              Figure 2.2.2 - HGV Vehicle Kilometres by Road Type
                                                                 Hertfordshire 2017        Great Britain 2017                                           C Road     B Road     A Road
                                                                                                                                                        Trunk - Motorway & A Road
                                      18,000                                                                                                     3.50
                                                15,694                                                                                                              0.17
                                      16,000                                                                                                                        0.07
                                                                                                                                                 3.00
           AAWD/Unit Length of Road

                                      14,000                                                                                                                        0.48
                                                                                                                        Million Vehicle Km/Day

                                      12,000                                                                                                     2.50
                                      10,000
                                                                                                                                                 2.00
                                       8,000
                                       6,000                                                                                                     1.50
                                                         4,233
                                                                                                                                                                    2.62
                                       4,000
                                                                                                                                                 1.00
                                       2,000                      877 456
                                                                                   202             210
                                          0                                                                                                      0.50
                                                Trunk -          A Road           B Road          C Road
                                               Motorway &
                                                 A Road                                                                                          0.00

              *DfT (2018 Transport Statistics Great Britain) table TRA0204 & RDL0201.
              HCC’s TRACAS database (annual traffic count programme).                                                         Source: HCC’s TRACAS database (annual traffic count programme)                                                  16
contents

                                                                                       Congestion, Growth                                                Travel Behaviour                                                                                 Information and
                    Introduction                        Traffic Flow                                                                                                                                     Sustainable Transport
                                                                                       and Air Quality                                                   & Choice                                                                                         Appendices

                2.1 Traffic Flow
                                              2.2 Goods Vehicles           2.3 Powered Two-Wheelers                                          2.4 Road Network & Urban Rural                                     2.5 Key Routes                        2.6 Traffic Flow by District
                by Road Class

           2.2 Goods Vehicles cont.
                                                                                        2.2.3
           Figure 2.2.3 shows the historical levels of HGV flow                                                   Figure 2.2.3 - Historical Trends of HGV Flows                                                                                       Source: HCC’s
           on roads in the county. Between 2003 and 2007                                                          120
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      TRACAS database
           HGV flows were relatively stable, however from                                                               100    99.5   99.7 101.0 98.2
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 94.8
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      (annual traffic count
                                                                                                                  100                                         92.3                                                                                    programme)
           2007 to 2009 there was a 19% reduction, which

                                                                                        Growth Index (1995=100)
                                                                                                                                                                             82.1   82.6 79.6                            85.6
                                                                                                                                                                                                  80.1            81.6
           corresponds with the downturn of the UK’s economy                                                       80
                                                                                                                                                                     78.9                                 78.1
           during this period. Since 2014 HGV flows have
           increased by about 17%, although they have not yet                                                      60
           reached pre recession levels.
                                                                                                                   40

           *Please note that figures are based on the mannual classified                                           20
           count programme, so are therefore unaffected by the two
           additional motorway sites added as these do not include a
                                                                                                                    0
           classification.

                                                                                                                        2003

                                                                                                                               2004

                                                                                                                                      2005

                                                                                                                                               2006

                                                                                                                                                      2007

                                                                                                                                                             2008

                                                                                                                                                                     2009

                                                                                                                                                                             2010

                                                                                                                                                                                    2011

                                                                                                                                                                                           2012

                                                                                                                                                                                                  2013

                                                                                                                                                                                                         2014

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2015

                                                                                                                                                                                                                         2016

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 2017
           Table 2.1 of the Design Manual for Roads and
           Bridges (DMRB, Volume 7, Section 2, HD24/06)
           classifies commercial vehicles into three categories;                        Figure 2.2.4 - Manual classified breakdown of HGVs by type in 2017
           PSV, OGV1 and OGV2. Furthermore the DfT publish
           guidance on lorry types and weights to assist in                                                                                                                                   HGV                                                     Source: MCC
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      monitoring programme
           the correct classification. The OGV (Other Goods

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          HGV total
                                                                                                                                                                     OGV1                                OGV2

                                                                                                                                             LGV

                                                                                                                                                      PSV
           Vehicles) split is used to inform a variety of areas                             Road Type

                                                                                                                                                             HCV 2

                                                                                                                                                             3 axle

                                                                                                                                                             4 axle

                                                                                                                                                                                              3 axle

                                                                                                                                                                                                         4 axle

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    5 axle

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                6 axle
                                                                                                                                                             Rigid

                                                                                                                                                             Rigid
                                                                                                                                                              HCV

                                                                                                                                                              HCV
           such as road and bridge design and pavement

                                                                                                                                                                                               Artic

                                                                                                                                                                                                          Artic

                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Artic

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Artic
                                                                                                                                                              axle
                                                                                                                                                              >3T
           loading.
                                                                                           Trunk Rd -
           Figure 2.2.4 shows the 2017 manual classified                                                                                15.7% 0.6%            3.7%          0.4%    0.6%      0.1%       0.5%       4.0%        2.8%     12.1%
                                                                                           Motorway
           breakdown of HGVs by type and shows that in 2017,                               Trunk Rd - A Road                           15.9%          0.4%    0.8%          0.2%    2.8%      0.0%       0.2%       1.4%        0.5%     5.8%
           OGV1 made up 1.2% of all HGVs whilst OGV2                                       Primary A                                    9.7%          0.8%    0.1%          0.0%    2.9%      0.0%       0.0%       1.7%        0.1%     4.8%
           made up 4% of all HGVs.                                                         Other A                                     10.3%          1.0%    0.4%          0.2%    0.7%      0.0%       0.0%       0.5%        0.1%     2.0%
                                                                                           B Road                                      11.8%          1.0%    0.5%          0.2%    0.5%      0.0%       0.1%       0.3%        0.1%     1.7%
                                                                                           C Road                                      11.0%          1.1%    0.4%          0.1%    0.4%      0.0%       0.0%       0.1%        0.0%     1.1%
                                                                                           All Road types                              11.8%          0.8%    1.0%          0.2%    1.5%      0.0%       0.1%       1.6%        0.7%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         5.2%
                                                                                                                               OGV %                                 1.2%                                4.0%

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      17
contents

                                                                                       Congestion, Growth                                     Travel Behaviour                                                  Information and
                    Introduction                        Traffic Flow                                                                                                             Sustainable Transport
                                                                                       and Air Quality                                        & Choice                                                          Appendices

                2.1 Traffic Flow
                                              2.2 Goods Vehicles           2.3 Powered Two-Wheelers                                   2.4 Road Network & Urban Rural               2.5 Key Routes           2.6 Traffic Flow by District
                by Road Class

           2.2 Goods Vehicles cont.
                                                                2.2.4
           According to the COBA manual a Light Goods                                          Figure 2.2.5 - Average Flow of LGVs by Road Type
           Vehicle (LGV) is defined as a vehicle of up to 3.5
           tonnes gross vehicle weight (goods vehicles over                                                                                                 Hertfordshire 2017         Great Britain 2017
           3.5 tonnes have sideguards fitted between axles),
           including those towing a trailer or caravan. Most of                                                   20,000
           this group are delivery vans of one type or another.                                                              17,780
           Figure 2.2.5 shows that the county’s trunk roads
           carry almost three times the national levels of LGVs,                                                  16,000

                                                                                       AAWD/Unit Length of Road
           whilst on A Roads the county and national levels are
           similar.
                                                                                                                  12,000

           *Please note that figures are based on the mannual classified
           count programme, so are therefore unaffected by the two                                                 8,000
           additional motorway sites added as these do not include a                                                                  6,259
           classification.

                                                                                                                   4,000
                                                                                                                                                 1,874 1,740
                                                                                                                                                                        959               943

                                                                                                                       0
                                                                                                                           Trunk - Motorway        A Road              B Road            C Road
                                                                                                                               & A Road

                                                                                               Source: *DfT (2018 Transport Statistics Great Britain) table TRA0204 & RDL0201. HCC’s TRACAS database
                                                                                               (annual traffic count programme).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                           18
contents

                                                                                                                     Congestion, Growth                    Travel Behaviour                                                      Information and
                                           Introduction                  Traffic Flow                                                                                                        Sustainable Transport
                                                                                                                     and Air Quality                       & Choice                                                              Appendices

                                    2.1 Traffic Flow
                                                                2.2 Goods Vehicles       2.3 Powered Two-Wheelers                                  2.4 Road Network & Urban Rural               2.5 Key Routes               2.6 Traffic Flow by District
                                    by Road Class

                2.2 Goods Vehicles cont.
                 Figure 2.2.6 indicates that almost 80% of LGV                                Figure 2.2.7 shows the average LGV AAWD by                                       years van traffic fell on trunk roads and fell overall
                 vehicle kilometres take place on the Trunk or A road                         road type and year. The Figure shows that traffic                                on all road types by 1.5% between 2016 and 2017.
                 network.                                                                     flows for LGVs have stayed relatively constant on
                                                                                              most roads since 2003. The exception to this is on                               *Please note that figures are based on the manual classified
                                                                                                                                                                               count programme, so are therefore unaffected by the two
                                                                                              Motorways where there has (mostly) been year on                                  additional motorway sites added as these do not include a
                                                                                              year growth, with 30% growth between 2003 and                                    classification.
                                                                                              2017. However for the first time for a number of

                Figure 2.2.6 - LGV Kilometres by Road Type                                   Figure 2.2.7 - Historical LGV Flows by Road Type
                                     C Road         B Road   A Road   Trunk - Motorway
                                                                      & A Road
                                                                                                                          C Road          B Road         Other A      Primary A       Trunk Road - Other          Trunk Road - Motorway

                                    5.00                                                                    25,000
                                                               0.78      (15%)

                                    4.00                       0.32      (6%)                               20,000
           Million Vehicle Km/Day

                                                               1.02      (20%)
                                                                                         Average LGV flow

                                    3.00                                                                    15,000

                                    2.00                                                                    10,000

                                                               2.97      (58%)
                                    1.00                                                                     5,000

                                                                                                                0
                                    0.00                                                                               2003   2004   2005     2006      2007   2008   2009    2010   2011   2012   2013    2014    2015   2016    2017

                 Source: HCC’s Tracas database (annual traffic count programme)              Source: MCC monitoring programme                                                 Year

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              19
contents

                                                                                                                         Congestion, Growth                                      Travel Behaviour                                              Information and
                                                Introduction                      Traffic Flow                                                                                                                  Sustainable Transport
                                                                                                                         and Air Quality                                         & Choice                                                      Appendices

                                          2.1 Traffic Flow
                                                                        2.2 Goods Vehicles                  2.3 Powered Two-Wheelers                                     2.4 Road Network & Urban Rural            2.5 Key Routes          2.6 Traffic Flow by District
                                          by Road Class

              2.3 Powered Two-Wheelers
              Motorbikes, scooters and mopeds are collectively                                                 Figure 2.3.2 shows that around 75% of powered                                         The council recognises that smaller powered two
              known as powered two wheelers. These typically                                                   two-wheeler vehicle kilometres occur on Trunk and                                     wheelers can help deliver environmental benefits if
              make up around 1% of vehicles on Hertfordshire’s                                                 A roads.                                                                              substituted for single occupancy car use. However
              road network (Appendix 6.3.15).                                                                                                                                                        these benefits are not realised if the transfer
                                                                                                               Because high numbers of motorcycles use relatively
                                                                                                                                                                                                     of mode is from walking, cycling or passenger
              Figure 2.3.1 shows that numbers of powered two                                                   concentrated sections of the Trunk roads, the
                                                                                                                                                                                                     transport. Policy 1 of the Local Transport Plan sets
              wheelers on Trunk roads in Hertfordshire are much                                                proportion of vehicle kilometres travelled are similar
                                                                                                                                                                                                     out a ‘Transport User Hierarchy’, which encourages
              greater than the national average.                                                               to the more widespread A road network.
                                                                                                                                                                                                     greater and safer use of sustainable modes.
                                                                                                                                                                                                     This policy places powered two wheelers ahead of
                                                                                                                                                                                                     other motor vehicle user needs (i.e. motorcar).
           2.3.1
              Figure 2.3.1 - Average PTW AAWD by Road Type                                                                           Figure 2.3.2 - PTW Vehicle Kilometres
                                                                                                                        2.3.2

                                                                       Hertfordshire 2017        Great Britain 2017
                                                                                                                                                                C Road     B Road     A Road
                                          800
                                                                                                                                                                Trunk Motorway & A Road

                                          700        670                                                                                                 0.26
                                                                                                                                                         0.24
                                          600                                                                                                                                     0.05
               AAWD/Unit Length of Road

                                                                                                                                                         0.22
                                          500                                                                                                            0.20                     0.02
                                                                                                                                Million Vehicle Km/Day

                                                                                                                                                         0.18
                                          400
                                                                                                                                                         0.16
                                                                                                                                                                                  0.08
                                          300                                                                                                            0.14
                                                                                                                                                         0.12
                                                           180
                                          200
                                                                 138                                                                                     0.10
                                                                       114
                                          100                                                                                                            0.08
                                                                                      57               57
                                                                                                                                                         0.06                     0.11
                                            0                                                                                                            0.04
                                                     Trunk -      A Road            B Road            C Road
                                                    Motorway                                                                                             0.02
                                                    & A Road                                                                                             0.00
                                                                        Road Type

              Source: DfT (2018 Transport Statistics Great Britain) table TRA0204 & RDL0201.
              HCC’s TRACAS database (annual traffic count programme).                                                                Source: HCC’s TRACAS database (annual traffic count programme)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          20
contents

                                                                                                 Congestion, Growth                   Travel Behaviour                                                           Information and
                   Introduction                  Traffic Flow                                                                                                                 Sustainable Transport
                                                                                                 and Air Quality                      & Choice                                                                   Appendices

               2.1 Traffic Flow
                                        2.2 Goods Vehicles        2.3 Powered Two-Wheelers                                   2.4 Road Network & Urban Rural                     2.5 Key Routes               2.6 Traffic Flow by District
               by Road Class

           2.3 Powered Two-Wheelers cont.
           Figure 2.3.3 shows the historical trend of motorcycle
                                                              2.3.3                                   Figure 2.3.3 - Historical Trends of PTW
           kilometres and indicates that despite some
           fluctuations there has been a general a decline in                                   120
           the use of powered two wheelers from 2003 to 2015.
           However from 2015 to 2017 there has been an
           increase of around 9%.                                                                     100
                                                                                                                              97.3
                                                                                                100          93.3     94.3
           Due to the small number of motorcyclists on the                                                                                   92.1
           road compared to other vehicles a small change in                                                                         85.8
                                                                                                                                                     83.5
           use can show as a comparatively large percentage
                                                                                                80                                                            76.4     75.9
           change. As such the trend shown in Figure 2.3.3

                                                                      Growth Index (1995=100)
                                                                                                                                                                                       71.4    72.3
           should be treated with caution.                                                                                                                                                                            69.6
                                                                                                                                                                                64.4                         63.5
                                                                                                                                                                                                      61.8
                                                                                                60

                                                                                                40

                                                                                                20

                                                                                                 0
                                                                                                      2003

                                                                                                             2004

                                                                                                                      2005

                                                                                                                              2006

                                                                                                                                      2007

                                                                                                                                              2008

                                                                                                                                                      2009

                                                                                                                                                              2010

                                                                                                                                                                       2011

                                                                                                                                                                                2012

                                                                                                                                                                                       2013

                                                                                                                                                                                               2014

                                                                                                                                                                                                      2015

                                                                                                                                                                                                             2016

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2017
                                                                                                      Source: HCC’s TRACAS database (annual traffic count programme)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                             21
contents

                                                                                      Congestion, Growth                Travel Behaviour                                              Information and
                   Introduction                   Traffic Flow                                                                                          Sustainable Transport
                                                                                      and Air Quality                   & Choice                                                      Appendices

               2.1 Traffic Flow
                                         2.2 Goods Vehicles            2.3 Powered Two-Wheelers                 2.4 Road Network & Urban Rural            2.5 Key Routes          2.6 Traffic Flow by District
               by Road Class

           2.4 Road Network & Urban Rural
           The Department for Food & Rural Affairs (Defra)               DfT defines ‘Urban’ roads to be those within a                     Due to the important role that rural areas have
           defines urban areas as those settlements with a               settlement of 10,000 people or more.                               in Hertfordshire, the council is producing a Rural
           population above 10,000, whilst rural areas are               This is consistent with the Rural and Urban Area                   Strategy, which will be a supporting document of
           those with a population below 10,000 or areas of              Classification 2004. All other roads are defined                   LTP4.
           open countryside. An urban rural classification of            as ‘Rural’.
           Local Authority Districts has also been created,
                                                                         Hertfordshire has adopted this same methodology,
           where the resident population is either urban or
                                                                         although, in line with DfT, Trunk roads (Motorways
           rural. The table below shows how Hertfordshire’s
                                                                         and Highways England ‘A’ roads) are excluded from
           districts are classified.
                                                                         this classification.

                              District                                                             Classification

            Broxbourne                              Urban with Major Conurbation

            Dacorum                                 Urban with Significant Rural (rural including hub towns 26-49%)

            East Hertfordshire                      Urban with Significant Rural (rural including hub towns 26-49%)

            Hertsmere                               Urban with Major Conurbation

            North Hertfordshire                     Urban with Significant Rural (rural including hub towns 26-49%)

            St Albans                               Urban with City and Town

            Stevenage                               Urban with City and Town

            Three Rivers                            Urban with Major Conurbation

            Watford                                 Urban with Major Conurbation

            Welwyn Hatfield                         Urban with City and Town

                                                                                                                                                                                                 22
contents

                                                                                     Congestion, Growth                                                              Travel Behaviour                                                                                                                                Information and
                  Introduction                  Traffic Flow                                                                                                                                                                                Sustainable Transport
                                                                                     and Air Quality                                                                 & Choice                                                                                                                                        Appendices

               2.1 Traffic Flow
                                       2.2 Goods Vehicles         2.3 Powered Two-Wheelers                                                      2.4 Road Network & Urban Rural                                                                        2.5 Key Routes                                          2.6 Traffic Flow by District
               by Road Class

           2.4 Road Network & Urban Rural cont.
           Figure 2.4.1 shows the settlement pattern. Important    Figure 2.4.1 - Road Hierarchy and Settlement Definition
           rural settlements have a population of 4,000 to          Highway
                                                                    Highway England
                                                                              England (HE) (HE) Roads
                                                                                                Roads
                                                                                                                                                             A428

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             A11(T)

           10,000, with any settlement above this shown as a        Highway   England     (HE)&Roads

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 ¯
                                                                    A508
                                                                        Trunk Road - (Motorway
                                                                                            M1  Principal A Roads)
                                                                             Trunk Road - (Motorway & Principal A Roads)
                                                                                                        A509
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 M11

           Main Urban Town or Primary Urban Destination. Any
                                                                                                                                                                          A6

                                                                            Trunk Road - (Motorway & Principal A Roads)                           A421(T)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  A1(T)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Congestion Ratio
                                                                    HCC                                                                                                                                                                                                              (2014 data)
           settlement below 4,000 in population is shown as         HCC Roads
                                                                         Roads
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  A505

                                                                    HCC Primary
                                                                        RoadsA Road                                                                                                                                                                                     0 - 0.49
           Other Rural Settlement.                                          Primary A Road                                                                                     A6(T)

                                                                            Primary A Road
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Very little congestion
                                                                                                          A4146
                                                                            Main
                                                                            Main Distributor
                                                                                 Distributor (Other
                                                                                              (Other A
                                                                                                     A Roads)
                                                                                                       Roads)
           In 2012 the DfT gave local authorities greater power             Main Distributor (Other A Roads)
                                                                                                A421
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        during peak hours
                                                                            Secondary   Distributor
           to maintain the road classification system, along                Secondary Distributor
                                                                                         A421

                                                                            Secondary Distributor                                                                                                                                                                      0.5 - 0.79
           with management of the Primary Road Network.
                                                                    Urban
                                                                                                                                                                                     A6                                                                                                                                                                               M11

           Management of the Strategic Road Network (SRN)           Urban                                                                                   M1
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Occasional queuing and
                                                                    UrbanPrimary Urban Destination                       A5(T)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       congestion during peak hours
           continues to be the responsibility of Highways                    Primary Urban Destination
                                                                             Primary Urban Destination                                                                                                                                                                 0.8 - 0.99
                                                                             Main
                                                                             Main Urban  Town
           England (HE). The DfT state that “All primary routes
                                                                                                       A4146
                                                                                  Urban Town
                                                                             Main Urban Town                                                                                     A6(T)

           (other than those included on the PRN because they                                                                                                                                                                                                          Frequent queuing and congestion
           are trunk roads) consist of an A road or sequence
                                                                    Rural
                                                                    Rural
                                                                    Rural Important Rural Settlement                                     A505
                                                                                                                                                                                       A6
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       during peak hours. A CRF ratio of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       1 means traffic demand equals A10                                                                           q
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   ®
           of A roads, forming a continuous route between two                 Important Rural Settlement
                                                                                                                                                                                                   q
                                                                                                                                                                                                   ®
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   A120                                        A120(T)   A

                                                                             Important Rural Settlement                                                                                     A505                                                  A1(M)                carriageway capacity.
                                                                              Other
                                                                              Other Rural
                                                                                    Rural Settlement
           primary destinations”. In Hertfordshire the Primary                            Settlement
                                                                             Other Rural Settlement
                                                                                         A418
                                                                                                                                                                                            A1081
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       >1.0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       A602

           Destinations are; Stevenage, Hemel Hempstead,                                                                                                                                                                                                               Serious queuing and congestion
           Watford, St Albans and Hertford (as noted in                                                                                                                                                                                                                on a daily basis with small incidents
           Figure 2.4.1).                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              causing considerable delays. Traffic                                              M11

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       demand exceeds carriageway capacity.
           Hertfordshire County Council (via the Local                                                                                                                                                                                                          A414

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       No data available.   A10(T)

           Transport Plan) has defined a Road Hierarchy
                                                                                                                                 A41

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Congested junction on
           identifying those ‘A’ roads that form the Primary                                                                                                                                                                                                    !      key network identified from                                        A414
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       UTP & IURS strategies.
           Route Network in Hertfordshire, with all Non-Primary                                                                                                                                      A414(T)

           A roads being defined as Main Distributor roads (as
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           A414

                                                                                                                                                                                                              A405
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 M11

           displayed in Figure 2.4.1). It should be noted that
                                                                           A4010                                                                                                                                                           A1(M)
                                                                                                                                                                                          M25       A405(T)

           the Road Hierarchy underpins other strategies within
                                                                                                                                                                                                     M1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                M25
                                                                   Source: LTP and TRACAS
           Hertfordshire such as the Winter Salting Routes,
                                                                                                                                                                               M25        A41
                                                                                                                  A413
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   A10(T)                                                              M25
                                                                                                                                                                                                          A41

           the Growth and Transport Plans and Street works         Crown copyright and database rights 2018                                                                                                                           A1

                                                                   Ordnance Survey 100019606.
           Permitting.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     A41

                                                                   use of this data is subject to terms and                                                                                                                                                                       A10                                        M11

                                                                   conditions. You are
                                                                                    A40
                                                                                          not permitted to copy,                                                    M25
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  A1(T)

                                                                   sub-licence, distribute or sell any of this
           Appendix 6.2.1 summarises these key terms.
                                                                                                                                  A355

                                                                   data to third parties in any form.
                                                                                     A4010                                                                                                                                                                              A406
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   A12
                                                                                   M40   A404                                                                                                                                              A1
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                A406(T)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               A10(T)                      A104                                                             A127
                                                                                                                                 A40                                                                                                                                                                              A406
                                                                                                                          M40                                                                                                              M1                                   A1055
                                                                                          A404(T)                                A355                                                                                                                                                    A503
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     A1400                A12                                            A
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                A41        A1

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            23
contents

                                                                                                Congestion, Growth                    Travel Behaviour                                                                                   Information and
                        Introduction                         Traffic Flow                                                                                                                         Sustainable Transport
                                                                                                and Air Quality                       & Choice                                                                                           Appendices

                     2.1 Traffic Flow
                                                    2.2 Goods Vehicles             2.3 Powered Two-Wheelers                 2.4 Road Network & Urban Rural                                           2.5 Key Routes                 2.6 Traffic Flow by District
                     by Road Class

           2.4 Road Network & Urban Rural cont.
           Figure 2.4.2 shows that, excluding unclassified                          Hertfordshire’s total road network length and 9% of                                            Figure 2.4.4 shows vehicle kilometres split by Rural
           roads (which make up the greatest road length and                        the classified network.                                                                        and urban road classes (excluding trunk roads),
           are mainly urban) and trunk roads, Hertfordshire’s                                                                                                                      and shows that rural roads have almost three times
                                                                                    Figure 2.4.3 shows vehicle kilometres split by rural
           classified road network is 77% rural and 23% urban.                                                                                                                     as much traffic compared to urban roads. This is
                                                                                    and urban road classes (excluding trunk roads), and
                                                                                                                                                                                   due to there being higher flows on rural A roads
           Based on this classified network, rural C roads make                     shows that the highest average flows take place on
                                                                                                                                                                                   and a greater rural road network length (1305km
           up the highest proportion followed by rural A roads.                     rural ‘A’ roads, followed by urban ‘A’ roads.
                                                                                                                                                                                   compared to 397km).
           Whilst urban ‘A’ roads are among the most
           congested roads, they only make up 3% of
                                                                                                                                        2.4.4
           2.4.2

           Figure 2.4.2 - Urban and Rural Network Lengths                           Figure 2.4.3 - 2017 Average Traffic                                                            Figure 2.4.4 - Urban and Rural Traffic by Road Type
                                                                                                          Flows on Urban and
                                     7.9%
                                                                                                          Rural Roads                                                                                                          C Road     B Road     A Road
                                     C Road Urban                                                                                                                                  16.0               15.01
                                                              21.6%                   Road Type                   Rural               Urban
                      5.1%           134                      A Road
                      B Road Urban                                                                                                                                                 14.0
                                                              Rural                   A Roads                     24,625              19,092
                      87                                      368                                                                                                                                     4.81
                                                                                                                                                                                   12.0

                                                                                                                                                         Million Vehicle Kms/Day
                   10.3%                                                              B Roads                     8,084               11,257
                   A Road                                                                                                                                                          10.0
                   Urban                                                              C Roads                     7,470               9,006                                                           1.80
                   176                                                                                                                                                              8.0
                                                                                      Total                       40,179              39,355
                                                                                                                                                                                    6.0                                                 5.40
                                                                                    Source: HCC’s TRACAS database (annual traffic count programme)
                                                                    14.3%                                                                                                                                                               1.25
                                                                    B Road Rural                                                                                                    4.0               8.41
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        0.92
                                                                    243
                                                                                                                                                                                    2.0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        3.23

                                                                                                                                                                                    0.0
                                                                                                                                                                                                      Rural                             Urban
                            40.8%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Road Type
                            C Road Rural
                            694                                                                                                                                                    Source: HCC’s TRACAS database (annual traffic count programme).

           Source: HCC’s TRACAS database (annual traffic count programme).

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      24
contents

                                                                                Congestion, Growth           Travel Behaviour                                               Information and
                   Introduction                   Traffic Flow                                                                               Sustainable Transport
                                                                                and Air Quality              & Choice                                                       Appendices

                2.1 Traffic Flow
                                         2.2 Goods Vehicles         2.3 Powered Two-Wheelers         2.4 Road Network & Urban Rural            2.5 Key Routes           2.6 Traffic Flow by District
                by Road Class

           2.5 Key Routes & Future Transport
           There are a number of key transport routes in             Network (SRN), that included a programme of stable          As economic growth is high on the agenda the
           Hertfordshire that link to important economic             funding to help deliver these targets, including:           Government has changed the way local authorities
           destinations outside of the county (i.e. London,                                                                      receive funding and as part of the Growth Deal the
                                                                     •   Making the network safer, contributing to a
           Cambridge, Peterborough, Heathrow, Stansted and                                                                       LEPs are encouraged to bid for funding, including
                                                                         40% reduction in deaths and serious injuries
           Luton), as well as many key internal transport routes                                                                 transport schemes, from 2015 to 2022.
                                                                         by the end of 2020
           that connect Hertfordshire’s primary destinations
                                                                                                                                 Due to these changes there is a much greater
           and main urban towns.                                     •   Supporting the smooth flow of traffic, so that
                                                                                                                                 need to identify and prepare major projects that will
                                                                         85% of incidents are cleared in an hour and 97%
           In 2017 the Government set out a long term plan to                                                                    provide an increased benefit to both the local and
                                                                         of the network remains open
           boost the economy through an Industrial Strategy,                                                                     wider economy. Hertfordshire’s Local Transport
           which includes plans to improve the infrastructure        •   Encouraging economic growth, supporting                 Body (LTB) has been set up to decide and prioritise
           such as facilitating fully self driving cars on the UK        businesses, the construction sector, and the            schemes within Hertfordshire. Further information on
           roads by 2021 and the deployment of 5G network.               planning systems                                        Hertfordshire’s LTB can be found at:
           The strategy also identifies other new funding                                                                        http://www.hertsdirect.org/ltb.
                                                                     •   Delivering better environmental outcomes,
           opportunities such as the Housing Infrastructure
                                                                         cutting noise exposure at 1,150 sites and               The LEP’s Strategic Economic Plan (SEP), set out
           Fund (HIF), the Transforming Cities Fund and the
                                                                         reducing net biodiversity loss                          scheme proposals for funding via the Growth Deals
           identification of a Major Road Network (MRN).
                                                                                                                                 Single Local Growth Fund. The LEPs SEP identified
           The Transport Investment Strategy sets out future         •   Helping cyclists, walkers, and other vulnerable
                                                                                                                                 three ‘Growth Areas’, consisting of the M1/M25, the
           priorities and growth for transport investment and            users of the network by increasing and improving
                                                                                                                                 A1(M) and the M11/A10.
           provides more detail on the Major Road Network                crossings
           (MRN), which aims to fund improvements to Local                                                                       Within these growth areas some key transport
                                                                     •   Achieving real efficiency with work delivered
           Authority’s most important A roads using Vehicle                                                                      schemes were proposed and funded including;
                                                                         on time and on budget, and generating savings
           Exercise Duty (VED).                                                                                                  congestion reduction measures along the A1(M),
                                                                         of over £1.2 billion
                                                                                                                                 M1 and M25, congestion relief along the A602 and
           Prior to the Industrial Strategy and Transport            •   Keeping the network in good condition, with             construction of the A120 Little Hadham Bypass.
           Strategy the Road Investment Strategy (RIS) set out           at least 95% of the road surface not needing            In addition to this funding was set aside to assist the
           to improve England’s motorways and major roads                investigation for possible maintenance                  longer term A1(M) strategy.
           through a long term plan for the Strategic Road

                                                                                                                                                                                       25
contents

                                                                                                  Congestion, Growth                Travel Behaviour                                            Information and
                     Introduction                               Traffic Flow                                                                                      Sustainable Transport
                                                                                                  and Air Quality                   & Choice                                                    Appendices

                  2.1 Traffic Flow
                                                  2.2 Goods Vehicles               2.3 Powered Two-Wheelers                2.4 Road Network & Urban Rural            2.5 Key Routes         2.6 Traffic Flow by District
                  by Road Class

           2.5 Key Routes cont.
           Figure 2.5.2 - Hertfordshire’s Most Heavily Trafficked Roads
                                                                                                            Route Length   Averaged flow across full   Figure 2.5.2 shows the top 25 busiest roads in
                   Road                                              Key Links
                                                                                                                (KM)         road length (AAWD)        the county according to HCC’s traffic monitoring
           M25                   London, London Airports, Dover, Oxford, Essex, the South                       107                151,045             programme. These figures show that whilst Trunk
           M1                    Maylands, London, Milton Keynes, London Airports, Dover, the North              69                147,097
                                                                                                                                                       and A Roads make up the majority of roads with
           A1(M)                 London, London Airports, M25, Dover, the North                                  94                 72,072
                                                                                                                                                       high flows, there are a few exceptions, including
           A1                    London, London Airports, M25, Dover, the North                                  9                  64,217
           A414                  Maylands Business Park, Cross-county, Chelmsford, M1, M25, A1(M), M11           84                 35,514
                                                                                                                                                       the B4630 (Watford Road through Chiswell
           A41                   Cross-county, Maylands, London, London Airports, Aylesbury, Oxford              79                 33,297             Green).
           A4008                 Watford, North London,                                                          18                 31,841
           A405                  Intercounty, links to M1, M25 & A41                                             16                 30,552
           A10                   London, London Airports, M25, Cambridge, Dover                                  93                 29,800
           A602                  Intercounty, links to A10, A1(M)                                                38                 28,945
           A505                  Cross-county, Luton, links to the M1, A10 & the M11, Cambridge                  67                 28,447
           A6129                 A1(M), A414, Hatfield to Welwyn GC                                              4                  27,618
           A414 (old M10)        M1, M25, A1(M), St Albans, Hemel Hempstead                                      5                  25,112
           A121                  M25, M11, A10                                                                   5                  24,378
           A1072                 A1(M), Stevenage business park, A602                                            13                 23,765
           A4147                 Intercounty, links to the M1                                                    14                 21,055
           B4630                 A414, M1, M25, St Albans                                                        3                  20,327
           A4178                 Watford                                                                         3                  19,714
                                 Amersham to Chorleywood to Rickmansworth to Northwood to Harrow to
           A404                                                                                                  9                  19,428
                                 Wembley
           A1070                 (Six Hills Way), A1(M), A10                                                     1                  19,259
           A1250                 Bishop's Stortford                                                              5                  19,103
           A111                  Potters Bar to Barnet, M25, A10, London                                         2                  19,044
           A120                  Bishop's Stortford, East / West, Stansted                                       14                 17,835
           A1081                 St Albans to Harpenden, A1(M), M1, M25,A414                                     24                 17,786
           A5135                 Borehamwood, A1(M), M1                                                          2                  17,716
           Source: Figure 2.5.2 HCC’s TRACAS database (annual traffic count programme)

                                                                                                                                                                                                           26
contents

                                                                                                 Congestion, Growth                                               Travel Behaviour                                                                                                                   Information and
                      Introduction                            Traffic Flow                                                                                                                                                        Sustainable Transport
                                                                                                 and Air Quality                                                  & Choice                                                                                                                           Appendices

                 2.1 Traffic Flow
                                                   2.2 Goods Vehicles                2.3 Powered Two-Wheelers                                    2.4 Road Network & Urban Rural                                                       2.5 Key Routes                                        2.6 Traffic Flow by District
                 by Road Class

           2.6 Traffic Flow by District
           Traffic flows often vary between the districts of                           occurred in Dacorum (5.1%) and Hertsmere                                                                    kilometres due to the longer overall road lengths
           Hertfordshire and aren’t always representative of                           (-3.6%). The changes in Dacorum are likely to be                                                            within these districts.
           overall County trends.                                                      due to the detrunking of the A5 to the A5183 and
                                                                                                                                                                                                   St Albans vehicle kilometres are also high due to the
                                                                                       reclassification of the A4147 to the B440, which has
           Figure 2.6.1 shows that compared to the previous                                                                                                                                        presence of heavily trafficked routes such as the M1,
                                                                                       resulted in changes to the road type and lengths,
           year traffic reduced in five districts (Hertsmere,                                                                                                                                      A414 and M25 running through the district.
                                                                                       which alters how the data is calculated.
           Stevenage, Three Rivers, Watford and Welwyn
                                                                                                                                                                                                   Nevertheless, smaller districts, such as Watford and
           Hatfield), flows increased in two (North Herts and                          Figure 2.6.2 shows vehicle kilometre breakdown
                                                                                                                                                                                                   Stevenage, tend to ‘pack’ more traffic overall on their
           Dacorum), whilst flows in Broxbourne, East Herts                            by road class and district. Larger Districts such
                                                                                                                                                                                                   road network meaning vehicle concentration
           and St Albans remained similar. The largest changes                         as St Albans and East Herts have greater vehicle
                                                                                                                                                                                                   is higher.

           Figure 2.6.1 - Vehicle Kilometres by District Table                                                         Figure 2.6.2 - District Vehicle Kilometres by Road Type
                                                                                                                      2.6.2

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  C Road         B Road          A Road                Trunk - Motorway & A Road
                                                          "% Change                Highest                                                       10.00
                                  VKm/Day HCC
                 District                                 HCC Roads               Recorded    Road
                                 Roads1 (millions)                                                                                               9.00
                                                            16-17"              Flow (AAWD)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               0.83
            Broxbourne                   1.52                 0.6%                48,757       A10                                               8.00                                                                                          0.43

            Dacorum                      2.89                 5.1%                162,756       M1                                               7.00

                                                                                                                       Million Vehicle Kms/Day
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               1.35

            East Herts                   4.25                 -0.3%               43,966       A10                                               6.00
            Hertsmere                    1.40                 -3.6%               91,210        M1
                                                                                                                                                 5.00                                                                                                                                0.47
            North Herts                  3.85                 1.3%                83,820      A1(M)                                                                                                                          2.00                                                    0.06
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     0.51
                                                                                                                                                 4.00                                                      0.38
                                                                                                                                                                                          1.27             0.32
            St Albans                    2.61                 0.1%                168,545       M1                                                                            0.74                         0.71                                                                                                       0.61
                                                                                                                                                 3.00                         0.32                                                             6.29                                                                   0.47
            Stevenage                    0.77                 -0.6%               71,148      A1(M)                                                                                       0.51                               0.37
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      0.90
            Three Rivers                 1.04                 -1.4%               91,210       M25                                               2.00                         1.83                                                                                                   4.09
                                                                                                                                                                0.14                                                         1.47                              0.06
                                                                                                                                                                                                           3.09
                                                                                                                                                                0.23                      2.46                                                                 0.05                               0.10
            Watford                      0.96                 -2.1%               47,160      A4008                                              1.00                                                                                                          0.67
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  0.00                1.91
                                                                                                                                                                1.14          1.00                                           1.06                                                                 0.86
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               0.68
            Welwyn Hatfield              1.98                 -2.4%               82,174      A1(M)                                              0.00           0.00                      0.00                                                                                                    0.00
                                                                                                                                                                  e                           ts             e                    s             ns                                    rs
                                                                                                                                                                rn            um                           er                  rt                               ge                                 rd                     ld
           Source: HCC’s TRACAS database (annual traffic count programme)                                                                                    ou            or              er                                He             ba              na                    ve            fo                     fie
                                                                                                                                                                          c               H             sm                                 l               e                    Ri           at                       t
             HCC roads = Hertfordshire County Council controlled roads, which                                                                            ox
                                                                                                                                                            b
                                                                                                                                                                       Da              st           er
                                                                                                                                                                                                       t
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      rt
                                                                                                                                                                                                                         h              tA              ev                 ee               W                   -  Ha
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      St
           1

                                                                                                                                                     Br                              Ea            H               o                   S                                r                                     yn
           excludes motorway and trunk roads                                                                                                                                                                      N                                                   Th                                   w
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         el
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     W
                                                                                                                       Source: HCC’s Tracas database (annual traffic count programme)

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