IT INFRASTRUCTURE 2020 - Enterprises in a fully Interconnected World - An analyst report created on behalf of Equinix Germany GmbH

IT INFRASTRUCTURE 2020 - Enterprises in a fully Interconnected World - An analyst report created on behalf of Equinix Germany GmbH
   - Enterprises in a fully Interconnected World -

An analyst report created on behalf of Equinix Germany GmbH
     Rene Buest, Senior Analyst and Cloud Practice Lead
IT INFRASTRUCTURE 2020 - Enterprises in a fully Interconnected World - An analyst report created on behalf of Equinix Germany GmbH
IT Infrastructure 2020: Enterprises in a fully Interconnected World oud als Kernsäulen der Digitalen

                        TABLE OF CONTENTS

                        Digitization, Fast and Slow - Enterprises in the Digital Transformation........................3

                        The evolution of enterprise IT infrastructure...................................................................7

                        Interconnection Oriented Architecture ™.......................................................................15

                        IT Infrastructure 2020: Recommendations for the CIO...................................................21

                        About Equinix....................................................................................................................25


                        About Crisp Research........................................................................................................27



© Crisp Research AG, 2016                                                                                                                                           2
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                                                  In his book „Thinking, Fast and Slow“, partments have developed, installed
                                                  the psychologist and Nobel Prize and updated vast amounts of IT
                                                  winner Daniel Kahneman is dealing systems around the globe in the past
                                                  with two different types of human three                       decades. They have digitized
                                                  think-ing. Based on his research of their company continuously by the
                                                  several             decades,          Kahneman introduction and maintaining of ERP
                                                  distinguishes        two       processes         of and CRM systems, file servers, office
                                                  thinking:                                             software solutions and self-developed
                                                 ❚ The emotional „System 1“, which
                                                    is constantly active, very fast and thus
                                                                                                        The IT department thus has been
                                                    acting innovative.
                                                                                                        responsible for the maintenance of
                                                                                                        the data center. No other employee
                                                 ❚ The logical acting          „System            2“,
                                                                                                        would or to be precisely could deal
                                                    which is rarely active and which
                                                                                                        with that task. To get to this status was
                                                    behaves sluggish and uncreative.
                                                                                                        hard work and it remains until today.
                                                 Furthermore, Kahneman is dealing with
                                                 the „halo-effect“, i.e. the pattern of                 However, today everything is suddenly
                                                 thinking,      from     which        the    human      different. At once, everybody shouts
                                                 brain draws a hasty conclusion based                   for the Digital Transformation. This
                                                 on        incomplete          or       erroneous       comes to a lack of understanding in
                                                 information.                                           many    IT      departments.      ‘Transform
                                                                                                        digital?’ Digital systems have been
                                                 With the projection of Kahneman‘s                      introduced      and    maintained       under
                                                 research on current developments in                    own control in the last 30 years.
                                                 the field of information technology,                   From         the       perspective          of
                                                 similar thought patterns are found at                  characteristics of Kahneman’s System 2,
                                                 the        managing         floors         and    IT   the     stimulus           word        „Digital
                                                 departments of companies, too. In                      Transformation“       is    actually    a   bit
                                                 particular IT decision makers are not                  misleading. Especially when one is
                                                 be impressed anymore by                     media-     working in the field of IT for decades
                                                 driven       stimulus    words,            foremost    and has witnessed all developments in
                                                 cloud, social, big data and finally                    this period.
                                                 digitization or digital. After all, IT de-
© Crisp Research AG, 2016                                                                                                                                 3
IT Infrastructure 2020: Enterprises in a fully Interconnected World   oud als Kernsäulen der Digitalen

                                                 THE HALO-EFFECT CONTROLS ENTERPRISES                              As part of this, companies have the
                                                 On      the        one    hand,        this       digital         opportunity             of      developing               new
                                                 misunderstanding in                  IT                           business           models.           For           the    IT
                                                 departments can be explained by a                                 department, it is a matter of more
                                                 typical operational blindness grown                               than to just keep the status quo and
                                                 over the years. On the other hand,                                keep things running. IT must be
                                                 the already mentioned „halo effect“                               understood as a strategic partner and
                                                 could         be    a    reason.          Even     if    IT       business enabler and has to work
                                                 departments have focused                         on the           closely      together          with       the        various
                                                 introduction and operation of                                IT   departments to understand their needs
                                                 technologies             and    thus       also         with      and      requirements.              In     the       digital
                                                 digital       topics      in     recent decades,                  age         and         during           the         Digital
                                                 today we are talking of a different                               Transformation in particular, this can
                                                 and       completely           new        form          of        result      in     a     strategic         competitive
                                                 digitization.            Since        the        Digital          advantage for a company.
                                                 Transformation, which is an                        issue
                                                 today, describes               the     fundamental                The Internet of Things (IoT) and the
                                                 transformation of companies towards                               Industrial Internet are symbols of the
                                                 a     fully        interconnected               digital           digitization of all industries. New and
                                                 organization. On               the basis of new                   smart products               are     developed            or
                                                 technologies and applications, more                               existing          „analogue“             devices         are
                                                 processes and process elements of                                 equipped           with        sensors             and    so
                                                 the     digital         economy need to be                        expanded „smartly“ and included in
                                                 redesigned and the requirements (e.g.                             the digital value chain. By classic
                                                 real-time, cross-linking) adjusted.                               forms of organization and technical IT
                                                 There is a case for the                           close           structures, no IT department is able
                                                 integration of entire processes and                               to    get        along       this    shift      anymore.
                                                 supply chains             within the company, as                  Longstanding IT departments thus can
                                                 well as with partners, suppliers and                              not timely or innovatively response
                                                 customers. Finally, it is also about a                            to       the       requirements                 of       the
                                                 closer        customer relationship and a                         departments.              They           neither         can
                                                 better        understanding               of     the              proactively            offer        customers            new
                                                 customers to design and offer an                                  products and solutions accordingly.
                                                 optimized            and in          particular                   The Digital Transformation therefore
                                                 appropriate customer experience. The                              requires         rethinking         and        a     radical
                                                 Digital Transformation thus influences                            change within IT departments.
                                                 the           customer          and            business
                                                 relationships and changes or rather
                                                 brings new value chains.

© Crisp Research AG, 2016                                                                                                                                                         4
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                                                  DIGITIZATION TAKES PLACE IN TWO IT WORLDS               This has an obvious reason: indeed,
                                                  The way how IT organizations are set up                 IT departments need the scalability
                                                  within the Digital Transformation can be                and     agility     to     develop     modern
                                                  furthermore derived from Kahnemann’s                    applications and services to operate.
                                                  both processes of thinking.                             However,      the      operation of legacy
                                                  By a closer look at the two paradigms, it               applications, avoiding data silos and
                                                  can be stated that                                      the    preservation         of   control   and

                                                  ❚ „System            1“ shows a innovatively            compliance with legal frame works

                                                    and moving forward,                                   still have a central role.           Therefore,
                                                                                                          pioneering        IT      environments      for
                                                  ❚ „System 2“ shows a stable and                         supporting a comprehensive digital
                                                    expectant behavior.                                   strategy      must          be     considered
                                                                                                          separately at this time.
                                                 This     is   exactly      what     the     digital
                                                 reality shows in companies that no
                                                 longer focus on only one IT form.
                                                 Instead,         IT       organizations        ind
                                                 themselves automati-cally in two IT
                                                 worlds, Crisp Research characterized
                                                 those      two       as   „Dynamic        IT“ and
                                                 „Static IT“.

                                                                                                       Dynamic IT vs. Static IT

                 Scalable         Agile           Novel                                        Critical          Slow            Legacy

                                                                        Hybrid IT
                            Highly Innovative                                                          Traditional Enterprise

                             Rapid Delivery                                                                Highly Complex

                             Modern Services                                                           Operational Reliability

                              Dynamic IT                                                                     Static IT
           Dynamic IT environments are the preferred                                       Static IT environments host enterprise
           choice for digital business models and                                          applications that underlie specific
           novel applications to benefit e.g. from                                         constraints due to e.g. legal, compliance
           scalability, flexibility and global reach.                                      and data privacy issues or technical

    Crisp Research AG, 2015

© Crisp Research AG, 2016                                                                                                                               5
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                                                 „Dynamic IT“ environments are                Despite their heterogeneous nature, it
                                                 currently used mainly for         the        is necessary to connect the „Dynamic
                                                 development and operation of digital         IT“ with the „Static IT“ in order to
                                                 business models and new applications         ensure both the legal requirements
                                                 to benefit among others from its             and      the      necessary         compliance
                                                 scalability, flexibility and global reach.   regulations. But at the same time,
                                                 „Dynamic IT“ environments run on             this ensures the company                   is    not
                                                 cloud infrastructure platforms and           limited in terms of its capacity for
                                                 are characterized by the following           innovation. In this case, the goal is
                                                 features:                                    especially to expand the „Static IT“
                                                  ❚ innovations are in focus                  with the resources of the “Dynamic
                                                                                              IT” flexibly and, in the best case, seam-
                                                  ❚ speed and faster time to market
                                                                                              lessly integrate them with each other.

                                                  ❚ high agility and flexibility
                                                                                              Both the „Dynamic IT“ and the „Static

                                                  ❚ permanent additions and improve­          IT“ are essential parts of the „Digital

                                                     ments (continuous development)           In-frastructure Platform“ (DIP), which
                                                                                              forms the technological basis of an
                                                 „Static         IT“ environments accom-
                                                                                              individual     digital         strategy     of    a
                                                 modate mostly enterprise and backend
                                                 applications that operate on the basis
                                                                                              This    Digital   Infrastructure          Platform
                                                 of their legal regulations, privacy and
                                                                                              is     fundamental       for     new      business
                                                 compliance guidelines, but particularly
                                                                                              models and agile business processes
                                                 because of technical limitations on the
                                                                                              as part of the digitization.
                                                 traditional IT infrastructure.
                                                 „Static IT“ environments have the
                                                 follow­ing character:

                                                  ❚ stability, status quo and a long
                                                     planning horizon

                                                  ❚ high complexity and cost when
                                                     changes occur

                                                  ❚ operation and management of
                                                     legacy applications

                                                  ❚ long development cycles and high
                                                     administrative expenses

© Crisp Research AG, 2016                                                                                                                            6
IT Infrastructure 2020: Enterprises in a fully Interconnected World               oud als Kernsäulen der Digitalen


                                                                   Over the past six decades, the shape                  Ranging from manually controlled and
                                                                   and     characteristics     of      enterprise        fully autonomous individual systems to
                                                                   oriented      IT    infrastructure        have        the     Internet         of     Things,      which
                                                                   experienced a fundamental change.                     already exist today. It consists of
                                                                   Crisp      Research       has       identified        people,         objects, systems, locations
                                                                   seven stages in this development.                     and      data       in        which    companies
                                                                                                                         operate as a fully interconnected part
                                                                                                                         of this economy.

                                                                                                               Interconnection of Devices

                                                                                                                    Internet of Things
       Data Transfer Volume

                                                                                                                                          Number of interconnected
                                                                                                                                          devices (Interconnection)

                                                                                                          Cloud Computing &
                                                                                                           Mobile Computing



                                                        Mainframes &
                                                      Terminal systems
                              Electronic Accounting

                               1950                                                                                                  2020

    Crisp Research AG, 2016

© Crisp Research AG, 2016                                                                                                                                                 7
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                                                 ELECTRONIC ACCOUNTING MACHINE                  MAINFRAMES & TERMINAL SYSTEMS
                                                 The initial evolution was made by the          The 1950s led to       the      next    era of
                                                 electronic accounting machines at the          business     computing.         This     was
                                                 early 1930s. With this autonomously            marked by the mainframe and               the
                                                 working machines, the era of business          connected terminal systems.
                                                 computing was launched. The systems            Mainframes are        high       centralized
                                                 were designed as special equipment             systems, which       are      operated         by
                                                 for manual book keeping, which were            professional      programmers          and
                                                 able to cumulate totals and printing           system     administrators,       typically
                                                 those as a report. Although this type          located in enterprise data centers. The
                                                 of equipment simplifed the accounting          infrastructure is usually supplied by
                                                 ­records of that time, they still were large   a single vendor, who develops and
                                                 and inconvenient systems. The software         controls both the hardware and
                                                 programs for executing the operations          software. Mainframes have a powerful
                                                 were hard wired to the printed circuit         operating system, which can provide
                                                 boards and could only be changed by            appropriate resources for computing
                                                 rewiring on the panel. In addition to          based on a        time-sharing         model,
                                                 that, no programmers existed at the            multitasking     features and virtual
                                                 time and the machine operator hence            memory to        connected        terminal
                                                 acted as a kind of „operating system“          systems. The        terminal       systems
                                                 and controlled all the system resources        communicate         with         proprietary
                                                 manually by hand.                              protocols and proprietary              data
                                                                                                connections to the mainframe. In 1958,
                                                                                                the first mainframe was introduced by
                                                                                                IBM, it    was    able     to          serve
                                                                                                approximately thousands of terminal
                                                                                                systems. 1959 the first flight reservation
                                                                                                system     appeared,         based      on         a
                                                                                                mainframe        architecture.
                                                                                                The appearance of DEC                  (Digital
                                                                                                Equipment Corporation)
                                                                                                minicomputer in 1965             created       a
                                                                                                rethinking. On the one hand, those
                                                                                                powerful       minicomputers           were
                                                                                                significantly cheaper than a mainframe.
                                                                                                On the other hand, it was possible to
                                                                                                decentralize the use of computer
                                                                                                systems    and adapt each of them to
                                                                                                the specific needs of individual
                                                                                                companies and departments, instead
                                                                                                of using time-sharing.
© Crisp Research AG, 2016                                                                                                                              8
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                                                 PERSONAL COMPUTER                            munication ability between the different
                                                 Although the first P ersonal Computers       clients and furthermore serves as a
                                                 (PC), as the MIT Altair or the Apple I and   location     for   data     and    centralized
                                                 Apple II came on the markt already in        applica tion deployment. The server can
                                                 the 1970s, their distribution was rather     be e.g. a mainframe. But nowadays,
                                                 low. The appearance of the IBM PC in         preferably    more powerful versions of
                                                 1981 is considered as the beginning of       PCs are used as servers, based on low
                                                 the PC era, as this rapidly spread among     cost Intel processors and usually they
                                                 US companies. First, PCs were used by a      have more than one of them. The easiest
                                                 command-line based operating system          client-server architecture consists of a
                                                 DOS (Disk Operating System). Later,          client that communicates with a server
                                                 the so called Wintel PCs (Windows            via the network - also called second-
                                                 operating system with an Intel based         tier   client-server      architecture.   This
                                                 microprocessor) became standard for          form of architecture is mainly used in
                                                 desktop computers. These were initially      small enterprise networks, whereas large
                                                 used primarily for word processing and       companies usually have complex, multi-
                                                 spreadsheet calculation and were inter-      tier architectures, where the workload
                                                 esting both for corporate and private        and requests are distributed across
                                                 customers. Despite their growing pop-        multiple servers, depending on the task
                                                 ularity, however, at the beginning           and        requirements.          Client-server
                                                 there were only single-user systems,         architectures have enabled companies to
                                                 which could not communicate                  distribute their workloads across many
                                                 among each other.                            smaller systems that are much cheaper
                                                                                              compared to the central mainframe /

                                                 CLIENT-SERVER-ARCHITECTURE                   terminal systems. This has led to an
                                                 With the rise of the client-server           explosion of computing power and
                                                 architectures in the mid 1980s, the          applications within enterprises.

                                                 degree of crosslinking individual
                                                 desktop PCs changed abruptly. In a           ENTERPRISE COMPUTING
                                                 client-server infrastructure, desktop        With the success of the client-server
                                                 PCs or laptops,         known as clients,    architectures, large companies were
                                                 are connected via a network to the           faced new challenges. The integration
                                                 servers. The server will provide the         of their individually established LANs
                                                 clients with various re-sources. Both        (Local Area Networks) in an overlapped
                                                 parties share the work. The client is        cross-border network turned out to
                                                 the input device of the user,                be difficult. Applications that were de-
                                                 whereas the server provides com-             veloped by local departments or in

© Crisp Research AG, 2016                                                                                                                  9
IT Infrastructure 2020: Enterprises in a fully Interconnected World oud als Kernsäulen der Digitalen

                                                 other regions around the globe, initially                      was       to       provide        all        relevant
                                                 have not been capable of communicat-                           business          information,             such    as
                                                 ing with each other or sharing data.                           inventory data for sales staff or current
                                                                                                                sales figures to             decision makers
                                                 This changed during the 1990s when                             independent of time and location.
                                                 network         standards           and      software          However, it has shown that at this
                                                 appeared on the market that made it                            point the theory and practice are far
                                                 pos-sible to integrate various networks                        apart. For historical reasons, there
                                                 and applications across the entire                             are IT infrastructures especially in
                                                 organization into a unified enterprise­                        large     companies          of        a     virtually
                                                 wide infrastructure.                                           impenetrable          web         of        hardware
                                                                                                                systems and software applications.
                                                 With the development of the Internet                           This fact makes it difficult to achieve
                                                 towards       a      trusted        communication              the desired level of integration and
                                                 medium,                   more            companies            allows the integration to become a
                                                 proceeded             to      use      the        TCP/IP       long process, which may extend over a
                                                 protocol             (Transmission               Control       period of up to ten years. In addition
                                                 Protocol/         Internet       Protocol)         as     a    to      that,     information           technology
                                                 standard          to        interconnect               their   became          increasingly      important        in
                                                 networks.             The           resulting            IT    the companies. This results in higher
                                                 infrastructure led to a connection of                          finan-cial expenses, whereby the IT
                                                 the systems of hardware vendors and                            grew to a central cost driver without
                                                 different          networks            and             thus    an apparent value proposition in the
                                                 representing partly large enterprise                           value chain of the company.
                                                 networks,         where       information              were
                                                 exchanged            within      the   organization            CLOUD COMPUTING & MOBILE COMPUTING
                                                 but also          across      companies.               This    With the beginning of the 2000s, two
                                                 form        of          corporate            networks          megatrends have grown that last
                                                 connected             main-frames,               servers,      until today and have changed the IT
                                                 personal computers and mobile                                  market fundamentally: cloud
                                                 phones. They provided a connection
                                                                                                                computing and mobile computing.
                                                 to     public        infrastructures,            such as
                                                 telephone systems, the Internet or
                                                                                                                Cloud computing describes the terms
                                                 other publicly accessible services.
                                                                                                                of standardized IT resources, such
                                                                                                                as      infrastructure,        platforms          and
                                                 The       enterprise             computing              era
                                                                                                                software in an „as-a-service“-model
                                                 promised             to       allow          a         fully
                                                                                                                via a data connection,                     preferably
                                                 integrated         IT       services         platform
                                                                                                                the      Internet.        Cloud         computing
                                                 for        the        management                  of      a
                                                                                                                distinguishes three levels of service:
                                                 global      acting company. The hope

© Crisp Research AG, 2016                                                                                                                                            10
IT Infrastructure 2020: Enterprises in a fully Interconnected World             oud als Kernsäulen der Digitalen

                                                                                                                           Furthermore,              cloud             computing
                                                                ❚ Infrastructure-as-a-Service
                                                                                                                           promotes            business         agility     by        IT
                                                                 (IaaS): Standardized IT resources
                                                                                                                           resources based on an on-demand
                                                                 in terms       of      computing              power,
                                                                                                                           model quickly, at any time and easily
                                                                 storage, network, and platform
                                                                 services or microservices depending
                                                                 on the provider.
                                                                                                                           Over the past decade, the leading
                                                                                                                           cloud         providers         have        expanded
                                                                ❚ Pl atform-as-a-Serv ice
                                                                                                                           their global footprint steadily and
                                                                 (PaaS):             Standardized platforms
                                                                                                                           operate their cloud environments in
                                                                 for the development, operation and
                                                                                                                           data centers strategically distributed in
                                                                 lifecycle         management             of     an
                                                                                                                           many regions worldwide. Companies
                                                                                                                           benefit from a global reach and can
                                                                                                                           furthermore get in touch rapidly with
                                                                ❚ So ftware-as-a-Serv ice
                                                                                                                           existing or potentially new customers
                                                                 (SaaS): Standardized and directly
                                                                                                                           in other regions of the world. The
                                                                 deployable applications, which can
                                                                                                                           rise of highly scalable and globally
                                                                 be used device-independently via a
                                                                                                                           oriented              cloud             environments
                                                                 standard web browser.
                                                                                                                           procured                     the                 mobile
                                                            In a cloud model, companies no longer                          computing’s             break through, as we
                                                            own the IT resources, but they rent it on                      know it today.
                                                            a monthly base from a cloud provider.
                                                            In a so called „pay-per-use model“ they                        Mobile computing allows to access sys-
                                                            pay only for what they use. This form of                       tems, data and applications at any time,
                                                            IT resource utilization allows companies                       from any place and on any device.
                                                            to create a more flexible IT cost struc-                       It ensures that companies can enter
                                                            ture by shifting its cost model from a                         into    a       closer       dialogue          with      its
                                                            CapEx (investment costs) to an OpEx                            employees, customers, partners and
                                                            model (operational costs).                                     suppliers.

                                  2015                   2016                   2017                   2018                     2019                    2020              2015-2020

                                     REVENUE                REVENUE                  REVENUE               REVENUE                 REVENUE                 REVENUE        REVENUE
                       REVENUE*                  REVENUE*               REVENUE*               REVENUE*                 REVENUE*                REVENUE*
                                     GROWTH                 GROWTH                   GROWTH                    GROWTH              GROWTH                  GROWTH          GROWTH


   IAAS PUBLIC           15,4            55,5%    23,5          52,7%    34,3          46,4%    46,6           35,5%     58,3          25,1%     67,8          16,3%       104,2%


* in Billion EUR
Source: Crisp Research AG, 2016

© Crisp Research AG, 2016                                                                                                                                                              11
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                                               Once portable computers (laptops)              From a different point of view, the
                                               became more powerful, lighter and              cloud,     however,        represents          the
                                               thus more attractive in the last decade,       maximum flexible interconnection of
                                               today much more handy sizes, such as           many different areas of our world,
                                               smartphones and tablets, provide a             which      otherwise       would       not     be
                                               better mobility and thereby increase           imaginable nowadays. For example:
                                               the mobile user experience. This trend         smartphones. Without the cloud, the
                                               will continue consistently, because retail     user experience of smart-phones today
                                               centric industries, such as retail and the     would not be advanced that greatly.
                                               automotive industry are just now               We would not be able to chat via
                                               recognizing the added value of the             iMessage or WhatsApp independent
                                               mobile app economy on a large scale.           of the location, or share photos via
                                               They provide their clients with                Instagram or Snapchat. It is the same
                                               information to offer a better user             with the use of social networks, such
                                               experience and to learn from the data          as Facebook, Twitter or LinkedIn and
                                               they receive from them in return and so        search     requests      on     Google         and
                                               get a better understanding for the user        Bing. All paths of these data commu-
                                               behavior.                                      nications run on backend applications
                                                                                              with in     cloud      infrastructures         and

                                               INTERCONNECTION – THE MAXIMUM DENSITY          thus     ensure this high degree of

                                               OF CROSSLINKING                                interconnection.

                                               By speaking about the cloud, keywords
                                               like scalability, availability and flexibil­   Likewise, most mobile apps save their

                                               ity move instantly to the center. With         data in the cloud. A striking example for

                                               a glance at the latest developments in         this     comes      from       the     field    of

                                               the IT market, it can be ascertained that      augmented reality          -    the     realtime

                                               the cloud currently has and will have a        presentation        of         value      added

                                               much greater influence in the future,          information of an object obtained by

                                               more than previously thought - since           a camera, e.g. of a smart-phone.

                                               the cloud is the basis of todays               Augmented reality applications store

                                               Digital Transformation of enterprises.         the       value     added            information

                                               Only on the basis of using dynamic             usually not on the local device - since

                                               acting and globally scalable                   the devices have far too little storage

                                               platforms and infrastructure, the IT           space - but download the data from

                                               strategy can be adapted to the ever            the cloud as needed.

                                               changing market situation and so
                                               support the company strategy from the
                                               technical side.

© Crisp Research AG, 2016                                                                                                                          12
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                                                 When we put ourselves into the                   The basic fields of application and
                                                 Internet of Things (IoT), this density of        possibilities of the Internet of Things
                                                 interconnection is getting even more             are almost unlimited. For the next
                                                 massive. The IoT represents the                  three     years, Crisp Research has
                                                 connection of physical objects, which            identified four key areas in which the
                                                 includes people, sensors, household              IoT is taking a significant impact:
                                                 items, cars, in-dustrial plants and many
                                                                                                  ❚ An    improvement         of   marketing
                                                 more. The IoT closes the gap between
                                                                                                    ­through the more intensive analysis
                                                 the traditional and the digital world by
                                                                                                    of the behavior of people, objects
                                                 a seek of maximum interconnection
                                                                                                    and data on the one hand, and the
                                                 and the largest possible exchange of
                                                                                                    inclusion of the context, e.g. time
                                                 information. The broad dissemination
                                                                                                    and place where the objects reside
                                                 and adoption of the IoT will still take
                                                                                                    on the other hand. This includes e.g.
                                                 some time. But it will contribute to a
                                                                                                    the location based advertising and
                                                 similar major transformation as it is
                                                                                                    the analysis of purchasing patterns
                                                 exemplified by cloud computing since
                                                                                                    across different stores
                                                 several years.
                                                 Crisp Research assumes that in
                                                                                                  ❚ Improving the response to specific
                                                 2025 approximately 30 billion of
                                                                                                    situations in real time. This includes
                                                 interconnected devices will be on the
                                                                                                    e.g. the control of transport routes
                                                 market.                                            based on different variables, such as
                                                                                                    the weather, the fuel consumption or
                                                 More       and       more    companies    will     softer factors, such as potential
                                                 appear, which use the realtime analysis            hazards.
                                                 to identify trends in data and respond
                                                 directly to it. This includes e.g. the           ❚ Support for decision by sensor
                                                 analysis of customer needs in realtime             based      analytics   using    more
                                                 in    order      to    transfer   individually     profound analysis, such as constant
                                                 advertisements          to    them    directly     health monitoring of patients for a
                                                 through their smartphone or wearables              better treatment.
                                                 that also exactly matches the current
                                                                                                  ❚ A higher level of automation and
                                                 context of the client’s activity. Other
                                                                                                    better control for optimization of
                                                 applications are found in the fields
                                                                                                    processes and the use of resources
                                                 of transportion and logistics. Here, the
                                                                                                    (such as smart metering) as well as
                                                 IoT may help to optimize the arrival
                                                                                                    risk management systems.
                                                 time of deliveries or improve the CO2
                                                 balance, based on the use of data

© Crisp Research AG, 2016                                                                                                                  13
IT Infrastructure 2020: Enterprises in a fully Interconnected World oud als Kernsäulen der Digitalen

                                                 The Internet of Things will very quickly          The result is a maximum interconnect-
                                                 become a decisive factor for the future           ed ecosystem consisting of people,
                                                 competitiveness of companies, which               equipment, things, objects, data and
                                                 also have to fight with their necessary           places. This will evolve towards a fully
                                                 technology strategies.                            interconnected economy in which every
                                                                                                   company must become a part in order
                                                 The        „Interconnection“,          meaning    to remain competitive in the future.
                                                 the     comprehensive networking and              This includes to work seamlessly with
                                                 full interaction with our environment             digital communities. Here, it is essen-
                                                 is the next logical step after today‘s            tially necessary that companies build
                                                 digitization of companies. It aims to             their individual infrastructure strategy
                                                 link part-ners, customers and suppliers           foundation already today.
                                                 in    a     very     efficient   and     highly
                                                 automated manner with each other.

© Crisp Research AG, 2016                                                                                                                 14
IT Infrastructure 2020: Enterprises in a fully Interconnected Worldoud als Kernsäulen der Digitalen


                                                 Supported by the cloud, companies                 This includes the unceasingly growth of:
                                                 are now in the next step of their
                                                                                                   ❚ data
                                                 digital evolution. However, they also
                                                 facing new tasks, which they have to              ❚ users
                                                 serve with new           infrastructure     and
                                                 platforms, from a technical point of              ❚ devices
                                                 view. In addition to that, companies
                                                                                                   ❚ locations
                                                 are no longer just in one challenge,
                                                 but     several      vectors    need   to   be    which must be both served and
                                                 considered simultaneously.                        analyzed      in   realtime    and    be
                                                                                                   protected      against   the   increasing
                                                                                                   amount of cyber attacks.

                                                                                Enterprise in the Internet of Things

       Crisp Research AG, 2016

© Crisp Research AG, 2016                                                                                                                  15
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                                                 MULTI CLOUD ARCHITECTURES AS BASIS OF HIGHLY    ❚ Exploit innovation
                                                 INTERCONNECTED ECOSYSTEMS                        potential.
                                                 The combination of these „things“                Decision makers who want to pro-
                                                 mentioned above takes place in the               vide their departments and devel-
                                                 cloud or the connection and integra-             opers with innovations look around
                                                 tion of multiple clouds based on a multi         for more than one provider. Finally,
                                                 cloud deployment strategy. Reasons for           “the one” innovation machine in the
                                                 this strategy are diverse and IT decision        cloud does not exist. Instead, other
                                                 makers should have a great interest              providers repeatedly bring out new
                                                 to put multi cloud sourcing on their             services to help a company becom-
                                                 agenda. Possible IT architectures help           ing successful even faster. Different
                                                 to address the following challenges:             innovations are thus obtained from
                                                                                                  multiple vendors.
                                                  ❚ Risk management.
                                                     From a risk management perspective
                                                                                                  ❚    Compliance        requirements.
                                                     and the avoidance of a full lock-in,
                                                                                                  Especially when it comes to the issue
                                                     more than one provider needs to be
                                                                                                  of   data   (keyword:       data     gravity),
                                                     considered in a holistic cloud strat­
                                                                                                  multi   cloud       scenarios      have    an
                                                     egy in order to minimize the risk of
                                                                                                  important role. Thus, e.g. legally
                                                     failure and beyond that keep options
                                                                                                  afflicted data can be stored at a
                                                     open for a change.
                                                                                                  provider      who     can      ensure     the
                                                                                                  necessary     legal    framework         (data
                                                  ❚ No One stop cloud shop.
                                                                                                  protection,     data        locality).    The
                                                     There is no cloud provider that has a
                                                                                                  services of another provider then
                                                     full portfolio of services and solutions,
                                                                                                  access the data without actually
                                                     which meets all of the requirements a
                                                                                                  moving it. The computing power and
                                                     company needs. A complete individ­
                                                                                                  innova-tion will then reach out to
                                                     ual cloud stack consists services of
                                                                                                  the data and the data itself does
                                                     more than one cloud provider.
                                                                                                  not have to get there.

© Crisp Research AG, 2016                                                                                                                      16
IT Infrastructure 2020: Enterprises in a fully Interconnected Worldoud als Kernsäulen der Digitalen

                                                  ❚ Data       aggregation             and    data   ❚ Global delivery.
                                                     analytics.                                       Performance in the cloud is one of
                                                     Data is now spread across many                   the major challenges when it comes
                                                     systems,         services,   applications,       to services and deliver information
                                                     devices and locations. However,                  quickly to the customer (keyword:
                                                     the added value of the individual                latency). When those services and
                                                     data    results in combination with              data are brought closely to the
                                                     other      data       for    a     better        corresponding target customers,
                                                     understanding of the customer or                 this hurdle can be handled. This
                                                     operations of machines and systems               must   be     taken   into   account
                                                     to optimize processes across the                 especially if a cloud provider is not
                                                     enterprise        based on        big    data    acting in a specific national market
                                                     analytics and machine learning.                  with its own data center. Possibly
                                                                                                      another provider can be chosen,
                                                                                                      which is already on site to
                                                                                                      performantly serve the customers.

                                                       What is your favorite cloud deployment model
                                                 (Public, Private, Hybrid, Multi) Today and Future?
                                                                                      Today                       Future

                                 Pure Public Cloud                                27,5 %                          10,6 %

                                 Hybrid Cloud
                                 Own IT infrastructure combined
                                 with a public cloud
                                                                                   25,9 %                         32,8 %

                                 Multi Cloud
                                 Management of various cloud                       12,7 %                         36,0 %
                                 environments incl. at least one
                                 public cloud

                                 Private Cloud                                                                    20,6 %
                                 Pure private cloud in own data                   33,9 %

      Crisp Research Ag, 2015                                                                                                         n = 189

© Crisp Research AG, 2016                                                                                                                       17
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                               Illustration of Multi Cloud Computing (cloud Supply Chain)

      Enterprise Cloud
       Infrastructure/      Sub-Component             Sub-Component            Sub-Component                 Sub-Component         Sub-Component
     Application (1-n)




         Complete System (1-m)          Module (1-m)      Micro Service (1-m)

     Crisp Research AG, 2016

                                                 To get a better understanding of multi                       INTERCONNECTIVITY AS CORE COMPONENT FOR THE
                                                 cloud scenarios, it is helpful to take a                     INTERNET OF THINGS
                                                 closer look at the supply chain model                        In the Internet of Things new concepts
                                                 from the automotive industry as an                           and architectures are required to
                                                 example. A car manufacturer uses                             get the neccessary high density of
                                                 different            (partially             redundant)       interconnection. Decision makers
                                                 contractors           which              supply      with    should concentrate especially on the
                                                 components,              sub-assemblies               or     seamless connection of:
                                                 finished systems.             In     the end, the
                                                                                                               ❚ people
                                                 carmaker adds the parts just-in-time in
                                                 its assembly plants.                                          ❚ places

                                                 A multi cloud scenario adapts the idea                        ❚ data
                                                 of     the     automotive                industry,    by
                                                 cooperating with more than one cloud                          ❚ objects

                                                 provider (cloud supplier). In the end,                       in order to establish their company
                                                 all services in this cloud supply chain                      as part of this fully interconnected
                                                 are     integrated       in        its     own    cloud      economy.
                                                 application or cloud en-vironment.

© Crisp Research AG, 2016                                                                                                                                   18
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                                                                                          Enterprise Interconnection

      Crisp Research AG, 2016

                                                 In     this    case,   they   can   extract    business critical magnitude. Here,
                                                 numerous advantages in order to                a quick      and     stable   provision
                                                 remain competitive in the future.              of resources must be in focus, too.

                                                  ❚ Connecting people.                          ❚ Connection of data.
                                                      The work across country borders and            The rapid and reliable integration of
                                                      timezones is becoming increasingly             data from different sources (optimum
                                                      important for companies to reach and           in real time), provide companies
                                                      serve their employees, partners,               nowadays with a not to under-
                                                      suppliers and customers 24/7 in differ         estimate competitive advantage,
                                                      ent country markets. This applies to           by learning from the analysis and
                                                      companies in industrial manufacturing          mak-ing decisions more quickly and
                                                      as well as various service sectors.            thus provide its customers with
                                                                                                     efficient information.
                                                  ❚ Connection of locations.
                                                      The location independent access to
                                                      systems and applications by employees,
                                                      partners, suppliers and customers is
                                                      increasingly becoming     of

© Crisp Research AG, 2016                                                                                                              19
IT Infrastructure 2020: Enterprises in a fully Interconnected World  oud als Kernsäulen der Digitalen

                                                  ❚ Connection of objects.                                  In addition, a solution for a connection
                                                      The Internet of Things and the                        and integration of systems, services and
                                                      Industrial Internet are still in its                  applications must be found, at best
                                                      beginning and just preparing the                      using several vendors, together with the
                                                      next industrial revolution. The way of                own IT. For this purpose, ecosystems
                                                      optimizing        or     forming       new            such as the Equinix Cloud Exchange
                                                      existing production methods,                          makes sense, which allows to establish
                                                      logistics and value           chains      based       links    from    the     own     infrastructure
                                                      on      sensor          technology,           the     with public cloud providers such as
                                                      networking of machines and                            Amazon      Web         Services,     Microsoft
                                                      intelligent analysis mechanisms for                   Azure or IBM SoftLayer. Finally, it
                                                      new       business          models,        will       comes to finding a way to make data
                                                      dramatically change the allocated                     available to users 24/7 and provide
                                                      market powers in the future.                          analysis as it is needed. Therefore, so
                                                                                                            called data hubs are available, which
                                                     On the technical side, in the „Internet                allow saving at a local level and record
                                                     of Things“, companies should deal                      metadata,       which     give      infor-mation
                                                     with how they manage to provide                        about where exactly the data is stored
                                                        lications and services performant.                  in order to access as quickly as
                                                     Amongst others, the concept of „Fog                    possible and make it accessible at all
                                                     Computing“1 may help, in which data                    times.
                                                     and workloads are brought closer to the
                                                     user, which is located on the edge of a
                                                     data connection.

                                                     Fog Computing: Der effiziente Pfad der Daten und An-

                                                 wendungen zum Endnutzer, Crisp Research AG, 2014,




© Crisp Research AG, 2016                                                                                                                                 20
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                                                 The future IT Infrastructures are funda-              The Internet of Things dissolves existing

                                                 mentally different from those of today.               data silos, provides access to new data

                                                 These do not just have a cloud based                  sources      and      thereby        enables

                                                 character, but they also have special                 companies entirely           new    business

                                                 requirements regarding the scope, per-                opportunities.           New           digital

                                                 formance, stability and must ensure                   companies suddenly appear out of

                                                 a maximum density of interconnection.                 nowhere and shake up the existing

                                                 In context with the planning of their                 supplier landscape by creating new

                                                 IT infrastructure agenda 2020,                        markets and develop new offerings and

                                                 CIOs should deal especially with                      services. Today‘s industries are no

                                                 the     following topics:                             longer    organized      strictly   vertically
                                                                                                       for quite some time compared to how
                                                                                                       they were several decades ago. Today,
                                                 BECOME A PART OF THE INTERNET OF THINGS AND THE
                                                                                                       online retailers also sell IT resources
                                                 INDUSTRIAL INTERNET
                                                 The Internet of Things and the                        and com-puter       manufacturers       have

                                                 Industrial        Internet      offer    CIOs         revolutionized     the    music     industry.

                                                 numerous opportunities                  to develop    These are just two examples showing

                                                 new IT based business models. The                     that the competition no longer is the

                                                 construction of a fully interconnected                one that it seems to be. Due to cloud
                                                                                                       computing,        wireless     connectivity,
                                                 system       of      globally    distributed
                                                                                                       mobile solutions as well as big data
                                                 computer systems, sensors                  and
                                                                                                       analytics and caching, the costs of IT
                                                 multiple          terminals,      which         all
                                                                                                       solutions fall considerably. Adding that
                                                 communicate with each other over the
                                                                                                       the sensors and terminals decreasing
                                                 Internet, is currently in full swing.
                                                                                                       in price as well as the increasing
                                                 Therefore, it is just a            consistent
                                                                                                       popularity   to     collect     data    from
                                                 conclusion that this change will have a
                                                                                                       devices at any time and any place. If
                                                 direct impact on how our lives will
                                                                                                       CIOs do not recognize this as a clear
                                                 change in the future and all the
                                                                                                       and present attack on their companies,
                                                 potential of the digital company can be
                                                                                                       they will be confronted sooner or later
                                                 lifted only by this change.
                                                                                                       with the corresponding consequences.
                                                                                                       CIOs should deal with the current and

© Crisp Research AG, 2016                                                                                                                           21
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                                               future opportunities          to     stand     aside   and IT buyers are being reduced,
                                               their company with the best advice to                  an added value results. In addition to
                                               take advantage of the opportunities                    aggregation            and           transparency,
                                               offered by the IoT.                                    integration and ease of use have an
                                                                                                      essential      role.        This     procurement

                                               USE THE POWER OF ECOSYSTEMS                            channel makes sense only if the new
                                               In recent years, a number of new refer-                sourcing model guarantees that IT
                                               ence and sourcing options emerged in                   users obtain, monitor and pay the
                                               the cloud market. A variety of platforms,              cloud services easily and without great
                                               ecosystems and marketplaces exist                      integration        efforts.    In    relation    to
                                               from where cloud services are provided,                the    purchase        of     e.g.    SaaS,     this
                                               or from where they can be purchased.                   means       that     the      onboarding        and
                                               Often the distinction is difficult from                management           of users and billing
                                               the perspective of the user, as there                  should be uniform.
                                               are no generally accepted definitions
                                               for these models. Since most cloud                     Cloud ecosystems are characterized by
                                               platforms, cloud ecosystems and cloud                  a     great     balance            between      the
                                               marketplaces are still in an early stage               participat ing partners and a low level
                                               of development and maturity phase,                     of integration. Mostly cloud ecosystems
                                               assortment, partners and the general                   are a composite of various technology
                                               conditions even change in a fast                       and service providers that provide
                                               rhythm. The cloud shopping models                      their customers with either special
                                               can be differentiated by category                      conditions,        implementation support
                                               (platform, ecosystem, marketplace),                    or     possibly        individual       solutions.
                                               by the operator (technology providers,                 Equinix       connects         multiple       cloud
                                               IT service providers, independent                      service partners in its data centers. In
                                               operators), by the core functionality                  these scenarios, users are given the
                                               (price comparison, integration, service                opportunity to connect directly with

                                               delivery) and the depth of the process                 leading public cloud services and thus

                                               integration. Besides all            these              the latencies decrease significantly.

                                               differentiating features this new cloud
                                               sourcing models have much in                           MAKE USE OF THE FOG
                                               common. Thus, the aggregation of a                     Once the cloud is adapted in a wide
                                               variety of cloud services and offerings                range, new concepts will follow to
                                               represent a common denominator. Only                   enhance the use of scalable and
                                               when the information               costs     and       flexible infrastructure, platforms and
                                               transaction costs for both IT              users       applications to further services for
                                                                                                      delivering data and information more
                                                                                                      quickly to the end user. In essence,

© Crisp Research AG, 2016                                                                                                                               22
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                                                 this       is        exactly the task of               able to access their data at any
                                                 fog     computing.         The     fog     ensures     time, from any location, using any
                                                 that      cloud        services,      comput-ing       device is another reason why the
                                                 power,               storage,         workloads,       idea of fog computing is          becoming
                                                 applications and large amounts of                      increasingly important.
                                                 data     are being provided at any
                                                 edge of a network (Internet) in a                      MULTI-CLOUD IS THE NEW NORMAL
                                                 real manner.                                           A   modern      cloud     environment or
                                                                                                        cloud application consist of more
                                                 In the context of fog, it is also spoken of            than    one cloud provider and thus
                                                 „Edge       Computing“.            The     fog    is   integrates several microservices or
                                                 organizationally under the cloud and                   platform     services    from     different
                                                 serves as an optimized transmission                    providers using a multi cloud model.
                                                 medium for the services and data in                    In this model, a company develops the
                                                 the cloud. The term „fog computing“                    majority    of its environment or
                                                 was cre ated by Cisco as a concept,                    applications     itself and extends the
                                                 which supports distributed terminals                   architecture    with    other,     external
                                                 within the Internet of Things in the                   services,   whose efforts would be too
                                                 wireless data transfer. Fog computing                  big to internally    develop them from
                                                 conceptually builds on existing and                    scratch. Thus the developed cloud
                                                 widespread           technologies        such     as   supply chain is an important part of the
                                                 content       delivery      networks        (CDN)      „Digital Infrastructure Platform“ (DIP)
                                                 and         allows         providing         more      for any business and should be
                                                 complex services due to the use of                     considered in order to benefit from the
                                                 cloud      technologies.         As      increasing    diversity    of cloud      infrastructure,
                                                 amounts of data must be delivered to a                 platforms and applications. Complete
                                                 growing number of users, concepts                      solution    scenarios make it easier to
                                                 are necessary that improve the idea                    reduce the development effort and
                                                 of the cloud that enable enterprises                   provide the inspriation for new ideas,
                                                 and service providers to offer their                   too.
                                                 content      to      the   end     user     via   a
                                                 geographically widespread platform.
                                                 Fog computing helps to transport
                                                 the distributed data closer to end
                                                 users, thereby reducing the latency
                                                 and number of required hops, so that
                                                 mobile       computing          and      streaming
                                                 services are being better supported.
                                                 Besides the Internet of Things, the
                                                 growing demand from users to be

© Crisp Research AG, 2016                                                                                                                             23
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                                               DIRECT CONNECTIONS ENSURE BETTER                  This    type    of   connection   ensures
                                               STABILITY AND CONNECTIVITY                        not     only   better   connectivity     and
                                               In the context of enterprises, low latency        stability of the connection, but it
                                               is important to ensure a smooth                   also allows the moresimple building
                                               operation. Compared to local network              of multi cloud environments. Since
                                               infrastructure, connections to           public   Equinix hosts the large public cloud
                                               cloud environments, however, have                 providers       in its data centers, thus
                                               much higher latencies, since all data             customers can be connect via „Cloud
                                               take the long            way over the public      Exchange“ directly with the public
                                               Internet.      To      avoid this long     way,   cloud      infrastructure    by        cross-
                                               colocation providers like Equinix offer           connect as required.
                                               ways via direct connections with public
                                               cloud       infrastructure      vendors like
                                               Amazon Web             Services or   Microsoft
                                               Azure and thereby bypass the public
                                               Internet. Based on this so called cross-
                                               connects, direct network links between
                                               the cloud infrastructure of public cloud
                                               providers and the          IT infrastructure of
                                               their customers are connected.

© Crisp Research AG, 2016                                                                                                                    24
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                       ABOUT EQUINIX
                                    Equinix, Inc. (Nasdaq: EQIX) connects the world’s leading businesses to their
                                    customers, employees and partners inside the most interconnected data centers.
                                    In 40 markets across five continents, E quinix i s where c ompanies c ome together
                                    to realize new opportunities and accelerate their business, IT and cloud strategies.

                                                                                                          Kleyerstraße 88-90
                                                                                                           D-60326 Frankfurt
                                                                                                     TEL +49 69 25 73 85 883

© Crisp Research AG, 2016                                                                                                      25
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                                                                Rene Buest is Senior Analyst and Cloud Practice Lead at
                                                                 Crisp Research, covering cloud computing, IT infrastructure,
                                                                  IT platforms, Internet of Things and IT strategy. Prior to that
                                                                  he was Principal Analyst at New Age Disruption and member
                                                                  of the worldwide Gigaom Research Analyst Network. Rene
                                                                 Buest is a top cloud computing analyst in Germany and one
                                                             of the worldwide top analysts in this area. In addition, he is one
                                                        of the world’s top cloud computing influencers and belongs to the
                                    top 100 cloud computing experts on Twitter and Google+. Since the mid-90s, he
                                    is focused on the strategic use of information technology in businesses and the IT
                                    impact on our society as well as disruptive technologies.

                                    Rene Buest is the author of numerous professional cloud computing and technolo-
                                    gy articles. He regularly writes for well-known IT publications like Computerwoche,
                                    CIO Magazin, LANline as well as and is cited in German and international
                                    media – including New York Times, Forbes Magazin, Handelsblatt, Frankfurter
                                    All-gemeine Zeitung, Wirtschaftswoche, Computerwoche, CIO, Manager Magazin
                                    and Harvard Business Manager. Furthermore Rene Buest is speaker and participant
                                    of experts rounds. He is the founder of and writes about cloud
                                    computing, IT infrastructure, technologies, management and strategies. He holds
                                    a    diploma        in    computer     engineering     from    the   Hochschule     Bremen
                                    (Dipl.-Informatiker (FH)) as well as a M.Sc. in IT-Management and Information
                                    Systems from the FHDW Paderborn.

© Crisp Research AG, 2016                                                                                                           26
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                       ABOUT CRISP RESEARCH
                                    The Crisp Research AG is an independent IT research and advisory company. With a
                                    team of experienced analysts, consultants and software developers, Crisp Research
                                    rated current and future technology and market trends. Crisp Research supports
                                    companies in the digital transformation of their IT and business processes.

                                    The analyzes and comments from Crisp Research are published and discussed on
                                    a variety of economic and IT magazines as well as social media platforms. As
                                    „Contributing Editors“ at the leading IT publications (Computer Week, CIO,
                                    silicone et al.), engaged BITKOM- members and requested keynote speakers, our
                                    analysts actively contribute to the debates on new technologies, standards and
                                    market trends, and belong to relevant influencers in the industry.

                                    In 2013, Crisp Research was founded by Steve Janata and Dr. Carlo Velten, it
                                    focuses its research and consultancy services on „Emerging Technologies“, such
                                    as cloud, analytics or digital marketing and their strategic and operational
                                    implications for CIOs and business decision makers in companies.

© Crisp Research AG, 2016                                                                                               27
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                                   Weißenburgstraße 10
                                   D-34117 Kassel
                                   TEL +49-561-2207 4080
                                   FAX +49-561-2207 4081

                                   All rights of this content belong to Crisp Research AG. The data and
                                   information        remain          property   of     Crisp   Research     AG.     Reproduction,
                                   even     partially,    requires      the   written   permission   of   Crisp   Research   AG.

© Crisp Research AG, 2016                                                                                                            28
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