January 2021 - El Paso County Road Safety Plan

January 2021 - El Paso County Road Safety Plan
January 2021
January 2021 - El Paso County Road Safety Plan
January 2021 - El Paso County Road Safety Plan


TO:               El Paso County

FROM:             Cambridge Systematics

DATE:             11/23/2020

RE:               El Paso County Road Safety Plan Task 2: Key Document Review

This memo presents the deliverable for Task 2 of the El Paso County Road Safety Plan project. It reviews and
summarizes transportation and safety related documents in Colorado, the El Paso County planning area, and
local jurisdictions. The goal of this effort is to understand the types of safety policies, programs, and projects
already in place that could inform and enhance this Road Safety Plan. Table 1 succinctly summarizes each
document and its applicability to the Road Safety Plan, with a more detailed review of key documents provided in
the section below. Based on feedback from the Plan Technical Advisory Committee (TAC), the following
documents were reviewed (ordered newest to oldest):

•     2020-2023 Colorado Strategic Transportation Safety Plan (CDOT, 2020)

•     Colorado Moving Toward Zero Deaths (CDOT, 2020)

•     Colorado Safety Program (fact sheet, website ) (CDOT, 2020)

•     City Limits: Setting Safe Speed Limits on Urban Streets (NACTO, 2020)

•     Drive Smart Colorado (CDOT, 2020)

•     Colorado Commercial Vehicle Safety Plan for the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration's Motor Carrier
      Safety Assistance Program Fiscal Years 2018 – 2020 (CDOT, 2019)

•     Colorado FY20 Highway Safety Program (CDOT, 2019)

•     Pikes Peak Area Council of Governments Long Range Transportation Plan (PPACG, 2019)

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January 2021 - El Paso County Road Safety Plan
•   El Paso Strategic Plan 2017-2021 (safety section) (El Paso County, 2017)

•   Reducing Speeding-Related Crashes Involving Passenger Vehicles (National Transportation Safety Board,

•   Major Transportation Corridor Plan (El Paso County, 2016)

•   Colorado Strategic Highway Safety Program (CDOT, 2014)

•   Federal Safety Proven Countermeasures

•   Federal Emphasis Area Countermeasures

2 | Key Document Review Memorandum
January 2021 - El Paso County Road Safety Plan
Table 1: Document Summary

 Name of Plan           Description                 Key Safety Components                                    Relevance to El Paso County Road Safety Plan
 (Year Published)

 2020-2023              Three-year plan to          • Set 3-year objectives to address safety needs          • Statewide objectives may be relevant to El Paso
 Colorado Strategic     identify key safety needs     for reductions of fatal, injury, and non-motorized     • Collaborative approach to identifying emphasis areas
 Transportation         in Colorado to be used to     crashes                                                  may be useful in El Paso County
 Safety Plan (2020)     guide investment            • Vision and mission statements
                        decisions. Plan                                                                      • Statewide performance metrics highlight unique safety
                        developed in                • Trends in key performance targets                        needs relevant to a county with a mixed urban/rural
                        collaboration with other    • Four types of emphasis areas                             environment such as El Paso
                        agencies. Identifies
                                                    • 15 high-priority (Tier-1) strategies identified with   • Relevant emphasis areas and supporting strategies and
                        emphasis areas (i.e.,                                                                  actions can be adopted or customized
                                                      an emphasis on collaboration and effectiveness
                        high priority areas
                                                                                                             • Identifies state safety partners
                        identified for safety
                        improvement).                                                                        • Opportunities to engage with the state on specific
 Colorado Moving        Statewide program           • Vision Zero Safety Partners                            • May provide opportunities to support Vision Zero in El
 Toward Zero            implementing the            • Included as a core value in the state’s Strategic        Paso County
 Deaths (2020)          principles of the Vision      Highway Safety Plan                                    • Relevant emphasis areas and supporting strategies and
                        Zero program.                                                                          actions can be adopted or customized
                                                                                                             • Identifies state safety partners
                                                                                                             • Opportunity to engage with the state
 City Limits: Setting   Guidance document for       • National perspective on speeding related               • Highlights limitations and opportunities of current
 Safe Speed Limits      cities to implement           crashes (esp. serious injuries and fatalities)           methodologies in use to set speed limits
 on Urban Streets       principles of Vision Zero   • Focus on urban crashes                                 • Guidance on addressing speed limits that contribute to
 (2020)                 through reduced speed                                                                  crashes
                        limits.                     • Specific guidance for replacing percentile-
                                                      based method of setting speed limits with a            • Particularly relevant to urban areas although guidance
                                                      systems based approach                                   could be applied county-wide
 Colorado Safety        Implementation of the       • Safety grants                                          • Grants may be available to support activities in El Paso
 Program (2020)         CDOT Whole System           • Safety planning (i.e., Strategic Transportation          County
                        Safety Initiative.            Safety Plan, Strategic Highway Safety Plan)            • Data resources could support analysis in El Paso
                                                    • Data                                                     County
                                                    • Safety initiatives                                     • Safety initiatives could be tailored to El Paso County, or
                                                                                                               El Paso could partner with the state in implementing
                                                    • Quick resources                                          specific initiatives

3 | Key Document Review Memorandum
January 2021 - El Paso County Road Safety Plan
Name of Plan          Description                  Key Safety Components                               Relevance to El Paso County Road Safety Plan
 (Year Published)

 Drive Smart           Organization in Colorado     • Extensive resources on educational campaigns      • Drive Smart Colorado could be a partner in driver’s
 Colorado (2020)       Springs that manages a                                                             education programs throughout El Paso County
                       variety of safety                                                                • Excellent collection of resources on safety initiatives
                       education programs and                                                             both in El Paso and the state
                       is funded by the Keeps
                       Kids Alive Drive 25
 Vision Zero           Website with resources       • Case studies on achieving the visions of Vision   • Provides resources (some of which have been
 Network (2020)        on Vision Zero                 Zero                                                summarized in this document) on managing speeds to
                       objectives.                  • Resources on tools (focus on cities) to reduce      achieve Vision Zero objectives
                                                      speed                                             • Resources on a network of cities who may be able to
                                                                                                          provide insight into their experience implementing Vision
                                                                                                          Zero objectives
 Colorado FY20         Describes progress           • Identifies program areas, countermeasures,        • County-to-county comparison provides insight into the
 Highway Safety        toward key safety              and planned activities to advance the state’s       unique challenges in El Paso County
 Plan (in previous     performance measures           progress toward achieving key safety measures     • Identifies current county and statewide safety program
 years called          adopted by the state of      • Identifies safety challenges in El Paso County      areas
 CDOT’s Integrated     Colorado. Provides             relative to the rest of the state
 Safety Plan) (2019)   information on ongoing
                       statewide safety
                       initiatives throughout the
 Colorado              Plan developed in            • Summarizes crash statistics for CMV in the        • Performance measures in use for aspects of the
 Commercial            accordance with Federal        state by type of crash                              MCSAP could be adapted for El Paso County
 Vehicle Safety Plan   grant requirements for       • Detailed summary of costs associated with         • May identify potential targets for partnership and
 for the Federal       the Motor Carrier Safety       implementing MCSAP                                  outreach for CMV
 Motor Carrier         Assistance Program
 Safety                (MCSAP) that focuses                                                             • Details on the MCSAP CMV definition can be adapted
 Administration's      on the safety of                                                                   for consideration in El Paso County contributing factors
 Motor Carrier         commercial motor                                                                   or emphasis areas
 Safety Assistance     vehicles (CMV).
 Program Fiscal
 Years 2018 – 2020
 Pikes Peak Area       The Long Range               • Regional safety emphasis areas are identified     • Strategies included in the plan could be adopted by El
 Council of            Transportation Plan          • Identifies a recommended approach to the            Paso County
 Governments Long      includes safety as one of      safety issue: Safety Conscious Planning
 Range                 its major goal areas.

4 | Key Document Review Memorandum
January 2021 - El Paso County Road Safety Plan
Name of Plan         Description                   Key Safety Components                               Relevance to El Paso County Road Safety Plan
 (Year Published)
 Transportation                                     • Strategies included to improve safety in the      • Many of the areas identified as safety concerns fall
 Plan (2019)                                          region                                              within El Paso County
                                                    • Safety analysis for intersections, roads, and     • Identifies major crash trends in EL Paso and Teller
                                                      half-mile road segments in the region               Counties that may suggest opportunities for targeted
                                                    • Crash data for El Paso and Teller Counties          outreach in El Paso County
 El Paso Strategic    The El Paso County            • Safety is included in two of the county’s goals   • Coordinating with county commissioners on goals,
 Plan 2017-2021       Strategic Plan identifies     • Strategies and objectives toward achieving          strategies, and objectives may result in efficiency gains
 (safety section)     safety as one of the            those goals are included in the plan
 (2017)               county plan’s major goal
                      areas; spending on law
                      enforcement is the
                      county’s largest
                      spending category.
 Reducing             Report by the National        • Identifies key challenges associated with         • May provide insight into crash data for El Paso County
 Speeding-Related     Transportation Safety           changing speed limits and crash data where        • Data-driven approach could be adapted to El Paso
 Crashes Involving    Board that focuses on           speeding may be an issue                            County
 Passenger            the role that speeding        • Identifies countermeasures that are shown to
 Vehicles (2017)      plays in motor vehicle                                                            • Identifies countermeasures that may have strong
                                                      be more effective at addressing speeding            application toward achieving ‘Toward Zero Deaths’
 Major                Plan identifies projects in   • Safety identified as a key priority in mailed     • Highlights community members’ priorities for safety
 Transportation       El Paso County’s                surveys: Community members indicated that         • Highlights example actions that the county could take in
 Corridor Plan        roadway improvement             safety should come first in planning future         support of safety
 (2016)               plan. Safety is                 roadways and that planning should allow
                      highlighted in outreach         people to arrive safely rather than quickly
                      and potential action
 Colorado Strategic   The plan identifies eight     • Emphasis areas and strategies to accomplish       • Criteria for selecting strategies could be used in El Paso
 Highway Safety       emphasis areas for              safety targets                                      County
 Plan (2014)          safety improvements           • Identifies key metrics in each emphasis area      • Emphasis areas may have overlap in El Paso County
                      from 2015-2019.

5 | Key Document Review Memorandum
January 2021 - El Paso County Road Safety Plan


Colorado Strategic Transportation Safety Plan (2020)
The Colorado Strategic Transportation Safety Plan 1 is a three-year, multimodal plan to identify key safety needs
in Colorado to be used to guide investment decisions. The plan is developed with a focus on recent statewide
trends, including rapid population growth, increase in vehicle miles traveled, more diverse travel modes,
legalization of recreational cannabis, and the continued challenge of distracted driving. This plan was developed
collaboratively with CDOT, Colorado Department of Health and Environment, Colorado State Patrol, and
Colorado Department of Revenue. The fifteen highest priority investment strategies (Tier I) along with supporting
strategies (Tiers II and III) were identified. Trends in key performance targets are presented.

Each strategy was mapped to stakeholders who could play a role in executing plan goals. Stakeholders include
Traffic Engineers, Law Enforcement, Emergency Services, Communications, Education, Advocacy Groups,
Agency Safety Program Officials, and Legislative Liaisons. Strategies were then categorized for their estimated
effectiveness at the end of one year, end of four years, end of ten years, and beyond ten years.

For each of the fifteen Tier I strategies, the following elements were collected: known related safety issues,
benefits, specific action items, data/supporting information, and examples. Tier II strategies were identified by
FHWA stakeholders and are categorized as supporting strategies. Tier III strategies are lower-priority strategies.

The document includes an analysis of statewide and national crash data from 2014-2015. Data was primarily
used to make comparisons between Colorado and national averages. Data summaries focus on crash analysis.
Crashes are broken down by type and based on roadway characteristics (see Figure 1).

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January 2021 - El Paso County Road Safety Plan
Figure 1. Crash Severity by Roadway Facility Type (2014-2018)

Four emphasis areas were identified through regional stakeholder workshops and include: high-risk behavior,
vulnerable roadway users, severe crash mitigation, and programmatic [approaches] (Figure 2):

Figure 2. Emphasis Areas

For each of the fifteen Tier I strategies identified there are detailed tables in the report that outline implementation
details. Implementation details include a strategy name, strategy champion, strategy partner, other partners, local
implementation partners, a description of the strategy, safety issue, strategy action items, benefits, progress
metrics, complementary strategies, goal(s) supported, data/supporting information, potential reduction rate in

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January 2021 - El Paso County Road Safety Plan
serious injury crashes by year, implementation costs
                                                                       MOVING TOWARDS ZERO DEATHS: SAFETY
(ranging from $ to $$$$), barriers to implementation, and
                                                                             CERTIFIED ORGANIZATIONS
corresponding emphasis area (defined by the graphic
above).                                                               •     Swedish Medical Center
                                                                      •     Drive Smart Pueblo
Colorado Moving Toward Zero                                           •     Huerfano-Las Animas Counties Early
                                                                            Childhood Council
Deaths (2020)
                                                                      •     Aurora Police Department
CDOT describes the new Moving Toward Zero Deaths                      •     Western Regional Occupant Safety
initiative on its website to provide background on the                      Coalition
program and identify where Vision Zero policies are
captured. 2 The program began in 2015 with an                         •     Aware and Alive Driving
announcement by Governor Hickenlooper and was included                •     Bike Colorado Springs
as a core value of the state’s Strategic Highway Safety Plan
                                                                      •     Drive Smart
(that plan is also summarized in this document). The website
describes the Strategic Transportation Safety Plan and                •     Drive Smart
briefly summarizes progress made by the state toward
                                                                      •     Colorado Springs
reducing the number of fatal crashes: notably, between 2000
and 2008, Colorado reduced crash fatalities by 24 percent             •     San Luis Valley RETAC
and achieved the largest decrease over that period of any
                                                                      •     Drive Smart Weld County
state in the country.
                                                                      •     Pro31 Safe Senior Driver, LLC
The website emphasizes that Vision Zero policies are
                                                                      •     Colorado Driving Institute
accomplished through the Strategic Highway Safety Plan but
emphasizes a partner program. Partners may use a Zero                 •     Children's Hospital Colorado
Deaths seal in return for meeting certain criteria, including         •     CORE Prevention Strategies
implementing a program that addresses at least one of the
Strategic Highway Safety Plan emphasis areas. The website             •     Bicycle Colorado
lists 26 organizations (see text box) ranging from                    •     Colorado District Attorneys Council
municipalities (e.g., City of Longmont), hospitals and other
                                                                      •     Tri-County Health Department
medical providers (e.g., Swedish Medical Center), law
enforcement (e.g., Aurora Police Department), bicycle                 •     Colorado Department of Human Services
advocacy (e.g., Bicycle Colorado), driver education
                                                                      •     Office of Behavioral Health
programs (e.g., Aware and Alive Driving), health
departments (e.g., Tri-County Health Department), and law             •     Servicios de La Raza
firms (e.g., the Sawaya Law Firm).
                                                                      •     Excel Driver Services Henderson Colorado
                                                                      •     City of Ft Collins
                                                                      •     Sawaya Law Firm

                                                                      •     Arapahoe County
                                                                      •     Brandon and Paul Foundation

8 | Key Document Review Memorandum
City Limits: Setting Safe Speed Limits on Urban Streets
(NACTO, 2020)
The National Association of City Transportation Officials (NACTO) convened representatives from 18 cities to
write and review guidance toward achieving the mission of Vision Zero and reducing the number of fatalities on
US roads. 3 Unlike other national guidance, City Limits focuses on urban streets. The document mentions that
between 2014 and 2018, urban arterials accounted for 29 percent of all fatal crashes in the US (and nearly half of
all fatal crashes involving pedestrians and cyclists) despite making up only six percent of US roadways. The
report supports its recommendations with extensive case studies (e.g., Toronto, Seattle, New York City,
Cambridge, Portland, Denver).

NACTO addresses the fact that many cities use police enforcement to compensate for restrictive engineering and
speed limit setting policies. The document highlights that about half of all interactions with the police begin with a
traffic stop or crash, with sometimes dangerous repercussions for marginalized groups (including marginalized
road users, as well as black, indigenous, and people of color); furthermore, manual enforcement is less effective
than other countermeasures. To address the more than 36,000 people killed annually on US roads, City Limits
recommends focusing on reducing speed limits. The document is extensively sourced: some of the justification
provided includes research that shows that a person hit by a car traveling at 35 miles per hour is five times more
likely to die than a person hit by a car traveling at 20 miles per hour. The report also cites figures by the Insurance
Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) and the Highway Safety Manual that correlate decreases in maximum speed
limits with decreases in fatalities.

City Limits recommends replacing the percentile-based method
of setting speed limits (typically set at the 85th percentile) with a
systems-based approach. USLIMITS2 4 is highlighted as an
attractive option because it incorporates other factors (such as
the most exposed users), it ultimately falls short for its
continued reliance on percentiles. The report recommends
maximum speed limits of 10 to 25 miles per hour for most city
streets, and in isolated cases maximum speeds of 35 miles per

Given a city’s authority, City Limits recommends setting a
citywide default speed at 25 mph or below, setting default
speed limits by category of street (e.g., 25 mph on arterials, 20
mph on non-arterials), using a Safe Speed Study to evaluate a
batch of similar streets at once, and designating slow zones.
The report notes policy hurdles associated with these
recommendations, notably enforcement, signage, and design.
The report notes that in states with absolute speed limits, tickets
stand on face value; in states with prima facie speed limits,           Figure 3. Risk Matrix: Conflict Density &
drivers can contest tickets on the basis that their speed was              Activity Level

                                                                                 Key Document Review Memorandum | 9
safe for the driving conditions; in basic speed law states, drivers are required only to travel at a safe speed
regardless of the posted limit. 5

The report includes documentation on steps to conduct a Safe Speed Study, which include four steps: 1) collect
before data, 2) analyze existing conditions, 3) determine best options for speed management, and 4) conduct an
evaluation. The risk matrix (see Figure 3) indicates the guidance’s recommended maximum speed based on
certain levels of activity and conflict. The report also provides examples all of the metrics used in completing a
Safe Speed Study, including the level of conflict and activity (see Figure 4 and Figure 5).

Figure 5. Example Conflict Density Analysis                         Figure 4. Example Conflict Density Analysis

Changes to roadway design and operation, sign and marking, automated enforcement, and messaging and
education are also recommended. Evaluation metrics for changes are included, as well as checklists that can be
used throughout the Safe Speed Study.

Drive Smart Colorado (2020)
Drive Smart Colorado 6 is a community traffic safety program headquartered in Colorado Springs with State Farm,
CDOT, and Colorado’s Moving Towards Zero Deaths listed as partners. The website features information on
general traffic safety, BuckleBear, Street Signage and Pavement Markings, Colorado Springs Car Seat Check
Resource List, Substance Free Driving, Child Passenger Safety, Keep Kids Alive Drive 25, Saved by the Belt,
Operation Lifesaver, Older Driver Safety, Teen safety, Bike/Motorcycle Pedestrian safety.

The organization highlights several programs to promote safety:

Older Driver Safety: Includes a link to Colorado’s Guide for Aging Drivers and Their Families: From Plains to
Peaks. The document is funded by AAA Colorado, CDOT, and Drive Smart Colorado. The document provides
resources on population facts, licensing requirements, re-examination, reporting unsafe drivers, Am I Safe To
Drive?, family and caregiver involvement, changes in driving behavior, doctors and the medical assessment,

    Colorado law defines ‘prima facie speed limits’ as those which, ‘on the face of it,’ are reasonable and prudent under normal
    conditions. See https://www.codot.gov/library/Brochures/Establishing_Realistic_Speed_Limits_Brochure.pdf
10 | Key Document Review Memorandum
safety tips for road users, planning agreement/advance driving directive, safety
tips (winter driving, pedestrians, bicyclists, motorcyclists), keep safe while
driving, impact of aging on driving, CDC My Mobility Plan, Tire Information,
Adaptive Devices Descriptions, Enhanced Mirror Settings, Retirement from
Driving, Planning Table, Colorado Area Agencies on Aging Regions, and Web-
Site resources. The Older Driver Safety site at Drive Smart Colorado provides
a checklist for older drivers to perform a self-assessment to determine whether
or not they are safe to drive (e.g., ‘I get lost while driving’, ‘My friends or family
members say they are worried about my driving’) and guidance to caregivers
on talking with older drivers.
                                                                                         Figure 6. Keep Kids Alive
BuckleBear: Safety belt puppet available for purchase to communicate the                    Drive 25 Yard Sign
importance of wearing a seatbelt.

Street Signage and Pavement Markings: Information on roundabouts, divergent diamonds, Flashing Yellow
Arrow, ‘mast arm’ traffic signal poles, countdown pedestrian signals, ‘look ahead’ warning signs, improved
pavement marking methods and materials, ‘SHARROWS’ or Shared Lane Markings, yield line pavement
markings or ‘sharks teeth’, speed hump markings, green lane bike lanes, and continuous flow intersections.

Colorado Springs Car Seat Check Resource List: List of Certified Child Passenger Safety Technicians.

Substance Free Driving: Video testimonials from drivers involved in crashes where substance was identified as a
factor and a link to CDOT’s alcohol and impaired driving website (where it is possible to purchase a breathalyzer
and find information on DUI laws, sobor rides, enforcement campaigns, safety events, and previous breathalyzer

Keep Kids Alive Drive 25 (KKAD25): A program in Colorado Springs adopted by the City Council in 2003. The
program reduced neighborhood speed limits and increased speeding fines. Fine revenue went back into the
program to fund the three E’s of safety (education, engineering, and enforcement). Drive Smart leads the
education element of the program (the website indicates that with funding available, the Drive Smart Colorado
Springs Alliance ‘began in earnest’). Street signs (see Figure 6) are available for purchase.

Pedestrian Education: Resources for pedestrians. A pedestrian safety activity sheet for kids includes a word
search and other exercises to encourage children to think about safety. There are links to other resources, such
as the CDOT Safe Routes to School Toolkit, the University of North Carolina Highway Research Center, the
Centers for Disease Control, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, Walk and Bike to School Day,
Slow Down in School Zones. Embedded videos provide tips on distracted walking and pedestrian safety around
elementary schools.

Saved by the Belt: Guidance to recognize individuals saved by crashes who, by no fault of their own, were in a
crash and saved from injury because they wore a seat belt, helmet, or properly restrained their child.

Safety Seat Information: Resources on finding Certified Child Passenger Safety Technicians, and child passenger
safety laws. Highlights the availability of car seat technicians in Colorado Springs, times to receive a car seat
checkup, and a local Facebook site.

Teen Driver: Resources on manuals on teaching your teen to drive, a checklist for teaching your teen to drive,
parent teen driving contract, parenting tips to keep teen drivers safe, important lessons, general brochure for
parents, keeping your teen safe, adolescent decision-making problem-solving fact sheet, and teen driver. The

                                                                                  Key Document Review Memorandum | 11
website includes a link to coteendriver.com, which redirects visitors to a CDOT website with resources on the
licensing process, teen driving laws, getting your license as a teen, and materials to promote teen driving safety.

Motorcycle: Resources on classes, a map that rates Colorado’s highways for motorcycle skill level, and additional
safety information. The website includes a link to CDOT’s Live to Ride motorcycle safety program, the Colorado
State Patrol’s motorcycle safety campaign: https://www.codot.gov/safety/motorcycle/live-to-ride/campaign-
materials. .

School Bus Safety: The website has several downloads on school bus safety, including school bus safety talking
points, bus safety tips to teach children, school bus safety rules, and five bus safety fliers. The website lists rules
of school bus safety for students and motorists.

Vision Zero Network (2020)
The Vision Zero Network is a collaborative campaign aimed at supporting the Vision Zero Network. It is described
as a collaboration between health, traffic engineering, and policy advocates. Community Initiatives and Kaiser
Permanente are identified as sponsors.

The website includes case studies (highlighting Portland, Oregon and New York City), Vision Zero cities (including
Denver and Boulder), and a resource library (focusing on case studies, equity, and safety over speed). 7

The network emphasizes equity or recognizing that all people have the right to move about their communities
safely. Equity is an integral part, especially to engage communities’ most vulnerable and to work against over-
policing and inequitable enforcement. Two resources identified in the list of resources (the NTSB Reducing
Speeding-Related Crashes and the NACTO City Limits) are summarized elsewhere in this document.

Safe speed is also recognized as a core tenet of Vision Zero and the safe systems approach.

Colorado Safety Program (2020)
The Colorado Safety Program identifies a primary problem, goal, vision, metrics, and program for the CDOT
Whole System Safety Initiative. 8 Highlights examples of ongoing success (e.g., seat belts saved 229 lives in
Colorado in 2017) and specific programs (e.g., multimodal options included programming $50 million in 2019 to
advance multimodal hubs, and organizational changes enabled integrating maintenance and operations to
streamline incident command and response).

The website provides resources on:

•      Safety grants
       »   405C Traffic Records Program Grants (formerly 408)

       »   Office of Traffic Safety (OTS) Mini-Grants (categories include impaired driving, click it or ticket, speed
           enforcement and control, and general)

    https://www.codot.gov/safety and https://www.codot.gov/safety/assets/wsws-fact-sheet.pdf
12 | Key Document Review Memorandum
»   Law enforcement grants

    »   Related information (including grantees, governmental agencies, safety data, documents, pre-work
        documents, and grant-writing tips and technical assistance)

•   Safety planning, including:

    »   Strategic Transportation Safety Plan
    »   Strategic Highway Safety Plan

•   Data, including:
    »   Accident and rates and coding info

    »   Fatal crash data and fatal accident reporting documents
    »   Problem ID reports

    »   Annual safety reports

    »   Seat belt surveys

    »   Safety analysis info

    »   Crash summary books

•   Safety initiatives, including:

    »   Alcohol & impaired driving

    »   Car seats
    »   Distracted driving

    »   Seat Belts

    »   Traffic Safety Agency Portal

    »   Motorcycle Safety

    »   Teen Drivers

    »   Traffic & Safety
    »   Traffic Safety Reports

    »   Improving Colorado’s Road Health Summit

•   Quick Resources, including:

    »   Traffic safety pulse newsletters
    »   Drug recognition experts program
    »   Seat Belt Awareness Campaign

    »   Cruise into Colorado pamphlet

    »   Law enforcement liaison dispatch

                                                                         Key Document Review Memorandum | 13
Colorado FY 20 Highway Safety Plan (2019)
The Colorado Highway Safety Plan primarily serves as an update on progress toward achieving performance
measures set out in the Strategic Highway Safety Plan (CDOT, 2015). 9 Fatal injuries have increased on an
annual basis since 2013, this increase is only partially explained by trends like increases in population and vehicle
miles traveled. The state has established the following targets for 2020 (Table 2):

Table 2. Colorado 2020 Safety Targets 5-Year Averages 2016-2020

    Number of fatalities                                                                         618

    Fatality rate per 100 million VMT                                                            1.14
    Number of serious injuries                                                                  3,271

The report includes a written summary of progress toward achieving thirteen state performance measures. At the
time of writing, every measure was indicated as being in progress, with some measures meeting performance
targets and some failing to meet set targets. Performance measure targets are established using the annual
Problem Identification Report along with other data sources.

For each program area, the plan lists a counter measure strategy or strategies and planned activities (Table 3):

Table 3. Program areas, countermeasure strategy, and activities identified in the Highway Safety Plan

    Program Area                                      Countermeasure strategy                           Planned activity

    Communications (media)                    Communications campaign                         Communication and outreach
    Distracted driving                        Distracted driving high visibility              Distracted driving HVE /
                                              enforcement (HVE) / education                   education
    Impaired driving (drug and alcohol)       Impaired driving HVE, training and judicial     Impaired driving HVE, judicial
                                              support                                         training/education
    Motorcycle safety                         Communication campaign                          Communications and outreach
    Non-motorized (pedestrians)               Pedestrian enforcement and education            Enforcement and education
    Occupant protection (adult)               Short-term, high visibility seat belt law       Occupant protection HVE
    Occupant protection (child passenger      Child restraint system inspection station (s)   Cps inspection stations
    Older drivers                             Older driver education                          Older driver education
    Planning & administration                 Program support                                 FY 20 program support
    Speed management                          Sustained enforcement                           Sustained speed enforcement
    Traffic records                           Comprehensive traffic record improvement        FY 20 traffic records
                                              initiatives                                     improvements
    Young Drivers                             School programs                                 Youth peer-to-peer programs

14 | Key Document Review Memorandum
The plan concludes with a description of highway safety problems, detail on strategies, information on major
safety grants (e.g., 405b, 405c, 405d, 405f, and 405h grants).

El Paso County is mentioned throughout the plan:

•     Mothers Against Drunk Driving (MADD) is working to implement a court monitoring program in the Fourth
      Judicial District (which includes El Paso and Teller Counties).

•     CDOT’s Highway Safety Office (HSO) will be focusing on establishing and enhancing Occupant Protection
      and Child Passenger Safety programs in several counties, including El Paso.

•     El Paso County was identified as one of several counties that were underserved by Child Protection Safety
      (CPS) technicians based on the number of technicians in the county compared to the total population.

•     Cordy & Company (a public relations firm providing services to CDOT) will continue to conduct CarFit events
      in El Paso counties (among other counties) to reduce the fatality rate of at-fault drivers who are 65 and older.

•     The Colorado Springs Police Department indicates that speeding-related crashes are prevalent throughout El
      Paso County, with a record number of speeding-related fatalities in 2018. In the past two years the number of
      speeding related accidents has decreased slightly.

•     Statistics for El Paso County indicate that the county has a relatively-high number of passenger fatalities
      compared to other counties in the state, including a high number of unrestrained passenger vehicle occupant
      fatalities, crashes involving a Blood Alcohol Content (BAC) equal to or greater than 0.08, speeding related
      fatalities, and distracted driving.

•     El Paso County Security Officers (SO) are listed amongst the agency participants in the national Click-it-or-
      Ticket (CIOT) national mobilization.

Colorado Commercial Vehicle Safety Plan for the Federal
Motor Carrier Safety Administration's Motor Carrier Safety
Assistance Program Fiscal Years 2018 – 2020 (2019)
This plan 10 was prepared in accordance with Federal grant requirements for the Motor Carrier Safety Assistance
Program (MCSAP) that provides financial assistance to states to reduce the number and severity of accidents and
hazardous materials incidents involving commercial motor vehicles (CMV). A state lead MCSAP agency
designated by the Governor can apply for grant funding by addressing five prescribed parts (an overview, crash
reduction and national program elements, national emphasis areas and state specific objectives as defined in the
FAST act, financial information, and certification and documents). In Colorado, the plan is prepared by the
Colorado Department of Transportation.

The document focuses on providing information in compliance with grant requirements, and the most recent
update confirms that information in many sections remains valid for the upcoming fiscal year. The plan content
itself is generated using the eCVSP tool and includes a mix of template material and user-entered data. The plan
primarily describes the state’s progress toward achieving certain performance measures specific to CMV, some of
which are established at the national level and some at the state level (e.g., ‘catch rate’ for carriers operating in

                                                                               Key Document Review Memorandum | 15
violation of an out-of-service order declaring the CMV operator ineligible to operate until an imminent hazard likely
to result in serious injury or death is resolved).

The document includes a mission statement for the Colorado State Patrol, summary crash statistics for CMV in
the state, number of law enforcement personnel providing services to CMV (including port of entry officers, state
patrol, and others), hazardous materials crashes involving hazardous material release or spill, annual crash
reduction goals, number of roadside inspections (including level of inspection), number of investigations (e.g.,
compliance, terminal), traffic enforcement stops for a CMV, safety technology compliance status (focusing on
Innovative Technology Deployment [ITD] and Performance and Registration Information Systems Management
[PRISM]), public education and outreach activities (e.g., carrier safety talks, CMV safety belt education and
outreach) (see Table 2), state safety quality data (indicating whether crash and other records are complete), new
entrant safety audits, number of operators operating while operating under an out-of-service (OOS) order,
consistency and quality of data gathered during the state’s inspection process, and estimated fiscal funding for
the MCSAP (broken down by federal, state, and total funding). The plan concludes with a detailed breakdown of
annual costs associated with the program.

Table 4. Public Education and Outreach Activities included in the Colorado Commercial Vehicle Safety

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Pikes Peak Area Council of Governments Long Range
Transportation Plan (2019)
Safety is one of five goal areas in the Pikes Peak Area Council of                 THE PLAN IDENTIFIES NINE
Governments (PPACG) Long Range Transportation Plan (LRTP),                         REGIONAL SAFETY ISSUES,
and one of fifteen chapters focuses on safety (the plan also includes                    INCLUDING:
a related chapter on security). 11
                                                                              •   Distracted driving
The chapter begins with a brief overview of federal safety related            •   Impaired driving
laws and funding, federal level safety planning and regulations,
                                                                              •   Aggressive driving
regional transportation safety, safety strategies, statewide safety
plans, and safety analysis.                                                   •   Transportation infrastructure
                                                                              •   Motorcycle driver behavior
The plan highlights the FHWA’s recommended framework for
safety, which is Safety Conscious Planning: a comprehensive,                  •   Nonmotorized and passenger
system-wide, multimodal, proactive process that integrates safety                 safety
into surface transportation decision making. The keys to Safety-
                                                                              •   Congestion
Conscious planning identified in the plan include:
                                                                              •   Roadway departure
•      The four E’s of transportation safety: Engineering, Enforcement,
                                                                              •   Intersection crashes
       Education, and Emergency Medical Services

•      Inviting a variety of agencies to collaborate, including local, state, federal government;

•      Agreeing on problem areas and strategies, and goals to address them; and

•      Engineering/construction, law enforcement, emergency medical services, nonmotorized community all
       collaborating to increase safety.

•      Strategies identified within the plan include the following:
       »   Increase collaboration with available state and federal resources: Build in more collaboration by
           establishing regular meetings of the safety collaboration (once per quarter). Consider using grant funding
           for increased education or enforcement to offset lack of local funding sources.
       »   Establish laws/policies that have bearing/are enforceable: Current motor vehicle laws are too lenient to be
           a permanent deterrent to change behavior long-term (no real consequences).
       »   Build on successful law enforcement practices: Everyone generally attends common trainings and
           communicates across agencies effectively. Regulate and/or make this an ongoing effort.

       »   Education: Leverage existing programs like Drive Smart, MADD, and Safe Routes to School.

•      Education:

       »   [Address the lack of] formal driving education at high schools

       »   Initiate a campaign that describes how speeding does not necessarily get you there faster due to the
           timing of lights

                                                                                  Key Document Review Memorandum | 17
•      Engineering and infrastructure:
       »   Minimize speed deferential (including adaptive signal system (has had success in Woodland Park)

       »   Radar detection system
       »   Make road seem “narrower” with striping so drivers slow down

       »   Enlarge road signs
       »   Improve pedestrian engineering including safer cross walks, especially at intersections with high crashes
       »   Add pedestrian intersection enhancements

       »   Add advanced flashing beacons before the intersection to inform drivers that pedestrians are crossing

The safety chapter continues with a discussion of the types of hazards associated with speeding, techniques to
improve access management on roadways, mention of the main statewide plans (the Strategic Highway Safety
Plan and Integrated Safety Plan [now renamed the Highway Safety Plan]), and data.

The section also summarized crash data provided by CDOT for El Paso and Teller Counties for the period
between 2010 and 2015. The plan summarizes fatal crashes by year, injury crashes by year, property damage
only crashes by year, all crashes, traffic volume by time of day, crashes by time of day, and day of month crashes
(see Figure 8).

El Paso Strategic Plan 2017-2021 (safety section) (2017)
The El Paso County Strategic Plan 2017-2021 is primarily used to engage elected officials, the Board of County
Commissioners, county employers, and citizens in a goal-setting process that determines how the county
allocates resources over the next five years. 12 The document describes the county budget, features of the
strategic plan (including the purpose, structure, use, update process, and terminology), vision, mission, values,
goals, and strategic plan committees.

Public safety is prominently featured in the plan (i.e., law enforcement), and represents the largest spending
category in the county budget (approximately 49 percent of the county’s budget).

Safety (as it relates to transportation infrastructure) is mentioned in the following areas:

•      Goal 3: Maintain and improve the county transportation system, facilities, infrastructure, and technology
       »   Strategy A: Provide a safe, sustainable, integrated and efficient multi-modal transportation infrastructure
           system to enhance the region’s economy and quality of life.
           –   Objective: Prioritize infrastructure improvements and repairs based upon the following priorities:
               protecting life safety, preventing asset damage, preserving mobility, preventing private property
               damage and preventing environmental damage.

           –   Objective: Reduce fatalities and injuries by adopting the nationwide philosophy “Toward Zero Deaths”

•      Goal 5: Strive to ensure a safe, secure, resilient, and healthy community

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»   Strategy B: Support a high level of community safety and security encompassing emergency
           management, safe buildings, and partnerships for healthy neighborhoods
           –   Objective: Enhance El Paso County Public Health involvement in the transportation, land use, and
               environmental planning processes.

Reducing Speeding-Related Crashes Involving Passenger
Vehicles (2017)
The National Transportation Safety Board’s (NTSB) report observes that speeding is one of the most common
factors in motor vehicle crashes in the United States and is a leading focus of many cities’ Vision Zero program. 13

The document highlights a leading challenge in the setting of speed limits, namely, that speed limits are typically
set by statute. When speed limits are adjusted, they are generally based on the 85th percentile of observed
operating speeds for each road segment. Another major challenge is collecting data to support data-driven
programs; often, law enforcement reporting of speeding-related crashes is inconsistent, which may cause those
crashes to be undercounted.

The report reviews the scope of the problem, including
trends in fatal crashes and the percentage of those
crashes that are speeding related, severity of risks,
characteristics of speeding-related crashes, attitudes
toward speeding, and the role of other organizations
(national, state, and local). The report puts forward an
evaluation of speeding countermeasures using a
combination of data analysis, stakeholder interviews,
previous NTSB recommendations, national maximum
speed limits (see Figure 7), and AASHTO design speeds.

Using this data-driven approach, NTSB finds compelling
evidence that passenger vehicles in fatal crashes are
often traveling at least 10 mph above the posted speed
limit, despite being categorized as ‘unknown if speeding’
                                                                 Figure 7. Maximum speed limits by state and the
by law enforcement. This leads NTSB to conclude that
                                                                    District of Columbia in 2016 and maximum
the involvement of speeding in fatal crashes is
                                                                    speed limits from 2012 to 2016
underestimated. New standards for state crash reporting
could help address this issue, but guidance is irregular.

The document largely focuses on countermeasures and evaluating the effectiveness of these countermeasures
using a data-driven approach. Automated speed enforcement (ASE) is seen as widely effective but was in use in
fewer than half of the states in the United States. Recent research suggests that lowering speed limits may lead
to sustained traveling speed reductions (and not simply a lower level of compliance, as is generally believed).
Modern technologies have potential, but in some cases (such as onboard global positioning systems) are not
widely deployed. The principal challenge is the lack of focus on speeding at a national policy level (unlike, for
example, impaired driving).

                                                                               Key Document Review Memorandum | 19
Major Transportation Corridor Plan (2016)
The Major Transportation Corridor Plan includes background and context, community engagement, growth in El
Paso County (including land use forecasts, areas of uncertainty, and emerging trends), the 2040 Major
Transportation Corridors Plan, multimodal transportation (including a discussion of bicycle and pedestrian
facilities, transit, and truck routes), the 2060 Corridor Preservation Plan, a funding analysis, and implementation
steps. 14 A main focus of the project is in identifying projects in the county’s roadway improvement plan (maps
included in the chapter on implementation – see Figure 8).

                                                                         Some of the background included in the plan
                                                                         underscores the unique planning context for
                                                                         El Paso County: approximately 89 percent of
                                                                         the total land area in the county is located in
                                                                         unincorporated El Paso County and
                                                                         approximately 26 percent of the county’s
                                                                         population live in unincorporated areas
                                                                         outside cities.

                                                                        The project types included in the plan do not
                                                                        name safety improvements specifically.
                                                                        However, safety is identified as a major
                                                                        theme in online and mailed surveys
                                                                        conducted as part of the public outreach for
                                                                        the plan. Specifically, community members
                                                                        expressed that safety should come first in
Figure 8. Short and mid-range projects                                  planning future roadways. Many of the
                                                                        comments received that focused on safety
encouraged a perspective that focused on getting places safely rather than quickly. Particular areas of concern
included a desire to improve the safety of bicycle facility conditions and to focus on the needs for people with
disabilities, as well as the aging population.

Safety also appears as one area where El Paso County can take action in coordination with PPACG and other
regional organizations. The plan includes several example actions the county could take in coordination with
PPACG and other regional organizations, including:

•      Improved safety for older pedestrians including improved visibility and increased timing for street crossings
       and enhanced sidewalk facilities, particularly focused around retail, multifamily residential, medical and other
       land uses with high concentrations of older users.

One of the strategies identified in support of the plan’s policy to ‘Reduce the adverse environmental impacts of
existing and future transportation systems through a combination of careful planning and mitigation techniques’
also focuses on safety:

•      Place a high priority on those system improvements, which will reduce risks to public safety including but not
       limited to signalization and traffic controls.

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Colorado Strategic Highway Safety Plan (2014)
The Colorado Strategic Highway Safety Plan was prepared shortly after the launch of the state’s ‘Moving Toward
Zero Deaths’ safety initiative and addressed safety planning efforts from 2015 to 2019. 15 The plan identified eight
emphasis areas.

For each emphasis area, the plan describes recent trends in the
                                                                                   EMPHASIS AREAS IDENTIFIED IN THE
data and strategies that could be used to address each area. The
                                                                                   STRATEGIC HIGHWAY SAFETY PLAN
strategies are highlighted below:
                                                                               •    Aging road users (65 and older)
       1. Aging road users (65 and older)
                                                                               •    Bicyclists and pedestrians
           –    Provide education about aging and driving issues and           •    Data
                communicate on how to help aging road users stay
                on the road for as long as they can safely do so.              •    Impaired driving

           –    Develop and promote aging road user licensing                  •    Infrastructure (rural and urban)
                policies and practices.                                        •    Motorcyclists
           –    Improve the safety of the roadway and built                    •    Occupant protection
                environment for aging road users.
                                                                               •    Young drivers (between the ages of
           –    Identify and promote opportunities for alternative                  15 and 20)
                                                                               •    Distracted Driving Task Force
           –    Establish and maintain partnerships for aging road
                user safety.
       2. Bicyclists and pedestrians

           –    Investigate and research the effectiveness of technology, countermeasures or design which impact
                bicyclist and pedestrian crashes.

           –    Improve quality (timeliness, completeness, accuracy, accessibility, uniformity, and integration) of
                bicyclist- and pedestrian-related data.

           –    Reduce motor vehicle speeds through use of new and proven countermeasures, technology and
                design to provide safer bicycling and safer access for walking where appropriate.
           –    Improve bicyclist and pedestrian safety at high crash locations through implementation of new and
                proven technology, design, and countermeasures.
           –    Continue to support and develop new outreach and communication campaigns aimed at motorists,
                pedestrians, and bicyclists.
       3. Impaired driving

           –    Ensure greater awareness of the dangers of drug-impaired driving.

           –    Improve the collection and analysis of data that informs enforcement, education, and
                prosecution/adjudication of impaired driving efforts.

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–   Continue to support and improve existing and new impaired driving messaging and awareness.

       –   Continue to support and improve existing and new impaired driving enforcement programs and
       –   Continue and increase Colorado's strong prosecution and adjudication programs.

   4. Infrastructure (rural and urban)

       –   Identify and prioritize local road safety problems on all roadways using data-driven processes and
           implement infrastructure, operations, and policy improvements to reduce roadway crashes.
       –   Use proven behavioral countermeasures to reduce crashes for all roadway users.

       –   Increase safe driving behaviors on rural roadways.

       –   Improve collection and accessibility of data on all roads.
       –   Implement countermeasures, technology, or design to reduce crashes on all roadways.

       –   Provide training and outreach to state and local safety stakeholders and the public (e.g., on roadway
           safety best practices, processes, issues, new methodologies, and partnership strategies).
   5. Motorcyclists

       –   Develop and implement programs to train motorcyclists on skills related to crash avoidance.

       –   Continue communications and outreach programs to promote motorcyclist safety.
       –   Develop a motorcycle crash awareness course for uniformed law enforcement officers to improve
           their understanding of motorcycle crash dynamics and general motorcycle safety issues.

       –   Limit the length of each motorcycle permit and the number of lifetime permit renewals.
       –   Increase awareness among state and local personnel regarding motorcycle roadway safety.

       –   Support policies that promote helmet use.
   6. Occupant protection

       –   Support policies and activities that promote seat belt use such as a primary seat belt law.

       –   Increase awareness of the risks associated with non-seat belt use.
       –   Support and expand Colorado’s high visibility seat belt enforcement initiatives.
   7. Young drivers (between the ages of 15 and 20)

       –   Increase coordination, collaboration, and mission alignment among state-level motor vehicle partners
           in Colorado related to evidence-based practices that reduce motor vehicle occupant injuries among
           youth ages 15 to 20.

       –   Increase the number of teen motor vehicle safety programs funded by state agencies that are
           implementing evidence-based programs by providing resources and technical assistance.
       –   Increase seat belt use among teens.

       –   Increase the percentage of law enforcement officers who report enforcing the Graduated Driver’s
           License law.
       –   Educate parents about the existing Graduated Driver’s License law.

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–   Decrease the number and rate of impaired driving-related crashes among young drivers.
    8. Data

        –   Identify and support efforts which maintain and/or improve the timeliness, completeness, accuracy,
            uniformity, accessibility, and integration of individual agency traffic information system databases.
        –   Identify and document traffic safety databases and pathways of information throughout Colorado, and
            redundancy, needs, and gaps in current traffic safety.

        –   Revise DR 2447 (Colorado’s Crash Report Form) to reflect current and emerging data needs.
        –   Develop processes to integrate the crash, EMS/injury surveillance, citation, and roadway databases.
    9. Distracted Driving Task Force

        –   Task force seeks to develop a definition for distracted driving and conduct research to identify

The Executive and Steering Committees for the SHSP are responsible for supervising the SHSP implementation
by tracking progress in each emphasis areas, identifying barriers, providing updates on actions, providing
guidance of future programs, determining the needs of future SHSP updates, and working with the Statewide
Traffic Records Advisory Committee (STRAC).

A detailed appendix breaks down statistics in some detail and provides detailed emphasis area action plans,
including the emphasis areas selected for the previous plan (see Figure 11).

Actions were associated with all emphasis items. For example, unrestrained occupant protection was identified as
a major driver of fatalities and serious injuries (see below). Three strategies were identified to address the issue
with four to seven action items for each strategy (e.g., ‘determine the impact of incentives for seat belt usage,
e.g., Wyoming seat belt incentive provides for a $10 discount on any traffic offense if the driver is buckled).

To select each strategy, the following criteria were used:

•   Is the strategy feasible;

•   Can the strategy be measured;

•   Are there political or policy barriers;

•   Will it impact fatalities and serious injuries; and

•   Can it be accomplished within the five-year life of the plan?

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Figure 9. Emphasis Area Selection

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BAC     Blood Alcohol Content

CIOT    Click-It-Or-Ticket

CMV     Commercial Motor Vehicles

CPS     Child Protection Safety

FHWA    Federal Highway Administration

HSO     Highway Safety Office

HVE     High Visibility Enforcement

ITD     Innovative Technology Deployment

IIHS    Insurance Institute For Highway Safety

LOSS    Level Of Safety Service

MCSAP   Motor Carrier Safety Assistance Program

NACTO   National Association Of City Transportation Officials

NTSB    National Transportation Safety Board

OOS     Out-Of-Service

OTS     Office Of Traffic Safety

PRISM   Performance and Registration Information Systems Management

SHSPS   Strategic Highway Safety Plan
                                                                Key Document Review Memorandum | 25
SO            Security Officers

STRAC         Statewide Traffic Records Advisory Committee

26 | Key Document Review Memorandum
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