MANAGEMENT FOR IMPROVING SCHOOL QUALITY (MULTISITUS STUDY AT INTEGRATED ISLAMIC JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL NURUL FIKRI AND AL BIRUNI MANDIRI MAKASSAR)

 
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES
                                              20th May 2021. Vol.89. No.1
                                     © 2012-2021 TIJOSS & ARF. All rights reserved

                 ISSN 2305-4557                                                              www.Tijoss.com

                                  MANAGEMENT FOR IMPROVING SCHOOL QUALITY
                           (MULTISITUS STUDY AT INTEGRATED ISLAMIC JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL
                                  NURUL FIKRI AND AL BIRUNI MANDIRI MAKASSAR)

                            Patris, Basri Modding, Baharuddin Semmaila, Andi Bunyamin
                                     Post Graduate, Universitas Muslim Indonesia

                                                                 Abstract
                This paper is to examine the planning management of school principals in improving quality at SMPIT Nurul
       Fikri and Al Biruni Mandiri Makassar. In addition, he explained the management of the principal's implementation
       in improving the quality at SMPIT Nurul Fikri and Al Biruni Mandiri Makassar. Likewise, the management of school
       principals' evaluation in improving quality at SMPIT Nurul Fikri and Al Biruni Mandiri Makassar.
                The methods used in this research are (1) descriptive qualitative approach, (2) research type multisite
       design, (3) the role of the researcher as a key instrument, (4) primary and secondary data sources (5) observation
       data collection methods, interviews and documentation (6) Data reduction, display and verification techniques, (7)
       Checking the validity of the findings, persistent observation, triangulation, member check, and referential
       adequency check.
                The results showed that SMPIT Nurul Fikri and Al Biruni Mandiri Makassar have implemented quality
       improvement management starting from planning, implementation and evaluation to realize quality standards or
       the profile of school graduates. Management includes planning, implementation and evaluation of teaching staff
       (fulfilling the number of teachers, increasing teacher competence), student affairs (analyzing school capacity,
       admitting new students, the Introduction of the School Environment, grouping new students and the Intra School
       Student Organization) and curriculum (structure and curriculum content, study load, educational calendar,
       syllabus, teaching materials, lesson plans, implementation of learning, assessment of learning outcomes, class
       promotion, evaluation of quality standards and evaluation of learning outcome assessment tools.
       Keywords: Management, Quality Improvement, School

Preliminary
        The quality of education is one of the main pillars in       problem of autonomy and the lack of discretionary schools.
efforts to develop human resources which are very                    Therefore, since the implementation of regional autonomy
important for national development. Quality education can            on January 1, 2001, the Ministry of National Education has
only be realized through quality education. Therefore,               changed the orientation of school management from
efforts to improve the quality of education are a strategic          center-based to school-based management (SBM). (Husaini
effort in improving the quality of human resources in                Usman, 2006: 574). The aim is to improve school
accordance with the needs of national development. In this           performance in terms of effectiveness, quality / quality,
case it can be said that improving the quality of human              efficiency, innovation, relevance and equity and access to
resources is a process that cannot be separated from the             education. School-based management has a very broad
process of improving the quality of education. However,              scope, requiring the participation of all education
national education is faced with a number of problems.               stakeholders, both internal and external.
Among them are the low quality of education at every level                  The regional autonomy paradigm is the basic
and unit of education, especially at the primary and                 paradigm in determining all joints of state regulations. In
secondary education levels. In fact, improving the quality of        line with the spirit of regional autonomy, the government is
education has long been discussed by education                       determined to implement education decentralization that
stakeholders. Various ways have been done, for example               rests on empowering schools at all levels of education
increasing teacher competence through education and                  (Husaini Usman, 2006: 572). In this way, all aspects of
training, procurement of books and learning tools,                   central policy have begun to be revised and regional
procurement of educational facilities and infrastructure,            governments are given the scope to regulate education
teacher certification, development of national and local             patterns in accordance with their regional potential. In
curricula, training of school principals to quality                  SBM, it is known that school-based quality improvement
improvement through school management. But the results               management (MPMBS) is more focused on improving
are not as expected. One of the contributing factors is the          quality as measured by its inputs, processes and outputs.
                                                                 1
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES
                                              20th May 2021. Vol.89. No.1
                                     © 2012-2021 TIJOSS & ARF. All rights reserved

                 ISSN 2305-4557                                                                www.Tijoss.com

(Directorate of Primary and Secondary Education, 2000:               functions to develop capabilities and shape character and
15). School input (new students) is measured from students           civilization nation in order to educate the life of the nation,
who are accepted after going through the selection                   aims to develop the potential of students so that they
process. The process is measured by the principal's ability          become human beings who believe and have faith in God
to manage all educational programs by involving school               Almighty, have            noble character, are         healthy,
members and other stakeholders, from planning,                       knowledgeable, capable, creative, independent and
implementation, monitoring and evaluation. While the                 become democratic and responsible citizens, can be
output is seen from the quality or academic and non-                 achieved .
academic quality. The basic principle of MPMBS is to                            Of course, in realizing these goals, the role of
provide broad autonomy to schools to be more responsible             school principals is very important in efforts to improve
in utilizing all potential resources for the smooth process of       school quality. Remembering the principal as a leader, has
improving school quality. This quality improvement can be            the responsibility to mobilize all resources in the school. So
achieved if schools can involve and create good                      that it gives birth to a productive work ethic in achieving
communication with all stakeholders. The objectives of this          goals. So the principal figure must have a strong
MPMBS are to provide authority (autonomy) to schools,                personality, confident, brave, passionate, generous, and
provide greater flexibility (flexibility) to schools, and            have social sensitivity. The principal must understand the
encourage the participation of school members and the                goals of education in schools well and find the right way to
community to improve quality.                                        achieve them. And as a principal manager, they are
         Improving the quality of education strongly                 required to be able to predict the future of the school, for
emphasizes the importance of the role of schools as the              example about the quality expected by the community, to
main autonomous basic actors, and the role of parents and            make innovations by taking initiatives and creative activities
society in developing education. Schools need to be given            for the progress of the school. Creating a strategy or policy
the trust to organize and take care of themselves in                 for both planning and implementation, as well as being able
accordance with environmental conditions and customer                to control or evaluate the implementation of education in
needs. Schools as autonomous institutions are given the              schools as an effort to improve school quality. In an effort
opportunity to manage the coordination process to achieve            to improve quality, the principal is absolutely an agent of
educational goals (Soebagio Admodiwirio, 2000: 5-6). This            change through activities to improve school leadership with
concept of thinking has given birth to a new approach,               a forum for institutional development, workforce, student
namely school-based quality improvement management.                  affairs, curriculum, facilities and infrastructure, and in
This approach is known as school-based quality                       collaboration with school committees and other system
improvement management. (B. suryosubroto, 2004: 204-                 changes. The fact shows that the level of school progress is
205). In essence, MBS will bring progress in two                     largely determined by the extent to which the level of
interdependent areas, namely; first, the progress of                 progress of the principal's leadership in improving the
educational programs and services to parents, students and           quality of the school. The success of the school is shown by
the community. Second, the quality of the work                       the ability of the principal to manage the school. Therefore
environment for all members of the organization.                     the principal must understand and develop skills in
(Nurkholis, 2006: 81). Wohlstetter in Watson in Nurkholis            implementing quality improvement through a good
(2006: 81-82) provides comprehensive guidance as a key               management process.
element of SBM reform which consists of: 1) clearly                             This is in line with what was said by Mukhtar, et al.
defining the vision and expected results, 2) creating a focus        (2001) that in order to create an outstanding school
on national goals that require improvement, 3) the                   (quality) requires the involvement of all parties, including
existence of guidelines policies from the center that contain        existing school facilities and facilities. However, the key
the standards of school principals, 4) strong leadership             position (key position) is the principal, because no matter
levels and political support and leadership support from             how good the quality of input (quality of incoming
above, 5) institutional development (capacity building)              students), professional and outstanding teachers,
through training support for school principals, teachers,            supporting facilities, supportive community environment,
and school board members, 6 ) there is justice in funding or         and good teaching, will not be much. contribute to realizing
financing education. With this SBM, it is hoped that the             quality schools, because in fact the principal determinant of
objectives of national education are in accordance with Law          the school's policies is the principal.
20/2013 article 3 (Basic, Functions and Objectives of                           According to Larry J. Raynolds (2005: 96) principals
National Education) regarding the National Education                 can create school settings by focusing on the following five
System (SISDIKNAS) as follows: national education                    steps:

                                                                 2
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES
                                              20th May 2021. Vol.89. No.1
                                     © 2012-2021 TIJOSS & ARF. All rights reserved

                 ISSN 2305-4557                                                                www.Tijoss.com

1. Meet the needs of school management.                               Schools and Madrasahs. Third, SIT aims to build student
2. Creating a positive organizational climate.                        character and morality with Islamic colors that are reflected
3. Influencing attitudes and beliefs about change.                    in the way of thinking, behaving, in the practice of everyday
4. Developing educational program prospective within the              life. The purpose of education is not only to impart
scope of the school.                                                  knowledge, both religious and general sciences, but
5. Using strategic school improvement planning models.                education is used as a way to form a complete Muslim
          Therefore, the principal must have good                     person both in terms of thinking and behavior. Fourth, SIT
managerial abilities so that all resources and components             is under the Integrated Islamic school network which is
of the school can be mobilized and empowered to improve               equipped with a blue-print and guide-line but is still
school quality. The managerial ability referred to is related         regulated under the Ministry of Education and Culture.
to the management function including planning,                                 Based on the reasons for standing, the vision and
implementing and evaluating programs as an effort to                  purpose of the Integrated Islamic School is what is
improve school quality. One of the formal educational                 interesting for the author to examine how the concept or
institutions in Indonesia is the Integrated Islamic School            quality improvement management system in the Integrated
(SIT). If it is seen from its history that the idea of the            Islamic School. Because many Integrated Islamic Schools
emergence of SIT is a response to dissatisfaction with the            are under the auspices of JSIT. So to facilitate research, two
National Education System which is not able to answer the             Integrated Islamic Junior High Schools (SMPIT) were
needs and demands of the times, especially those related              selected, namely Nurul Fikri and Al Biruni Mandiri in
to advances in science and technology. The national                   Makassar. The learning process in both schools takes place
education system is considered to have failed to shape the            on five working days with the Full Day School system and
morale of students and protect them from the influence of             has a quality assurance that becomes the profile of
drugs, promiscuity and delinquency (Kurnaengsih, 2015:                graduates. Even though the two schools have not yet met
80). The idea of establishing SIT began to be echoed by               the standard of educational infrastructure in accordance
jamaah tarbiyah activists in the late 1980s. The idea for its         with Permen No. 24 of 2007.
establishment was initiated by campus da'wah activists
who are members of the Campus Da'wah Institute (LDK)                  Definition of School Quality Improvement Management
Institute of Technology Bandung (ITB), the University of                       In order to make it easier to understand the
Indonesia (UI) and several other well-known universities              definition of quality improvement management, it will first
who have concerns about the condition of education in                 be put forward the meaning of management and quality.
Indonesia. They are campus Islamic activists who play an              Management comes from English to manager which means
important role in spreading Islamic ideology to students.             to organize, manage, manage, in Arabic management
Youth became the main target of this movement. Because                comes from the word nazama which means to organize, an-
they believe that young people will become agents of social           niizham; at-tazhiim means the activity of disciplining,
change which are very important in carrying out the                   organizing and thinking done by a person so that he is able
Islamization of all Indonesian society. It is believed that the       to sort, arrange the things around him so that they are
task of preparing a young generation of Muslims who are               compatible with others. (Muhammad Abdul Jawwad, 2004:
committed to da'wah will be more efficient through                    118).
education. In this context they founded the Integrated                         According to Mary Parker Follet management is the
Islamic School (Karnaengsih, 2005: 79-80).                            art of getting work done through other people. This
          One of the amazing things about Integrated                  definition means that a manager is in charge of managing
Islamic Schools is that they are under the Integrated Islamic         and directing others to achieve organizational goals.
School Network (JSIT). The Vision of the Integrated Islamic           (Reksohadiprijo, S., 2003: 9). Meanwhile, John D. Millet
School Network is to become a driving force and                       argues that "management is the process of directing and
empowerment center for Integrated Islamic Schools in                  faciliting the work of people organized in formal groups to
Indonesia towards effective and integrated schools (Sukro             achieve a desired goal" (a process of directing and
Muhab, 2010: 41-45). Integrated Islamic School (SIT) is               providing work facilities to people organized in formal
interesting to research for several reasons. First, the               groups and to achieve goals. (Siswanto, 2005: 2) Meanwhile
number of SITs is increasing day by day which will certainly          HD Sudjana argues that management is a special ability and
make a positive contribution to education in Indonesia.               skill to carry out an activity either with other people or
Second, the concept of education does not dichotomize                 through other people in achieving organizational goals (HD
general education and religious education, making the                 Sudjana, 2000: 17). Likewise, Ngalim Purwanto defines that
concept of SIT education different from Public Middle                 management is a process to organize and supervise a

                                                                  3
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES
                                              20th May 2021. Vol.89. No.1
                                     © 2012-2021 TIJOSS & ARF. All rights reserved

                 ISSN 2305-4557                                                              www.Tijoss.com

certain goal (Ngalim Purwanto, 2005: 6). Siagian argues that         bestowed on you (happiness) in the hereafter, and do not
management is the ability and skills to obtain a result in           forget your happiness from worldly (enjoyment) and do
order to achieve goals through the activities of other               good (to people). other) just as Allah has done good to you,
people. (Sondang P Siagian. 1989: 5) Another opinion                 and do not do damage to the earth. Indeed, Allah does not
explains that management is the attainment o f                       like those who do damage. (Al Qur'an and Translation,
organizational goals in an effective and efficient manner            2006: 394) In Tafsir Q.com, Quraish Shihab explains the
through planning, organizing, leading ang controlling                meaning of the above verse that And make part of the
organizational resources. (Richard L. Daft, 2010: 5). This           wealth and gifts that Allah gives you in the way of Allah and
means that management is an effort made to achieve                   practice for the afterlife. Do not prevent yourself from
organizational goals effectively and efficiently through             enjoying the things of the world. Do good to God's servants
planning,     organizing,      directing   and     controlling       as Allah does good to you by granting His favors. And do
organizational resources. Oey Liang Lee said that                    not do you damage on earth by transgressing the
management is the art of planning, organizing, directing,            boundaries of Allah. Surely Allah does not approve of those
controlling human and natural resources to achieve                   who destroy with their bad deeds. Thus Islam explains the
predetermined goals. (Nur Zazin, 2011: 28).                          importance of doing good things, something of good quality
        Based on the above understanding, it can be seen             or quality. So that in working quality or quality must be
that management is a science and an art in implementing              considered in order to provide benefits in life. As in
management functions. This definition of management is               education, quality must be prioritized and considered
very much in accordance with the reality that is seen in             systematically and continuously in order to provide
everyday life. That managers do not perform tasks                    satisfaction to all customers, both internal and external
independently but in a way to organize and involve other             customers.
people. Meanwhile, management as an art teaches us how                          Based on the description of management and
to do something in order to achieve our goals. In this case,         quality, it can be concluded that quality management is an
management is described as 5Ps, namely planning,                     art or effort made in collaboration with other people,
directing, organizing, coordinating and supervising. The five        empowering all potential organizational resources in order
management functions are the key to the success of the               to achieve organizational goals. If it is associated with
management process carried out by managers.                          school quality improvement management. Then the
        In fact, experts differ on management functions.             management in question is management that gives
G.R. Terry said that the management function is planning,            autonomy to schools to improve the quality of schools
organizing, actuating and controlling. Louis A. Allen said the       based on national education policies and applicable laws.
management function is leading, planning, organizing,                This is in accordance with what was said by the Ministry of
controlling. Harool Koontz said planning, organizing,                National Education that school-based quality improvement
staffing, directing, controlling. S.P Siagian said the               management can be interpreted as a management model
management function was planning, organizing, motivating,            that provides greater autonomy to schools, provides
controlling and evaluating. (Onisimus Amtu, 2011: 8) Thus it         flexibility / flexibility to schools and encourages direct
can be understood that management functions vary                     participation of school members (teachers, students, school
according to the opinion of experts, but can be used in              principals). , employees) and the community (parents of
accordance with the conditions and characteristics of the            students, community leaders, scientists, entrepreneurs and
organization. Therefore, the discussion of management                so on) to improve the quality of schools based on national
functions in the writing of this dissertation will focus on          education policies and applicable laws. (Depdiknas, 2002:
three management functions that are often used in school             3). According to Hendiyat Soetopo, school-based quality
management, namely planning, implementation and                      improvement management is a quality improvement
evaluation or supervision.                                           method that is based on the school itself, implements a set
        Thus quality can be defined as quality that meets or         of techniques, based on the availability of quantitative and
exceeds customer expectations in accordance with the                 qualitative data, empowering all school components to
vision and mission of the school. In Islamic teachings,              meet the needs of students and the community. (Hendyat
quality is the realization of Islamic teachings, namely to do        Soetopo, 2004: 130). In more detail, Budi Raharjo explains
good to all parties because Allah SWT has acted on fellow            the definition of school-based management as follows:
humans with various favors and is prohibited from doing              a. The existence of school autonomy, makes schools have
damage to the surface of the earth in any form. (Muhaimin,               greater authority in managing their schools, so that
2005: 51). This can be seen in Al Qur 'an surah Al Qashash               schools are more independent.
(28) verse 77, namely: And look for what Allah has

                                                                 4
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES
                                              20th May 2021. Vol.89. No.1
                                     © 2012-2021 TIJOSS & ARF. All rights reserved

                 ISSN 2305-4557                                                               www.Tijoss.com

b. Schools are more empowered in developing programs                 maturity can only be achieved through a quality education
    that are more in line with their needs and potentials.           process. Therefore, schools must continuously proclaim
c. Joint / participatory decision-making, will increase the          quality in accordance with the school's vision and mission.
    sense of responsibility and school dedication to the             School residents and communities as well as other
    school. (Budi Raharjo, 2003: 5).                                 stakeholders must be empowered to move together to
         Thus it can be understood that school quality               achieve school quality. In this case, to make it happen
improvement management is a new approach in managing                 requires effort or good school management. Wina Sanjaya
education that emphasizes more on giving greater                     further said the main areas in schools for quality
autonomy to schools, so as to foster school independence             improvement, namely:
and creativity by involving school members and the                             Application of resource management for the
community. Efforts to improve school quality are largely             improvement of administrative functions and operations in
determined by the ability of the principal in managing the           a broad manner to manage the school as a whole. The
school. Schools need to develop forward from year to year.           implementation of the concept of resource management,
The fact shows that the level of school progress is very             especially in schools in improving administrative functions,
much determined by the extent to which the level of                  is intended to strengthen the quality improvement
progress of school management. Management is always                  management that has been carried out by schools, such as
related to the life of a social organization where there are a       School Based Management (MBM) or School / School Based
group of people who occupy various levels of leadership              Quality Improvement Management (MPMBS / S), which by
and a group of other people whose main responsibility is to          sebahagian education management experts state that the
carry out operational activities. This view is very basic            basis of this management is developed from the concept of
because the success of someone who occupies a                        integrated quality management, which was originally
managerial position, in this case the principal, is no longer        applied to the business world. Management functions at
measured by his skills in carrying out operational activities,       schools are important and strategic factors in the context of
but by his skill and ability to mobilize others in the               the progress of the school as a formal educational
organization in an effort to improve school quality.                 institution which is expected to achieve its institutional
                                                                     goals which have adequate human resources (HR) and are
Principles and Benefits of School Quality Improvement                managed with a sound education administration and
Management                                                           management system, namely a system.
         In simple terms, the principles of quality                            Integrating School-Based Management in the
improvement management have several basic principles as              curriculum, the function of the curriculum in order to
follows: (a) quality improvement must be carried out in              achieve educational goals, the curriculum can be seen as a
schools, (b) quality improvement can only be carried out             tool for the achievement of national educational goals, by
with good leadership, (c) quality improvement must be                translating them into national goals, curricular goals and
based on good data and facts. qualitative and quantitative,          instructional goals, at each type and level of educational
(d) quality improvement must empower or involve all                  institutions ( school). The curriculum in quality
elements in schools, (e) quality improvement has the aim             improvement is an educational program that must be
that schools can provide satisfaction to students, parents           followed by students with the guidance of educators to
and the community. (Anonymous, 2002: 201). Meanwhile,                achieve educational goals and as a guide for teachers and
Veitzhal Rivai argues that there are four things that are tied       students in implementing the learning process, so that the
to the principles of quality management, including: (a)              educational goals that have been set are actually achieved.
attention must be emphasized to the process by                       The types of knowledge / skills, attitudes and skills
continuously announcing quality, (b) quality must be                 possessed by graduates of a school can be known through
determined by school service users, (c) achievement must             the school curriculum. The curriculum is one of the most
be obtained through understanding vision rather than                 decisive components in an educational system, because it is
enforcing rules, (d) schools must produce students who               a tool to achieve educational goals and at the same time as
have knowledge, expertise, wise attitudes, character and             a guide in the implementation of teaching at all types and
emotional maturity. (Veithzal Rivai, 2006: 67). Thus it can          levels of education. The purpose of education in a nation is
be understood that the principle of quality assurance is that        determined by the philosophy and outlook of life of that
schools must be able to provide satisfaction to students,            nation or state. The different philosophies and views of life
parents and the community according to their                         of a nation or country cause different goals to be achieved
expectations. Efforts to provide satisfaction in the form of         in this education, and at the same time it will also affect the
knowledge, skills, attitudes, character and emotional                curriculum in educational institutions in that country.

                                                                 5
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES
                                              20th May 2021. Vol.89. No.1
                                     © 2012-2021 TIJOSS & ARF. All rights reserved

                 ISSN 2305-4557                                                             www.Tijoss.com

Likewise, changes in the political government of a country                      Likewise the hadith narrated by Imam Muslim
also affect the education sector, which often results in              from Abu Ya'la that: Allah SWT requires us to act ikhsan in
changes to the prevailing curriculum. Therefore, the                  everything (HR. Muslim) (Sulistyorini. 2009: 14). The word
curriculum needs to be integrated with quality                        ikhsan in the hadith implies doing something optimally,
management in order to adapt to the various                           optimally and measurably. (Sulistyorini. 2009: 14). Thus it
developments that occur.                                              can be understood that Islam greatly emphasizes the
         Implementation of school-based management in                 importance of a plan before carrying out something, so that
the learning process. The use of school-based management              the work can be carried out properly and optimally. Experts
in the learning process, teachers are educators who greatly           argue, such as John R. Schemerhorn, (2010: 17) says that
affect the personality of students. For example, if the               planning is a process of setting objectives and determining
behavior of the educator or teacher is good, then the                 what we should be done to accomplished (the process of
behavior of the majority of students is also good. Likewise,          setting goals and what should be done to achieve these
on the other hand, if the attitude or morals of the                   goals). Meanwhile, according to Usman, planning is an
educators are not good, then it is also clear that the                activity that will be carried out in the future to achieve a
attitudes or morals of the students will be not good too.             goal and in planning it contains several elements including
Because the attitudes of students easily imitate all the              a number of pre-determined activities, the existence of a
actions and actions of people they like, including teachers           process, the results to be achieved, and concerning the
who are role models for them. (Wina Sanjaya, 2009: 243).              future within a certain time. (Usman Husaini, 2011: 66).
                                                                      The planning steps can be stated, as follows:
Management Concept for Improving School Quality                       a) Determine and formulate goals to be achieved
         In accordance with the previous description, the             b) Researching problems or work to be done
discussion of management concepts in the writing of this              c) Problems or required information
dissertation will focus on three management functions,                d) Determining the stages or series of actions
namely planning, implementation and evaluation.                       e) Formulate how the problem will be solved and how the
a. School Quality Planning                                            jobs should be resolved
         Planning is one of the most important                        f) Determine who will do and what will influence the
management functions. Planning determines as well as                  implementation of the action
provides direction about the goals to be achieved in an               g) Determine how to determine changes in planning. (U.
organization. In Al Qur 'an Allah SWT describes the need to           Saefulloh. 2012: 218).
prepare a plan before carrying out an activity. This can be           It is necessary to elaborate in detail up to the
seen in Al Qur'an Surah Al Hasyr (59) verse 18; O you who             implementation stage. From the description above, it can
believe, fear Allah and let each one pay attention to what            be understood that planning is one of the most important
he has done for tomorrow (hereafter); and fear Allah, Allah           management functions to be considered for an education
knows best what you are doing (Al-Qur'an and Translated,              manager. Good planning will make it easier to carry out a
2006: 548). Quraish Shihab in tafsirQ.com explains the                program neatly and with direction. Bearing in mind that in
meaning of the above verse is O people who believe, take              planning, not only goals are formulated but also policy
refuge from Allah's punishment by always obeying Him.                 issues, obstacles, and even alternative programs that can
Everyone should think about what are the practices that               be done to achieve organizational goals.
are prepared for tomorrow. Always be devoted to Allah.                Implementation of School Quality
Allah really knows and will reward everything you do. From                   Implementation is the second stage in the management proce
the interpretation of the verse, it can be understood that            goals. This is in accordance with the word of Allah SWT in
Allah SWT commands those who believe to prepare for                   Al-Qur'an Surah Al Kahfi (18) verse 2, namely: as a straight
what they will do the next day. In the concept of                     guide, to warn of a very painful torment from Allah's side
management, the effort to prepare everything before it is             and to give happy news to those who believe, who doing
done is an act of planning. Planning is formulated so that            good deeds, that they will get a good vengeance (Al-Qur'an
the program can be carried out in a neat, correct, orderly            and Translated, 2006: 293). Quraih Shihab in tafsirQ, com
and orderly manner. This is in accordance with the Hadith             explains the meaning of the verse that Allah has made the
of the Prophet Muhammad: Meaning: Indeed, Allah really                teachings of the Qur'an straight so that they can warn
loves people who when they do a job, it is done correctly,            those who deny with harsh punishment and give joy to
directed, clearly, and thoroughly (HR. Tabrani), (Sulistyorini.       those who justify and act. benevolence, that they will reap
2009: 14).                                                            multiple rewards. In the interpretation of Q.com, the
                                                                      Quraish Shihab explains the meaning of the above verse

                                                                  6
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES
                                              20th May 2021. Vol.89. No.1
                                     © 2012-2021 TIJOSS & ARF. All rights reserved

                 ISSN 2305-4557                                                               www.Tijoss.com

that say to humans, O Messenger of Allah, do work and do                        Quraish Shihab in tafsirQ.com explains the
not hesitate to do good deeds and carry out obligations.             meaning of the above verse, so if the idolaters refuse to
Indeed, Allah knows all your work, and the Messenger of              fulfill your call, O Messenger of Allah, you don't need to be
Allah and the believers will see it. They will weigh it with         sad, because you are not the supervisor of their actions.
the scales of faith and testify by these deeds. Then after           You are only in charge of conveying God's holy messages.
dying, you will be returned to the one who knows your                And you have explained it. Human nature, indeed, when we
body and mind. Then reward with your deeds after He has              give it a spacious life, tends to be grateful. And when
told you all the big and small things about them. From the           disaster strikes, as a result of their immoral actions, they
two verses mentioned, it gives motivation to work, only              tend to forget the blessings. They do not endure the
hoping for the blessing of Allah SWT. The principal as the           downturn of their trials and remain ungrateful. In the
school manager must work sincerely, provide good                     hadith narrated by Imam Bukhari, examples of evaluation
motivation, mobilize all members of the school                       or supervision can also be seen as follows: Al Bukhari
organization to carry out well all the plans that have been          Muslim narrated from Ibn 'Abbas, he said: "One night I
prepared. According to George R. Terry, the                          stayed at my aunt's house, Maemunah. After a while the
implementation is an effort to move group members in                 night passed, the Prophet got up to perform the prayers.
such a way that they want to achieve the goals concerned,            He performed very light ablution (with a little water) and
by the members wanting to achieve those goals. (George R.            then prayed. So, I got up and performed ablution like his
Terry. 2012: 313). Prim Masrokan Mutohar said that                   ablution. I approached him and stood on his left. He turned
implementation is an effort to make planning a reality with          me to his right and continued praying according to Allah's
various directions and motivations so that each employee             will ... (Sahih Buhari No Hadith 859).
can carry out activities optimally according to their roles,                    From the description of the hadith above, it can be
duties and responsibilities. (Prim Masrokan Mutohar, 2014:           understood about examples of supervision carried out by
48).                                                                 the Prophet Muhammad SAW. That when Ibn 'Abbas made
          Based on several opinions about the definition of          a mistake in praying by standing at the left of the Prophet.
implementation, it can be understood that implementation             So the Prophet immediately fixed it by moving it to the
is an attempt to mobilize group members so that they wish            right. Because in Islam ma'mun should be on the right if
to achieve goals by optimally carrying out their roles, duties       only together with the imam in prayer. Therefore,
and responsibilities. This can be realized if a manager, in          evaluation or monitoring really needs to be understood and
this case the principal, can personally direct all members of        implemented as a management function. So that the
the group / school to understand well and contribute                 management process goes well. What is evaluation?
effectively and efficiently in achieving school goals. Thus it       Evaluation is a systematic and planned activity to measure,
can be understood that implementation is very important              assess and classify program implementation and success. In
in the management process. Because it is an effort to                an organization the use of evaluation is very important in
implement or realize planning by inviting all school                 order to assess organizational accountability. Evaluation is
components to work together in order to achieve school               an assessment process. This assessment can be neutral,
goals.                                                               positive or negative or a combination of the two. When
                                                                     something is evaluated, usually the person who evaluates
Evaluation or School Quality Control                                 makes a decision about its value or benefit. Regarding the
          Evaluation or monitoring is the third step. Done to        meaning of evaluation, it can be seen from the opinions of
find out whether the planning that has been made and                 the following experts: (Rizki Al Kharim, Evaluation Function
implemented is as expected. Evaluation materials can be              in Management, accessed at www.indopubadmi.com on
used as input for improvement and improvement of school              March 29, 2020. At 20:44 WIT).
quality. In the Qur'an, the meaning of evaluation or                            Suharsimi Arikunto, said that evaluation is an
supervision can be seen in Surah Asy-Suura (42) verse 48,            activity to collect information about the work of something,
namely: If they turn away, We will not send you as their             which is then used to determine the right alternative in
Overseer. your obligation is nothing but delivering                  making decisions. The main function of evaluation in this
(treatises). Indeed, when We feel in man something of a              case is to provide useful information for the decision maker
grace from Us He will rejoice because of that grace. and if          to determine the policy to be taken based on the
they are stricken with trouble because of the deeds of their         evaluation that has been carried out. Worthen and Sanders,
own hands (they will certainly deny it) because Truly                said that evaluation is looking for something valuable
humans are totally denied (to the blessings).                        (worth). Something of value can be in the form of
                                                                     information about a particular program, production and

                                                                 7
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES
                                              20th May 2021. Vol.89. No.1
                                     © 2012-2021 TIJOSS & ARF. All rights reserved

                 ISSN 2305-4557                                                               www.Tijoss.com

alternative procedures. Therefore evaluation is nothing              objectives, policies, programs and educational activities in
new in human life. Because it always accompanies                     schools. .
someone's life. A human who has done something will                            Planning in terms of being a supporting agency
definitely judge what he has done according to his plan.             both in the form of financial, thought and energy in the
          The purpose of evaluation according to Arikunto            delivery of education in an educational unit, at least in
(2004) is general goals and specific goals. General                  encouraging the growth of public attention and
objectives directed at the program as a whole. Meanwhile,            commitment to the delivery of quality education, in the
the specific objectives are more focused on each                     form of activities such as: holding regular meetings with
component. Program implementation must always be                     stakeholders in the school environment; encourage the
evaluated to see to what extent the program has                      participation of the community and the world of business /
succeeded in achieving the implementation objectives that            industry to support the implementation of quality learning;
have been previously set. In this case, there are four               motivating the middle and upper class society to increase
possible policies that can be carried out based on the               their commitment to efforts to improve the quality of
results of implementing a decision program, namely:                  education in schools; encourage parents and the
a) Stopping the program because it is considered that the            community to participate in education, such as; encourage
    program has no benefit, or cannot be implemented as              the participation of the community and the world of
    expected.                                                        business / industry in providing facilities / infrastructure as
b) Revising the program, because there are parts that are            well as education costs for poor people, and participate in
    not as expected (there are errors but only slightly).            motivating the community to implement school education
c) Continuing the program, because the implementation                policies. Planning for the committee as a controlling agency
    of the program shows that everything has gone                    in the context of transparency and accountability of
    according to expectations and produces results as                education delivery and output in educational units. At a
    expected.                                                        minimum, evaluate and supervise policies, programs,
d) Disseminating the program (implementing the program               implementation, and educational outputs of educational
    in other places or repeating the program at another              units. In the form of activities such as: asking the school for
    time) because the program was successful. So it is very          explanations about student learning outcomes in their
    good if it is carried out again at another place and time.       schools; look for the causes of the student's unsuccessful
    Thus it can be said that evaluation is an assessment             learning, and reinforce various things that become student
process carried out to determine whether the objectives              success. The school committee submits the results of the
that have been set have been achieved properly. Likewise,            study on the implementation of school programs to
evaluation provides information to be used as a basis for            stakeholders on a periodic basis, in the form of success or
decision making in a policy in order to improve the                  failure in achieving the goals and objectives of the school
organization towards a better direction. To be able to carry         program. Deliver accountability reports for community
out its roles and functions, the school committee must               assistance in the form of material and non-material to the
compile a program or work plan that must be managed                  community and local government.
properly in an effort to maximize the potential of the                         Planning the school committee's work program as
school committee to cooperate with the school in                     a mediator (agency mediator) between the government
improving the quality of the school. This form of                    and the community in the education unit, can carry out
management includes planning, implementing and                       activities such as: collaborating with the community, both
evaluating programs.                                                 individuals, government and community organizations for
a) Planning                                                          quality education and learning; fostering harmonious
          The school committee's work planning in                    relations and cooperation with all education stakeholders
improving the quality of education must result in its four           around the school; conducting an exploration of the
roles. Planning is the process of determining the goals or           possibility of being able to collaborate with other
objectives to be achieved and determining the paths and              institutions outside the school to improve the quality of
resources needed to achieve that goal, as effectively and            school learning; accommodating and analyzing aspirations,
efficiently as possible. The school committee as an advisory         ideas, demands, and various educational needs proposed
agency in determining and implementing education policies            by the community in the form of: distributing
at the educational unit level, at least providing input,             questionnaires to obtain input, suggestions and creative
considerations and recommendations to educational units,             ideas from education stakeholders around the school;
for example in terms of formulating vision, mission,                 submitting a written report to the public regarding the
                                                                     results of their observations on the development of

                                                                 8
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES
                                              20th May 2021. Vol.89. No.1
                                     © 2012-2021 TIJOSS & ARF. All rights reserved

                 ISSN 2305-4557                                                              www.Tijoss.com

education in the area around the school. If the four school          c. professional educational staff
committee plans can be formulated well, then the school              d. Student achievements
committee must be able to carry it out properly by utilizing                  From the description above, it can be understood
all available resources.                                             that there are several factors that must be considered in
b) Implementation                                                    order to improve the quality of schools. The success or
           Implementation is the realization of a work               failure of efforts to improve school quality is largely
program plan in the form of real activities. In implementing         determined by the ability of school principal management
its program as an advisory agency, supporting agency,                to plan, implement and evaluate all programs that have
controlling agency, and mediator agency, the school                  been compiled together with other stakeholders. Among
committee can carry out activities summarized in the seven           the factors that affect improving the quality of education in
school committee functions that can improve the quality of           schools as stated above, what will be discussed in the
the educational unit. These activities include: encouraging          writing of this dissertation are: the problem of principal
the growth of public attention and commitment to quality             management concepts in planning, implementing and
education; collaborating with the community (individuals /           evaluating or supervising teachers, students and the
organizations / business world / industry and the                    curriculum in an effort to improve quality school.
government with regard to the provision of quality
education; accommodating and analyzing aspirations,                  Eight National Education Standards
ideas, demands and various educational needs proposed by                         In the Law of the Republic of Indonesia No. 20 of
the community; providing input, considerations,                      2003 concerning the National Education System. In chapter
recommendations to educational units regarding education             II, it is stated that national education functions to develop
policies and programs, the School Education and                      capabilities and shape the character and civilization of the
Expenditure Budget Plan (RAPBS), education unit                      nation in order to educate the nation's life, aiming at
performance criteria, education staff criteria, educational          developing the potential of students to become human
facilities criteria, and other matters related to education;         beings who believe and devote to God Almighty, noble,
encourage parents and the community to participate in                healthy, knowledgeable, capable, creative, independent
education to support quality improvement and equitable               and be a democratic and responsible citizen. To realize
education; raising public funds in the framework of                  these lofty ideals, the government has set eight National
administering education costs in education units;                    Education Standards. This National Education Standard is
evaluating and supervising educational policies, programs,           the main reference that regulates the minimum standards
administration, and outputs in educational units.                    that must be met in school management by school
c) Evaluation                                                        administrators. In the book Collection of Regulations for the
          Evaluation of the school committee's work                  Implementation of the 2013 High School Curriculum, it is
program is carried out to assess all activities that have been       explained that the National Education Standards are the
implemented. In addition, evaluations are also carried out           minimum criteria for the education system in the entire
to find indicators that lead to the success or failure of the        jurisdiction of the Republic of Indonesia. National Education
school committee program. So that it can be used as study            Standards serve as the basis for planning, implementing
material for the next school committee. The evaluation that          and evaluating education in the context of realizing quality
must be done is how far the school committee can carry               national education. The purpose of the National Education
out these four roles. Then the results of the evaluation can         Standards is to guarantee the quality of national education
be used as feedback to make the next program. In                     in the context of the intellectual life of the nation and to
evaluating work programs, it is best if all school committee         shape the character and civilization of the nation with
members participate together, so that all the shortcomings           dignity. National Education Standards are perfected in a
and strengths of the program that have been implemented              planned, directed and sustainable manner in accordance
can be identified properly. So that efforts to find the best         with the changing demands of local, national and global
solution in order to improve the quality of education are            life. The National Education Standards include:
easier to find.                                                      1) Standard Content
          Meanwhile, E. Mulyasa (2012: 3) argues that there          2) Standard Process
are at least four main conditions that must be considered in         3) Competency Standards of Graduates
education development in order to contribute to improving            4) Standards for Education Personnel and Education
the quality and quality of educational resources, namely:            Personnel
a. Modern facilities and infrastructure,                             5) Standard of Facilities and Infrastructure
b. quality books,                                                    6) Management Standards

                                                                 9
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES
                                              20th May 2021. Vol.89. No.1
                                     © 2012-2021 TIJOSS & ARF. All rights reserved

                 ISSN 2305-4557                                                                www.Tijoss.com

7) Education Financing Standards                                      in which one or a few instances of a phenomenon are
8) Education Assessment Standards (Directorate of Senior              studied in depth ". (Lisa M. Gien, 2006: 68). Because this
High School Development, Directorate General of                       research was conducted in two research sites, the research
Education Ministry of Education and Culture, 2014: 1-30).             design was multisite. Multisite study is a form of qualitative
                                                                      research that can be used primarily to develop theories
Research Methods                                                      raised from several similar research backgrounds, so that
     This research was conducted using a qualitative                  theories can be generated that can be transferred to a
approach. Berg said that: "Qualitative research (QR) thus             wider and more general scope of situations. (Bogdan and
refers to the meaning, consepts, definitions, characteristics,        Biklen, 1998: 62)
metaphors, symbols, and descriftions of things" (Bruce L.                   Because the research design is multisite, analyzing the
Berg, 2007: 3). In simple terms it can be said that                   data does not stop at individual case data analysis, but
qualitative research is a form of research aimed at                   cross case analysis must be carried out. This is in
describing existing phenomena, both natural phenomena                 accordance with what Yin said that if the study uses a
and man-made phenomena. This phenomenon usually                       multisite design, then in analyzing the data, two stages of
takes the form of activities, characteristics, changes,               analysis are carried out, namely: a) Analysis of case data
relationships, similarities and differences between one               (individual cases), and b) Cross-case data analysis (cross
phenomenon and another. (Sukmadina, 2006: 72). This                   case analysis). Robert K. Yin, 2012: 61). This study uses 2
study aims to determine how the management concept of                 (two) types of data, namely:
planning, implementation and evaluation of the principal in           a. Primary data is the main data obtained by researchers
improving school quality. So it is very relevant if the               from observations and interviews. In this study the
approach used is a qualitative approach. Because                      informants were the principal, deputy principal, and
researchers must describe events, behavior of people or a             teachers at the Nurul Fikri and Al Biruni Mandiri Islamic
situation in a certain place in detail and depth as it is. So         Junior High Schools in Makassar.
that a qualitative approach is often called a naturalistic            b. Secondary data is used to complement primary data. In
approach.                                                             this case, data retrieval is in the form of existing documents
     Based on the description above, it can be understood             and the results of research that the researcher finds
that this research is a field research whose data is obtained         indirectly. (Djam'an Satoni, 2014: 28). This data is in the
by collecting it from empirical experience with a qualitative         form of important documents regarding school profiles and
approach. This type of research is descriptive, hereinafter           documents related to this research.
referred to as qualitative descriptive research, meaning                    Research is a scientific activity that is systematic,
that this research intends to carry out an investigation by           directed and purposeful. So the research data collection is
describing the current state of the object or research                very important in order to explain the phenomenon being
subject based on the facts that appear or as they are. This           studied or describe the variables being studied. Marzuki
type of research is a case study with a multi-site design. In         explained that the data or information collected must be
general, a case study is a more suitable strategy if the main         relevant to the problems at hand, meaning that the data is
question of a research is related to how and why (how and             related, related, relevant, and accurate. Herein lies the
why), if the researcher has little opportunity to control the         importance of a data collection tool called a research
events to be investigated, and when the focus of the                  instrument. (Marzuki, 2008: 55). To collect data related to
research lies in contemporary phenomena (period). now) in             the variables in this study used research tools and basic
the context of real life. (Robert K. Yin, 2013: 31). A case           instruments, namely recording devices, written interview
study is a form of in-depth research on an aspect of the              lists and observation sheets. Several documents related to
social environment including humans in it. (David William in          the variables in this study were also examined when the
Lexy Moeloeng, 1995: 5).                                              data was collected. In addition, direct interviews were also
          According to John W. Creswell, a case study is a            conducted with selected informants.
research strategy in which the researcher carefully                   In collecting data, several methods are needed as follows:
investigates a program of events, activities, processes or a          a. Observation. As a scientific method, ordinary observation
group of individuals. Cases are limited by time and activity,         is defined as observing and recording the phenomena being
and researchers collect complete information using various            investigated. Observations can be distinguished between
data collection procedures based on a predetermined time.             participatory observation and simulated observation. In
(John W. Creswell, 2008: 19) Likewise Lisa M. Given in her            making participatory observations, the researcher is
book "The Sage Encyclopedia of Qualitative Research                   directly involved in the activity he is observing, in other
Methods "states that" A case study is a research approach             words the researcher is involved as a player. What needs to

                                                                 10
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES
                                              20th May 2021. Vol.89. No.1
                                     © 2012-2021 TIJOSS & ARF. All rights reserved

                 ISSN 2305-4557                                                                www.Tijoss.com

be considered in this participatory observation is that                    The three stages of data analysis are described in more
researchers do not forget their main tasks, namely:                   detail, namely:
observing, looking for data and not to play. (Mardalis, 2003:         a. Data reduction is the process of selecting, simplifying,
63). This observation method is used to observe the                   focusing, abstracting and changing the raw data that
location where education is implemented, infrastructure,              emerges from field notes. (Muhammad Ali, 2003: 167)
educational stakeholders and educational activities at                b. Data presentation or data display is a way of arranging
SMPIT Nurul Fikri and Al Biruni Mandiri Makassar.                     data in an organization that makes it easier to make
b. Interview is a form of verbal communication such as                conclusions or proposed actions. Presentation of data in
conversation which aims to obtain in-depth data in this               this study is to select data that is tailored to the needs of
communication which is carried out in depth. (S. Nasution,            the study.
2007: 113). Interviewing can also be defined as an oral               c. Verification or concluding data is an explanation of the
question and answer process, in which two or more people              meaning of data in a configuration that clearly shows the
face to face physically, one of which can see the other and           causal path, so that propositions related to it can be put
hear with his own ear. Interview (interview) is a method of           forward. (Mumammad Ali, 2003: 168). After the data is
collecting data by way of one-sided question and answer               collected, the next step is to analyze the data. In this case,
which is done systematically and based on the purpose of              the data analysis used by researchers is descriptive data
the investigation. (Suharsimi Arikunto, 2006,192). The types          analysis. Descriptive analysis is an attempt to describe or
of interviews used in this study are 1) relatively closed             describe an event symptom, an event that is happening
interviews, where questions are focused on specific and               now. From here, we will determine the concepts of
general topics and are assisted by interview guides, 2) open          research results that can be used as scientific material.
interviews, in which the researcher gives freedom to speak
broadly and deeply. (Sudarwin Danim, 2002, 73-74). With               Checking the Validity of Findings
this method the researchers tried to get information about                      Checking the validity of the findings in this study
the concept of management planning, implementation and                was carried out through the data checking stage using the
evaluation of school principals in improving quality at               following techniques:
SMPIT Nurul Fikri and Al Biruni Mandiri Makassar. In this             a. Persistent observation: to understand deep symptoms /
interview method informants are the Principal, Deputy                 events, observations were made repeatedly during the
Principal, and Teacher.                                               research on efforts to improve quality at Nurul Fikri and Al
c. Documentation is the process of collecting, selecting, and         Biruni Mandiri Islamic Junior High Schools in Makassar.
processing original texts or written information which are            b. Triangulation (triangulation); back-check the degree of
used as evidence or material to support an explanation or             confidence of the information obtained by triangulation of
argument. (S. Nasution, 2007: 113). In this study,                    sources and techniques. Here we will double-check the
researchers examined written objects in the form of                   data found on the management of school quality
documents, regulations, meeting minutes, and so on. This              improvement at SMPIT Nurul Fikri and Al Biruni Mandiri
method is used primarily to obtain data on the history of             Makassar. This checking is through re-observation in the
the school's establishment, vision and mission, geographic            field, interviews and doing it many times until it finds more
location, organizational structure, planning management,              accurate data and conducts careful literature review.
implementation and evaluation of quality improvement                  c. Member check; direct discussion with informants during
and so on, according to the interests and needs of research           the interview and indirectly in the form of submitting a
at SMPIT Nurul Fikri and Al Biruni Mandiri Makassar.                  summary of the interview results that have been written by
          Data analysis technique is basically the process of         the researcher. The theme of the discussion was about the
finding and organizing all interview transcripts, observation         concept of quality improvement management at SMPIT
notes and other materials that have been collected to gain            Nurul Fikri and Al Biruni Mandiri Makassar.
knowledge and experience regarding the data. The form of              d. Referential adequacy check; checking reference
activities carried out in analyzing the data is grouping,             adequacy by archiving data collected during field research.
sorting, organizing, categorizing, and coding in order to find        In this case, as much literature on efforts to improve quality
a theme. In conducting data analysis, the authors refer to            in the Integrated Islamic Junior High School Nurul Fikri and
the stages described by Miles and Huberman which consist              Al Biruni Mandiri Makassar is collected as much as possible
of three stages, namely: data reduction, data display, and            so that it can be an accurate reference in research.
conclusion drawing / verification. (Miles, M.B. Huberman,
M, 1987: 22).                                                         Management of Planning, Implementation and Evaluation
                                                                      of Principals at SMPIT Al Biruni Mandiri Makassar

                                                                 11
You can also read