MEDIA STUDIES GCSE (9-1) - Specification

 
MEDIA STUDIES GCSE (9-1) - Specification
Qualification
 Accredited
                                          Oxford Cambridge and RSA

GCSE (9-1)
Specification

MEDIA
STUDIES
J200
For first assessment in 2019
H418
For first assessment 2022

Version 3.3 (January 2020)     ocr.org.uk/gcsemediastudies
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Contents

    1        Why choose an OCR GCSE (9–1) in Media Studies?                                    2
             1a.        Why choose an OCR qualification?                                       2
             1b.        Why choose an OCR GCSE (9–1) in Media Studies?                         3
             1c.        What are the key features of this specification?                       4
             1d.        What is new in OCR’s GCSE (9–1) in Media Studies?                      4
             1e.        How do I find out more information                                     5

    2        The specification overview                                                         6
             2a.        OCR’s GCSE (9–1) in Media Studies (J200)                                6
             2b.        Content of GCSE (9–1) in Media Studies (J200)                          10
             2c.        Content of Television and promoting media (J200/01)                    13
             2d.        Content of Music and news (J200/02)                                    20
             2e.        Content of non-exam assessment content - Creating media (J200/03/04)   32
             2f.        Prior knowledge, learning and progression                              35

    3        Assessment of GCSE (9–1) in Media Studies                                         36
             3a.        Forms of assessment                                                    36
             3b.        Assessment Objectives (AO)                                             40
             3c.        Assessment availability                                                41
             3d.        Retaking the qualification                                             41
             3e.        Assessment of extended response                                        41
             3f.        Internal assessment of non-exam assessment (NEA)                       41
             3g.        Synoptic learning and assessment                                       48
             3h.        Calculating qualification results                                      48

    4        Admin: what you need to know                                                      49
             4a.        Pre-assessment                                                         49
             4b.        Special consideration                                                  50
             4c.        External assessment arrangements                                       50
             4d.        Admin of non-exam assessment                                           50
             4e.        Results and certificates                                               53
             4f.        Post-results services                                                  53
             4g.        Malpractice                                                            53

    5        Appendices                                                                        54
             5a.        Grade descriptors                                                      54
             5b.        Accessibility                                                          55
             5c.        Overlap with other qualifications                                      55
             5d.        Glossary of terms from the specification content                       55
             5e.        Accepted file formats                                                  58
             5f.        Accessing the set media product                                        59

             		         Summary of updates                                                    61

© OCR 2021
GCSE (9–1) in Media Studies                                                                         1
1       Why choose an OCR GCSE (9–1) in Media Studies?

    1a. Why choose an OCR qualification?
    Choose OCR and you’ve got the reassurance that           to encourage students to become responsible for

1   you’re working with one of the UK’s leading exam
    boards. Our new OCR GCSE (9–1) in Media Studies
                                                             their own learning, confident in discussing ideas,
                                                             innovative and engaged.
    course has been developed in consultation with
    teachers, employers and Higher Education to provide      We provide a range of support services designed to
    learners with a qualification that’s relevant to them    help you at every stage, from preparation through to
    and meets their needs.                                   the delivery of our specifications. This includes:

    We’re part of the Cambridge Assessment Group,            •     A wide range of high-quality creative resources
    Europe’s largest assessment agency and a                       including:
    department of the University of Cambridge.                     •    Delivery Guides
    Cambridge Assessment plays a leading role in                   •    Transition Guides
    developing and delivering assessments throughout               •    Topic Exploration Packs
    the world, operating in over 150 countries.                    •    Lesson Elements
                                                                   •    …and much more.
    We work with a range of education providers,
    including schools, colleges, workplaces and other        •     Access to Subject Advisors to support you
    institutions in both the public and private sectors.           through the transition and throughout the
    Over 13,000 centres choose our A Levels, GCSEs and             lifetime of the specification.
    vocational qualifications including Cambridge
    Nationals and Cambridge Technicals.                      •     CPD/Training for teachers to introduce the
                                                                   qualifications and prepare you for first
    Our Specifications                                             teaching.

    We believe in developing specifications that help you    •     Active Results – our free results analysis service
    bring the subject to life and inspire your students to         to help you review the performance of
    achieve more.                                                  individual learners or whole schools.

    We’ve created teacher-friendly specifications based      All GCSE (9–1) qualifications offered by OCR are
    on extensive research and engagement with the            accredited by Ofqual, the Regulator for qualifications
    teaching community. They’re designed to be               offered in England. The accreditation number for
    straightforward and accessible so that you can tailor    OCR’s GCSE (9–1) in Media Studies is QN603/2069/2.
    the delivery of the course to suit your needs. We aim

                                                                                                              © OCR 2021
    2                                                                                          GCSE (9–1) in Media Studies
1b. Why choose an OCR GCSE (9–1) in Media Studies?
This contemporary, accessible and creative course has        with critical and theoretical approaches from the
been designed with teachers and learners in mind
following extensive consultation. This specification
                                                             perspectives of both analytical consumers and
                                                             producers of media products1.                                 1
will allow learners to study the media in an academic
context and apply the knowledge and understanding            It is our strong desire that OCR’s GCSE (9–1) in Media
gained in the process of creating their own media            Studies should inspire learners to continue learning
production.                                                  beyond the confines of the classroom as well as
                                                             developing personal and interpersonal skills which
OCR’s GCSE (9–1) in Media Studies is designed to             will serve them well both in Higher Education and in
widen the intellectual horizons of the learner through       the workplace.
the analysis of a wide range of media forms and
contexts. This specification will enable learners to         The OCR GCSE (9–1) in Media Studies offers a broad,
develop a wider understanding and appreciation of            coherent and rigorous course of study that has been
the media in both a historical and contemporary              created to ensure that all types of learners can fulfil
context.                                                     their potential, preparing them to make informed
                                                             decisions about further study and progression to AS
The approach that we have taken in this specification        Level and A Level, vocational study or employment.
will allow teachers and learners to engage confidently

Aims and learning outcomes

OCR’s GCSE (9–1) in Media Studies will enable                       products and the contexts in which they are
learners to:                                                        produced and consumed in order to make
                                                                    informed arguments, reach substantiated
•       demonstrate skills of enquiry, critical thinking,           judgements and draw conclusions about media
        decision-making and analysis                                issues

•       acquire knowledge and understanding of a             •      appreciate how theoretical understanding
        range of important media issues                             supports practice and practice supports
                                                                    theoretical understanding
•       develop appreciation and critical understanding
        of the media and their role both historically        •      develop practical skills by providing
        and currently in society, culture and politics              opportunities for creative media production.

•       understand and apply specialist subject-specific
        terminology to analyse and compare media

1
 The term ‘media product’ refers to media texts such as television programmes, newspapers, radio programmes etc., as
well as to online, social and participatory media platforms.

© OCR 2021
GCSE (9–1) in Media Studies                                                                                            3
1c.      What are the key features of this specification?
    The key features of OCR’s GCSE (9–1) in Media               •     synoptic learning that comprehensively ties in

1   Studies for you and your learners are:                            the relationships between in-depth studies and
                                                                      the media framework of media language,
    •       a straightforward, coherent approach that                 media representations, media industries,
            offers clarity to both new and experienced                media audiences and media contexts
            teachers of media
                                                                •     an awareness of how theoretical understanding
    •       an engaging specification that means learners             supports practice in media
            benefit from developing a deeper
            understanding of the media                          •     an insight into the key ideas and arguments
                                                                      that surround the modern world of media
    •       interesting and relevant specified media
            products for study
                                                                •     exciting resources with detailed ideas for the
                                                                      classroom
    •       contemporary media production briefs that are
            written with both teachers and learners in
                                                                •     guidance to support delivery, both online and
            mind and allow for flexibility in approach whilst
                                                                      face-to-face from a dedicated Media Studies
            having a clearly defined outcome for learners
                                                                      Subject Advisor.
    •       an opportunity to engage with historical and
            global media products that will extend learners’
            knowledge of the media landscape

    1d. What is new in OCR’s GCSE (9–1) in Media Studies?
    This section is intended for teachers using OCR’s GCSE      It highlights the differences between the
    (9–1) in Media Studies.                                     GCSE in Media Studies (J526) and the GCSE (9–1)
                                                                in Media Studies (J200) for first teaching in
                                                                September 2017:

        What stays the same?                                    What’s changing?

        •     Inclusion of a wide range of contemporary         •    Specified media products, which have been
              and historic media products                            chosen because they have cultural, social and
        •     Inclusion of a moving image extract in one of          historical significance
              the examined components                           •    A choice of four NEA briefs that make up 30%
        •     High quality teacher support including                 of the overall qualification
              curriculum planners and resources                 •    Individual production in the NEA
        •     Dedicated Subject Advisor support.                •    Non-assessed learners can be part of the
                                                                     production team in the NEA.

                                                                                                                © OCR 2021
    4                                                                                            GCSE (9–1) in Media Studies
1e. How do I find out more information?
If you are already using OCR specifications you can    Want to find out more?
contact us at: www.ocr.org.uk.                         Contact a Subject Advisor:
                                                       Email: media@ocr.org.uk                                     1
If you are not already a registered OCR centre then    Phone: 01223 553998
you can find out more information on the benefits of
becoming one at: www.ocr.org.uk.                       Explore our teacher support:
                                                       www.ocr.org.uk/qualifications/by-subject/
If you are not yet an approved centre and would like   media-and-communication/
to become one go to: www.ocr.org.uk.
                                                       Join our communities:
                                                       Twitter: @OCR_Media_Film

                                                       Visit our Online Support Centre at support.ocr.org.uk

                                                       Check what CPD events are available:
                                                       www.cpdhub.ocr.org.uk.

© OCR 2021
GCSE (9–1) in Media Studies                                                                                    5
2         The specification overview

    2a. OCR’s GCSE (9–1) in Media Studies (J200)
    Learners take all components: 01, 02 and 03/04 to be awarded the OCR GCSE (9–1) in Media Studies.

                   Content Overview                                      Assessment Overview
2       Section A: Television
                                                                    Television and promoting
        Learners will engage with one in-depth study covering
        contemporary and historic television products,                        media                   35%
        responding to questions covering the whole of the
        theoretical framework and a range of media contexts.
                                                                               (01)*
                                                                                                    of total
                                                                             70 marks
        Section B: Promoting Media
        Learners will study media products from the same            1hr 45 minutes (including        GCSE
        global conglomerate producer illustrating the media         30 minutes viewing time)
        forms of film, advertising and marketing, and video               Written paper              (9–1)
        games.

        Section A: Music
        Learners will engage with one in-depth study covering
        magazines. Learners will also engage with music videos
        and radio. Learners will respond to questions covering
                                                                         Music and news               35%
                                                                               (02)*
        the whole of the theoretical framework.
                                                                             70 marks
                                                                                                    of total
        Section B: The News
        Learners will engage with one in-depth study covering
        online, social and participatory media. Learners will
                                                                         1hr 15 minutes              GCSE
        also engage with newspapers. Learners will respond to             Written paper
                                                                                                     (9–1)
        questions covering the whole of the theoretical
        framework and a range of media contexts.

        Learners will create media products through applying
                                                                         Creating media
                                                                            (03/04)
                                                                                                      30%
        knowledge and understanding of media language and
        media representations from the theoretical framework
                                                                           30 marks**               of total
        to express and communicate meaning to an intended                   Non-exam
        audience.
                                                                           assessment                GCSE
                                                                              (NEA)                  (9–1)
    * Indicates inclusion of synoptic assessment (see Section 3g for clarity on synopticity).
    ** Creating media 03/04 weighted up to 60 marks by OCR.

    Learners who are retaking the qualification may carry forward their result for the non-exam assessment
    component, see Section 4d.

    Learners who wish to retake the non-exam assessment component must undertake the brief set for the year of
    assessment.
                                                                                                               © OCR 2021
    6                                                                                           GCSE (9–1) in Media Studies
Media forms and specified products in the specification

Learners will study the theoretical framework through           audiences, and also considers the social, cultural,
nine media forms and their associated products. The             political and historical contexts of media products
theoretical framework consists of media language,               (see Section 2b for more details).
media representations, media industries and media

Content and products at a glance                                                                                          2
  Media form           Set product                                           Area of subject           To be
                                                                             content to be studied     studied in

  Television           Cuffs, Series 1, Episode 1, BBC 1                     All (synoptic)            Component 01
                       and                                                   (in-depth study)          Section A
                       The Avengers, Series 4, Episode 1, ITV                Social, cultural and
                                                                             historical contexts
  Advertising          The Lego Movie poster campaign and UK TV trailer      Media language            Component 01
  and                  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HSbYBzUEQlc           Media representations     Section B
  marketing                                                                  Media audiences
                                                                             Social, cultural
                                                                             contexts
  Film*                The Lego Movie film                                   Media industries          Component 01
                                                                             Social, cultural          Section B
                                                                             contexts
  Video games          The Lego Movie video game                             Media industries          Component 01
                                                                             Media audiences           Section B
                                                                             Media language
                                                                             Social, cultural
                                                                             contexts
  Magazines            MOJO Magazine                                         All (in-depth study)      Component 02
                                                                             Social, cultural          Section A
                                                                             contexts
  Music video          One pair from the following four options:             Media language            Component 02
                                                                             Media representations     Section A
                       1      Wheatus – Teenage Dirtbag
                                                                             Media audiences
                              Avril Lavigne – Sk8ter Boi
                                                                             Social, cultural
                       2      Mark Ronson, Bruno Mars – Uptown Funk
                                                                             contexts
                              Beyoncé – If I Were a Boy
                       3      The Vamps – Somebody To You ft. Demi
                              Lovato
                              Little Mix – Black Magic
                       4      Tinie Tempah, Jess Glynne – Not Letting Go
                              Paloma Faith – Picking Up the Pieces

© OCR 2021
GCSE (9–1) in Media Studies                                                                                           7
Radio            The Live Lounge, BBC Radio 1                      Media industries             Component 02
                                                                           Media audiences              Section A
                                                                           Social, cultural and
                                                                           political contexts
        Online, social   The Observer/Guardian website and social media    All (synoptic)               Component 02
        and                                                                (in-depth study)             Section B
        participatory                                                      Social, cultural and
2       media                                                              political contexts
        Newspapers       Two contemporary front covers of The Observer     Media industries             Component 02
                         and the front covers of:                          Media language               Section B
                         The Observer 30 October 1966                      Media representations
                         The Observer 6 November 1966                      Social, cultural,
                         The Observer 20 October 1968                      political and historical
                         One complete contemporary print edition of The    contexts
                         Observer

    * Film to be studied in the context of media industries only

    Component 01 (Section A: Television)

    Selected areas of the theoretical framework will be studied through the media form of television; these are
    indicated below. Further information can be found in Section 2c.

        Media Form                    Television

        Media Language                                  ü
        Media Representations                           ü
        Media Industries                                ü
        Media Audiences                                 ü

                                                                                                                 © OCR 2021
    8                                                                                             GCSE (9–1) in Media Studies
Component 01 (Section B: Promoting Media)

Selected areas of the theoretical framework will be studied through the media forms of advertising, film and
video games; these are indicated below. Film can only be studied in the context of media industries. Further
information can be found in Section 2c.

  Media Form                   Advertising (Print)        Film          Video Games

  Media Language                        ü                                     ü
                                                                                                                   2
  Media Representations                 ü
  Media Industries                                          ü                 ü
  Media Audiences                       ü                                     ü

Component 02 (Section A: Music)

Selected areas of the theoretical framework will be studied through the media forms of magazines, music video
and radio; these are indicated below.

  Media Form                      Magazines           Music Video           Radio

  Media Language                      ü                   ü
  Media Representations               ü                   ü
  Media Industries                    ü                                      ü
  Media Audiences                     ü                   ü                  ü

Component 02 (Section B: The News)

Selected areas of the theoretical framework will be studied through the media forms of online, social and
participatory media, and newspapers; these are indicated below.

  Media Form                     Online, social and           Newspapers
                                participatory media

  Media Language                          ü                         ü
  Media Representations                   ü                         ü
  Media Industries                        ü                         ü
  Media Audiences                         ü

© OCR 2021
GCSE (9–1) in Media Studies                                                                                    9
2b. Content of GCSE (9–1) in Media Studies (J200)
    The OCR GCSE (9–1) in Media Studies introduces                    Media language
    learners to a range of contemporary media forms plus
    in-depth studies of one media form in each of the                 •   fundamental principles of semiotic analysis,
    audio/visual1, print and online, social and                           including denotation and connotation
    participatory media. This qualification enables

2   learners to analyse, compare and produce media
    products using the theoretical framework and
                                                                      •     theoretical perspectives on genre, including
                                                                            principles of repetition and variation; the
    theoretical perspectives below.                                         dynamic nature of genre; hybridity and
                                                                            intertextuality (where the meaning of a text
    The theoretical framework                                               arises from its relationship with other texts, for
    Learners will develop and apply their understanding                     example, by reference, homage, pastiche or
    of the media through both analysing and producing                       parody, or by playing with generic expectations)
    media products in relation to the four elements of
    the framework:                                                    •     theories of narrative, including those derived
                                                                            from Propp.
    •         media language: how the media through their
              forms, codes and conventions communicate                Media representations
              meanings
                                                                      •     theoretical perspectives on representation,
    •         media representations: how the media portray                  including processes of selection, construction
              events, issues, individuals and social groups                 and mediation

    •         media industries: how the media industries’             •     theoretical perspectives on gender and
              processes of production, distribution and                     representation, including feminist approaches.
              circulation affect media forms and platforms
                                                                      Media audiences
    •         media audiences: how media forms target,
              reach and address audiences, how audiences              •     theoretical perspectives on audiences,
              interpret and respond to them, and how                        including active and passive audiences;
              members of audiences become producers                         audience response and audience interpretation
              themselves.
                                                                      •     Blumler and Katz’s Uses and Gratifications
    Theoretical perspectives                                                theory.
    Learners will develop and apply knowledge and
    understanding of the theories and relevant                        Contexts of media
    theoretical approaches that apply to the following                In addition to the study of the theoretical framework,
    three areas of the theoretical framework.                         learners will develop a knowledge and understanding
                                                                      of a range of relevant contexts of media, exploring
                                                                      their influence on the media products and their
                                                                      production. The following contexts will be covered
                                                                      during the study of the set media products:

    1
        ‘Audio/visual’ refers both to audio-visual and audio-media.

                                                                                                                       © OCR 2021
    10                                                                                                  GCSE (9–1) in Media Studies
•       Social Context – how media products reflect        •     radio
        the society in which they are produced and         •     newspapers
        that of their target audience.                     •     magazines
•       Cultural Context – how media products reflect      •     advertising and marketing
        the arts and culture, including popular culture,   •     online, social and participatory media
        of their time.                                     •     video games
•       Historical Context – how media products reflect    •     music video.
        historical events and social changes.
•       Political Context – how media products reflect     Set media products                                           2
        political viewpoints, messages, values and
        beliefs.                                           Learners will develop a knowledge and understanding
                                                           of a wide range of media products through the study
Care should be taken to ensure that the focus of           of the specified media forms. These will provide a
study is not misdirected towards the need for any          comprehensive study of the media that explores the
particular historical knowledge, as opposed to             media relationships between media forms, products
understanding the principle that media products will       and their contexts.
reflect the contexts in which they were produced.
                                                           Review of set media products
For more detail on the coverage of the contexts of
media, please see Sections 2c and 2d.                      OCR will review all the specified products on an
                                                           on-going basis and update them if necessary to
Media Forms                                                ensure that all the specified products remain fit for
                                                           purpose. If there are any changes, the specification
Examples of all of the following media forms will be       will be updated and centres will be notified in
studied:                                                   advance.

•       television
•       film

Age appropriateness

The products chosen for study as part of the GCSE          For Television, the 20:00 scheduling of Cuffs allows
(9–1) course are all age appropriate and have been         illustration of the regulatory impact of the watershed
chosen to ensure that there is an appropriate route        and should ensure age appropriateness, though the
through the qualification for all learners. Optionality    DVD carries a 15 certificate so centres may need to
is provided in the specified music videos to ensure        ensure this is studied in the later stages of a school-
that there is choice in terms of content, themes and       based course.
context. Centres should be mindful of the potential
for adult themed subject content in the social and
participatory elements of the online media products
specified and should take steps to ensure that
learners are not exposed to content that is unsuitable
before teaching these products.

© OCR 2021
GCSE (9–1) in Media Studies                                                                                        11
Skills
    This specification enables learners to develop a range   When creating media, learners will:
    of skills covering the analysis and creation of media
    products.
                                                             •     develop practical skills by creating their own
                                                                   independent media production
    When analysing media, learners will:
2   •     demonstrate skills of enquiry, critical thinking
                                                             •     apply knowledge and understanding of media
                                                                   language and representation from the
          and analysis                                             theoretical framework to a media production

    •     analyse and compare how media products             •     use media language to express and
          construct and communicate meaning and                    communicate meaning to an intended
          generate intended interpretations and                    audience.
          responses

    •     respond through discursive writing to show
          knowledge and understanding of media issues

    •     use specialist subject specific terminology
          appropriately.

                                                                                                              © OCR 2021
    12                                                                                         GCSE (9–1) in Media Studies
2c.       Content of Television and promoting media (01)
Section A: Television

This section consists of an in-depth study of television    •     demonstrate knowledge and understanding of
as a media form and focuses on two media products                 the theoretical framework in relation to the
– one historical and one contemporary – chosen to                 products
illustrate continuities and changes in mainstream
television drama over time. These two media
                                                            •     analyse an unknown extract from one of the
                                                                  two media products, using the theoretical
                                                                                                                       2
products should be used as a case study, applying the             framework of media, including in relation to
theoretical framework and media contexts to detailed              its contexts, making judgements and drawing
textual study, enabling learners to:                              conclusions, as required
                                                            •     demonstrate knowledge and understanding of
                                                                  media contexts in relation to the products.

In this section, learners are required to study the following media products set by OCR:

  Media Form                          Television                          Television

  Set Media Product                   Cuffs                               The Avengers
                                      Series one, episode one             ‘The Town of No Return’,
                                      BBC1 28 October 2015 8pm            Series four, episode one
                                                                          ITV 2 October 1965
  Media Language                                        ü                                  ü
  Media Representations                                 ü                                  ü
  Media Industries                                      ü                                  ü
  Media Audiences                                       ü                                  ü
  Media Contexts                               Social, Cultural               Social, Cultural, Historical

Centres are responsible for accessing these set             The Avengers was a landmark television series in the
products, which are available to stream or on DVD.          1960s and reflects the brand image of ITV as more
                                                            daring in this era. The media language is
Cuffs is a pre-watershed drama illustrating, for            comparatively rich for a television product of this era
example: the dominance of the police drama genre in         and a monochrome episode has been set to illustrate
contemporary television schedules and the industrial        changing television technology. The Avengers TV
importance of the serial narrative form, the role of        show helped define the ‘spy drama’ genre in the
BBC1 in the contemporary television industry, how           1960s and was influenced by events occurring as it
representations seek to reflect contemporary                was filmed, including episodes that parodied current
contexts, the offering of uses and gratifications to        and historical events. The Avengers also included one
attract a mass audience in an increasingly segmented        of the first memorable examples of product
market.                                                     placement (the ‘Lotus Elan’), a technique which has
                                                            great historical significance in contributing towards
The Avengers is a PG certificate drama illustrating a       the funding of films and commercial television
historically significant media product.                     programmes in the present day.

© OCR 2021
GCSE (9–1) in Media Studies                                                                                       13
The Avengers also illustrates the industrial                analysis of extracts, and developing their knowledge
    importance of the series narrative form in 1960s            and understanding of the theoretical framework as it
    television, the role of ITV in the era of three channel     applies to the programmes as a whole.
    television, how representations reflect the 1960s
    contexts, how audience responses and                        Learners must study the contexts associated with the
    interpretations may change over time as popular             media products and develop an understanding of the
    television products develop cult status.                    differences between how the two media products

2
                                                                illuminate the changing social, cultural, historical and
    The Avengers series is also a significant product due       political contexts of the mid-1960s and mid-2010s,
    to its cultural and social impact and reach. The            enabling learners to develop a detailed understanding
    Avengers was a long-running series that was a               of how they appear in mainstream drama. It is
    mainstay of 1960s primetime television. Series four         recommended that learners investigate other similar
    was sold to American television and the series played       media products from these periods to reinforce their
    a role in representing 1960s Britain to the rest of the     understanding of how the two products reflect their
    world – eventually showing in 120 countries –               contexts.
    reinforcing stereotypes of the traditional British
    upper-class. It became a cult programme as an               Learners must study the listed episodes in terms of all
    important example of 1960s popular drama and is still       four areas of the theoretical framework, including the
    aired on British television today.                          theoretical perspectives, and the media products’
                                                                social, cultural, historical and political contexts, listed
    Learners must study at least the one set episode of         in the table at the end of Component 01.
    each of these programmes in detail, practising

    Section B: Promoting Media
    In this section, learners are required to study the following media forms:
           •     Film
           •     Advertising and marketing; and
           •     Video games

    The table below illustrates the areas of the media theoretical framework that need to be studied for each of the
    three media forms:

     Media Forms            Film                        Advertising and               Video games
                                                        marketing

     Set Media              The Lego Movie (2014),      Posters for The Lego          The Lego Movie Video Game
     Products               U, Warner Bros              Movie and UK TV trailer
     Media Language                                     ü                             ü
     Media                                              ü
     Representations
     Media Industries       ü                                                         ü
     Media Audiences                                    ü                             ü
     Media contexts         Social, Cultural            Social, Cultural              Social, Cultural

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    14                                                                                              GCSE (9–1) in Media Studies
Film: The Lego Movie (2014), U, Warner Bros                   Learners need to study:
                                                              •     the set The Lego Movie (2014) posters; and
The Lego Movie must be studied in relation to media           •     the UK TV trailer https://www.youtube.com/
industries only. Learners need to study the set film in             watch?v=HSbYBzUEQlc
relation to all the subject content bullet points listed
under the ‘media industries’ topic in the subject             Learners need to study the set advertising and
content table at the end of Component 01.                     marketing products in relation to all the subject

                                                                                                                              2
                                                              content bullet points listed under ‘media language’
The Lego Movie (2014) illustrates the concept of              and ‘media representations’ topics in the subject
tent-pole2 film production by media conglomerates,            content table at the end of Component 01.
in this case Warner Bros. Its success was of major
importance to the studio in terms of funding other            In addition, learners also need to study the following
projects.                                                     two bullet points from the ‘media audience’ subject
                                                              content:
The film is also an example of how a global studio,
                                                                    •     the ways in which media organisations
Warner Bros, releases a film in a specific national
                                                                           target audiences through marketing,
territory, the UK. There are also questions of
                                                                           including an understanding about the
ownership and purpose of the film, e.g. tension
                                                                           assumptions organisations make about
between Lego and Warner Bros both using the film to
                                                                           their target audience(s)
promote their own products through use of iconic
                                                                    •      the ways in which audiences may interpret
characters e.g. Batman, Superman and numerous
                                                                            the same media products very differently
Lego toy models. The film has a clear pattern of
                                                                            and how these differences may reflect
production, distribution and circulation that can be
                                                                            both social and individual differences.
easily distinguished and is a film production from a
major, global studio.
                                                              Learners must investigate how the elements of the
                                                              theoretical framework for media language are used to
Learners must investigate how the elements of the
                                                              construct representations that target particular
theoretical framework for media industries can be
                                                              audiences. Consideration should be made of media
considered in relation to how the set film was
                                                              language elements specific to posters and moving
produced, distributed and circulated, including
                                                              image trailers such as locations, costumes, choice of
considerations such as conglomerate ownership and
                                                              camera shot, angle, lighting, typography, layout,
how media companies operate on a global scale,
                                                              editing and sound as appropriate.
convergence, funding and, regulation.

Extracts of the film may only be considered in relation       The set promotional posters are:
to media industry issues exemplified. Textual analysis
is not a requirement of the study or assessment of            1.     The main poster featuring an ensemble cast,
Film as a media form.                                                running from danger
                                                              2.     Character poster of Vitruvius in close-up
Advertising and marketing: The Lego Movie (2014)              3.     Character poster of Emmet in close-up
Posters and UK TV trailer                                     4.     Character poster of Lord Business in close-up
                                                              5.     Character poster of Wyldstyle in close-up.
Advertising and marketing must be studied in relation
to media language, media representations and media
audiences.

2
 Tent-pole: A major motion picture which is expected to generate major income for a studio, which can be redistributed
and used to support and fund other releases. The analogy is that a tent-pole supports the whole tent.

© OCR 2021
GCSE (9–1) in Media Studies                                                                                              15
Information on where to find these can be found in         In addition learners also need to study the following
    Appendix 5e.                                               bullet point from the ‘media language’ subject
                                                               content:
    Video games: The Lego Movie Game (2014), TT                       •    intertextuality, including how inter-
    Games (A Warner Bros. Subsidiary)                                       relationships between different media
                                                                            products can influence meaning.
    Video games must be studied in relation to media

2   industries, media audiences and media language.            Learners must consider the elements of the
                                                               theoretical framework for media industries and
    The Lego Movie video game is an example of                 audiences and examine how the producers of The
    successful vertical integration where a subsidiary of a    Lego Movie Game have engaged with and identified
    global media producer, Warner Bros, has been used          their audience and examine issues of ownership and
    to produce a video game linked directly to the release     how these influenced the production, distribution
    of the motion picture of the same name, with the           and release of the game. Learners should also
    video game sharing similar themes and voice acting         consider the relationship between technology and
    by stars of the motion picture as they reprise their       the video game and intertextual meanings generated,
    characters in the video game. The Lego Movie video         for example, to other Warner Bros franchises and to
    game is also an example of a successful cross platform     Lego as a product itself.
    release.
                                                               Extracts of the video game must only be considered
    Learners must study the set video game product in          in relation to the media industry, audience and
    relation to all the subject content bullet points listed   language issues exemplified.
    under the ‘media industries’ and ‘media audiences’
    topics in the subject content table at the end of
    Component 01.

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    16                                                                                          GCSE (9–1) in Media Studies
In Component 01, learners will develop knowledge and understanding of the following subject content in
relation to the relevant set media products:

  Topic                       Key idea          Learners must demonstrate and apply their knowledge and
                                                understanding of:

  Media language              Media language    •     the various forms of media language used to create and
                              elements
                                                •
                                                      communicate meanings in media products
                                                      fundamental principles of semiotic analysis, including
                                                                                                                             2
                                                      denotation and connotation.
                              Media language    •     how choice (selection, combination and exclusion) of
                              and meaning             elements of media language influences meaning in media
                                                      products, including to create narratives, to portray aspects of
                                                      reality, to construct points of view, and to represent the
                                                      world in ways that convey messages and values.
                              Technology        •     the relationship between technology and media products.

                              Genre             •     the codes and conventions of media language, how they
                                                      develop and become established as ‘styles’ or genres (which
                                                      are common across different media products) and how they
                                                      may also vary over time
                                                •     theoretical perspectives on genre, including principles of
                                                      repetition and variation; the dynamic nature of genre;
                                                      hybridity and intertextuality.
                              Intertextuality   •     intertextuality, including how inter-relationships between
                                                      different media products can influence meaning.
                              Narrative         •     theories of narrative, including those derived from Propp.
  Media                       Mediation         •     the ways in which the media re-present (rather than simply
  representations                                     present) the world, and construct versions of reality
                                                •     the choices media producers make about how to represent
                                                      particular events, social groups and ideas
                                                •     the ways aspects of reality may be represented differently
                                                      depending on the purposes of the producers
                                                •     theoretical perspectives on representation, including
                                                      processes of selection, construction and mediation.
                              Stereotypes       •     the different functions and uses of stereotypes, including an
                                                      understanding of how stereotypes become established, how
                                                      they may vary over time, and how stereotypes enable
                                                      audiences to interpret media quickly.
                              Inequality in     •     how and why particular social groups may be under-
                              representation          represented or misrepresented
                                                •     theoretical perspectives on gender and representation,
                                                      including feminist approaches.

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GCSE (9–1) in Media Studies                                                                                             17
Topic              Key idea         Learners must demonstrate and apply their knowledge and
                                         understanding of:

     Media              Themes and       •     how representations (including self-representations) convey
     representations    ideologies             particular viewpoints, messages, values and beliefs, which
                                               may be reinforced across a wide range of media products
                                         •     the social, cultural and political significance of particular
2                                              representations in terms of the themes or issues that they
                                               address
                                         •     theoretical perspectives on gender and representation,
                                               including the feminist concept of patriarchy.
                        Representation   •     how representations reflect the social, historical and cultural
                        and context            contexts in which they were produced.
                        Representation   •     the factors affecting audience interpretations of
                        and audience           representations, including their own experiences and beliefs.
     Media industries   Media            •     the nature of media production, including by large
                        producers              organisations, who own the products they produce, and by
                                               individuals and groups.
                                         •     the impact of production processes, personnel and
                                               technologies on the final product, including similarities and
                                               differences between media products in terms of when and
                                               where they are produced.
                        Ownership and    •     the effect of ownership and control of media organisations,
                        control                including conglomerate ownership, diversification and
                                               vertical integration.
                        Convergence      •     the impact of the increasingly convergent nature of media
                                               industries across different platforms and different national
                                               settings.
                        Funding          •     the importance of different funding models, including
                                               government funded, not-for-profit and commercial models.
                        Industries and   •     how the media operate as commercial industries on a global
                        audiences              scale and reach both large and specialised audiences.
                        Media            •     the functions and types of regulation of the media.
                        regulation
                                         •     the challenges for media regulation presented by ‘new’
                                               digital technologies.

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    18                                                                                    GCSE (9–1) in Media Studies
Topic                       Key idea         Learners must demonstrate and apply their knowledge and
                                               understanding of:

  Media audiences             Targeting        •     how and why media products are aimed at a range of
                              audiences              audiences, from small, specialised audiences to large mass
                                                     audiences.
                                                     how media organisations categorise audiences.
                                                                                                                             2
                                               •
                                               •     the ways in which media organisations target audiences
                                                     through marketing, including an understanding of the
                                                     assumptions organisations make about their target
                                                     audience(s).
                              Technologies     •     the role of media technologies in reaching and identifying
                                                     audiences, and in audience consumption and usage.
                              Active           •     the ways in which audiences may interpret the same media
                              audiences              products very differently and how these differences may
                                                     reflect both social and individual differences
                                               •     theoretical perspectives on audiences, including active and
                                                     passive audiences; audience response and audience
                                                     interpretation.
                              Uses and         •     the social, cultural and political significance of media
                              gratifications         products, including the themes or issues they address, the
                                                     fulfilment of needs and desires, and the functions they serve
                                                     in everyday life and society
                                               •     the ways in which people’s media practices are connected to
                                                     their identity, including their sense of actual and desired self
                                               •     Blumler and Katz’s Uses and Gratifications theory.
                              Changing         •     how audiences may respond to and interpret media products
                              audience               and why these responses and interpretations may change
                              responses              over time.
  Contexts                    Social           •     how media products reflect the society in which they are
                                                     produced and that of their target audience.
                              Cultural         •     how media products reflect the arts and culture, including
                                                     popular culture, of their time.
                              Historical       •     how media products reflect historical events and social
                                                     changes.
                              Political        •     how media products reflect political viewpoints, messages,
                                                     values and beliefs.

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GCSE (9–1) in Media Studies                                                                                             19
2d. Content of Music and news (02)

    Section A: Music

    This section consists of:

          •    an in-depth study of magazines
2         •
          •
               a comparative study of music videos
               a study of contemporary radio.

    Learners are required to study the following media products set by OCR:

     Media Forms                 Magazines           Music videos                           Radio

     Set Media Products          MOJO Magazine       One of the following pairs:            Radio 1
                                                     1    Wheatus ‘Teenage Dirtbag’ and     Live Lounge
                                                          Avril Lavigne ‘Sk8ter Boi’
                                                          OR
                                                     2    Mark Ronson, Bruno Mars
                                                          ‘Uptown Funk’ and
                                                          Beyoncé ‘If I Were a Boy’
                                                          OR
                                                     3    The Vamps, Demi Lovato
                                                          ‘Somebody To You’ and
                                                          Little Mix ‘Black Magic’
                                                          OR
                                                     4    Tinie Tempah, Jess Glynne ‘Not
                                                          Letting Go’ and
                                                          Paloma Faith ‘Picking Up the
                                                          Pieces’
     Media Language              ü                   ü
     Media Representations       ü                   ü
     Media Industries            ü                                                          ü
     Media Audiences             ü                   ü                                      ü

     Media Contexts              Social, Cultural

                                                                                                          © OCR 2021
    20                                                                                     GCSE (9–1) in Media Studies
Magazines (in-depth study)
The magazine set media product, MOJO, is a serious           consider themselves discerning – reflected in a
‘classic rock’ magazine that targets an upmarket and         consistent media language house style that is
mature audience, reflecting the context of the               accessible for analysis.
economic power of the ‘babyboomer’ generation. In
terms of media industries, MOJO is a good example of         Learners must study magazine set products in relation
diversification. A product with a clear audience             to all four areas of the media theoretical framework,

                                                                                                                          2
address – engaging the passion of music fans who             including all relevant theoretical approaches and
                                                             social and cultural contexts.

Media Industries and Media Audiences

    Media Form           Set Product            Guidance on selection of set products

    Magazines            One complete edition   Edition chosen from September 2017 onwards (not a special
                         of MOJO magazine.      edition) to exemplify industry and audience areas of the media
                                                theoretical framework, for example:
                                                •        the scope of magazine, including type of artists featured
                                                •        the range and type of articles
                                                •        audience address
                                                •        advertisers using the magazine.

Teachers are also encouraged to show extracts                •   the function and types of regulation in the
of other music magazines of their own choice to                  magazine industry
learners, to help further contextualise their study.

The following indicative list is given as guidance and       •   how magazines can be aimed at a range of
is not exhaustive. For example, in relation to media             audiences, for example, MOJO is aimed at a more
industries and audiences learners must consider:                 niche, older, predominantly male audience with a
                                                                 mean age of 413

•     the effect of ownership on magazines, for
      example, the effect of the major commercial            •   how magazine audiences are categorized,
      publishing companies on the magazine industry,             including how readership and consumption is
      e.g. Bauer                                                 measured and how audiences are identified

•     how magazines are funded commercially and may          •   how audiences may interpret the same
      use different funding models to generate income            magazines very differently and how these
                                                                 differences may reflect both social and individual
                                                                 differences
•     the impact of production processes and
      technologies on the magazine industry

3
    Bauer Media MOJO media pack

© OCR 2021
GCSE (9–1) in Media Studies                                                                                          21
Media Language and Media Representation

        Media Form       Set Product                             Guidance on selection of set products
        Magazines        Two front covers from MOJO              Not a special edition.
                         magazine, selected by the centre.       Covers must be chosen from editions from
                                                                 September 2017 onwards.
                                                                 Each of the two front covers must include as a
2                                                                minimum:
                                                                 •     an image of the featured artist or band
                                                                 •     Masthead
                                                                 •     Main coverline
                                                                 •     Coverlines
                                                                 •     Selling lines

    Teachers are also encouraged to show examples of         For example, in relation media representations
    other music magazine covers of their own choice, to      learners must consider:
    learners to help further contextualise their study.
                                                             •       the ways in which magazine producers
    The following indicative lists for media language and            re-present the world and construct versions of
    representation are given as guidance and are not                 reality on magazine covers
    exhaustive.
                                                             •       the choices that magazine producers make
    For example, in relation to media language learners              when constructing representations, including
    must consider:                                                   stereotypical and counter-stereotypical
                                                                     representations on magazine covers
    •       how the choice (selection, combination and
            exclusion) of elements of media language         •       the ways aspects of reality may be represented
            influences meaning on magazine covers                    differently depending on the purposes of
                                                                     magazine producers
    •       the relationship between technology and
            media language on magazine covers                •       how representations on magazine covers
                                                                     reflect the social and cultural contexts in which
    •       the codes and conventions of music magazine              they were produced
            covers
                                                             •       the social and cultural significance of particular
    •       how intertextuality can be used to influence             representations on magazine covers in terms of
            meaning.                                                 themes or issues they address.

                                                                                                                © OCR 2021
    22                                                                                           GCSE (9–1) in Media Studies
Music Video                                                   shot, framing, angle, lighting, lip-synching,
                                                              performance and editing, including montage.
Music video must be studied in relation to media
language, media representations and media                     Centres are responsible for accessing these set
audiences.                                                    products. It is the responsibility of the centre to
                                                              monitor the content of these products and ensure
Learners need to study one set pair of music videos           that it is appropriate for their learners.

                                                                                                                         2
from the list below:
                                                              Radio
        •      heatus ‘Teenage Dirtbag’ and Avril
              W
              Lavigne ‘Sk8ter Boi’                            Radio must be studied in relation to media industries
        •     Mark Ronson, Bruno Mars ‘Uptown Funk’          and media audiences.
               and Beyoncé ‘If I Were a Boy’
        •      The Vamps, Demi Lovato ‘Somebody To           Live Lounge reflects the role of Radio 1 within the
                You’ and Little Mix ‘Black Magic’             BBC – to develop public service broadcasting
        •       Tinie Tempah, Jess Glynne ‘Not Letting Go’   distinctiveness, in part as a response to the political
                 and Paloma Faith ‘Picking Up the Pieces’.    context of criticisms of the BBCs more ‘commercial’
                                                              wings. The format reflects the regulatory need for the
Learners need to study the set music videos in                BBC to foster creativity and innovation. Radio 1
relation to all the subject content bullet points listed      addresses a distinct segment of the BBC’s audience
under ‘media language’ and ‘media representations’            and this is reflected in a distinct mode of address.
topics in the subject content table at the end of
Component 02.                                                 Learners must study one complete episode of The
                                                              BBC Radio One Live Lounge, from September 2017
In addition, learners need to study the following two         onwards, chosen by the centre. Learners need to
bullet points from the ‘media audience’ subject               study the set radio product in relation to all the
content:                                                      subject content bullet points listed under the ‘media
                                                              industries’ and ‘media audiences’ topics in the
        •     t he ways in which audiences may interpret     subject content table at the end of Component 02.
               the same media products very differently
               and how these differences may reflect          The selected radio programme must be a standard
               both social and individual differences         episode (not a special feature episode) and include a
        •      the ways in which people’s media              British artist and content promoting British music,
                practices are connected to their identity,    including interviews/chat with the artist.
                including their sense of actual and desired
                self.                                         It is the teacher’s responsibility to ensure the content
                                                              selected is appropriate to their learners.
Learners must investigate how the elements of the
theoretical framework for media language are used to          It is recommended that learners are also made aware
construct representations and how they are                    of the online content of the BBC Radio One Live
interpreted by audiences. Consideration should be             Lounge to help further exemplify areas of the media
made of media language elements specific to music             industries and media audiences’ framework.
videos such as locations, costumes, choice of camera

© OCR 2021
GCSE (9–1) in Media Studies                                                                                         23
Section B: News

    This section consists of:

          •     an in-depth study of online news, including its social and participatory media
          •     a study of historical and contemporary newspaper front covers to illustrate how media language is
                 used to construct representations and to give an understanding of the contemporary newspaper

2                industry.

    Learners are required to study the following media products set by OCR:

     Media Forms                      Online, social and participatory media          Newspapers

     Set Media Products               The Observer Online                             Observer front covers
                                      www.theguardian.com/observer                    Two contemporary front covers
                                      including the use of social and                 and three historical front covers
                                      participatory media
     Media Language                   ü                                               ü
     Media Representations            ü                                               ü
     Media Industries                 ü                                               ü
     Media Audiences                  ü
     Contexts                         Social, Cultural, Political                     Social, Cultural, Political and
                                                                                      Historical

    Online, social and participatory media (in-depth                monetising online content through voluntary
    study)                                                          donations and membership.

    The online, social and participatory set media                  Learners must study the online, social and
    product, The Observer section of the online Guardian/           participatory media set products in relation to all four
    Observer, is part of one of the most successful                 areas of the media theoretical framework, including
    international news websites, exploring one possible             all relevant theoretical approaches and social, cultural
    economic future for news organisations by                       and political contexts.

                                                                                                                      © OCR 2021
    24                                                                                                 GCSE (9–1) in Media Studies
Media Form        Set Product                               Guidance on selection of set products

    Online            The Observer online webpages              Learners must study the home page of The
                      www.theguardian.com/observer              Observer and at least one other page in order to
                                                                investigate continuities in the form and content of
                                                                the pages. They must follow the links for a number
                                                                of articles and journalists to help illustrate the
                                                                media language used, representations
                                                                constructed, modes of audience address and the
                                                                                                                       2
                                                                scope and scale of The Observer’s online content.
    Social and        The ‘comment is free’ website             A consideration of how The Observer is featured in
    participatory     https://www.theguardian.com/uk/           each of the social and participatory media feeds,
    media             commentisfree                             including which articles are featured and a
                      The Guardian Twitter feed                 consideration of how media language and
                      https://twitter.com/guardian              representations are used in comparison to the
                      The Guardian Instagram feed               related online web articles.
                      https://www.instagram.com/guardian/

NB: All set products selected for study in this section must be from the September onwards of the first year of
teaching a two-year course. For example, from September 2017 onwards for a candidate entering for
assessment in June 2019.

It is advised that teachers may wish to access the          •       how online content can be aimed at a range of
content of these webpages and any other social and                  audiences and more specifically targeted by
participatory media sources in a controlled                         media organisations
environment in order to ensure that learners do not
access any inappropriate content.                           •       how online audiences are categorised,
                                                                    including how readership and consumption is
The following indicative list is given as guidance and is           measured and how audiences are identified
not exhaustive. For example, in relation to all four
                                                            •       how audiences may interpret the same content
areas of the media theoretical framework learners
                                                                    very differently on different platforms (e.g.
must consider:
                                                                    online webpage, Twitter quote or Instagram
                                                                    feed) and how these differences may reflect
•       the impact of production processes and
                                                                    both social and individual differences
        technologies on online newspapers and their
        social and participatory feeds                      •       the various forms of media language used to
                                                                    create and communicate meaning across
•       how The Observer is owned and funded as a                   online, social and participatory news media
        media institution and how funding issues have
        affected the drive to online media                  •       how selection, combination and exclusion of
                                                                    elements of media language can influence
•       the convergent nature of media industries                   meaning in online, social and participatory
        across different platforms                                  news media

•       the challenges for media regulation presented       •       the relationship between technology and the
        by online newspapers and social and                         media language of online, social and
        participatory feeds                                         participatory news

© OCR 2021
GCSE (9–1) in Media Studies                                                                                       25
•     the ways in which online, social and                             •    The Observer 30 October 1966
          participatory news media re-present the world                    •    The Observer 6 November 1966
                                                                           •    The Observer 20 October 1968
    •     how the purposes of media producers and the
                                                                      •    t wo contemporary front covers selected
          choices they make influence representations
                                                                            by the centre.

    •     the social, cultural and political significance of    Learners must study the contexts associated with
                                                                the set covers and develop an understanding of the
2         particular representations featured on online,
          social and participatory media in terms of the        differences between how these media products
          themes or issues they address.                        illuminate the changing social, cultural, historical and
                                                                political contexts of the 1960s and the present day,
    Newspapers                                                  enabling learners to develop a detailed understanding
                                                                of how they appear in mainstream news media and
    The Guardian/Observer has had considerable cultural         its associated social and participatory media.
    and social impact and reach. The Guardian/Observer
    has consistently had a large circulation and is a           The historical front covers are significant in terms of
    powerful voice within the centre-left media with            the Media Theoretical Framework as they illustrate
    significant cultural and social influence. The historical   a distinct use of media language to construct
    Observer newspaper covers were chosen to help               representations based upon the relevant contexts of
    learners gain a knowledge and understanding of how          the mid to late 1960s in the UK. The media language
    media language was used to construct                        used to construct representations in the 1960s front
    representations in the 1960s and the contexts that          covers is representative of UK National broadsheets
    affected those representations.                             of the time, of which The Observer was a significant
                                                                and, at the time, independent national newspaper.
    Learners must study:
                                                                It is recommended that learners investigate other
          •     t hree set historical front covers of The      similar media products from these periods to
                 Observer (the historical front covers will     reinforce their understanding of how these products
                 be made available via the OCR website)         reflect their contexts.

                                                                                                                 © OCR 2021
    26                                                                                            GCSE (9–1) in Media Studies
Media Language and Representations

    Media Form           Set Product                    Guidance on selection of set products
    The Observer         Two front covers from The      Not a full page picture story edition.
    contemporary         Observer selected by the
                                                        Covers must be chosen from editions from September
    newspaper            centre.
                                                        2017 onwards.
    covers
                                                        Each of the two front covers must follow the house style
                                                        of the newspaper and must include as a minimum:
                                                                                                                              2
                                                              •   Skyline
                                                              •   Masthead
                                                              •   Headline
                                                              •   A news photograph
                                                              •   One article.
                                                        Each of the two front covers should feature a lead article
                                                        that is of national or international social and/or cultural
                                                        significance, for example, this could be a political,
                                                        economic or sporting event or a lead article related to
                                                        conflict, crime or health.

Teachers are also encouraged to show examples of other covers of their own choice to exemplify contrasting
contexts and use of media language and representations.

The following indicative lists for media language and        •      the codes and conventions of newspaper
representations are given as guidance and are not                   covers.
exhaustive.
                                                             For example, in relation to media representations,
For example, in relation to media language, learners         learners must consider:
must consider:
                                                             •      the ways in which newspaper producers
•       the various forms of media language used to                 re-present the world and construct versions of
        create and communicate meaning on                           reality on newspaper covers
        newspaper front covers
                                                             •      how the purposes of media producers and the
•       how selection, combination and exclusion of                 choices they make influence representations
        elements of media language can influence
        meaning on newspaper covers                          •      the social, cultural and political significance of
                                                                    particular representations featured on
•       the relationship between technology and                     newspaper covers in terms of the themes or
        media language on newspaper covers, for                     issues they address
        example, to aid layout, typography and post-
        production editing of photos                         •      how representations reflect the contexts in
                                                                    which they were produced.

© OCR 2021
GCSE (9–1) in Media Studies                                                                                              27
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