Referencing Handbook - Harvard

Referencing Handbook - Harvard

Referencing Handbook Harvard

A Contents Contents 11 Journals, magazines, periodicals 11.1 Journal articles 11.2 Pre-prints 11.3 Post-prints/articles in press 12 Law 12.1 Cases (Law Reports) 12.2 Unreported UK cases 12.3 Acts of Parliament (Statutes) 12.4 Statutory Instruments 12.5 Bills before Parliament 12.6 EU Regulations, Directives, Decisions 12.7 Treaties 13 Leaflets, pamphlets 14 Maps 15 Microfilm 16 Music 16.1 Music – live performance 16.2 CD 16.3 Music track 16.4 Music track download 16.5 Musical score 16.6 Musical score from a collection 17 New media 17.1 Blogs 17.2 Facebook 17.3 Video sharing websites 17.4 Twitter 17.5 Podcasts, vidcasts, vodcasts 18 Newspapers 18.1 Newspaper articles 18.2 Newspaper articles without a byline 18.3 Press releases 19 Official publications 19.1 Green, White and Command papers 19.2 Parliamentary Debates (Hansard) 20 Plays 20.1 Play text 20.2 Dramatic performance 21 Software 21.1 Games 21.2 Apps 21.3 Other software 22 Technical, commercial 22.1 British and International Standards 22.2 Patents 23 Theses, dissertations 24 Translations 25 Verbal communications 25.1 Lecture/seminar 25.2 Speech 25.3 Telephone call 26 Websites 26.1 Personal author 26.2 Corporate author Reference list Download our app Search for ‘Referencing Handbook: Harvard’ or ‘University of Lincoln Library’ and download the free app.

Referencing Handbook: Harvard Contents 1 Advertisements 1.1 Print 1.2 Broadcast 1.3 Online 2 Art 2.1 Art 2.2 Art in books 2.3 Art online 2.4 Performance art 2.5 Artist’s film 3 Books 3.1 Book with a single author 3.2 Book with two authors 3.3 Book with three or more authors 3.4 Book without a named author 3.5 Edited book 3.6 Chapter in an edited book 3.7 Introduction, foreword, afterword 3.8 Ebook 3.9 Ebook on a reader (Kindle, etc.) 3.10 Book review 3.11 Sacred texts 4 Case studies 5 Conference papers 6 Correspondence 6.1 Email 6.2 Letter 6.3 Mailing list 7 Dance 8 Diagrams, figures, images, tables 9 Film, television, radio 9.1 Film 9.2 Broadcast television/radio 9.3 DVD – film 9.4 DVD – television programme 9.5 Off-air recordings 9.6 Online archive of off-air recordings (e.g.

Box of Broadcasts) 9.7 Amateur film 9.8 Trailer 10 Interviews 10.1 Broadcast 10.2 Personal Contents Introduction Harvard referencing In-text citation Reference list Bibliography Other referencing styles Plagiarism Quoting, paraphrasing and summarising Secondary referencing Help with referencing Reference Handbook Harvard iPad Reference Handbook Harvard Sources of information Referencing Handbook iPad Referenc Handbook Harvard Harvard

A A Harvard referencing Harvard referencing Reference list Your reference list goes at the end of your academic work and contains the full details of the information sources (books, journal articles, websites, etc.) that you have cited. You can find the information you need for different sources in a variety of locations, e.g. the title page and the reverse of the title page of a book, or the cover and table of contents of a journal. Below are guidelines on how to construct your reference list: • It is in alphabetical order by the first author/editor(s)’ surname. If the source is produced by a corporate author, ignore words such as A, An or The • If no author is provided, use the title of the publication in its place • If you use more than one source by the same author, list them in date order beginning with the earliest first • If you use more than one source by the same author from the same year, you will need to differentiate between them, e.g.

In-text citation (Department of Health, 2013a) Reference list Department of Health (2013a) Cardiovascular disease outcomes strategy: improving outcomes for people with or at risk of cardiovascular disease. London: Department of Health. Available from https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/ attachment_data/file/156450/9387-2900853-CVD-Outcomes_web1.pdf.pdf [Accessed 2 July 2013]. Department of Health (2013b) Improving outcomes: a strategy for cancer, second annual report, 2012. London: Department of Health. Available from https://www.gov. uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/136551/Improving_ outcomes_second_annual_report.pdf [Accessed 2 July 2013].

• If the source of information has no date, put undated instead of the year of publication • The title (with the exception of journal titles) should be in sentence case • Separate main titles from subtitles with a colon • If there are multiple locations given for place of publication, only provide the first listed • If a source of information is not published in the UK, also provide the country Referencing Handbook: Harvard Harvard referencing Introduction You need to reference: • to demonstrate that you have undertaken research for your academic work • to avoid accusations of plagiarism • to acknowledge the work of other authors, which can be found in books, journal articles, websites etc.

There are many systems of referencing available; this guide will focus on the Harvard system, which is widely used at the University of Lincoln. This guide provides examples of different information sources: how to cite them within your text and how to include them in your reference list. Harvard referencing There are two parts to Harvard referencing: In-text citation Reference list In-text citation All ideas taken from the work of another author (whether directly quoted or put into your own words) need to be identified within your academic work by the author’s surname, year of publication and page number in brackets.

You should not provide full publication details in your in-text citation, such as the title or publisher, as this information is given in your reference list. The following is an extract from an essay showing use of in-text citations: Many believe (Fry, 2009; Jacklin, 2009) that, in the UK, the main catalyst for this was the UK Governments’ ‘widening participation’ initiative, which “brought an increased diversification of the higher education student population” (Jacklin and Le Riche, 2009, 735). An interesting paper by Wingate (2007) suggests that it is not only the “non- traditional” students from the widening participation initiatives who struggle with the learning required at university level.

Wingate discusses the difficulties that “traditional students” have with the transition from school to university (Wingate, 2007, 393) and suggests that students need support in “learning to learn”. • Where you are citing from more than one text, you can combine them together in a single in- text citation, separated by a semi-colon, e.g. (Fry, 2009; Jacklin, 2009) • If the source you are using has two authors, name both of them in your in-text citation, e.g. (Jacklin and Le Riche, 2009, 735). If there are three or more authors, just name the first author followed by the words et al (which means and others) • If you include the author’s surname within your text, you only need to add the year (and page number, where necessary) in brackets, e.g.

Wingate (2007) suggests… • Some disciplines do not require a page number in the in-text citations. If you are unsure please contact your tutor

Harvard referencing Harvard referencing Secondary referencing If the information source that you are reading has summarised another author’s work, which you would like to discuss or quote from, you should locate the original work. If this is not possible, you need to treat it as a secondary reference. To do this, cite the original author and year of publication followed by the words ‘cited in’ and the author, year of publication and page number of the text you have read. “Learning is an active process of constructing rather than acquiring knowledge” (Duffy and Cunningham, 1996, cited in Laurillard, 2002, 67) The reference list at the end of your academic work should only contain works that you have read.

Secondary referencing should be avoided where possible.

Help with referencing The quickest and easiest way to reference your academic work is to record the necessary information at the time of using it. The key to good referencing is to be consistent. This handbook is a guide to referencing different sources of information. For each type of information, we give you an example of an in-text citation and a full reference as it should appear in your reference list. The Library subscribes to referencing management software which can help you to gather and organise your references. For more information go to http://library.lincoln.ac.uk There are also a number of websites offering this service free of charge, e.g.

Mendeley, Zotero. If you need help with your referencing, or have any questions, the Library also offers a 1-to-1 Learning Development drop-in service. Visit the Learning Development Room on the ground floor of the University Library.

Referencing Handbook: Harvard Harvard referencing Referencing Handbook: Harvard Bibliography Your School may ask you to provide a bibliography as well as a reference list, please check their guidelines. A bibliography lists all the sources of information that you have consulted, including the items in your reading list. You should follow the same rules for a bibliography as a reference list. Other referencing styles Your School may want you to use another style of referencing, such as APA, Chicago, MHRA, Numeric or OSCOLA. You must check with your School which referencing style to follow. Your Academic Subject Librarian can also advise you.

Plagiarism Plagiarism is the use of another author’s ideas and words, either intentionally or unintentionally, without acknowledging the source of the information. It is an academic offence and will be treated seriously by the University (see University General Regulations). You avoid plagiarism by referencing correctly. Turnitin is software that detects plagiarism and can be used by your tutor to ensure academic integrity. See http://submit.ac.uk/ for more details. Quoting, paraphrasing and summarising Quoting is copying a short section of text, word for word, directly from an information source into your work.

You must indicate a quotation by using quotation marks at the beginning and end of the text, e.g. critical appraisal “aims to discover if first the methods, and consequently the results of the research, are valid“ (Booth et al, 2012, 104). The quotation is followed immediately with the in-text citation.

Longer quotations (usually longer than two lines) should start on a new line, be indented with quotation marks at the beginning and end of the passage and should be followed immediately with an in-text citation, e.g. “The media are often blamed for social ills to the detriment of identifying the real causes of the problem. In the past, politicians in the USA and the UK have found it more convenient to blame various sectors of the media for social ills than their own policies and actions” (Stokes, 2003, 131) Paraphrasing is putting a section of text from an information source into your own words.

Although you are changing the words or phrasing from the original text, you are retaining and fully communicating the original meaning. You should provide an in-text citation even when paraphrasing to acknowledge the source.

Summarising is describing the main ideas/findings of an information source but without directly quoting from it. You should acknowledge where you sourced the information by providing an in- text citation.

A A 1 Advertisements 1.2 Broadcast In-text citation (Audi, 2013) Reference list Audi (2013) The new Audi Q5. [advertisement] ITV. 23 May, 21.17. Checklist: ¨ ¨ Advertiser’s name ¨ ¨ Year of broadcast of the advertisement in round brackets ¨ ¨ Title of the advertisement, or a short description if more appropriate, in italics, followed by a full stop ¨ ¨ In square brackets put advertisement ¨ ¨ Broadcast channel, followed by a full stop ¨ ¨ Day and month of broadcast, followed by a comma ¨ ¨ Time of broadcast, using the 24 hour clock, followed by a full stop 1.3 Online In-text citation (Curiously Cinnamon, 2013) Reference list Curiously Cinnamon (2013) Boombox breakfasts: the Latin lowriders.

[online advertisement] Available from http://www. youtube.com/curiouslycinnamonuk [Accessed 28 June 2013]. Checklist: ¨ ¨ Advertiser’s name ¨ ¨ Year of publication of the advertisement in round brackets ¨ ¨ Title of the advertisement, or a short description if more appropriate, in italics, followed by a full stop ¨ ¨ In square brackets put online advertisement ¨ ¨ Available from, followed by the web address ¨ ¨ In square brackets put Accessed and the date you accessed the advertisement, followed by a full stop 1 Advertisements 1 Advertisements 1 Advertisements 1 Print In-text citation (The Wine Company, 2013, 38) when referring to a specific page Reference list The Wine Company (2013) Discover our best selling Marlborough Sauvignon.

[advertisement, Private Eye] 28 June, 38.

Checklist: ¨ ¨ Advertiser’s name ¨ ¨ Year of publication in round brackets ¨ ¨ Title of the advertisement, or a short description if more appropriate, in italics, followed by a full stop ¨ ¨ In square brackets put advertisement, a comma, then the title of the publication ¨ ¨ Day and month of publication, followed by a comma ¨ ¨ Page number(s), followed by a full stop Referencing Handbook: Harvard 2. Year of publication in round brackets 1. Advertiser’s name 3. Title of the advertisement, or a short description if more appropriate, in italics, followed by a full stop 4. In square brackets put advertisement, a comma, then the title of the publication 5.

Day and month of publication, followed by a comma 6. Page number(s), followed by a full stop The Wine Company (2013) Discover our best selling Marlborough Sauvignon. [advertisement, Private Eye] 28 June, 38.

A A 2.2 Art in books When citing an image reproduced in a book, put the surname of the artist and year of composition followed by the words ‘cited in’ followed by the author(s) surname, year of publication and page number. In your reference list, only list the work you have read. In-text citation (Basquiat, 1981, cited in Wigan, 2006, 75) Reference list Wigan, M. (2006) Thinking visually. Lausanne, Switzerland: AVA. Checklist: ¨ ¨ Author/Editor(s)’ surname, a comma, followed by their initials with a full stop after each initial ¨ ¨ Year of publication in round brackets ¨ ¨ Title (and subtitle if applicable) of book in italics, followed by a full stop ¨ ¨ Edition (only if not the first edition) followed by a full stop ¨ ¨ Place of publication, followed by a colon ¨ ¨ Publisher, followed by a full stop 2.3 Art online When citing an image reproduced online, put the surname of the artist and year of composition followed by the words ‘cited in’ followed by the name of the website and year of publication.

In your reference list, only list the work you have read.

In-text citation (Meshon, undated, cited in 3x3 Gallery.com, undated) Reference list Meshon, A. (undated) Untitled. [online] New York, USA: 3x3 Gallery. Available from http:// www.3x3gallery.com/19/AaronMeshon.php [Accessed 1 July 2013]. Checklist: ¨ ¨ Artist(s)’ surname, a comma, followed by their initials with a full stop after each initial ¨ ¨ Year of publication in round brackets ¨ ¨ Title (and subtitle if applicable) of the composition in italics, followed by a full stop ¨ ¨ In square brackets put online ¨ ¨ Place of publication, followed by a colon ¨ ¨ Publisher, followed by a full stop ¨ ¨ Available from, followed by the web address ¨ ¨ In square brackets put Accessed and the date you accessed the art, followed by a full stop 2 Art 2 Art 2 Art Art 2.1 Art In-text citation (Bacon, 1961) Reference list Bacon, F.

(1961) Seated figure. [oil on canvas] London: Tate Modern. Checklist: ¨ ¨ Artist(s)’ surname, a comma, followed by their initials with a full stop after each initial ¨ ¨ Year of composition in round brackets ¨ ¨ Title of the composition in italics, followed by a full stop ¨ ¨ In square brackets put details of the format ¨ ¨ Location, followed by a colon ¨ ¨ Name of the collection, followed by a full stop 2 2. Year of composition in round brackets 4. In square brackets put details of the format 6. Name of the collection, followed by a full stop 1. Artist(s)’ surname, a comma, followed by their initials with a full stop after each initial 3.

Title of the composition in italics, followed by a full stop 5. Location, followed by a colon Bacon, F. (1961) Seated Figure. [oil on canvas] London: Tate Modern. Referencing Handbook: Harvard

A A Books 3.1 Book with a single author In-text citation (Cottrell, 2013) for the whole text (Cottrell, 2013, 156) when referring to a specific page (Cottrell, 2013, 156-158) when referring to a range of pages Reference list Cottrell, S. (2013) The study skills handbook. 4th edition. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. 3 Books 3 Cottrell, S. (2013) The study skills handbook. 4th edition. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. 2. Year of publication in round brackets 1. Author’s surname, followed by their initials with a full stop after each initial, or corporate author 3. Title (and subtitle if applicable) of book in italics, followed by a full stop 4.

Edition (only if not the first edition) followed by a full stop 5. Place of publication, followed by a colon 6. Publisher, followed by a full stop 2 Art 2.4 Performance art In-text citation (Abramovic, 2005) Reference list Abramovic, M. (2005) Seven easy pieces. [performance art] New York, USA: Guggenheim Museum, 9 November.

Checklist: ¨ ¨ Artist(s)’ surname, a comma, followed by their initials with a full stop after each initial ¨ ¨ Year of the performance in round brackets ¨ ¨ Title of the performance in italics, followed by a full stop ¨ ¨ In square brackets put performance art ¨ ¨ Place of performance, followed by a colon ¨ ¨ Name of the venue, followed by a comma ¨ ¨ Day and month of the performance, followed by a full stop 2.5 Artist’s film In-text citation (Magdy, 2012) Reference list Magdy, B. (2012) Time laughs back at you like a sunken ship. [Super 8 film transferred to HD video] 9 mins. 31 secs. London: Tate.

Checklist: ¨ ¨ Artist(s)’ surname, a comma, followed by their initials with a full stop after each initial ¨ ¨ Year of composition of the film in round brackets ¨ ¨ Title of the film in italics, followed by a full stop ¨ ¨ In square brackets give details of the format ¨ ¨ Length of film in minutes and seconds ¨ ¨ Location, followed by a colon ¨ ¨ Name of collection, followed by a full stop 2 Referencing Handbook: Harvard

A A 3 Books 3 3.4 Book without a named author If an author of a book is not named, replace the author’s name with the title of the book. In-text citation (A woman in Berlin, 2011) for whole text (A woman in Berlin, 2011, 176) when referring to a specific page (A woman in Berlin, 2011, 176-178) when referring to a range of pages Reference list A woman in Berlin. (2011) London: Virago Press. Checklist: ¨ ¨ Title (and subtitle if applicable) of book in italics, followed by a full stop ¨ ¨ Year of publication in round brackets ¨ ¨ Edition (only if not the first edition) followed by a full stop ¨ ¨ Place of publication, followed by a colon ¨ ¨ Publisher, followed by a full stop 3.5 Edited book In-text citation (Boardman et al, 2010) for whole text (Boardman et al, 2010, 39) when referring to a specific page (Boardman et al, 2010, 39-41) when referring to a page range Reference list Boardman, J., Currie, A., Killaspy, H.

and Mezey, G. (eds.) (2010) Social inclusion and mental health. London: RCPsych Publications. Checklist: ¨ ¨ Editor(s)’ surname, a comma, followed by their initials with a full stop after each initial ¨ ¨ Put ed. in round brackets. If it has more than one editor, use eds. ¨ ¨ Year of publication in round brackets ¨ ¨ Title (and subtitle if applicable) of book in italics, followed by a full stop ¨ ¨ Edition (only if not the first edition) followed by a full stop ¨ ¨ Place of publication, followed by a colon ¨ ¨ Publisher, followed by a full stop Books 3 Books 3.2 Book with two authors In-text citation Use both authors’ surnames (Ledger and Luckhurst, 2000) for the whole text (Ledger and Luckhurst, 2000, 24) when referring to a specific page (Ledger and Luckhurst, 2000, 24-48) when referring to a range of pages Reference list Ledger, S.

and Luckhurst, R. (2000) The fin de siècle: a reader in cultural history, c.1880-1900. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 3.3 Book with three or more authors In-text citation There is no need to use all of the authors’ names in your in-text citation, you can name just the first author followed by the words et al (which means ‘and others’). (Klug et al, 2012) for the whole text. (Klug et al, 2012, 46) when referring to a specific page (Klug et al, 2012, 46-48) when referring to a page range Reference list You need to name all the authors in the order they appear on the title page of the book.

Klug, W. S., Cummings, M.R., Spencer, C.A. and Palladino, M.A. (2012) Concept of genetics. 10th edition. Boston: Pearson. Checklist: ¨ ¨ Author(s)’ surname, a comma, followed by their initials with a full stop after each initial, or corporate author ¨ ¨ Year of publication in round brackets ¨ ¨ Title (and subtitle if applicable) of book in italics, followed by a full stop ¨ ¨ Edition (only if not the first edition) followed by a full stop ¨ ¨ Place of publication, followed by a colon ¨ ¨ Publisher, followed by a full stop 3 Referencing Handbook: Harvard