Referencing Handbook - Harvard

Referencing Handbook - Harvard

Referencing Handbook Harvard

A Contents Contents 11 Journals, magazines, periodicals 11.1 Journal articles 11.2 Pre-prints 11.3 Post-prints/articles in press 12 Law 12.1 Cases (Law Reports) 12.2 Unreported UK cases 12.3 Acts of Parliament (Statutes) 12.4 Statutory Instruments 12.5 Bills before Parliament 12.6 EU Regulations, Directives, Decisions 12.7 Treaties 13 Leaflets, pamphlets 14 Maps 15 Microfilm 16 Music 16.1 Music – live performance 16.2 CD 16.3 Music track 16.4 Music track download 16.5 Musical score 16.6 Musical score from a collection 17 New media 17.1 Blogs 17.2 Facebook 17.3 Video sharing websites 17.4 Twitter 17.5 Podcasts, vidcasts, vodcasts 18 Newspapers 18.1 Newspaper articles 18.2 Newspaper articles without a byline 18.3 Press releases 19 Official publications 19.1 Green, White and Command papers 19.2 Parliamentary Debates (Hansard) 20 Plays 20.1 Play text 20.2 Dramatic performance 21 Software 21.1 Games 21.2 Apps 21.3 Other software 22 Technical, commercial 22.1 British and International Standards 22.2 Patents 23 Theses, dissertations 24 Translations 25 Verbal communications 25.1 Lecture/seminar 25.2 Speech 25.3 Telephone call 26 Websites 26.1 Personal author 26.2 Corporate author Reference list Download our app Search for ‘Referencing Handbook: Harvard’ or ‘University of Lincoln Library’ and download the free app.

Referencing Handbook: Harvard Contents 1 Advertisements 1.1 Print 1.2 Broadcast 1.3 Online 2 Art 2.1 Art 2.2 Art in books 2.3 Art online 2.4 Performance art 2.5 Artist’s film 3 Books 3.1 Book with a single author 3.2 Book with two authors 3.3 Book with three or more authors 3.4 Book without a named author 3.5 Edited book 3.6 Chapter in an edited book 3.7 Introduction, foreword, afterword 3.8 Ebook 3.9 Ebook on a reader (Kindle, etc.) 3.10 Book review 3.11 Sacred texts 4 Case studies 5 Conference papers 6 Correspondence 6.1 Email 6.2 Letter 6.3 Mailing list 7 Dance 8 Diagrams, figures, images, tables 9 Film, television, radio 9.1 Film 9.2 Broadcast television/radio 9.3 DVD – film 9.4 DVD – television programme 9.5 Off-air recordings 9.6 Online archive of off-air recordings (e.g.

Box of Broadcasts) 9.7 Amateur film 9.8 Trailer 10 Interviews 10.1 Broadcast 10.2 Personal Contents Introduction Harvard referencing In-text citation Reference list Bibliography Other referencing styles Plagiarism Quoting, paraphrasing and summarising Secondary referencing Help with referencing Reference Handbook Harvard iPad Reference Handbook Harvard Sources of information Referencing Handbook iPad Referenc Handbook Harvard Harvard

A A Harvard referencing Harvard referencing Reference list Your reference list goes at the end of your academic work and contains the full details of the information sources (books, journal articles, websites, etc.) that you have cited. You can find the information you need for different sources in a variety of locations, e.g. the title page and the reverse of the title page of a book, or the cover and table of contents of a journal. Below are guidelines on how to construct your reference list: • It is in alphabetical order by the first author/editor(s)’ surname. If the source is produced by a corporate author, ignore words such as A, An or The • If no author is provided, use the title of the publication in its place • If you use more than one source by the same author, list them in date order beginning with the earliest first • If you use more than one source by the same author from the same year, you will need to differentiate between them, e.g.

In-text citation (Department of Health, 2013a) Reference list Department of Health (2013a) Cardiovascular disease outcomes strategy: improving outcomes for people with or at risk of cardiovascular disease. London: Department of Health. Available from https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/ attachment_data/file/156450/9387-2900853-CVD-Outcomes_web1.pdf.pdf [Accessed 2 July 2013]. Department of Health (2013b) Improving outcomes: a strategy for cancer, second annual report, 2012. London: Department of Health. Available from https://www.gov. uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/136551/Improving_ outcomes_second_annual_report.pdf [Accessed 2 July 2013].

• If the source of information has no date, put undated instead of the year of publication • The title (with the exception of journal titles) should be in sentence case • Separate main titles from subtitles with a colon • If there are multiple locations given for place of publication, only provide the first listed • If a source of information is not published in the UK, also provide the country Referencing Handbook: Harvard Harvard referencing Introduction You need to reference: • to demonstrate that you have undertaken research for your academic work • to avoid accusations of plagiarism • to acknowledge the work of other authors, which can be found in books, journal articles, websites etc.

There are many systems of referencing available; this guide will focus on the Harvard system, which is widely used at the University of Lincoln. This guide provides examples of different information sources: how to cite them within your text and how to include them in your reference list. Harvard referencing There are two parts to Harvard referencing: In-text citation Reference list In-text citation All ideas taken from the work of another author (whether directly quoted or put into your own words) need to be identified within your academic work by the author’s surname, year of publication and page number in brackets.

You should not provide full publication details in your in-text citation, such as the title or publisher, as this information is given in your reference list. The following is an extract from an essay showing use of in-text citations: Many believe (Fry, 2009; Jacklin, 2009) that, in the UK, the main catalyst for this was the UK Governments’ ‘widening participation’ initiative, which “brought an increased diversification of the higher education student population” (Jacklin and Le Riche, 2009, 735). An interesting paper by Wingate (2007) suggests that it is not only the “non- traditional” students from the widening participation initiatives who struggle with the learning required at university level.

Wingate discusses the difficulties that “traditional students” have with the transition from school to university (Wingate, 2007, 393) and suggests that students need support in “learning to learn”. • Where you are citing from more than one text, you can combine them together in a single in- text citation, separated by a semi-colon, e.g. (Fry, 2009; Jacklin, 2009) • If the source you are using has two authors, name both of them in your in-text citation, e.g. (Jacklin and Le Riche, 2009, 735). If there are three or more authors, just name the first author followed by the words et al (which means and others) • If you include the author’s surname within your text, you only need to add the year (and page number, where necessary) in brackets, e.g.

Wingate (2007) suggests… • Some disciplines do not require a page number in the in-text citations. If you are unsure please contact your tutor

Harvard referencing Harvard referencing Secondary referencing If the information source that you are reading has summarised another author’s work, which you would like to discuss or quote from, you should locate the original work. If this is not possible, you need to treat it as a secondary reference. To do this, cite the original author and year of publication followed by the words ‘cited in’ and the author, year of publication and page number of the text you have read. “Learning is an active process of constructing rather than acquiring knowledge” (Duffy and Cunningham, 1996, cited in Laurillard, 2002, 67) The reference list at the end of your academic work should only contain works that you have read.

Secondary referencing should be avoided where possible.

Help with referencing The quickest and easiest way to reference your academic work is to record the necessary information at the time of using it. The key to good referencing is to be consistent. This handbook is a guide to referencing different sources of information. For each type of information, we give you an example of an in-text citation and a full reference as it should appear in your reference list. The Library subscribes to referencing management software which can help you to gather and organise your references. For more information go to http://library.lincoln.ac.uk There are also a number of websites offering this service free of charge, e.g.

Mendeley, Zotero. If you need help with your referencing, or have any questions, the Library also offers a 1-to-1 Learning Development drop-in service. Visit the Learning Development Room on the ground floor of the University Library.

Referencing Handbook: Harvard Harvard referencing Referencing Handbook: Harvard Bibliography Your School may ask you to provide a bibliography as well as a reference list, please check their guidelines. A bibliography lists all the sources of information that you have consulted, including the items in your reading list. You should follow the same rules for a bibliography as a reference list. Other referencing styles Your School may want you to use another style of referencing, such as APA, Chicago, MHRA, Numeric or OSCOLA. You must check with your School which referencing style to follow. Your Academic Subject Librarian can also advise you.

Plagiarism Plagiarism is the use of another author’s ideas and words, either intentionally or unintentionally, without acknowledging the source of the information. It is an academic offence and will be treated seriously by the University (see University General Regulations). You avoid plagiarism by referencing correctly. Turnitin is software that detects plagiarism and can be used by your tutor to ensure academic integrity. See http://submit.ac.uk/ for more details. Quoting, paraphrasing and summarising Quoting is copying a short section of text, word for word, directly from an information source into your work.

You must indicate a quotation by using quotation marks at the beginning and end of the text, e.g. critical appraisal “aims to discover if first the methods, and consequently the results of the research, are valid“ (Booth et al, 2012, 104). The quotation is followed immediately with the in-text citation.

Longer quotations (usually longer than two lines) should start on a new line, be indented with quotation marks at the beginning and end of the passage and should be followed immediately with an in-text citation, e.g. “The media are often blamed for social ills to the detriment of identifying the real causes of the problem. In the past, politicians in the USA and the UK have found it more convenient to blame various sectors of the media for social ills than their own policies and actions” (Stokes, 2003, 131) Paraphrasing is putting a section of text from an information source into your own words.

Although you are changing the words or phrasing from the original text, you are retaining and fully communicating the original meaning. You should provide an in-text citation even when paraphrasing to acknowledge the source.

Summarising is describing the main ideas/findings of an information source but without directly quoting from it. You should acknowledge where you sourced the information by providing an in- text citation.

A A 1 Advertisements 1.2 Broadcast In-text citation (Audi, 2013) Reference list Audi (2013) The new Audi Q5. [advertisement] ITV. 23 May, 21.17. Checklist: ¨ ¨ Advertiser’s name ¨ ¨ Year of broadcast of the advertisement in round brackets ¨ ¨ Title of the advertisement, or a short description if more appropriate, in italics, followed by a full stop ¨ ¨ In square brackets put advertisement ¨ ¨ Broadcast channel, followed by a full stop ¨ ¨ Day and month of broadcast, followed by a comma ¨ ¨ Time of broadcast, using the 24 hour clock, followed by a full stop 1.3 Online In-text citation (Curiously Cinnamon, 2013) Reference list Curiously Cinnamon (2013) Boombox breakfasts: the Latin lowriders.

[online advertisement] Available from http://www. youtube.com/curiouslycinnamonuk [Accessed 28 June 2013]. Checklist: ¨ ¨ Advertiser’s name ¨ ¨ Year of publication of the advertisement in round brackets ¨ ¨ Title of the advertisement, or a short description if more appropriate, in italics, followed by a full stop ¨ ¨ In square brackets put online advertisement ¨ ¨ Available from, followed by the web address ¨ ¨ In square brackets put Accessed and the date you accessed the advertisement, followed by a full stop 1 Advertisements 1 Advertisements 1 Advertisements 1 Print In-text citation (The Wine Company, 2013, 38) when referring to a specific page Reference list The Wine Company (2013) Discover our best selling Marlborough Sauvignon.

[advertisement, Private Eye] 28 June, 38.

Checklist: ¨ ¨ Advertiser’s name ¨ ¨ Year of publication in round brackets ¨ ¨ Title of the advertisement, or a short description if more appropriate, in italics, followed by a full stop ¨ ¨ In square brackets put advertisement, a comma, then the title of the publication ¨ ¨ Day and month of publication, followed by a comma ¨ ¨ Page number(s), followed by a full stop Referencing Handbook: Harvard 2. Year of publication in round brackets 1. Advertiser’s name 3. Title of the advertisement, or a short description if more appropriate, in italics, followed by a full stop 4. In square brackets put advertisement, a comma, then the title of the publication 5.

Day and month of publication, followed by a comma 6. Page number(s), followed by a full stop The Wine Company (2013) Discover our best selling Marlborough Sauvignon. [advertisement, Private Eye] 28 June, 38.

A A 2.2 Art in books When citing an image reproduced in a book, put the surname of the artist and year of composition followed by the words ‘cited in’ followed by the author(s) surname, year of publication and page number. In your reference list, only list the work you have read. In-text citation (Basquiat, 1981, cited in Wigan, 2006, 75) Reference list Wigan, M. (2006) Thinking visually. Lausanne, Switzerland: AVA. Checklist: ¨ ¨ Author/Editor(s)’ surname, a comma, followed by their initials with a full stop after each initial ¨ ¨ Year of publication in round brackets ¨ ¨ Title (and subtitle if applicable) of book in italics, followed by a full stop ¨ ¨ Edition (only if not the first edition) followed by a full stop ¨ ¨ Place of publication, followed by a colon ¨ ¨ Publisher, followed by a full stop 2.3 Art online When citing an image reproduced online, put the surname of the artist and year of composition followed by the words ‘cited in’ followed by the name of the website and year of publication.

In your reference list, only list the work you have read.

In-text citation (Meshon, undated, cited in 3x3 Gallery.com, undated) Reference list Meshon, A. (undated) Untitled. [online] New York, USA: 3x3 Gallery. Available from http:// www.3x3gallery.com/19/AaronMeshon.php [Accessed 1 July 2013]. Checklist: ¨ ¨ Artist(s)’ surname, a comma, followed by their initials with a full stop after each initial ¨ ¨ Year of publication in round brackets ¨ ¨ Title (and subtitle if applicable) of the composition in italics, followed by a full stop ¨ ¨ In square brackets put online ¨ ¨ Place of publication, followed by a colon ¨ ¨ Publisher, followed by a full stop ¨ ¨ Available from, followed by the web address ¨ ¨ In square brackets put Accessed and the date you accessed the art, followed by a full stop 2 Art 2 Art 2 Art Art 2.1 Art In-text citation (Bacon, 1961) Reference list Bacon, F.

(1961) Seated figure. [oil on canvas] London: Tate Modern. Checklist: ¨ ¨ Artist(s)’ surname, a comma, followed by their initials with a full stop after each initial ¨ ¨ Year of composition in round brackets ¨ ¨ Title of the composition in italics, followed by a full stop ¨ ¨ In square brackets put details of the format ¨ ¨ Location, followed by a colon ¨ ¨ Name of the collection, followed by a full stop 2 2. Year of composition in round brackets 4. In square brackets put details of the format 6. Name of the collection, followed by a full stop 1. Artist(s)’ surname, a comma, followed by their initials with a full stop after each initial 3.

Title of the composition in italics, followed by a full stop 5. Location, followed by a colon Bacon, F. (1961) Seated Figure. [oil on canvas] London: Tate Modern. Referencing Handbook: Harvard

A A Books 3.1 Book with a single author In-text citation (Cottrell, 2013) for the whole text (Cottrell, 2013, 156) when referring to a specific page (Cottrell, 2013, 156-158) when referring to a range of pages Reference list Cottrell, S. (2013) The study skills handbook. 4th edition. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. 3 Books 3 Cottrell, S. (2013) The study skills handbook. 4th edition. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. 2. Year of publication in round brackets 1. Author’s surname, followed by their initials with a full stop after each initial, or corporate author 3. Title (and subtitle if applicable) of book in italics, followed by a full stop 4.

Edition (only if not the first edition) followed by a full stop 5. Place of publication, followed by a colon 6. Publisher, followed by a full stop 2 Art 2.4 Performance art In-text citation (Abramovic, 2005) Reference list Abramovic, M. (2005) Seven easy pieces. [performance art] New York, USA: Guggenheim Museum, 9 November.

Checklist: ¨ ¨ Artist(s)’ surname, a comma, followed by their initials with a full stop after each initial ¨ ¨ Year of the performance in round brackets ¨ ¨ Title of the performance in italics, followed by a full stop ¨ ¨ In square brackets put performance art ¨ ¨ Place of performance, followed by a colon ¨ ¨ Name of the venue, followed by a comma ¨ ¨ Day and month of the performance, followed by a full stop 2.5 Artist’s film In-text citation (Magdy, 2012) Reference list Magdy, B. (2012) Time laughs back at you like a sunken ship. [Super 8 film transferred to HD video] 9 mins. 31 secs. London: Tate.

Checklist: ¨ ¨ Artist(s)’ surname, a comma, followed by their initials with a full stop after each initial ¨ ¨ Year of composition of the film in round brackets ¨ ¨ Title of the film in italics, followed by a full stop ¨ ¨ In square brackets give details of the format ¨ ¨ Length of film in minutes and seconds ¨ ¨ Location, followed by a colon ¨ ¨ Name of collection, followed by a full stop 2 Referencing Handbook: Harvard

A A 3 Books 3 3.4 Book without a named author If an author of a book is not named, replace the author’s name with the title of the book. In-text citation (A woman in Berlin, 2011) for whole text (A woman in Berlin, 2011, 176) when referring to a specific page (A woman in Berlin, 2011, 176-178) when referring to a range of pages Reference list A woman in Berlin. (2011) London: Virago Press. Checklist: ¨ ¨ Title (and subtitle if applicable) of book in italics, followed by a full stop ¨ ¨ Year of publication in round brackets ¨ ¨ Edition (only if not the first edition) followed by a full stop ¨ ¨ Place of publication, followed by a colon ¨ ¨ Publisher, followed by a full stop 3.5 Edited book In-text citation (Boardman et al, 2010) for whole text (Boardman et al, 2010, 39) when referring to a specific page (Boardman et al, 2010, 39-41) when referring to a page range Reference list Boardman, J., Currie, A., Killaspy, H.

and Mezey, G. (eds.) (2010) Social inclusion and mental health. London: RCPsych Publications. Checklist: ¨ ¨ Editor(s)’ surname, a comma, followed by their initials with a full stop after each initial ¨ ¨ Put ed. in round brackets. If it has more than one editor, use eds. ¨ ¨ Year of publication in round brackets ¨ ¨ Title (and subtitle if applicable) of book in italics, followed by a full stop ¨ ¨ Edition (only if not the first edition) followed by a full stop ¨ ¨ Place of publication, followed by a colon ¨ ¨ Publisher, followed by a full stop Books 3 Books 3.2 Book with two authors In-text citation Use both authors’ surnames (Ledger and Luckhurst, 2000) for the whole text (Ledger and Luckhurst, 2000, 24) when referring to a specific page (Ledger and Luckhurst, 2000, 24-48) when referring to a range of pages Reference list Ledger, S.

and Luckhurst, R. (2000) The fin de siècle: a reader in cultural history, c.1880-1900. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 3.3 Book with three or more authors In-text citation There is no need to use all of the authors’ names in your in-text citation, you can name just the first author followed by the words et al (which means ‘and others’). (Klug et al, 2012) for the whole text. (Klug et al, 2012, 46) when referring to a specific page (Klug et al, 2012, 46-48) when referring to a page range Reference list You need to name all the authors in the order they appear on the title page of the book.

Klug, W. S., Cummings, M.R., Spencer, C.A. and Palladino, M.A. (2012) Concept of genetics. 10th edition. Boston: Pearson. Checklist: ¨ ¨ Author(s)’ surname, a comma, followed by their initials with a full stop after each initial, or corporate author ¨ ¨ Year of publication in round brackets ¨ ¨ Title (and subtitle if applicable) of book in italics, followed by a full stop ¨ ¨ Edition (only if not the first edition) followed by a full stop ¨ ¨ Place of publication, followed by a colon ¨ ¨ Publisher, followed by a full stop 3 Referencing Handbook: Harvard

A A 3 Books 3 3.7 Introduction, foreword, afterword In-text citation (Beevor, 2011) Reference list Beevor, A. (2011) Introduction in A woman in Berlin. London: Virago Press. Checklist: ¨ ¨ Surname of author of introduction/foreword/afterword, a comma, followed by their initials with a full stop after each initial ¨ ¨ Year of publication in round brackets ¨ ¨ Introduction/foreword/afterword then in ¨ ¨ Title (and subtitle if applicable) of book in italics, followed by a full stop ¨ ¨ Edition (only if not the first edition) followed by full stop ¨ ¨ Place of publication, followed by a colon ¨ ¨ Publisher, followed by a full stop 3.8 Ebook In-text citation (MacLaren and Morton, 2012) for the whole text (MacLaren and Morton, 2012, 57) when referring to a specific page (MacLaren and Morton, 2012, 57-75) when referring to a page range Reference list MacLaren, D.

and Morton, J. (2012) Biochemistry for sport and exercise metabolism. [online] Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell. Available from https://www.dawsonera.com/ abstract/9780470091869 [Accessed 18 June 2013]. Checklist: ¨ ¨ Author/Editor(s)’ surname, a comma, followed by their initials with a full stop after each initial, or corporate author ¨ ¨ If the book has an editor, put ed. in round brackets. If it has more than one editor, use eds. ¨ ¨ Year of publication in round brackets ¨ ¨ Title (and subtitle if applicable) in italics, followed by a full stop ¨ ¨ Edition (only if not the first edition) followed by a full stop ¨ ¨ In square brackets put online ¨ ¨ Place of publication, followed by a colon ¨ ¨ Publisher, followed by a full stop ¨ ¨ Available from, followed by the web address ¨ ¨ In square brackets put Accessed and the date you accessed the ebook, followed by a full stop Books 3 Books 3.6 Chapter in an edited book In-text citation (Legge, 2007) for the whole chapter (Legge, 2007, 38) when referring to a specific page (Legge, 2007, 38-42) when referring to a page range Reference list Legge, K.

(2007) HRM: rhetoric, reality and hidden agendas. In: John Storey (ed.) Human resource management: a critical text. 3rd edition. London: Thomson, 33-62. 3 2. Year of publication in round brackets 1. Chapter author(s)’ surname, followed by a comma, followed by their initials with a full stop after each initial 3. Title of chapter, followed by a full stop 4. In, followed by a colon Checklist: ¨ ¨ Chapter author(s)’ surname, a comma, followed by their initials with a full stop after each initial ¨ ¨ Year of publication in round brackets ¨ ¨ Title of chapter, followed by a full stop ¨ ¨ In, followed by a colon ¨ ¨ Editor(s)’ first name and surname ¨ ¨ Put ed.

in round brackets. If it has more than one editor, use eds. ¨ ¨ Title (and subtitle if applicable) of book in italics, followed by a full stop ¨ ¨ Edition (only if not the first edition) followed by full stop ¨ ¨ Place of publication, followed by a colon ¨ ¨ Publisher, followed by a comma ¨ ¨ Page range, followed by a full stop Referencing Handbook: Harvard Legge, K. (2007) HRM: rhetoric, reality and hidden agendas. In: John Storey (ed.) Human resource management: a critical text. 3rd edition. London: Thomson, 33-62. 10. Publisher, followed by a colon 7. Title (and subtitle if applicable) of book in italics, followed by a full stop 8.

Edition (only if not the first edition) followed by a full stop 5. Editor(s)’ first name and surname 6. Put ed. in round brackets. If it has more than one editor use eds. 9. Place of publication, followed by a colon 11. Page range, followed by a full stop

A A 3 Books 3 3.11 Sacred texts When quoting from the Bible or any sacred text, you should name the title of the text followed by the book, chapter and verse. In-text citation (The Holy Bible, Genesis, 1:1) Reference list The Holy Bible containing the Old and New Testaments. [Authorised King James Version] (undated) London: Collins Bible. Checklist: ¨ ¨ Title (and subtitle if applicable) in italics, followed by a full stop ¨ ¨ Version (if applicable) in square brackets ¨ ¨ Year of publication in round brackets (if known, if not put undated) ¨ ¨ Place of publication, followed by a colon ¨ ¨ Publisher, followed by a full stop Books 3 Books 3.9 Ebook on a reader (Kindle, etc.) In-text citation (Hawking and Mlodinow, 2010) for whole text (Hawking and Mlodinow, 2010, chapter 2) when using a direct quotation from an ebook on a reader you should refer to the chapter number, because there are no page numbers.

Reference list Hawking, S. and Mlodinow, L. (2010) The grand design. [Kindle] London: Transworld Digital.

Checklist: ¨ ¨ Author/Editor(s)’ surname, a comma, followed by their initials with a full stop after each initial, or corporate author ¨ ¨ If the book has an editor, put ed. in round brackets. If it has more than one editor, use eds. ¨ ¨ Year of publication in round brackets ¨ ¨ Title (and subtitle if applicable) in italics, followed by a full stop ¨ ¨ Edition (only if not the first edition) followed by a full stop ¨ ¨ In square brackets give the type of ebook reader ¨ ¨ Place of publication, followed by a colon ¨ ¨ Publisher, followed by a full stop 3.10 Book review In-text citation (Palfreyman, 2012, 31) when referring to a specific page.

(Palfreyman, 2012, 31-33) when referring to a range of pages. Reference list Palfreyman, J. (2012) Successful mentoring in nursing by Liz Aston and Paula Hallam reviewed in Nursing Standard, 26(21) 31. Checklist: ¨ ¨ Reviewer(s)’ surname, a comma, followed by their initials with a full stop after each initial ¨ ¨ Year of publication of review in round brackets ¨ ¨ Title (and subtitle if applicable) of the book being reviewed ¨ ¨ Put by, then the author(s)’(of the book being reviewed) first name and surname ¨ ¨ Put reviewed in, followed by the title of the publication containing the review in italics, then a comma ¨ ¨ Volume number ¨ ¨ If there is a part, issue, month or season, put this information in round brackets ¨ ¨ Page numbers, followed by a full stop 3 Referencing Handbook: Harvard

A Conference papers In-text citation (Almorsy, M. et al, 2011) for the whole text (Almorsy, M. et al, 2011, 364) when referring to a specific page (Almorsy, M. et al, 2011, 364-366) when referring to a range of pages Reference list Almorsy, M., Grundy, J. and Ibrahim, A.S. (2011) Collaboration-based cloud computing security management framework. In: Ling Liu and Manish Parashar (eds.) Cloud 2011: IEEE 4th Interna- tional Conference on Cloud Computing, Washington D.C. 4-9 July, Washington D.C., USA: The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 364-371.

5 Conference Papers 5 2.

Year of publication in round brackets 1. Author(s)’ surname, a comma, followed by their initials with a full stop after each initial 3. Title (and subtitle if applicable) of conference paper, followed by a full stop 4. In, followed by a colon 5. Editor(s)’ first name and surname (if available) followed by ed. or eds. in round brackets 6. Title of the conference in italics, followed by a comma 7. Place and date of conference separated by commas 9. Publisher, followed by a comma 10. Page number(s), followed by a full stop 8. Place of publication, followed by a colon The Times 100 Business Case Studies (2010) Providing consumers with ethically sourced garments: a Primark case study.

[case study] Tadcaster: Business Case Studies LLP.

4 Case studies Case studies In-text citation (The Times 100 Business Case Studies, 2010) for whole text. (The Times 100 Business Case Studies, 2010, 77) when referring to a specific page (The Times 100 Business Case Studies, 2010, 76-79) when referring to a range of pages Reference list The Times 100 Business Case Studies (2010) Providing consumers with ethically sourced garments: a Primark case study. [case study] Tadcaster: Business Case Studies LLP. Checklist: ¨ ¨ Author/editor(s)’ surname, a comma, followed by their initials with a full stop after each initial, or corporate author ¨ ¨ If the book has an editor, put ed.

in round brackets. If it has more than one editor, use eds. ¨ ¨ Year of publication in round brackets ¨ ¨ Title (followed by a colon and subtitle if applicable) of book in italics, followed by a full stop ¨ ¨ In square brackets put case study ¨ ¨ Place of publication, followed by a colon ¨ ¨ Publisher, followed by a full stop ¨ ¨ If the case study is online put Available from, followed by the web address ¨ ¨ In square brackets put Accessed and the date you accessed the case study, followed by a full stop 4 Referencing Handbook: Harvard 2. Year of publication in round brackets 1. Author/editor(s)’ surname, a comma, followed by their initials with a full stop after each initial, or corporate author 3.

Title (followed by a colon and subtitle if applicable) of book in italics, followed by a full stop 5. Place of publication, followed by a colon 6. Publisher, followed by a full stop 4. In square brackets put case study Almorsy, M. Grundy, J. and Ibrahim, A.S. (2011) Collaboration-based cloud computing security management framework. In: Ling Liu and Manish Parashar (eds.) Cloud 2011: IEEE 4th International Conference on Cloud Computing, Washington D.C. 4-9 July, Washington D.C., USA: The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 364-371.

A Havenhand, J. (2013) Referencing help guide. [email] Sent to Helen Williams, 17 June. 6 Correspondence 6 Correspondence 6.1 Email You should seek permission from the sender before referring to personal emails in your academic work. In-text citation (Havenhand, 2013) Reference list Havenhand, J. (2013) Referencing help guide. [email] Sent to Helen Williams, 17 June. Checklist: ¨ ¨ Sender(s)’ surname, a comma, followed by their initials with a full stop after each initial ¨ ¨ Year the email was sent in round brackets ¨ ¨ Subject line or a short description, if more appropriate, in italics, followed by a full stop ¨ ¨ In square brackets put email ¨ ¨ Sent to, followed by recipient(s)’ first name and surname, followed by a comma ¨ ¨ Day and month the email was sent, followed by a full stop 2.

Year the email was sent in round brackets 3. Subject line or a short description, if more appropriate, in italics, followed by a full stop 4. In square brackets put email 1. Sender(s)’ surname, a comma, followed by their initials with a full stop after each initial 5. Sent to, followed by recipient(s)’ first name and surname, followed by a comma 6. Day and month the email was sent, followed by a full stop 5 Conference Papers 5 Referencing Handbook: Harvard Checklist: ¨ ¨ Author(s)’ surname, a comma, followed by their initials with a full stop after each initial ¨ ¨ Year of publication in round brackets ¨ ¨ Title (and subtitle if applicable) of conference paper, followed by a full stop ¨ ¨ In, followed by a colon ¨ ¨ Editor(s)’ first name and surname (if available) followed by ed.

or eds. in round brackets ¨ ¨ Title of the conference in italics, followed by a comma ¨ ¨ Place and date of conference separated by commas ¨ ¨ If the conference paper is unpublished, put unpublished in square brackets, followed by a full stop ¨ ¨ Place of publication, followed by a colon ¨ ¨ Publisher, followed by a comma ¨ ¨ Page number(s), followed by a full stop ¨ ¨ If the conference paper is online put Available from, followed by the web address ¨ ¨ In square brackets put Accessed and the date you accessed the paper, followed by a full stop

A 2. Year of performance in round brackets Dance In-text citation (English National Ballet, 2013) Reference list English National Ballet (2013) Petite mort. [performance] Jirí Kylián (chor.) London: Coliseum, 19 April. Checklist: ¨ ¨ Performer(s)’ first name and surname or company name ¨ ¨ Year of performance in round brackets ¨ ¨ Title of performance in italics, followed by a full stop ¨ ¨ In square brackets put performance ¨ ¨ Choreographer’s first name and surname ¨ ¨ Put chor. (abbreviation for choreographer) in round brackets ¨ ¨ Place of performance, followed by a colon ¨ ¨ Name of venue, followed by a comma ¨ ¨ Day and month of performance, followed by a full stop 7 Dance 7 3.

Title of performance in italics, followed by a full stop 4. In square brackets put performance 5. Choreographer’s first name and surname 1. Performer(s)’ first name and surname or company name English National Ballet (2013) Petite mort. [performance] Jirí Kylián (chor.) London: Coliseum, 19 April.

6. Put chor. (abbreviation for choreographer) in round brackets 7. Place of performance, followed by a colon 8. Name of venue, followed by a comma 9. Day and month of performance, followed by a full stop 6.2 Letter You should seek permission from the sender before referring to personal letters in your academic work. In-text citation (Lloyd George, 1913) Reference list Lloyd George, D. (1913) Political and military situation in Eastern Europe. [letter] Sent to Winston Churchill, 3 April. London: Churchill Archive. Available from http://www.churchillarchive.com/explore/ page?id=CHAR%2013%2F19%2F95 [Accessed 19 June 2013].

Checklist: ¨ ¨ Sender(s)’ surname, a comma, followed by their initials with a full stop after each initial ¨ ¨ Year in round brackets ¨ ¨ Give a short description of the content in italics, followed by a full stop ¨ ¨ In square brackets put letter ¨ ¨ Sent to, followed by the recipient(s)’ first name and surname, followed by a comma ¨ ¨ Day and month of letter followed by a full stop ¨ ¨ If the letter is in a collection put location of collection, followed by a colon ¨ ¨ Name of the collection (if applicable) followed by a full stop ¨ ¨ If the letter is online put Available from, followed by the web address ¨ ¨ In square brackets put Accessed and the date you accessed the letter, followed by a full stop 6.3 Mailing list In-text citation (Hicks, 2013) Reference list Hicks, B.

(2013) Participate in a survey to map dementia care research. [mailing list] Sent to NURSE-UK, 10 May. Available from https://www.jiscmail.ac.uk/cgi-bin/ webadmin?A2=ind1305&L=NURSE- UK&F=&S=&P=2039 [Accessed 19 June 2013].

Checklist: ¨ ¨ Sender(s)’ surname, a comma, followed by their initials with a full stop after each initial ¨ ¨ Year in round brackets ¨ ¨ Subject line or a short description, if more appropriate, in italics, followed by a full stop ¨ ¨ In square brackets put mailing list ¨ ¨ Sent to, followed by the mailing list name, followed by a comma ¨ ¨ Day and month of the posting, followed by a full stop ¨ ¨ Available from, followed by the web address ¨ ¨ In square brackets put Accessed and the date you accessed the mailing list, followed by a full stop 6 Correspondence 6 Referencing Handbook: Harvard

A 9 Film, television, radio Film, television, radio Checklist: ¨ ¨ Director(s)’ surname, a comma, followed by their initials with a full stop after each initial ¨ ¨ Put dir.

(abbreviation for director) in round brackets. If it has more than one director, use dirs. ¨ ¨ Year of release in round brackets ¨ ¨ Title in italics, followed by a full stop ¨ ¨ In square brackets put film ¨ ¨ Location of distributor (if known) followed by a colon ¨ ¨ Distribution company, followed by a full stop 9.1 Film In-text citation (Luhrmann, 2013) Reference list Luhrmann, B. (dir.) (2013) The great Gatsby. [film] London: Warner Bros. Luhrmann, B. (dir.) (2013) The great Gatsby. [film] London: Warner Bros.

3. Year of release in round brackets 4. Title in italics, followed by a full stop 5. In square brackets put film 6. Location of distributor (if known) followed by a colon 7. Distribution company, followed by a full stop 1. Director(s)’ surname, a comma, followed by their initials with a full stop after each initial 2. Put dir. (abbreviation for director) in round brackets. If it has more than one director, use dirs. 8 Diagrams, figures, images, tables Referencing Handbook: Harvard Diagrams, figures, images, tables If you reproduce any diagrams, figures, images or tables from a printed or an online source you should provide a caption, instead of an in-text citation, acknowledging its source.

For example, if you reproduced the table from page 1155 in Campbell Biology by Reece et al your caption would be: Summation of twitches from Reece at al (2011), 1155 You will also need to include the details of the source in your reference list – follow the relevant checklist for your source.

Reference list Reece, J.B., Urry, L., Cain, M., Wasserman, S.A., Minorsky, P. V. and Jackson, R.B. (2011) Campbell biology. 9th edition. Boston: Pearson. 9 8

A 9 Film, television, radio 9 Film, television, radio 9.4 DVD – television programme In-text citation (Doctor Who, 2013) Reference list Doctor Who (2013) [DVD] series 7, part 2. London: BBC. Checklist: ¨ ¨ Title of the programme in italics ¨ ¨ Year of production in round brackets ¨ ¨ In square brackets put DVD ¨ ¨ Episode/series number(s), if any, followed by a full stop ¨ ¨ Place of distribution, followed by a colon ¨ ¨ Distribution company, followed by a full stop 9.5 Off-air recordings In-text citation (Visions of the future, 2008) Reference list Visions of the future (2008) [off-air recording] BBC Four.

30 January, 00:55.

Checklist: ¨ ¨ Title of the programme in italics ¨ ¨ Year of production in round brackets ¨ ¨ In square brackets put off-air recording ¨ ¨ Broadcast channel, followed by a full stop ¨ ¨ Day and month of transmission, followed by a comma ¨ ¨ Time of transmission, using the 24 hour clock, followed by a full stop 9.6 Online archive of off-air recordings (e.g. Box of Broadcasts) In-text citation (Rupert Murdoch: Battle with Britain, 2013) Reference list Rupert Murdoch: Battle with Britain (2013) [online off-air recording] BBC Two. 28 April, 21:00. Available from http://bobnational.net/ programme php?archive=147494&view=flash_ player [Accessed 4 July 2013].

Checklist: ¨ ¨ Title of the programme in italics ¨ ¨ Year of production in round brackets ¨ ¨ In square brackets put online off-air recording ¨ ¨ Broadcast channel, followed by a full stop ¨ ¨ Day and month of transmission, followed by a comma ¨ ¨ Time of transmission, using the 24 hour clock, followed by a full stop ¨ ¨ Available from, followed by the web address ¨ ¨ In square brackets put Accessed and the date you accessed the programme, followed by a full stop 9 Film, television, radio 9 Referencing Handbook: Harvard 9.2 Broadcast television/radio In-text citation (My kidney and me, 2012) Reference list My kidney and me (2012) [online] 4OD.

6 August, 22:00. Available from http://www. channel4.com/programmes/my-kidney-and- me/4od [Accessed 1 July 2013]. Checklist: ¨ ¨ Title of the programme in italics ¨ ¨ Year of production in round brackets ¨ ¨ If the programme is online, put online in square brackets ¨ ¨ Episode/series number(s), if any, followed by a comma ¨ ¨ Broadcast channel, followed by a full stop ¨ ¨ Day and month of transmission, followed by a comma ¨ ¨ Time of transmission, using the 24 hour clock, followed by a full stop ¨ ¨ If the programme is online put Available from, followed by the web address ¨ ¨ In square brackets put Accessed and the date you accessed the programme, followed by a full stop 9.3 DVD – film In-text citation (Wegener, 1920) Reference list Wegener, P.

(dir.) (1920) Der Golem. [DVD] London: Eureka.

Checklist: ¨ ¨ Director’s surname, a comma, followed by their initials with a full stop after each initial ¨ ¨ Put dir. (abbreviation for director) in round brackets. If it has more than one director, use dirs. ¨ ¨ Year of release in round brackets ¨ ¨ Title of film in italics, followed by a full stop ¨ ¨ In square brackets put DVD ¨ ¨ Place of distribution, followed by a colon ¨ ¨ Distribution company, followed by a full stop

A 10 Interviews 10 10.1 Broadcast In-text citation (Twigg, 2013) Reference list Twigg, S. (2013) Free schools would remain open.

[interview] BBC One. Interviewed by Jeremy Vine, The Andrew Marr Show, 30 June. Interviews Checklist: ¨ ¨ Interviewee(s)’ surname, a comma, followed by their initials with a full stop after each initial ¨ ¨ Year of interview in round brackets ¨ ¨ Title, or short description if more appropriate, followed by a full stop ¨ ¨ In square brackets put interview ¨ ¨ Broadcast channel, followed by a full stop ¨ ¨ Interviewed by, followed by the interviewer(s)’ first name and surname then a comma ¨ ¨ Programme name in italics, followed by a comma ¨ ¨ Day and month of the interview, followed by a full stop ¨ ¨ If the interview is online put Available from, followed by the web address ¨ ¨ In square brackets put Accessed and the date you accessed the interview, followed by a full stop 2.

Year of interview in round brackets 3. Title, or short description if more appropriate, followed by a full stop 4. In square brackets put interview 5. Broadcast channel, followed by a full stop 6. Interviewed by, followed by the interviewer(s)’ name and surname then a comma 7. Programme name in italics, followed by a comma 8. Day and month of the interview, followed by a full stop 1. Interviewee(s)’ surname, a comma, followed by their initials with a full stop after each initial Twigg, S. (2013) Free schools would remain open. [interview] BBC One. Interviewed by Jeremy Vine, The Andrew Marr Show, 10 June 9 Film, television, radio 9 Referencing Handbook: Harvard 9.7 Amateur film In-text citation (Graber, 1977) Reference list Graber, S.

(dir.) (1977) The cat and the tune. [amateur film] Available from http://www.eafa. org.uk/catalogue/3965 [Accessed 1 July 2013]. Checklist: ¨ ¨ Director’s surname, a comma, followed by their initials with a full stop after each initial ¨ ¨ Put dir. (abbreviation for director) in round brackets. If it has more than one director, use dirs. ¨ ¨ In round brackets put date of production (if not known use undated) ¨ ¨ Title of the film in italics, followed by a full stop ¨ ¨ In square brackets put amateur film ¨ ¨ If the film is accessed online put Available from, followed by the web address ¨ ¨ In square brackets put Accessed and the date you accessed the film,followed by a full stop 9.8 Trailer In-text citation (Villeneuve, 2013) Reference list Villeneuve, D.

(dir.) (2013) Prisoners. [trailer] Available from http://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=bpXfcTF6iVk [Accessed 1 July 2013]. Checklist: ¨ ¨ Director’s surname, a comma, followed by their initials with a full stop after each initial ¨ ¨ Put dir. (abbreviation for director) in round brackets. If it has more than one director, use dirs. ¨ ¨ Date of release in round brackets ¨ ¨ Title of the film in italics, followed by a full stop ¨ ¨ In square brackets put trailer ¨ ¨ If the trailer is accessed online put Available from, followed by the web address ¨ ¨ In square brackets put Accessed and the date you accessed the trailer, followed by a full stop

A 11 Journals, magazines, periodicals 11 Journals, magazines, periodicals 11.1 Journal articles In-text citation (Battilana and Casciaro, 2013) for whole article (Battilana and Casciaro, 2013, 62) when referring to a single page (Battilana and Casciaro, 2013, 62-64) when referring to a range of pages Reference list Battilana, J. and Casciaro, T. (2013) The network secrets of great change agents. Harvard Business Review, 91(7) 62-68. Checklist: ¨ ¨ Author(s)’ surname, a comma, followed by their initials with a full stop after each initial – if there is more than one author, you should name all of them in the order they are given in the article ¨ ¨ Year of publication in round brackets ¨ ¨ Title (and subtitle if applicable) of article, followed by a full stop ¨ ¨ Title of journal in italics, followed by a comma ¨ ¨ Volume number ¨ ¨ If there is a part/issue/month/ season, put this information in round brackets ¨ ¨ Page numbers, followed by a full stop ¨ ¨ If the journal article is online put Available from, followed by the web address ¨ ¨ In square brackets put Accessed and the date you accessed the journal article, followed by a full stop 2.

Year of publication in round brackets 3. Title (and subtitle if applicable) of article, followed by a full stop 4. Title of journal in italics, followed by a comma 5. Volume number 6. If there is a part/issue/month/ season, put this information in round brackets 7. Page numbers, followed by a full stop 1. Author(s)’ surname, a comma, followed by their initials with a full stop after each initial - if there is more than one author, you should name all of them in the order they are given in the article Battilana, J. and Casciaro, T. (2013) The network secrets of great change agents. Harvard Business Review, 91(7) 62-68.

10 Interviews 10 10.2 Personal You should seek permission from the interviewee/interviewer before referring to a personal interview in your academic work.

In-text citation (Snowley, 2013) Reference list Snowley, I. (2013) Questions on referencing. [interview] Interviewed by Lys Ann Reiners, 1 July. Checklist: ¨ ¨ Interviewee(s)’ surname, a comma, followed by their initials with a full stop after each initial ¨ ¨ Year of interview in round brackets ¨ ¨ Title or short description, if more appropriate, in italics, followed by a full stop ¨ ¨ In square brackets put interview ¨ ¨ Interviewed by, followed by the interviewer(s)’ first name and surname, followed by a comma ¨ ¨ Day and month of the interview, followed by a full stop Referencing Handbook: Harvard

A 12 Law 12 Law Law students should follow the Oxford Standard for the Citation of Legal Authorities (OSCOLA) as this is the Law School’s preferred style of referencing. Below are guidelines for non-law students who need to refer to legal publications using Harvard. 12.1 Cases (Law Reports) You should refer to cases by their party names and year in your in-text citation. This information will be available at the beginning of a Law Report. In-text citation (Pepper v Hart, 1993) Reference list You should include the party names, year and information about where the case has been reported in your reference list exactly as it appears at the beginning of a Law Report.

Pepper v Hart [1993] AC 593.

Checklist: ¨ ¨ Party names (separated by a v) in italics ¨ ¨ Year the case was heard (in round or square brackets – follow the style given in the Law Report) ¨ ¨ Volume number, if applicable ¨ ¨ Abbreviation of Law Report series or, for a neutral citation, the Court and Division where the case was heard ¨ ¨ Page number or, for a neutral citation, case number, followed by a full stop 1. Party names (separated by a v) in italics 2. Year the case was heard (in round or square brackets – follow the style given in the Law Report) 3. Abbreviation of Law Report series or, for a neutral citation, the Court and Division where the case was heard 3.

Page number or, for a neutral citation, case, followed by a full stop Pepper v Hart [1993] AC 593. 11 Journals, magazines, periodicals 11 Referencing Handbook: Harvard 11.2 Pre-prints You may find articles in a repository, or on a publisher’s website, which have been made available online before they have been submitted for peer review or published in a journal.

In-text citation (Risler and Basun, 2013) for the whole article Reference list Risler, T. and Basun, M. (2013) Morphological instabilities of stratified epithelia: a mechanical instability in tumour formation. [pre-print] Submitted to New Journal of Physics. Available from http://arxiv.org/pdf/1306.5676v1.pdf [Accessed 28 June 2013]. Checklist: ¨ ¨ Author(s)’ surname, a comma, followed by their initials with a full stop after each initial – if there is more than one author, you should name all of them in the order they are given in the article ¨ ¨ Year of writing in round brackets ¨ ¨ Title (and subtitle if applicable) of article, followed by a full stop ¨ ¨ In square brackets put pre-print ¨ ¨ Submitted to (if this information is with the article) ¨ ¨ Title of journal (if available) in italics, followed by a full stop ¨ ¨ Available from, followed by the web address ¨ ¨ In square brackets put Accessed and the date you accessed the pre-print, followed by a full stop 11.3 Post-prints/articles in press Post-prints and articles in press have been submitted for peer review and accepted for publication but have not yet been published in a specific journal issue.

Publishers will often assign a DOI (digital object identifier) to uniquely identify the record.

In-text citation (Tusting et al, 2013) for the whole article Reference list Tusting, L.S., Willey, B., Lucas, H., Thompson, J., Kafy, H.T., Smith, R. and Lindsay, S.W. (2013) Socioeconomic development as an intervention against malaria: a systematic review and meta-analysis. [in press] The Lancet. Available from http://www.thelancet. com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140- 6736(13)60851-X/fulltext#article_upsell [Accessed 1 July 2013]. Checklist: ¨ ¨ Author(s)’ surname, a comma, followed by their initials with a full stop after each initial – if there is more than one author, you should name all of them in the order they are given in the article ¨ ¨ Year of writing in round brackets ¨ ¨ Title (and subtitle if applicable) of article, followed by a full stop ¨ ¨ In square brackets put post-print/ in press ¨ ¨ Title of journal in italics, followed by a full stop ¨ ¨ Available from, followed by the web address/DOI ¨ ¨ In square brackets put Accessed and the date you accessed the article, followed by a full stop