Report on Switzerland - Global Global Entrepreneurship Monitor 2020 / 2021

 
Report on Switzerland - Global Global Entrepreneurship Monitor 2020 / 2021
Global
Acknowledgments
        Entrepreneurship
        Global              Monitor
               Entrepreneurship
                Monitor 2020 / 2021
                 2018 / 2019
For a study of this scope, an extra-    elements of this report are based
ordinary contribution on the part of    on the results of the global report
many individuals is necessary. Most     written by Niels Bosma, Stephen
                 Report on Switzerland
importantly, the authors would like     Hill, Aileen Ionescu-Somers, Donna
to thank Project Managers, Raphaël      Kelley, Jonathan Levie, and Anna
Gaudart and Gabriel Simonet, for        Tarnawa of the Global Entrepreneur-
their efficient and effective coordi-   ship Research Association GERA –
nation at the School of Management      Global Entrepreneurship Monitor
Fribourg (HEG-FR).                      2019 / 20 Global Report.

The authors are also grateful to        The report is available online at
GEM project’s coordination team,        www.gemconsortium.org and at
in particular, Chris Aylett, Jonathan   www.heg-fr.ch/GEM. All data used
Carmona, Alicia Coduras, Slavica        in this report are collected and pro-
Singer and Forrest Wright, as well      cessed centrally by the GEM con-
as the sponsors of the GEM project      sortium. The authors have exclusive
at Babson College, Babson Park,         responsibility for evaluating and in-
MA (USA) and the Korea Entrepre-        terpreting the data.
neurship Foundation, Korea. Some

                                                                                1
Management
      Management Summary
                 Summary//Key
                          Key Results
                              Results

      The
       The School
             School of of Management
                           Management FribourgFribourg      perception
                                                             perception of  of capabilities
                                                                                capabilities than
                                                                                               than in
                                                                                                     in
      (HEG-FR),
       (HEG-FR), member
                      member of   of the
                                      the University
                                            University      the
                                                             the previous
                                                                   previous years
                                                                               years (2018:
                                                                                       (2018: 36.3
                                                                                                36.3%;
                                                                                                     %;
      of
       ofApplied
          AppliedSciences
                     Sciencesand andArtsArtsWestern
                                              Western       2017:
                                                             2017: 42.1
                                                                    42.1%)
                                                                         %) but
                                                                              but Switzerland’s
                                                                                   Switzerland’s per-
                                                                                                   per-
      Switzerland
       Switzerland(HES-SO),
                        (HES-SO),collected
                                      collecteddata
                                                  data      ception
                                                             ception ofof capabilities
                                                                          capabilities isis below
                                                                                            below the
                                                                                                    the
      for
       forthe
           theinternational
                internationalGlobalGlobalEntrepre-
                                             Entrepre-      European
                                                             European benchmark,
                                                                          benchmark, and  and clearly
                                                                                                clearly
      neurship
       neurship Monitor
                     Monitor (GEM).
                                (GEM). 20152015 tele-
                                                  tele-     behind
                                                             behind thethe very
                                                                             very strong
                                                                                    strong belief
                                                                                              belief of
                                                                                                     of
      phone
       phone interviews
                 interviews and and 36 36 talks
                                           talks with
                                                   with     Americans
                                                             Americans in  in their
                                                                               their own
                                                                                     own capacity
                                                                                           capacity to
                                                                                                     to
      experts
       experts revealed
                     revealed entrepreneurial
                                    entrepreneurial         start
                                                             start aa business
                                                                      business (65.5
                                                                                  (65.5%).
                                                                                        %). The
                                                                                             The same
                                                                                                  same
      attitudes,
       attitudes, activities
                     activities andand aspirations,
                                         aspirations,       is
                                                             istrue
                                                                trueof
                                                                     ofpeople
                                                                        peoplein inSlovenia,
                                                                                    Slovenia,Canada,
                                                                                               Canada,
      and
       and identified
              identified thethe factors
                                 factors influenc-
                                             influenc-      Australia,
                                                             Australia,and
                                                                         andUK.UK.
      ing
       ing the
            the type
                  type and
                        and extent
                              extent of of the
                                            the entre-
                                                entre-
      preneurial
       preneurial activities.
                      activities.TheThe 2019
                                          2019//2020
                                                  2020      The
                                                             The entrepreneurial
                                                                    entrepreneurial intentions
                                                                                           intentions of    of
      Global
       Global Entrepreneurship
                   Entrepreneurship Monitor   Monitor       Swiss
                                                             Swiss inhabitants
                                                                       inhabitants are  are higher
                                                                                             higher thanthan
      Report
       Reporton  onSwitzerland
                     Switzerlandillustrates
                                      illustratesna-na-     in
                                                             in previous
                                                                 previous years,
                                                                             years, but
                                                                                     but still
                                                                                           still below
                                                                                                 below thethe
      tional
       tional differences
                differences in  in entrepreneurial
                                    entrepreneurial         average
                                                             average of   of high-income
                                                                             high-income economies,
                                                                                               economies,
      activity
       activity11 between
                   between economies,
                               economies, reveal-
                                               reveal-      contrasting
                                                             contrastingsharply
                                                                             sharplywithwithpeople
                                                                                              peoplein  inIs-
                                                                                                           Is-
      ing
       ing the
             the factors
                   factors that
                              that determine
                                     determine the  the     rael
                                                             raelororRepublic
                                                                      Republicof  ofKorea.
                                                                                     Korea.Perceptions
                                                                                              Perceptions
      nature
       natureandandlevel
                      levelofofnational
                                nationalentrepre-
                                             entrepre-      and
                                                             and intentions
                                                                    intentions are are combined,
                                                                                         combined, with  with
      neurial
       neurialactivity,
                  activity,and
                            andidentifying
                                  identifyingpolicy
                                                 policy     the
                                                             the challenge
                                                                  challenge being
                                                                                being toto see
                                                                                           see entrepre-
                                                                                                  entrepre-
      implications
       implications for  for enhancing
                             enhancing entrepre-
                                             entrepre-      neurship
                                                             neurship as   as aa good
                                                                                  good career
                                                                                          career choice.
                                                                                                     choice.
      neurship
       neurshipin   inSwitzerland.
                       Switzerland.                         Only
                                                             Only 40.2
                                                                     40.2%  % view
                                                                                view entrepreneurship
                                                                                       entrepreneurship
                                                            as
                                                             as anan interesting
                                                                      interesting pathway
                                                                                      pathway for  for one’s
                                                                                                        one’s
      Self-perception
       Self-perceptionabout
                          about                             professional
                                                             professional future future compared
                                                                                           compared to      to
      Entrepreneurship
       Entrepreneurship                                     85.8
                                                             85.8% % in in Netherlands
                                                                            Netherlands or   or 69.2
                                                                                                  69.2% % inin
      Perception
       Perception of of opportunities
                        opportunities isis at
                                           at aa            Canada.
                                                             Canada. On   On the
                                                                              the other
                                                                                   other side,
                                                                                            side, the
                                                                                                    the sta-
                                                                                                         sta-
      low
       low level,
            level, with
                   with those
                         those interviewed
                                interviewed inin            tus
                                                             tusofofaasuccessful
                                                                        successfulentrepreneur
                                                                                       entrepreneurand   and
      Spain
       Spain recognizing
               recognizing the
                            the fewest
                                 fewest entre-
                                         entre-             media
                                                             media attention
                                                                      attention for for entreprenership
                                                                                         entreprenership
      preneurial
       preneurial opportunities.
                     opportunities. Switzer-
                                       Switzer-             are
                                                             areatataagood
                                                                        goodlevel,
                                                                               level,and
                                                                                      andfear
                                                                                           fearof offailure
                                                                                                      failure
      land
       land shows,
              shows, with
                       with 49.2
                             49.2%,
                                  %, aa higher
                                        higher              is
                                                             islower
                                                                lowerthanthanininprevious
                                                                                  previousyears.
                                                                                              years.

      © Copyright 2021
      11
        Entrepreneurship
         Entrepreneurshipisn’t
                          isn’tonly
                                onlyabout
                                     aboutfocusing
                                           focusingon
                                                    onthe
                                                       thestart-up
                                                           start-upphase,
                                                                    phase,but
                                                                           butalso
                                                                               alsoabout
                                                                                    aboutbeing
                                                                                          beingseen
                                                                                                seenas
                                                                                                     asaa
      R. Baldegger, R. Gaudart and P. Wild
           mindset
           mindsetin
                   inyoung,
                      young,growing,
                             growing,mature
                                     maturecompanies,
                                            companies,or
                                                       orcompanies
                                                          companiesgoing
                                                                    goingthrough
                                                                          throughchange.
                                                                                  change.

266
Acknowledgments
Acknowledgments

  Foraaastudy
 For
For      studyof
         study    ofthis
                  of  thisscope,
                     this    scope,an
                            scope,    anextra-
                                     an    extra-
                                          extra-        elements
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                                                       elements           this  report are
                                                                            available
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                                                                                             based
                                                                                        online   at
  ordinarycontribution
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              contributionon   on  the
                                ofthethe part
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  manyindividuals
         individuals
 Switzerland
many              teamisisandnecessary.     Most
                                our partners,
                            necessary.    Most          written by by Niels
                                                      www.heg-fr.ch/GEM.
                                                       written           Niels Bosma,
                                                                                 Bosma,   Stephen
                                                                                   All data   used
                                                                                         Stephen
  importantly,
 Impact    Hub the
importantly,       theauthors
                        authorswould
                 Switzerland,       wouldEco-
                                   Swiss      like
                                            like      inHill,
                                                         this
                                                       Hill,  Aileen    Ionescu-Somers,
                                                               reportIonescu-Somers,
                                                             Aileen      are collected and   Donna
                                                                                               pro-
                                                                                           Donna
totothank
     thank
 nomic        Project
           Forum
             Project    Managers,
                      and              Raphaël
                             Swiss Raphaël
                       Managers,       start-up         Kelley, Jonathan
                                                      cessed
                                                       Kelley,   Jonathanby
                                                                centrally       Levie,  and Anna
                                                                                  the and
                                                                               Levie,  GEM    Anna
                                                                                              con-
  Gaudartisand
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               the focus
                    Gabriel     Simonet,
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                               Simonet,        for      TarnawaThe
                                                      sortium.
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                                                                       the  Globalhave
                                                                         authors
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                                                                                      data used
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 ten   by Niels
  Carmona,
Carmona,            Bosma,
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                           Coduras,
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                                         Slavica
                                        Slavica       ininthis
                                                           thisreport
                                                                reportarearecollected
                                                                             collectedand
                                                                                        andpro-
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 Aileen
Singer    Ionescu-Somers,
  Singer and
           and Forrest
                  Forrest Wright, Donna
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atat Babsonof the
       Babson        Global Babson
                   College,
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                               Babson Park, Park,       responsibilityfor
                                                      responsibility     forevaluating
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                                                                                         andin-
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 ship
MA       Research
  MA (USA)
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                      the                 GERA
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                                                                         data.
 –neurship
    Global Foundation,
neurship      Entrepreneurship
               Foundation, Korea.
                                Korea. Monitor
                                           Some
                                         Some
 2020/21 Global Report.

                                                                                                      131
About the Authors
      Management
      Management   Summary
                   Summary//Key
                            Key Results
                                Results

      Rico
      The     J. Baldegger
       The School
             School      of
                          of Management
                              Management Fribourg   Fribourg    Raphaël
                                                                 perception
                                                                  perception  Gaudart
                                                                                  of
                                                                                   of capabilities
                                                                                       capabilities than   than in  in
      As   Professor
      (HEG-FR),
       (HEG-FR),       memberof Strategy,
                        member        of   the Innovation
                                       of the   University
                                                 University     AstheAssociate
                                                                 the     previous Professor
                                                                        previous      years
                                                                                      years (2018:   and 36.3
                                                                                                 (2018:      Board
                                                                                                            36.3  %;
                                                                                                                   %;
      and
      of     Entrepreneurship
       ofApplied
          Applied      Sciences
                       Sciencesand     andatArts
                                               theWestern
                                             Arts    School
                                                    Western     Member
                                                                 2017:
                                                                  2017: 42.1 of the
                                                                           42.1  %) School
                                                                                %)  but        of Management
                                                                                     but Switzerland’s
                                                                                            Switzerland’s       per-
                                                                                                                 per-
      of  Management
      Switzerland
       Switzerland               Fribourg
                          (HES-SO),
                           (HES-SO),          (member
                                          collected
                                           collected       of
                                                        data
                                                        data    Fribourg
                                                                 ception
                                                                  ception of  (member
                                                                              of            of the
                                                                                 capabilities
                                                                                 capabilities      is  University
                                                                                                    is below
                                                                                                        below the the
      the
      for  University
       forthe
           theinternational  of Applied
                 international              Sciences
                                       Global
                                        Global           and
                                                 Entrepre-
                                                  Entrepre-     of   Applied Sciences
                                                                 European
                                                                  European       benchmark,
                                                                                 benchmark,    andand Arts clearly
                                                                                                     and     West-
                                                                                                             clearly
      Arts   Western
      neurship
       neurship       MonitorSwitzerland
                       Monitor      (GEM).
                                     (GEM). 2015[HES-SO]),
                                                2015 tele-
                                                        tele-   ern
                                                                 behindSwitzerland
                                                                  behind     the
                                                                              the very
                                                                                    very[HES-SO]),
                                                                                             strong
                                                                                             strong beliefRaphaël
                                                                                                         belief    of
                                                                                                                    of
      Rico
      phone
       phone  J. interviews
                  Baldegger
                  interviews and   directs
                                    and 36  36the
                                                talksSchool
                                                 talks  with
                                                         with   Gaudart
                                                                 Americans
                                                                  Americans  leadsin the
                                                                                 in  their
                                                                                      theirMaster
                                                                                              own     of Science
                                                                                               own capacity
                                                                                                      capacity     to
                                                                                                                    to
      of  Management
      experts
       experts        revealed
                       revealed   Fribourg       (HEG-FR).
                                        entrepreneurial
                                         entrepreneurial        in   Business
                                                                 start
                                                                  start  aa businessAdministration,
                                                                             business     (65.5
                                                                                           (65.5%).     TheMajor
                                                                                                  %). The     same
                                                                                                              same
      He   graduated
      attitudes,
       attitudes,             from the
                       activities
                        activities      andUniversity
                                       and    aspirations,
                                              aspirations, of   inisEntrepreneurship
                                                                 is true
                                                                     trueofofpeople
                                                                               peoplein        ProgramCanada,
                                                                                         inSlovenia,
                                                                                             Slovenia,      at the
                                                                                                           Canada,
      St.
       andGallen
      and    identified
              identifiedand theobtained
                                the factors
                                       factors hisinfluenc-
                                                     doctor-
                                                   influenc-    School
                                                                 Australia,
                                                                  Australia, ofandManagement
                                                                                and  UK.
                                                                                      UK.                Fribourg
      ate
      ing   from
       ing the
            the type  theand
                   type      University
                           and    extent
                                  extent of   ofthe
                                             of   Fribourg.
                                                 the  entre-
                                                       entre-   (HEG-FR). He teaches undergradu-
      He   is the author
      preneurial
       preneurial       activities.
                        activities.of numerous
                                        The
                                         The 2019       pub-
                                               2019//2020
                                                        2020    ates
                                                                  The &entrepreneurial
                                                                 The      graduates withinintentions
                                                                         entrepreneurial           his research
                                                                                                  intentions       of
                                                                                                                    of
      lications
      Global          on entrepreneurship
       Global Entrepreneurship
                     Entrepreneurship                    and
                                                    Monitor
                                                    Monitor     interests
                                                                 Swiss         around Entrepreneurship
                                                                  Swiss inhabitants
                                                                            inhabitants       are
                                                                                              are higher
                                                                                                     higher thanthan
      innovation,
      Report
       Reporton             internationalization
                  onSwitzerland
                       Switzerland        illustrates
                                           illustratesna-  of
                                                          na-   and
                                                                 in     Innovation,
                                                                  in previous
                                                                     previous     years,and
                                                                                 years,    but    coaches
                                                                                            but still
                                                                                                  still  belowdif-
                                                                                                        below    the
                                                                                                                  the
      SMEs,
      tional     and entrepreneurship
       tional differences
                differences        in                educa-
                                     in entrepreneurial
                                         entrepreneurial        ferent
                                                                 average
                                                                  average  Student
                                                                              of       Start-ups.
                                                                              of high-income
                                                                                  high-income            Raphaël
                                                                                                     economies,
                                                                                                      economies,
      tion.  Moreover,
      activity
       activity  11
                    between
                     between  he is   a serial entrepre-
                                   economies,
                                   economies,        reveal-
                                                      reveal-   holds    an MSc,
                                                                 contrasting
                                                                  contrasting        BA Major
                                                                                  sharply
                                                                                  sharply     within
                                                                                             with       Entrepre-
                                                                                                    people
                                                                                                     people    in
                                                                                                                inIs-
                                                                                                                   Is-
      neur,
      ing
       ing theas is
             the       demonstrated
                    factors
                     factors     that         by the many
                                  that determine
                                          determine      the
                                                          the   neurship,
                                                                 rael
                                                                  raelor       MIT Executive
                                                                        orRepublic
                                                                           Republic    of
                                                                                       ofKorea.       Certificate
                                                                                            Korea.Perceptions
                                                                                                     Perceptions
      companies
      nature
       natureand         he has
                  andlevel
                         level  of    created,entrepre-
                                 ofnational
                                     national      but also
                                                  entrepre-     in
                                                                 and
                                                                  andStrategy
                                                                        intentions
                                                                         intentions& Innovation,
                                                                                        are
                                                                                        are combined,
                                                                                                combined,and with
                                                                                                                has
                                                                                                                 with
      by  his activities
      neurial
       neurial    activity,
                   activity,andas
                                and aidentifying
                                       business
                                       identifyingangel.
                                                       policy
                                                       policy   10+
                                                                 the   years of industry
                                                                  the challenge
                                                                       challenge     being
                                                                                     being to  toexperience
                                                                                                  see
                                                                                                  see entrepre-
                                                                                                         entrepre- in
      implications
       implications for
                     for enhancing
                         enhancing entrepre-
                                   entrepre-                    various
                                                                 neurship
                                                                  neurship   companies,
                                                                               as      goodfrom
                                                                                as aa good      career
                                                                                                 career start-ups
                                                                                                           choice.
                                                                                                            choice.
      neurship
       neurshipininSwitzerland.
                   Switzerland.                                 to  international
                                                                 Only
                                                                  Only   40.2
                                                                          40.2%  % viewones.
                                                                                     view   entrepreneurship
                                                                                             entrepreneurship
                                                                as
                                                                 as an
                                                                     an interesting
                                                                          interesting pathway
                                                                                         pathway forfor one’s
                                                                                                        one’s
      Self-perception
       Self-perceptionabout
                          about                                 professional
                                                                 professional futurefuture compared
                                                                                             compared to   to
      Entrepreneurship
       Entrepreneurship                                         85.8
                                                                 85.8% % inin Netherlands
                                                                              Netherlands or   or 69.2
                                                                                                  69.2% % inin
      Perception
       Perception of of opportunities
                        opportunities isis at
                                           at aa                Canada.
                                                                 Canada. On  On the
                                                                                 the other
                                                                                      other side,
                                                                                              side, the
                                                                                                     the sta-
                                                                                                         sta-
      low
       low level,
            level, with
                   with those
                         those interviewed
                                interviewed inin                tus
                                                                 tusofofaasuccessful
                                                                           successfulentrepreneur
                                                                                          entrepreneurand and
      Spain
       Spain recognizing
               recognizing the
                            the fewest
                                 fewest entre-
                                         entre-                 media
                                                                 media attention
                                                                          attention forfor entreprenership
                                                                                           entreprenership
      preneurial
       preneurial opportunities.
                     opportunities. Switzer-
                                       Switzer-                 are
                                                                 areatataagood
                                                                           goodlevel,
                                                                                  level,and
                                                                                         andfear
                                                                                             fearofoffailure
                                                                                                      failure
      land
       land shows,
              shows, with
                       with 49.2
                             49.2%,
                                  %, aa higher
                                        higher                  is
                                                                 islower
                                                                    lowerthan
                                                                            thanininprevious
                                                                                     previousyears.
                                                                                                years.

      11
           Entrepreneurship
           Entrepreneurshipisn’t
                            isn’tonly
                                  onlyabout
                                       aboutfocusing
                                             focusingon
                                                      onthe
                                                         thestart-up
                                                             start-upphase,
                                                                      phase,but
                                                                             butalso
                                                                                 alsoabout
                                                                                      aboutbeing
                                                                                            beingseen
                                                                                                  seenas
                                                                                                       asaa
           mindset
           mindsetin
                   inyoung,
                      young,growing,
                             growing,mature
                                     maturecompanies,
                                            companies,or
                                                       orcompanies
                                                          companiesgoing
                                                                    goingthrough
                                                                          throughchange.
                                                                                  change.

466
Acknowledgments
Acknowledgments

 Pascal
For        Wildofofthis
  Foraastudy
          study         thisscope,
                               scope,an  anextra-
                                             extra-       elements ofof this
                                                         elements         this report
                                                                                report are
                                                                                        are based
                                                                                             based
 As   an associate
  ordinary
ordinary       contribution
             contribution    professor
                                  onthe
                                 on         at
                                            partthe
                                       thepart    ofof    onthe
                                                         on    theresults
                                                                   resultsofofthe
                                                                                theglobal
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                                                                                             report
 School
many        of Management
  manyindividuals
          individuals                 in Fribourg
                          isisnecessary.
                                necessary.    Most
                                             Most         written by
                                                         written    by Niels
                                                                         Niels Bosma,
                                                                                 Bosma, Stephen
                                                                                          Stephen
 (University
  importantly,of
importantly,       theApplied
                     the   authors
                         authors  Sciences
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GEM              He has
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                                                         www.gemconsortium.org             and atat
 GEM
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  inparticular,
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                    Chris            since
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                                        Jonathan           www.heg-fr.ch/GEM.All
                                                         www.heg-fr.ch/GEM.         All data
                                                                                         data used
                                                                                               used
 where
  Carmona,
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 yses
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  at Babson
      Babson              regional
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 the  impact
  neurship
neurship            of economic
                 Foundation,
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                                   Korea.
                                  Korea.     Some
                                            Some  on
 entrepreneurship. He earned his PhD
 in Socioeconomics at the University
 of Geneva and holds a Master
 of Science in Entrepreneurship from
 the University of Applied Scienc-
 es Fribourg. He publishes regularly
 in scientific journals and contrib-
 utes to a variety of books. Besides
 the GEM Study on Switzerland, he
 co-authors the Swiss Internation-
 al Entrepreneurship Survey (SIES),
 a major survey in the field of SME
 internationalization.

                                                                                                        151
TABLE OF CONTENTS
      Management
      Management Summary
                  Summary//Key
                           Key Results
                               Results

      Acknowledgments
      The
       The School
             School of          . . . . . . . . . . . Fribourg
                       of Management
                          Management                  .Fribourg
                                                        . . . . . . . . . . . . .perception
                                                                                      . . . . . . . . . . . . . .of
                                                                                      perception                           . . . capabilities
                                                                                                                          of      .capabilities
                                                                                                                                     . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .than      . . . .. in
                                                                                                                                                                           than          3in
      (HEG-FR),
       (HEG-FR),
      About          member
                      member. ..
                the Authors       ofof. .the. . . .University
                                          .the      . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .the
                                                    University                        . . . . .previous
                                                                                      the             . . . . . . . . . . .years
                                                                                                   .previous                       . . . . . . . (2018:
                                                                                                                                 years                 . . . . . . . .36.3
                                                                                                                                                     .(2018:                   . . . . %;
                                                                                                                                                                            .36.3       %;
                                                                                                                                                                                         4
      of
       ofApplied
          AppliedSciences
                     Sciencesand   andArts   ArtsWestern
                                                       Western 2017:                  2017: 42.1        42.1%)       %) but    but Switzerland’s
                                                                                                                                           Switzerland’s per-                        per-
      Management Summary / Key Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 8
      Switzerland
       Switzerland(HES-SO),
                        (HES-SO),collectedcollecteddata        data ception           ception of               of capabilities
                                                                                                                       capabilities is                      is belowbelow the          the
      for
       forthe
           theinternational
                 internationalGlobal GlobalEntrepre- Entrepre- European               European benchmark,              benchmark, and                         and clearly     clearly
      neurship
      1neurship     Monitor
                    Monitor (GEM).
              Recommendations   (GEM).       for 2015
                                                  2015
                                                     Policy   tele-
                                                               tele-
                                                                   and Practice      behind
                                                                                      behind. . the             . . . . .very
                                                                                                              .the              . . . . . .strong
                                                                                                                             .very              . . . . . . . . .belief
                                                                                                                                               strong                 belief
                                                                                                                                                                       . . . . . . 15   ofof
      phone
       phone interviews
                 interviews andand 36       36 talks
                                                   talks with   with Americans        Americans in                      in their their own       own capacity   capacity to              to
      experts
       experts revealed
                     revealed entrepreneurial
                                      entrepreneurial start                           start aa business     business (65.5               (65.5%).        %). The    The same     same
      2attitudes,
              Entrepreneurial
      attitudes,     activities
                     activities and   Attitudes
                                     and      aspirations,
                                               aspirations, and Perception.          is
                                                                                      istruetrueof       .of
                                                                                                           . .people
                                                                                                                .people
                                                                                                                   . . . . . . . in  .in. .Slovenia,
                                                                                                                                             .Slovenia,
                                                                                                                                               . . . . . . . . . .Canada,. . . . . 18
                                                                                                                                                                         Canada,
      and
       and identified
              identified
              2.1          the
                            the factors
                    Entrepreneurialfactors           influenc-
                                                      influenc-
                                                Attitudes           .. . . . . . . . Australia,
                                                                                       . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and
                                                                                     .Australia,                     . . . . . UK.
                                                                                                                   .and        . UK.
                                                                                                                                 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

      ing
       ing the2.2type
            the   type and
                        and extent
                              extent of
                    Self-perception          ofand the     entre-
                                                    theentrepreneurial
                                                            entre-                                  talent.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
      preneurial
       preneurial activities.
                      activities.The  The 2019  2019//2020    2020 The                The entrepreneurial
                                                                                                     entrepreneurial intentions                         intentions of                     of
      Global
       Global Entrepreneurship
                   Entrepreneurship Monitor             Monitor Swiss                 Swiss inhabitants    inhabitants are                      are higher    higher than           than
      3Report
      Report  Why onDo
                 on     People Start
                    Switzerland
                     Switzerland                or Run ana-
                                         illustrates
                                           illustrates             Business?.
                                                                  na-                in
                                                                                      in previous  . . . . . . . .years,
                                                                                             previous                   .years,
                                                                                                                           . . . . . . but.but
                                                                                                                                             . . . .still
                                                                                                                                                       .still
                                                                                                                                                          . . . .below
                                                                                                                                                                    .below
                                                                                                                                                                       . . . . . . the 24
                                                                                                                                                                                       the
      tional
       tional differences
                differences in in entrepreneurial
                                      entrepreneurial average                         average of                of high-income
                                                                                                                         high-income economies,                 economies,
      activity
       activity11 between
                   between economies,
                               economies, reveal-         reveal- contrasting         contrastingsharply                 sharplywith            withpeople    peoplein             inIs-Is-
      4       Entrepreneurial Activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
      ing
       ing the
             the factors
                   factors that
                             that determine
                                         determine the            the rael            raelor      orRepublic
                                                                                                          Republicof                ofKorea.
                                                                                                                                           Korea.Perceptions   Perceptions
      nature  4.1   Total Early-Stage              Entrepreneurial                           Activity              (TEA)         . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
       natureand andlevel
                      levelofofnational
                                nationalentrepre-    entrepre- and                    and intentions intentions are                   are combined,combined, with                    with
      neurial
       neurial4.2activity,
                    Established
                  activity,and         Businesspolicy
                            andidentifying
                                   identifying               Ownership
                                                            policy                   the
                                                                                      the .. . .challenge
                                                                                                 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .being
                                                                                                 challenge .being                . . . . . . . .to
                                                                                                                                                 . . . .see
                                                                                                                                                 to see              . . . . . . . . . 30
                                                                                                                                                         . . . . . .entrepre-
                                                                                                                                                                     entrepre-
      implications    for
                       for enhancing
            4.3 Industry
       implications                     entrepre-
                                         entrepre- .. . . neurship
                             Sector Participation
                           enhancing                                           . . . . . . . . . . . . . . as
                                                                              .neurship                      . . . .a
                                                                                                           .as       .a. . good
                                                                                                                             . . . . . . . . career
                                                                                                                           .good               . . . . . . . . . . choice.
                                                                                                                                             .career                 . . . . . 32
                                                                                                                                                                   .choice.

      neurship
            4.4 in
       neurship   inSwitzerland.
                     Switzerland. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Only
                  Discontinuance                                               . . . . . . . 40.2
                                                                              .Only            . . . . . . .%
                                                                                             . 40.2          . . . . view
                                                                                                             %         . . . . . . . entrepreneurship
                                                                                                                     .view           . entrepreneurship
                                                                                                                                       . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33

                                                                              as
                                                                               as an    an interesting
                                                                                                  interesting pathway               pathway for                 for one’s  one’s
      Self-perception
       Self-perceptionabout about                                             professional
                                                                               professional future                      future compared         compared to                     to
      5     Diversity
      Entrepreneurship
       Entrepreneurship and  Entrepreneurship.                       .  . .  . . .
                                                                              85.8
                                                                               85.8%. .  . .  .
                                                                                           % in  . .  . .  .  . .
                                                                                                     in Netherlands.  . .
                                                                                                             Netherlands or. .  . .  . .  .  . .  .  . .  .
                                                                                                                                                     or 69.2.  . .
                                                                                                                                                              69.2% .  . .  .
                                                                                                                                                                           % in35
                                                                                                                                                                                in
      Perception
       Perception of of opportunities
                         opportunities is        is at   at aa Canada.         Canada. On               On the     the other   other side,        side, the       the sta-    sta-
      low
       low level,
            level, with
                   with those
                          those interviewed
                                  interviewed in               in tus          tusof     ofaasuccessful
                                                                                                     successfulentrepreneur            entrepreneurand                        and
      6     Effects of Entrepreneurial Activity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
      Spain
       Spain recognizing
               recognizing thethe fewest
                                   fewest entre-   entre- media                media attention    attention for                 for entreprenership
                                                                                                                                          entreprenership
            6.1
      preneurial  Entrepreneurial    employee                   activity             and         sponsored
       preneurial opportunities.
                      opportunities. Switzer-Switzer- are                      areat     ataagood    goodlevel,      level,and       andfear     fearof       offailure
                                                                                                                                                                      failure
      		entrepreneurship
      land
       land shows,
              shows, with
                        with 49.2
                               49.2%,
                                    %, . a.a. . .higher
                                                  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . is
                                                  higher .is                   . . lower
                                                                                   . . . . . . . . . than
                                                                                    lower .than        . . . . . . .in
                                                                                                                     . . .previous
                                                                                                                     in                                . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
                                                                                                                           . . . . . . . . . . . . . years.
                                                                                                                            previous .years.
            6.2 Informal Investment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
                 6.3 Job growth expectations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
      11
               6.4 Innovative
           Entrepreneurship
           Entrepreneurship isn’t   Orientation
                             isn’tonly
                                   onlyabout
                                        aboutfocusing
                                                   . . . . on
                                              focusing       . . .the
                                                           . on    . . . .start-up
                                                                   the     . . . . . . . . . phase,
                                                                           start-up           . . . . . . .but
                                                                                             .phase,         . . .also
                                                                                                           .but     . . . . about
                                                                                                                  .also       . . . . . .being
                                                                                                                            .about         . . . . . seen
                                                                                                                                         .being       . . . . .as
                                                                                                                                                     .seen       . . a.a. .
                                                                                                                                                               .as                 44
           mindset
           mindsetin
                   inyoung,
                      young,growing,
                             growing,mature
                                     maturecompanies,
                                            companies,or
                                                       orcompanies
                                                          companiesgoing
                                                                    goingthrough
                                                                          throughchange.
                                                                                  change.
                 6.5 International Orientation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45

666
Acknowledgments
Acknowledgments

 7ForaaEntrepreneurship
For      studyofofthis
        study       thisscope,scope,Context an anextra-Switzerland
                                                      extra-                     . . . . . . . . .of
                                                                            elements
                                                                          elements                 .of
                                                                                                     . .this
                                                                                                         .this
                                                                                                           . . . . .report
                                                                                                                        .report
                                                                                                                          . . . . . . .are   .are
                                                                                                                                               . . . .based
                                                                                                                                                          .based
                                                                                                                                                            . . 48
  ordinary
ordinary    contribution
       7.1 contribution
            Entrepreneurship     ononthe  the       partofof Conditions
                                                 part
                                              Framework                   ononthe   theresults
                                                                                             results
                                                                                                – EFC. of    . .of      .the
                                                                                                                  . . .the          . global
                                                                                                                          . . . . .global               . .report
                                                                                                                                      . . . . . . . . . report
                                                                                                                                                            . . . 48

  many7.2
many     individuals
        individuals    isisnecessary.
            NECI – National    necessary.               Most written
                                                      Most
                                          Entrepreneurship                  written
                                                                                Context      bybyIndex  Niels
                                                                                                      Niels               Bosma, . Stephen
                                                                                                                . . . .Bosma,
                                                                                                                        . . . . . . . . . . . . .Stephen
                                                                                                                                                    . . . . . . . 54

  importantly,the
importantly,    theauthors
                        authorswould        wouldlike      like Hill,       Hill,AileenAileenIonescu-Somers,
                                                                                                       Ionescu-Somers,Donna                              Donna
totothank
     thankProject
            ProjectManagers,
                       Managers,Raphaël          Raphaël Kelley,            Kelley, Jonathan Jonathan Levie,             Levie, and           and Anna       Anna
 8Gaudart
GaudartCOVID-19   ..Gabriel
                    . . . . . . . . Simonet,
             and Gabriel
           and                      . .Simonet,
                                        . . . . . . . . . .for
                                                           .for
                                                             . . . . . . .Tarnawa
                                                                           .Tarnawa
                                                                            . . . . . . . . .of.of
                                                                                                 . .the
                                                                                                     .the
                                                                                                       . . .Global
                                                                                                             .Global
                                                                                                               . . . . . . .Entrepreneur-
                                                                                                                                  .Entrepreneur-
                                                                                                                                     . . . . . . . . . . . 56
 their efficient
their   efficient and
                   and effective
                             effective coordi-     coordi- ship             shipResearch
                                                                                       ResearchAssociation    AssociationGERA             GERA ––
 nationatatthe
nation       theSchool
                 SchoolofofManagement
                                    Management Global                       Global Entrepreneurship
                                                                                               Entrepreneurship Monitor                    Monitor
 9    Literature.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
 Fribourg(HEG-FR).
Fribourg    (HEG-FR).                                                       2019/ /20
                                                                          2019            20Global
                                                                                                 GlobalReport.   Report.

  The authors
The
 GEM    authors are
       Framework       are. . .also
                                 .also       . grateful
                                   . . . . .grateful               .to
                                               . . . . . . . . . .to             .The
                                                                     . . . . . .The             .report
                                                                                   . . . . .report . . . . . . .is   . is      .available
                                                                                                                       . . .available
                                                                                                                                  . . . . . . . . . . .online .online
                                                                                                                                                                 . . . . . . 62  atat
  GEM project’s
GEM      project’s coordination
                           coordination team,               team, www.gemconsortium.org
                                                                                  www.gemconsortium.org and                                                       and atat
       The GEM Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
ininparticular,
     particular,ChrisChrisAylett,  Aylett,Jonathan Jonathan www.heg-fr.ch/GEM.    www.heg-fr.ch/GEM.All                                          All data   data used        used
       How GEM Measures Entrepreneurship. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
  Carmona, Alicia
Carmona,        Alicia Coduras, Coduras, Slavica        Slavica ininthis                 thisreport   reportare           arecollectedcollectedand                andpro-      pro-
Singer The
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                                                     asas well well andcessed      Methodology
                                                                                  cessed                  centrally
                                                                                                       centrally         . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
                                                                                                                                   by by the    the GEM      GEM con-         con-
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          sponsorsofofthe          theGEM   GEMproject   project sortium.         sortium.The               Theauthors  authorshave              haveexclusive  exclusive
atat Babson
      Babson
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            .. . College,              .Babson
                     . . . . . . . . .Babson               . .Park,
                                         . . . . . . . . . Park,                 .responsibility
                                                               . . . . . . . . .responsibility
                                                                                   . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .for       .for      .evaluating
                                                                                                                             . . .evaluating
                                                                                                                                       . . . . . . . . . . . .and     .and
                                                                                                                                                                         . . . in-in-
                                                                                                                                                                                 67
MAMA (USA)
      (USA) and
              and the    the Korea Korea Entrepre- Entrepre- terpreting           terpretingthe                 thedata.   data.
 Country List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
  neurship Foundation,
neurship     Foundation, Korea.           Korea. Some       Some
 GEM Team Switzerland . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70

                                                                                                                                                                                        171
Management
      Management Summary   KeyResults
                 Summary//Key
                          Key  Results
                              Results

       TheGlobal
      The    SchoolEntrepreneurship
            School      of
                        of Management
                            Management Fribourg  Monitor
                                                 Fribourg       ing  the type of
                                                                 perception
                                                                  perception  and  extent of their
                                                                              of capabilities
                                                                                  capabilities  thanen-
                                                                                               than  in
                                                                                                      in
      (GEM)
      (HEG-FR),
       (HEG-FR), has member
                      been
                       member actively
                                  of
                                   of the and
                                        the      consist-
                                             University
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                                                                 the   previousactivities.
                                                                  the previous   years
                                                                                 years (2018:
                                                                                         (2018: 36.3
                                                                                                 36.3%;
                                                                                                     %;
      ently
      of       measuring
       ofApplied
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                                   andevaluating
                                         Arts
                                          ArtsWestern lev-
                                                 Western         2017:
                                                                  2017: 42.1
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                                                                                %) butbut Switzerland’s
                                                                                             Switzerland’s per-    per-
      els  of entrepreneurial
      Switzerland
       Switzerland       (HES-SO),      activity since
                          (HES-SO),collected
                                        collected    data
                                                     data       In    mid-March
                                                                 ception
                                                                  ception    of         2020, the
                                                                              of capabilities
                                                                                 capabilities        is     Federal
                                                                                                      is below
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                                                                                                                     the
      1999.
      for
       forthe    During
           theinternational that Global
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                                               Entrepre-        Council
                                                                 European
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                                                                                 benchmark,
                                                                                 benchmark,  an “extraordinary
                                                                                                      and
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      economies
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       neurship Monitorhave been
                      Monitor   (GEM).involved
                                 (GEM).      2015intele-
                                            2015      the
                                                     tele-      situation”
                                                                 behind
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                                                                                               strong           num-
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      phone          and over and
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                  interviews    three
                                and     36
                                         36million
                                              talks indi-
                                             talks   with
                                                      with      ber   of people
                                                                 Americans
                                                                  Americans       in in
                                                                                 in  theirSwitzerland
                                                                                      their    own
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                                                                                                                       to
      viduals
       experts have
      experts              been interviewed.
                     revealed
                      revealed      entrepreneurial
                                     entrepreneurial  The       ing
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                                                                  start       the coronavirus.
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      GEM      illustrates
      attitudes,
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       preneurial opportunities.
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                                                                                             years.

      11
           Entrepreneurship
           Entrepreneurshipisn’t
                            isn’tonly
                                  onlyabout
                                       aboutfocusing
                                             focusingon
                                                      onthe
                                                         thestart-up
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                                                                      phase,but
                                                                             butalso
                                                                                 alsoabout
                                                                                      aboutbeing
                                                                                            beingseen
                                                                                                  seenas
                                                                                                       asaa
      1
           Entrepreneurship isn’t only about focusing on the start-up phase, but also about being seen as a mindset
            mindset
            mindset
           in        in
                      inyoung,
                         young,
              young, growing,  growing,
                                growing,
                              mature    mature
                                         maturecompanies,
                                     companies, companies,  or
                                                 or companiesorcompanies
                                                                companies
                                                               going      going
                                                                           going
                                                                     through     through
                                                                                  throughchange.
                                                                             change.      change.

866
Acknowledgments
Acknowledgments

 Impact
  Foraastudy
For         of the
          study   ofofCovid-19
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                                         an    extra-       ability.
                                                              elements
                                                             elements  Moreover,
                                                                          ofof this   cooperation
                                                                                this report
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                                                                                               are based
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 As   a research
  ordinary
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 responded
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                                                                                       Bosma, Stephen
                                                                                      Bosma,     Stephen
 pandemic
  importantly,
importantly,    in the
                   March
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                                                              Hill,
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                                                                                  Association
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 2020 shutdown on startup behavior
 was
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                                                               www.gemconsortium.org
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                                                                                                    and
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  inparticular,
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                                Aylett,
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                                         Jonathan           perceive      a good business
                                                               www.heg-fr.ch/GEM.
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                                                                                            All data
                                                                                           All    data used
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 entrepreneurial
  Carmona, Alicia
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 accompanied
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                                                               cessed
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                                                                                            haveexclusive
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 startups
atat Babson
       Babson areCollege,
                    pursuing
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                                    Babson      Park,
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                                                               responsibility
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                                                                                   forevaluating
                                                                                  for  evaluating       as in-
                                                                                                       and  all
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 growth
MAMA (USA)
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                 and the
                and       compared
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                                Korea Entrepre-
                               Korea      Entrepre-         the     more dramatic,
                                                               terpreting
                                                             terpreting            data. given that this
                                                                              thedata.
                                                                             the
 previous
  neurshipyear.
neurship        Foundation, Korea.
               Foundation,            Korea. Some
                                               Some         figure is typically between 35% and
                                                            just below 50%. Since 2011, Oppor-
However, it is also evident that the                        tunity Recognition had never fallen
crisis was perceived as an opportu-                         below 40%. This decrease is main-
nity. The start-up rate, the “Total En-                     ly due to the surveyed individuals in
trepreneurial Activity” (TEA), was only                     German-speaking Switzerland. In the
slightly lower at 9.24% compared to                         French- and Italian-speaking parts
2019 (9.77%). The experts gave top                          of the country, the change from the
marks to entrepreneurs for adapt-                           previous year was not significant.

2
    High Income economies: Austria, Canada, Chile, Croatia, Cyprus, Germany, Greece, Israel, Italy, Japan, Kuwait,
    Latvia, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Oman, Panama, Poland, Puerto Rico, Qatar, Republic of Korea,
    Saudi Arabia, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, United Arab Emirates,
    United Kingdom, United States, Uruguay.

                                                                                                                     191
Management
       Management
       Around                Summary
                              Summary
              one-third (33.5%)            //Key
                                             Key Results
                                                    Results
                                of those entrepreneurship as a good career
       who reported recognizing business                        choice. Only 49.3% view entrepre-
       opportunities are prevented from ac-                     neurship as an interesting pathway
       tually
       The     implementing
        The School
              School of          these opportu-
                      of Management
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                                                                 perception
                                                                  perception      of
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                                                                                                              per-
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                                   collected
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                                                                              of capabilities
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                                                                                                       below   the
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       for
        forthe   low of 23.8%
            theinternational
                international     in theEntrepre-
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                                                                 European
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                                                                                 benchmark,           seems
                                                                                                    and          to
                                                                                                           clearly
                                                                                                           clearly
       year.
       neurship
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       phone
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                                               talks withwith   status
                                                                 Americans
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                                                                                                    capacity
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       The
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                                                                  startmedia
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                                                                             business      (65.5for
                                                                                          (65.5   %).entrepren-
                                                                                                 %).  The
                                                                                                       The same
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       Swiss
       attitudes,inhabitants
        attitudes,    activities(7.3%)
                     activities      and       are lower
                                      and aspirations,
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                                                                 is  trueis
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       than
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               identified    the        and undoubt-
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       Perception
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                                                                                                years.

       11
            Entrepreneurship
            Entrepreneurshipisn’t
                             isn’tonly
                                   onlyabout
                                        aboutfocusing
                                              focusingon
                                                       onthe
                                                          thestart-up
                                                              start-upphase,
                                                                       phase,but
                                                                              butalso
                                                                                  alsoabout
                                                                                       aboutbeing
                                                                                             beingseen
                                                                                                   seenas
                                                                                                        asaa
            mindset
            mindsetin
                    inyoung,
                       young,growing,
                              growing,mature
                                      maturecompanies,
                                             companies,or
                                                        orcompanies
                                                           companiesgoing
                                                                     goingthrough
                                                                           throughchange.
                                                                                   change.

1066
Acknowledgments
Acknowledgments
Gender Equality: fewer differences                         entrepreneurship ratio was 5 to 10.
 between men and women                                     The gender gap has narrowed in
 A greater proportion of men than                          Switzerland in the last two year. In
  Foraastudy
 women
For         study  ofofthis
               typically thisengage
                                scope,an
                              scope,      an   extra-
                                           inextra-
                                                Total      2020,  thereofof
                                                            elements
                                                           elements       are   9 report
                                                                             this
                                                                            this    women   entrepre-
                                                                                    report are
                                                                                            are  based
                                                                                                based
  ordinarycontribution
 Entrepreneurial
ordinary        contribution
                          Activity onthe
                                  on    thepart
                                       (TEA) part  ofof
                                                over-      neurs
                                                            onthe
                                                           on    forresults
                                                                the  every
                                                                     results 10ofof
                                                                                maletheentrepreneurs.
                                                                                   the   globalreport
                                                                                        global   report
 all.
  many
many    Inindividuals
              2018, theisisnecessary.
            individuals        female
                                 necessary.to Most
                                                male
                                                Most        written by
                                                           written    by Niels
                                                                           Niels Bosma,
                                                                                  Bosma, Stephen
                                                                                            Stephen
  importantly,the
importantly,         theauthors
                            authorswould wouldlikelike      Hill,Aileen
                                                           Hill,  AileenIonescu-Somers,
                                                                          Ionescu-Somers,DonnaDonna
 Table   1:  Gender   differences    regarding  activity
totothank
      thankProject
                ProjectManagers,
                           Managers,Raphaël Raphaël         Kelley, Jonathan
                                                           Kelley,   Jonathan Levie,
                                                                                  Levie, and
                                                                                          and Anna
                                                                                               Anna
  Gaudart and
Gaudart         and Gabriel
                        Gabriel Simonet,
                                     Simonet,
                                         % Adults  for
                                                 for        Tarnawaofofthe
                                                           Tarnawa
                                                           Rank/50       theFemale
                                                                         %    GlobalEntrepreneur-
                                                                            Global   Entrepreneur-
                                                                                         % Male
  their
their      efficient
   Totalefficient
           early-stage  and effective
                       and      effective coordi-
                                             coordi-
                                             9.2            ship
                                                           ship   ResearchAssociation
                                                              25Research      AssociationGERA
                                                                             8.7            GERA ––
                                                                                           9.8
  nation
nation     atatthe
                theSchool
   Entrepreneurial    School    ofofManagement
                           Activity  Management             Global Entrepreneurship
                                                           Global     Entrepreneurship Monitor
                                                                                            Monitor
  Fribourg(HEG-FR).
Fribourg       (HEG-FR).                                    2019/ /20
                                                           2019     20Global
                                                                       GlobalReport.
                                                                               Report.
   Established Business                      6.7              20             5.3           8.2
   Ownership rate
  The authors
The       authors are   are also
                               also grateful
                                       grateful toto         The report
                                                           The     report isis available
                                                                                available online
                                                                                             online atat
GEMEntrepreneurial
  GEM     project’s       coordination 5.2
            project’s coordination             team,
                                              team,             12             4.2
                                                             www.gemconsortium.org
                                                           www.gemconsortium.org              6.1
                                                                                              and atat
                                                                                             and
   Employee
inin  particular,
    particular,   Activity
                       ChrisAylett,
                     Chris      Aylett,Jonathan
                                          Jonathan           www.heg-fr.ch/GEM.All
                                                           www.heg-fr.ch/GEM.          All data
                                                                                            data used
                                                                                                   used
  Carmona, Alicia
Carmona,          Alicia Coduras,
                              Coduras, Slavica
                                             Slavica       ininthis
                                                                thisreport
                                                                     reportarearecollected
                                                                                  collectedandandpro-
                                                                                                    pro-
  Singer and
Singer        and Forrest
                    Forrest Wright,
                                 Wright,as   as well
                                                 well        cessed centrally
                                                           cessed     centrally by by the
                                                                                       the GEM
                                                                                            GEM con-
                                                                                                   con-
 The
asasthe motivation
      the    sponsorsprofile
            sponsors            theis
                          ofofthe      slightly
                                      GEM
                                     GEM          dif-
                                             project
                                            project        men   involved
                                                             sortium.
                                                           sortium.    Thein
                                                                      The     the early
                                                                             authors
                                                                           authors       stages
                                                                                       have
                                                                                      have        of an
                                                                                             exclusive
                                                                                            exclusive
 ferent
atat Babsonfor female
       Babson      College,founders
                     College,     Babson compared
                                    Babson      Park,
                                               Park,       entrepreneurial
                                                             responsibilityfor
                                                           responsibility      activity
                                                                              for        are motivat-
                                                                                  evaluating
                                                                                 evaluating     andin-
                                                                                               and    in-
 to
MAMAthat(USA)
       (USA) of and
                 male
                  and thefounders.
                                KoreaThis
                         the Korea             is es-
                                          Entrepre-
                                         Entrepre-         ed  “to earnthe
                                                             terpreting
                                                           terpreting   a
                                                                        theliving”.
                                                                              data.In contrast, only
                                                                             data.
 pecially
  neurshiptrue
neurship              in relation
                 Foundation,
                Foundation,            to the
                                     Korea.
                                    Korea.       mo-
                                               Some
                                              Some         41.9% of the women entrepreneurs
 tivation “to earn a living”: 60.9% of                     mentioned this motivation.

Table 2: Gender differences regarding motivation

    % TEA % Female                                                                        % Male
  			 TEA                                                                                  TEA

  To make a difference		                                      42.5            44.2           41.1

  To build great wealth/high income                           32.5            29.9          34.7

  To continue the family tradition                            20.1            16.9          22.9

  To earn a living 		                                         52.0            41.9          60.9

                                                                                                             11
                                                                                                            11
Management
       Management
       The                     Summary
                               Summary
           Effects of Entrepreneurial    //Key  Results
                                           Keyinvestment.
                                      Informal   Results  Investment by
       Activity                                                 friends, family, neighbor, etc., plays an
       Job growth expectations. High job                        important role in Switzerland. In 2020,
       growth
       The
        The School  expectations
               School    of
                          of Management
                              Management  are indicated
                                                  Fribourg
                                                   Fribourg     82   individuals
                                                                 perception
                                                                  perception      offrom
                                                                                  of         the APS than
                                                                                      capabilities
                                                                                       capabilities        report-
                                                                                                           than in in
       through
       (HEG-FR),
        (HEG-FR),    anmember
                         expected
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                                          the   University
                                                 Universityof   edthehaving
                                                                 the          provided
                                                                        previous
                                                                        previous     years
                                                                                      years funds
                                                                                               (2018:
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                                                                                                           36.3
                                                                                                            36.3%;to
                                                                                                                  %;
       6ofor
       of       moreSciences
          Applied
           Applied      new jobsand
                       Sciences         in Arts
                                      and   the
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                                                   Western
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                                                                 2017:
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                                                                          42.1 %)
                                                                               %) but                projects.
                                                                                     but Switzerland’s
                                                                                           Switzerland’s          In
                                                                                                               per-
                                                                                                               per-
       years.
       SwitzerlandYoung(HES-SO),
        Switzerland          companies
                           (HES-SO),            that have
                                          collected
                                           collected   data
                                                        data    many
                                                                 ception
                                                                  ceptioncases,
                                                                            of    the investment
                                                                             of capabilities
                                                                                 capabilities      is     amount
                                                                                                    is below
                                                                                                        below   the
                                                                                                                 the
       already
       for
        forthe      been founded
             theinternational
                  international           haveEntrepre-
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                                       Global     naturally
                                                  Entrepre-     is  not disclosed.
                                                                 European
                                                                  European             Across the
                                                                                benchmark,
                                                                                benchmark,          andlastclearly
                                                                                                     and     three
                                                                                                            clearly
       felt   the effects
       neurship
        neurship      Monitor
                       Monitor  of (GEM).
                                    the
                                    (GEM). Corona
                                                2015crisis.
                                                2015   tele-
                                                        tele-   years,
                                                                  behindthethe
                                                                 behind        GEM
                                                                             the   very
                                                                                   veryAPS     study belief
                                                                                           strong
                                                                                             strong      counted
                                                                                                         belief   of
                                                                                                                   of
       In  particular,
       phone
        phone     interviewsthe proportion
                   interviews      and
                                    and 36        of young
                                            36 talks
                                                 talks  with
                                                        with    66    individuals
                                                                 Americans
                                                                  Americans     in   who own
                                                                                 in their
                                                                                     their   reported
                                                                                              own capacity having
                                                                                                      capacity    to
                                                                                                                   to
       companies
       experts
        experts revealedwith fast and
                       revealed               high growth
                                        entrepreneurial
                                         entrepreneurial        invested
                                                                 start      an average
                                                                  start aa business
                                                                            business         of 46’860
                                                                                         (65.5
                                                                                          (65.5  %).
                                                                                                  %). The
                                                                                                        TheUSD
                                                                                                             same
                                                                                                              samein
       prospects
       attitudes,      has
        attitudes, activities decreased
                       activities     and       drastically.
                                       and aspirations,
                                               aspirations,     entrepreneurial
                                                                 is
                                                                  istrue
                                                                     trueof   peopleprojects.
                                                                          ofpeople     in
                                                                                        inSlovenia, Switzerland
                                                                                            Slovenia,    Canada,
                                                                                                          Canada,
       In
       and
        andtheidentified
                 2019 survey,
                identified      the one
                               the   factorsfifthinfluenc-
                                      factors      of start-
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                                                                 Australia,
                                                                  Australia,  and
                                                                               andcountries
                                                                                    UK.
                                                                                     UK.        with the high-
       ups
       ing    (21.98%)
        ing the
              the  type
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                           and   extentcompanies
                                  extent    of
                                             of the    were
                                                 the entre-
                                                      entre-    est informal investments, just behind
       no   older than
       preneurial
        preneurial           42 months
                        activities.
                        activities.      Thestill
                                       The    2019
                                               2019 expect-
                                                     //2020
                                                       2020     the
                                                                  TheUnited
                                                                 The           States (56’553
                                                                        entrepreneurial
                                                                         entrepreneurial             USD on av-
                                                                                                 intentions
                                                                                                  intentions      of
                                                                                                                   of
       ed   to create
       Global
        Global            more than 10 jobs
                     Entrepreneurship
                      Entrepreneurship               and to
                                                   Monitor
                                                    Monitor     erage),
                                                                  Swiss and
                                                                 Swiss          Luxembourg
                                                                          inhabitants
                                                                           inhabitants        are (49’542
                                                                                             are     higher USD
                                                                                                    higher    than
                                                                                                               than
       generate
       Report
        Reporton   onover     50% of illustrates
                       Switzerland
                       Switzerland        turnover
                                           illustrates from
                                                         na-
                                                          na-   on
                                                                 in  average).
                                                                  in previous
                                                                     previous years,
                                                                                 years, butbut still
                                                                                                 still below
                                                                                                        below thethe
       foreign
       tional      countries within
        tional differences
                  differences      in        five years. In
                                    in entrepreneurial
                                         entrepreneurial         average
                                                                  average of   of high-income
                                                                                   high-income economies, economies,
       the   early
       activity
        activity  11 summer of 2020, one out of
                     between
                     between economies,
                                   economies, reveal-reveal-    International
                                                                 contrasting
                                                                  contrastingsharply     orientation.
                                                                                   sharply      with
                                                                                                 withpeople
                                                                                                         people  Swiss
                                                                                                                   in
                                                                                                                    inIs-
                                                                                                                       Is-
       12
        ingstartups
       ing    the
               the factorsalone
                     factors        (i.e.determine
                                 that
                                  that     8%) assumes
                                          determine      the
                                                          the   early-stage
                                                                 rael
                                                                  raelor
                                                                       orRepublic firms
                                                                            Republic     of  appear
                                                                                         ofKorea.          to have a
                                                                                              Korea.Perceptions
                                                                                                         Perceptions
       that
       nature
        nature this
                  andwould
                   and   levelbe
                        level    ofthe
                                of       case.entrepre-
                                   national
                                    national      entrepre-     very
                                                                  and strong
                                                                 and    intentionsinternational
                                                                         intentions       are
                                                                                          are combined,  orientation.
                                                                                                   combined,        with
                                                                                                                     with
       neurial
        neurialactivity,
                  activity,and
                             andidentifying
                                    identifyingpolicy
                                                 policy         Two-thirds
                                                                 the
                                                                  the challenge
                                                                       challenge of the   newly
                                                                                       being
                                                                                        being   totofounded
                                                                                                      see         start-
                                                                                                       see entrepre-
                                                                                                            entrepre-
       In  Switzerland,
       implications
        implications     for   the percentage
                          for enhancing
                               enhancing    entrepre-
                                            entrepre- of        ups   in Switzerland
                                                                 neurship
                                                                  neurship      as
                                                                                 as aa good
                                                                                         good expect     to generate
                                                                                                    career
                                                                                                     career    choice.
                                                                                                                choice.
       those
       neurship
        neurshipinvolved
                    in      in TEA who expect to
                     inSwitzerland.
                        Switzerland.                            revenues
                                                                 Only
                                                                  Only 40.2
                                                                          40.2 from
                                                                                 %
                                                                                 % viewforeign
                                                                                       view         customers and
                                                                                               entrepreneurship
                                                                                                entrepreneurship
       create 6 or more jobs in the next five                   thus
                                                                 as
                                                                  as an
                                                                      anbelong      to early
                                                                           interesting
                                                                            interesting            internationaliz-
                                                                                              pathway
                                                                                               pathway       for
                                                                                                              for one’s
                                                                                                                    one’s
       years    amounts toabout
       Self-perception
        Self-perception          12.21%. Therefore,
                               about                            ing   SMEs. Together
                                                                 professional
                                                                  professional         future
                                                                                        future withcompared
                                                                                                        Switzerland,
                                                                                                      compared         to
                                                                                                                        to
       Switzerland
       Entrepreneurship
        Entrepreneurshipranks second last among                 the
                                                                 85.8
                                                                  85.8%Netherlands
                                                                        % in in Netherlands  (33.82%),
                                                                                  Netherlands or              Sweden
                                                                                                        or 69.2
                                                                                                             69.2%  % inin
       the   comparison
       Perception
        Perception      of      countries, just
                        of opportunities
                            opportunities      is   be-
                                                is at
                                                   at  aa       (34.82%)
                                                                 Canada.
                                                                  Canada. On    andthe
                                                                                On   theSlovenia
                                                                                          other
                                                                                            other side,  (41.2%)
                                                                                                       side,  the     all
                                                                                                               the sta-
                                                                                                                     sta-
       fore
       low   Austria
        low level,
              level, with(3.37%),
                       with   thosebut
                             those        behind the
                                      interviewed
                                       interviewed    in
                                                       in       rank
                                                                 tus
                                                                  tusofataathe
                                                                       of        top of theentrepreneur
                                                                             successful
                                                                             successful           list of robustand
                                                                                                entrepreneur         ex-
                                                                                                                     and
       Netherlands
       Spain
        Spain recognizing  (15.25%)
                 recognizing      the     and entre-
                                   the fewest
                                        fewest   Spain
                                                 entre-         port-oriented
                                                                 media
                                                                  media attention
                                                                            attentionstart-up
                                                                                           for      nations. In gen-
                                                                                            for entreprenership
                                                                                                   entreprenership
       (13.62%),
       preneurial     and   well
        preneurial opportunities.  behind   countries
                         opportunities. Switzer-
                                              Switzer-          eral,
                                                                 are
                                                                  areatatexport-oriented
                                                                          aagood
                                                                             goodlevel,
                                                                                      level,andandentrepreneurs
                                                                                                      fear
                                                                                                       fearofoffailure
                                                                                                                 failure
       such
       land    as
        land shows,the United
                shows,     with
                           with 49.2 States
                                    49.2 %, (30.50%)
                                         %, aa higher
                                                higher          are
                                                                 is   morethan
                                                                  islower
                                                                     lower      prevalent
                                                                              than   in
                                                                                      inprevious
                                                                                         previousin small
                                                                                                        years.
                                                                                                         years. econo-
       and South Korea (37.39%), who ranks                      mies, in particular, European ones. The
       first.                                                   only exception is Canada (35.59%),
       11
            Entrepreneurship
            Entrepreneurshipisn’t
                             isn’tonly
                                   onlyabout
                                        aboutfocusing
                                              focusingon
                                                       onthe
                                                          thestart-up
                                                              start-upphase,
                                                                       phase,but
                                                                              butalso
                                                                                  alsoabout
                                                                                       aboutbeing
                                                                                             beingseen
                                                                                                   seenas
                                                                                                        asaa
            mindset
            mindsetin
                    inyoung,
                       young,growing,
                              growing,mature
                                      maturecompanies,
                                             companies,or
                                                        orcompanies
                                                           companiesgoing
                                                                     goingthrough
                                                                           throughchange.
                                                                                   change.

1266
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