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    Sma r t a nd
    Sus tainable



                      CHALLENGES, OPPORTUNITIES
                    AND AMBITIONS
                    p.10	Moving towards a post-carbon city
                    p.10	Water and its networks at the core of the urban challenge
                    p.10	Greening the city to adapt to climate change
                    p.11	Sustainable multimodal mobility adapted to new uses
                    p.11	Urban agriculture and the food supply
                    p.12	Sustainable urban logistics
                    p.12	A zero-waste strategy
                    p.13	Inclusion and resilience: The New Urban Agenda

                    THE OPPORTUNITIES:
                    DIGITAL TRANSFORMATION
                    p.15	Urban life and the digital economy
                    p.15	New urban production modes and the pooling of uses
                    p.16	Smart transportation and mobility
                    p.16	The forthcoming autonomous transportation revolution
                    p.16	Reducing our energy footprint
                    p.17	Smart public services
                    p.17	Putting urban data to use
                    p.17	Digital inclusion

                    FOR ALL CITIZENS
                    p.20	The metropolitan emergency
                    p.20	New negotiated urban development
                    p.20	The Arc de l’Innovation
                    p.21	Tactical urbanism
                    p.21	Promoting shared resources
                    p.22	The 15-minute city:
                           Putting the “neighbor” back in neighborhood
                    p.23	Encouraging innovative initiatives

Connected                   Open



p.29	Stimulating citizen participation and collaborative projects
p.31	Exchanging, sharing and co-creating
       with French and international researchers, scientists and academics
p.33	Strengthening the Parisian innovation ecosystem
p.35	Promoting public innovation

p.37	Developing support infrastructure for digital services
p.39	Offering new public-interest services
p.40	Using data to optimize public action
p.42	Ensuring large-scale access to digital services
       and developing and promoting its uses

p.45	Carrying out Paris’s energy transition
       and co-constructing smart networks and systems
p.48	Sustainably develop the Paris metropolitan area
p.51	Strengthening the role of nature in the city
p.53	Making mobility environmentally friendly
p.55	Responsible recycling and consumption
p.57	Making a more resilient city



                                                                          Anne Hidalgo
                                                                          Mayor of Paris

            Cities did not wait for the 21st century to become            We must address this major urban transformation
            smart. Their layouts, density and architecture have           head on, working with increasingly demanding
            made them centers of urban ingenuity for centuries.           and informed citizens. This is where smart cities,
            If major cities must be smarter than ever,                    which must be more than just digital cities, come in:
            it is because they are facing difficulties                    these are places where technology supports people
            on an unprecedented scale.                                    and helps include them in city life, bridging the gap
                                                                          between new public services and policymaking.
            Urban growth across the globe has brought with it             A smart and sustainable city that enables us to
            significant challenges in terms of urban organization,        confidently face this century’s global challenges
            ecological impact, their relationship with rural spaces       is a resilient city that relies on coherent and judicious
            and quality of life. The most pressing issues are those       energy use where all inhabitants can play a part
            related to energy, greening, water, supplies, mobility,       in building the future.
            logistics and waste.
                                                                          It is with this strong determination and unwavering
            Natural resources are becoming ever more scarce,              faith in people and future-driven investments that
            compelling us to use them more wisely. This extreme           we are working together to build the “future city”
            pressure on natural resources must shake our                  that Antonio Gramsci spoke of and which, to remain
            collective conscience, leading us to improve and              a place of progress, can be nothing short of
            reduce resource use and limit our impact on our               the “intelligent work of citizens.”
            surrounding environment. At the same time,
            the spectacular development of digital technologies
            creates new opportunities for mobility, energy,
            production and consumption, the pooling of uses,
            access to public services and political participation.
            The sharing economy and collective intelligence
            is leading cities to shift the paradigm in response
            to urban demands.

Jean-Louis Missika
                                                               Deputy Mayor of Paris in charge of urban planning,
                                                               architecture, the Greater Paris projects, economic
                                                               development and attractiveness

Paris has inspired cities around the world with its            Given that urban intelligence comes first from Paris
sewer system, Haussmannian buildings, electricity              itself, its residents and a whole urban ecosystem
grid, metro and public spaces, not to mention its              the city has built and mobilized with imagination,
cafés, terraces and art de vivre. More recently,               energy and efficiency, Smart and Sustainable Paris
innovation such as its Vélib’ bike sharing, Autolib’           has opted for open innovation in all its forms:
car sharing and Reinventing Paris initiatives have             urban, social, technological, organizational, economic
been recognized and lauded worldwide.                          and contractual. Paris has also assumed the role of
                                                               a global city and is developing a strong vision and
Like all major cities, Paris is constantly changing.           international actions through partnerships with
It is complex, with its own metabolism, fueled by              other global cities.
the interaction of its multiple systems. Today, it faces
new challenges: climate change, ecological transition,         These principles shape the strategy and actions Paris
changing lifestyles, and competition and cooperation           adopted for 2020 and beyond that encourage citizen
between towns and cities.                                      participation, co-creation of projects, and support for
                                                               the innovation ecosystem. Smart and Sustainable Paris
Paris must adopt a visionary approach as it tackles            is a city-as-platform that is open, resolutely future-
these issues while still remaining agile and practical.        driven and eager for experimentation, disruption and
A smart city is first and foremost about developing            the development of new services that put technology,
common services, applications and goods that meet              data, interoperability and interconnected networks
the basic needs of its inhabitants and their quest for         front and center.
well-being. It is an innovative approach based on
a medium- and long-term global and systemic vision
of the city to improve its citizens’ quality of life by
leveraging three major catalysts to transform urban
life: deepening social ties and creating value,
rethinking urban infrastructures, and capitalizing
on technological revolutions, especially digital



Since we believe that
     each city has its own context
 and that there are no urban models,
   but rather sources of inspiration,
        Paris’s urban intelligence
  is reflected in a unique approach.
   Paris is carving out its own path,
at a time when the world is becoming
          massively urbanized,
       global cities are becoming
         increasingly influential
 and our lives are being transformed
   by digital technologies as well as
major climate and energy imperatives.
         Like many other cities,
      Paris must strive to become
     more connected, sustainable,
   attractive, inclusive and resilient.
                                          ZAC Clichy-Batignolles
                                          © Sergio Grazia

The challenges:
Urbanization, resource scarcity
and climate change
Paris, a vibrant city, is reinventing itself through its demographic energy and
remarkable economic potential. The city must capitalize on this vitality to tackle the
challenges it currently faces at the beginning of the 21st century. In today’s rapidly
urbanizing world, climate change is speeding up, biodiversity is deteriorating and
natural resources are becoming scarce. This unprecedented pressure must shake
our collective conscience, leading us to improve and reduce resource use and limit
our impact on our surrounding environment.

ON AUGUST 8, 2016,
THE MAYOR OF PARIS    Cities are on the frontline of the           Natural catastrophes
was elected CHAIR     climate change battle. By 2030, three        caused by climate
     OF THE C40,      quarters of global greenhouse gas            change hit the most
   A NETWORK OF       emissions will be produced by cities.        fragile populations even
  86 GLOBAL CITIES    Their commitment is essential in             harder. As global cities
   REPRESENTING       mobilizing all stakeholders and              become an inescapable
    650 MILLION       enforcing the Paris Agreement signed         trend in our globalized
   RESIDENTS AND      on December 12, 2015 following the           world, it is our duty to
                      COP21. They must lead proactive              put forward
                      actions to curb climate change and           interdisciplinary and
                      fight air pollution.                         innovative actions in our
                                                                   cities to meet the ever
      CHANGE.         Multiple environmental challenges are        increasing demands of
                      interlinked with social challenges.          citizens regarding their
                      Air, water and soil quality and the role     local government, in
                      of nature are basic factors for human        order to re-establish
                      health and well-being. They are              social, cultural and
                      inextricably linked with various other       economic ties. In light
                      key components such as lifestyle,            of this new context,
                      exercise, diet and social relationships.     we must turn our
                      People living in urban areas also face       attention to urban social
                      other difficulties, such as job insecurity   vulnerability. It has
                      and social exclusion. This social and        emerged as a major
                      regional inequality also generates           factor of resilience for
                      environmental and health inequality          vibrant, responsive,
                      and leads to growing vulnerabilities,        inclusive, innovative
                      which cities and their partners must         and people-focused
                      address through more inclusive               cities supported by
                      actions.                                     technological advances
                                                                   and digital technologies.

– Moving towards
 THE PARIS CLIMATE      a post-carbon city
PLAN SETS A TARGET      Today’s world requires greater awareness about
    TO REDUCE           how widespread fossil fuel use affects the climate.
GREENHOUSE GASES        The energy transition is no longer a luxury, but an
                        obligation. In Paris, more than 98% of energy used
  BY 25% BY 2020
                        is imported (fuel, gas, electricity). Of the remaining
                        2% that is produced locally, less than half is from
   2004 LEVELS).
                        renewables. Since 2007, Paris has had a climate plan
                        that aims to reduce energy consumption in the Paris
                        metropolitan area by 25% by 2020 compared to
                        2004 levels. Another of its goals is to bolster the
                        share of renewables and waste energy by
                        accelerating the implementation of profitable
                        solutions and increasing demonstrations of new

    AT THE COP21                                                                 – Greening the city
   REQUIRES THAT                                                                 to adapt to climate
WE ACHIEVE CARBON                                                                change
NEUTRALITY AS SOON                                                               Greening the city responds to a
 AS POSSIBLE IN THE                                                              strong citizen demand to improve
 COMING DECADES.                                                                 living conditions and well-being,
                                                                                 develop social ties and help
                                                                                 the city adapt to climate change.
                                                                                 Substantial anthropogenic
                                                                                 pressure on Paris’s green spaces
                                                                                 is a motivating factor in creating
                                                                                 new green areas on rooftops or
                                                                                 building walls, under trees and in
                                                                                 public spaces as well as providing
      DESPITE ITS                                                                community access to green
    CONSIDERABLE                                                                 spaces in public or private lots.
URBANIZATION, PARIS     – Water and its networks
 IS HOME TO NEARLY      at the core of the urban
  2,000 WILD PLANT      challenge
AND ANIMAL SPECIES.     Paris’s motto, Fluctuat nec mergitur, which translates
  THE BIODIVERSITY      to “Tossed but not sunk,” reflects the city’s strong
                        ties to water. The Seine and its banks, the canals of
                        Saint-Martin, Saint-Denis and L’Ourcq, and its ponds
    2011, INITIATED
                        and lakes give structure to the Parisian landscape.
                        Paris is one of the only cities in the world to have a
PROTECT THEM, SUCH      double network of both drinkable and non-drinkable
 AS THE BLUE-GREEN      water running below its streets. Pressure on water
CORRIDOR ROADMAP        resources, polluted aquatic environments, flood
FOR PARIS. IT WILL BE   risks and high expectations from residents regarding
  UPDATED IN 2017.      this common good are all challenges that must
                        be tackled.

– Sustainable multimodal                                – Urban agriculture
                       mobility adapted to new uses                            and the food supply
                                                                               Food alone is responsible for
                                                                               20% of our carbon footprint.
                                                                               Urban and peri-urban agriculture,
                                                                               the importance of which has
                                                                               been largely underestimated, is
   QUALITY PLAN                                                                proving to be a necessary
 SEEKS TO ADDRESS                                                              component to optimize the food
 POLLUTION IN TWO                                                              supply for tomorrow’s cities.
 WAYS: SUBSIDIZING                                                             Urban agriculture is already being
    SUSTAINABLE                                                                practiced in Paris, which has more
MOBILITY INITIATIVES                                                           than 100 shared gardens, 280
AND IMPLEMENTING                                                               educational vegetable gardens
   INCREASINGLY                                                                and 20 rooftop vegetable
RESTRICTIVE TRAFFIC                                                            gardens. The city must be viewed
                                                                               as a place where food production
                       Since 2001, emissions from nitrogen oxide (NOx)         is a natural part of urban life
                       caused by motor traffic dropped by 30%, fine            in order to develop a separate,
                       particles by 20% and ultrafine particles by 45%.        multifaceted industry within
                       However, residents of Paris and the surrounding         the city. It would combine farms
                       metropolitan area are often exposed to very poor        covering several thousand meters
                       air quality. Clean transportation must be developed     in newly developed buildings
                       on a larger scale, such as mass transit, electric       in addition to lightweight and
                       vehicles and non-motorized transportation (walking      inexpensive rooftop systems
                       and biking). The city’s aim is to eliminate             on existing buildings, production
                       diesel-powered cars by 2020 and reduce nitrogen         possibilities with high added
                       oxides by 40%, fine particles by 25% and ultrafine      value for Parisian gastronomy,
                       particles by 40%. This goal will be achieved by         and shared gardens or vegetable
                       gradually reducing traffic from highly polluting        gardens and farms used for
                       vehicles as part of Paris’s pollution prevention plan   educational and employment
                       and by offering innovative sustainable mobility         support programs. The Paris
                       services. In keeping with the Vélib’ bike sharing and   markets are also a way to
                       Autolib’ car sharing programs and as part of a          showcase producers, organic
                       multimodal approach to transportation (mass transit,    product sellers and local food
                       electric car-sharing, bicycles, self-driving shuttles   supply chains.
                       and vehicles, transportation on request), these new
                       services must improve traffic flows for everyone,
                       with priority given to non-motorized transportation.
THE 2015-2020 PARIS    The 2015-2020 Paris Bike Plan includes new routes
 SUSTAINABLE FOOD      for cyclists, and namely the express bike network
  PLAN ANTICIPATES     with wide and comfortable two-way paths. The Paris
 A 50% INCREASE IN     Pedestrian Plan seeks to better integrate this mode
THE PROPORTION OF      of travel, already mainstream in Paris, by offering
   ORGANIC FOOD        Parisians a more comfortable walking experience
     OFFERED IN        and increasing the quality of this economical,
                       efficient and healthy activity, which is not only
                       environmentally and business-friendly but helps
                       improve social relationships and the region’s appeal.

– Sustainable urban logistics
                       With regards to urban logistics, roads remain the
                       preferred option, with 90% of merchandise being
                       transported by road. Some 20% of vehicles in Paris
                       are transporting merchandise. The rise of
                       e-commerce (20% to 30% growth every year) tends
                       to significantly increase delivery routes and the
                       number of vehicles, and the rate of missed
  THE SUSTAINABLE      deliveries is extremely high. Expanding river and rail
  URBAN LOGISTICS      transportation, encouraging bulk shipping and
       CHARTER,        rethinking last-mile delivery are all key
   SIGNED IN 2013,     considerations. The Sustainable Urban Logistics          Biowaste in particular should be
                       Charter, signed in 2013, endorsed the target of          utilized to ensure nitrogen and
                       having 50% of last-mile deliveries carried by            phosphorus is returned to soil or,
                       non-diesel vehicles in 2017 and 100% by 2020.            where possible, to produce
                                                                                biogas. Repurposing materials
REFLECTS A SHARED                                                               should also become more
DESIRE TO OPTIMIZE                                                              widespread in the construction
   AND MODERNIZE                                                                industry.

       IN 2015,
                       – A zero-waste strategy
A TOTAL OF 22 LOCAL    Everyday consumption in Paris produces more than
 AUTHORITIES FROM      1.1 million tons of waste every year. After being
 THE GREATER PARIS     collected, 79% of this waste is sent for incineration,
   REGION SIGNED       16% is recycled and the rest ends up in landfills.
    THE CIRCULAR       Paris’s goal is to adopt a circular economy approach
   ECONOMY PACT        to limit incoming and outgoing flows. The city’s
    TO CARRY OUT       zero-waste strategy consists in viewing all waste as a
   JOINT ACTIONS       resource in order to eliminate the need for landfills
   ON URBAN AND        or incineration for any waste that can be used for
                       other purposes. Eco-design can help by taking this
                       into account as of the production stage.
                       Energy-saving and efficient designs that increase
                       the collective sharing of a good should be
RECOVERED ENERGY       promoted. Before recycling and incineration,
AS WELL AS COMMIT      certain types of waste are in fact unused resources
  TO ECO-FRIENDLY      that should be reused, repaired or redistributed
       EVENTS.         (as will be the case at Paris markets) in order to
                       repurpose them.

city and to work together to handle internal and external
– Inclusion and resilience:                                               crises, we believe that innovation in all its forms must be
The New Urban Agenda                                                      incorporated into actions for social inclusion and sustainable
Among the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) set
                                                                          economic development.
by the UN in May 2016, #11 reminds us of the need to
                                                                          The City of Paris, which has been a member of the
“Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe,
                                                                          100 Resilient Cities (100RC) network since 2015,
resilient and sustainable.”
                                                                          is developing an urban resilience strategy to shore up the
                                                                          ability of individuals, communities, institutions, businesses
The New Urban Agenda adopted in October 2016 at the
                                                                          and systems within a city to survive, adapt and grow
HABITAT III Conference in Quito gives priority to social
                                                                          regardless of the chronic tensions and severe shocks they
inclusion and a vision of cities for all, and especially access to
                                                                          experience. The strategy seeks to prepare the entire
basic services and participatory democracy. Local authorities’
                                                                          metropolitan area, over the long term, to deal with crises,
strong involvement shows that their international networks
                                                                          to adapt and rebuild a stronger foundation through a holistic
are particularly important. Cities are a central part of the
                                                                          and integrated approach as well as enhancing attributes such
solution and the backbone of transformative actions.
                                                                          as flexibility, the ability to learn and inclusion.
With regards to resilience, it is clear that there must be a
paradigm shift. For Paris, the issue of resilience, which is
                                                                          The climate change adaptation strategy adopted by Paris in
dealt with from the standpoint of major risks and
                                                                          September 2015 sets out an operational plan for actions to
catastrophes, is part of a broader vision that also includes the
                                                                          protect Parisians against extreme events and to react when
city’s vulnerability to changes in the urban fabric and its social
                                                                          faced with resource scarcity (water, energy, food, etc.).
and regional environment. To bolster Paris’s resilience, i.e.,
the ability of its residents to live together in a more equitable

The opportunities:
Digital transformation
The 21st-century convergence of a global shift towards an urbanized world
where people and objects are always connected has completely changed the way
we live in cities.
No aspect of urban life has escaped this transformation. Housing, the environment,
education, culture, transportation, health care, safety, energy, water, waste, as well as
governance and citizen life have all been affected by this dual revolution of uses and
digital technologies.
A strong link has materialized between the multiplicity of smart devices, geolocation
and connected citizens on the go. In this century of cities, our physical world has
become a generator of real-time data. This production is ubiquitous, massive,
decentralized and highly autonomous. It has profoundly changed models of uses and
services as well as economic ones. New life experiences emerge through
groundbreaking uses and services and the intensive use of platforms and data.
Data is at the center of this phenomenon and has become a key resource because it is
accessible to everyone. The spread of open data and coding for all also makes it
possible for non-specialists to imagine new applications. An infinite world of urban
services is now at our fingertips.

– Urban life and the digital
                       Urban life has been the catalyst of new paradigms in
                       recent years: anticipating and understanding
                       interactions between the systems that make up our
                       cities with a view to cross-referencing data and
                       exploiting this information when developing new
                       applications to facilitate urbanites’ lives. The
                       importance of data resides in its ability to move
                       beyond physical objects and systems, instead
                       focusing on their interactions and                     3D printers have substantially
                       interdependencies.                                     transformed the manufacturing
                       It is the emergence of new life experiences through    process of equipment and
                       unprecedented uses and services: multimodal            consumer goods. Companies
   SUCCESS OF THE      mobility, decentralized energy, energy-efficient       have begun to share machines
PLATFORM ECONOMY       housing, personalized public health, massive online    and tools, as reflected in fab labs.
     IS BASED ON       education, participatory democracy, open               Major metropolises are beginning
    ITS ABILITY TO     governance, collaborative information systems and      to see a sort of
  TRANSFORM DATA       even new sociability models through the sharing        re-industrialization. Do-it-yourself
      SIMPLY AND       economy. The rise of a usage-driven approach           (DIY) has brought new social
ACCESSIBLY IN ORDER    rather than favoring ownership goes hand in hand       practices to collaborative venues.
     TO PRODUCE        with the power of digital technologies and mass        Digital technologies have helped
    SERVICES THAT      data, thereby speeding up social and urban             give hyper-proximity a larger role
                       transformations. It is also the birth of new           in homes, residential buildings
                       opportunities for value creation by innovative and     and neighborhoods. A mindset of
                       disruptive start-ups and entrepreneurs, which we       sharing services has become
                       encourage and support.                                 more prevalent through
                       The huge global success of the platform economy is     co-managed spaces, such as bike
                       based on its ability to transform data simply and      and stroller storage, shared
                       accessibly, in order to produce services that          gardens, building laundry rooms,
                       revolutionize our lives. They are omnipresent in our   guest rooms, reception halls and
                       urban lives and have their own social models, which    sports facilities. As housing,
                       has led us to create crucial regulations.              digital technologies and
                                                                              community life converge, the aim
                       – New urban production modes                           is no longer just about creating
    A MINDSET OF       and the pooling of uses                                new services that make life easier,
  SHARING SERVICES     With the development of the mobile office, nomadic     but about forging social ties with
 HAS BECOME MORE       employees, new workers/entrepreneurs, tablets,         neighbors and through local
PREVALENT THROUGH      mobile internet and cloud computing, the               activities, which lie at the heart of
    CO-MANAGED         “workplace” can now be anywhere. This                  this approach. Digital
SPACES, SUCH AS BIKE   transformation is reflected in third spaces,           technologies are also important
    AND STROLLER       co-working spaces, worker mobility and                 in home automation, smart
  STORAGE, SHARED      telecommuting.                                         neighborhoods, positive energy
                       This phenomenon has had considerable impact on         buildings, and zero-waste and
                       the design and management of office spaces as well     zero-carbon neighborhoods.
                       as urban development. Functional zoning has
                       become obsolete while mixed-use buildings and
                       neighborhoods are spreading. Furthermore,
     AND SPORTS        factories have also returned to the city.

– Smart transportation and                                 To ensure the entire greater Paris
                        mobility                                                   region benefits from these
                        Mobility and transportation are two areas where            activities, stakeholders must join
                        the digital revolution is in full swing. GPS has           forces to conduct more pilot
                        transformed the way we travel. The lines between           programs, advance regulations
                        individual transportation and mass transit are being       and massively invest to accelerate
                        blurred through carpooling, car sharing and a              the transition towards clean,
                        plethora of multimodal options. New digital services       shared and connected mobility.
                        help optimize travel through applications that offer
                        real-time feedback on multimodal transportation.           – Reducing our
                        A profound shift in urban mobility will take shape         energy footprint
                        over the next decade due to the emergence of               The installation of sensors and
                        transportation on demand, a veritable revolution in        new data transfer systems within
                        how we get around cities.                                  buildings will make it possible to
  SUSTAINABLE AND       In the short term, with the arrival of connected           detect malfunctions and
PROFITABLE TOURISM,     vehicles, non-motorized transportation has helped          encourage users to reduce waste,
    PARIS ADOPTED       roads become safer and allows for the better               thereby achieving major energy
       A TOURISM        sharing of public spaces. Smart street furniture and       savings at the city scale. Using
 DEVELOPMENT PLAN       new adapted services will contribute to a more             digital technologies at the
     FOR 2017-2022,     inclusive mobility that takes into account users’          building and network level will
   WHICH ENGAGES        various needs and disabilities.                            allow energy performance
     THE INDUSTRY                                                                  commitments to be formalized
    IN SUSTAINABLE,                                                                through contracts and all
                                                                                   stakeholders (real estate
                                                                                   managers, network operators,
                                                                                   users, etc.) to be mobilized to
                                                                                   reduce our energy dependence.
        ACTIONS                                                                    Its use also creates new solutions
   (CLEAN MOBILITY,                                                                that pool energy use across
HOTEL AND CATERING                                                                 several buildings and develops
INDUSTRY INITIATIVES)                                                              data storage and deletion
 BY MOBILIZING THE                                                                 capabilities, particularly in order
  PARIS INNOVATION                                                                 to reduce spikes in consumption.

                        – The forthcoming autonomous
                        transportation revolution
                        With advances in the fields of mechatronics and
                        artificial intelligence, self-driving cars are now a
                        reality. The impacts of this mobility revolution will be
                        felt in many industries, such as car making, energy,
                        transportation services, logistics and insurance.
                        The spread of self-driving cars will make
                        aboveground parking lots and spaces obsolete,
                        allowing these areas to be reclaimed for
                        non-motorized traffic. By fostering the use of
                        autonomous shuttles instead of individual cars,
                        urban space will be optimized.

– Smart public services                – Putting urban data to use
Digital technologies aim to            New digital technologies considerably increase the
simplify user interactions with        data produced by the City’s inhabitants through
public services by facilitating use,   various sensors in the urban space (cameras, meters,
saving time and personalizing the      motion detectors, etc.). Data is also generated
service provided. In the public        through crowdsourcing, such as peer-to-peer
sphere, digital technologies can       platforms (e.g., carpooling), voluntary citizen
offer new services to urbanites        feedback and passive data collection via
and tourists who are increasingly      smartphones, vehicles and other connected devices.
on the move. Free Wi-Fi,               Since 2010, the City of Paris has taken a pioneering
communicating information via          stance in open data policy with its open data              – Digital inclusion
smart street furniture or              platform. Its aim is to make all structured data           The basic issue of accessibility
customized content on                  accessible by open license to promote their reuse          and digital inclusion also arises
smartphones, and accessibility         and generate new applications. The city also               with the development of new
solutions for people with              supports big data analysis solutions, which is difficult   technologies. This not only
disabilities are just a few of the     to process with traditional tools, but which can be        implies maintaining a
possibilities. Digital technologies    made more personalized or participatory, and even          multichannel offer of services with
can also stimulate a new local         turned from reactive into proactive through                user-friendly interfaces, but also
economy driven by                      predictive and preventative approaches given new           expanding access to digital uses.
neighborhood businesses.               data science methods and innovative solutions.             City employees must also be
                                       Lastly, the city promotes open innovation with its         trained to ensure they can assist
                                       partners through data exchanges that are kept              users in the use of digital services.
                                       secure and confidential in line with French Data           The city must protect citizens
                                       Protection Authority (CNIL) recommendations.               against new risks linked to digital
                                       Data is at the core of numerous solutions currently        technologies – e.g., data security,
                                       being implemented or still under development,              privacy protection – by regulating,
                                       whether for energy and water management,                   informing and preventing
                                       mobility, using waste as a resource or new                 competition distortion and
                                       approaches such as data-driven urbanism. They can          monopolizations.
                                       also be central to new urban services for education,
They also provide incredibly           employment access, new sports and cultural
effective leverage for public          activities for all, and to ensure good health,
policies by allowing for a more        well-being and a better quality of life.
detailed analysis of citizens’ uses
and expectations. Lastly, they can
improve citizens’ access to public
(open) data, and more broadly,
allow them to be involved in a
process of open government
through which the government
and those who are governed can
forge a new relationship. Instead
of being confined to the classic
dichotomy, stakeholders can
adopt an approach of co-creation
and joint decision-making. The
demand for direct participation in
decisions has turned the city into
a facilitator, requiring dedicated
infrastructure and specific policies
to manage risk and ensure

The ambition:
Reinventing the city for all citizens
After the success of the Climate Summit for Local Leaders at COP21 in 2015, the City
of Paris has been part of a strong international momentum to reinvent “the city for all
citizens,” by combining efforts to reduce inequality, bolster urban resilience and
support technological advances.

                                                                                          © Franck Badaire Photographe
                                                                                          Les Halles

Les grands voisins - Saint-Vincent de Paul (14e)
                                                                                                     © Elena Manente_Yes We Camp
“What if, instead of
boarding up temporarily
vacant buildings, we
                                  New solutions are needed across all          Innovation, inclusion and
decided to use them for
bold and generous
                                  urban policies: access to basic              resilience are powerful
endeavors? The Grands             services, employment and professional        driving forces for the
Voisins project demonstrates      training (especially for young people),      21st-century city, which
that, in the heart of Paris, it   regional development, population             prioritizes its residents’
is possible to establish a        aging, children, intergenerational           quality of life. New
multifunctional space for just    solidarity, social diversity, women’s        knowledge and
a few years, whose main           rights, climate change adaptation,           technologies offer
objective is the common           greening, biodiversity and nature,           remarkable and
good. From housing                energy, housing, mobility, education,        powerful tools for social,
disadvantaged individuals to      healthcare, sports, art and culture,         economic, cultural and
hosting associations and
                                  pollution reduction, job creation,           environmental progress
solidarity-based businesses,
                                  safety of people and property, refugee       to develop social
promoting the presence of
                                  reception, governance and much               cohesion, solidarity and
artisans and designers,
sharing tools and working
                                  more. Original economic models and           harmonious coexistence.
spaces, creating an               innovations in all industries have given     These values offer the
innovative public park with       cities new opportunities to reduce           best protection against
educational, cultural and         inequality while promoting more              any shock or crisis in an
athletic activities that are      harmonious, environmentally friendly         urban future, which
open to neighborhood and          and resilient development for future         remains uncertain, in a
city residents and tourists       generations.                                 world in the midst of a
alike, this is what Grands        An inclusive city is a city that gives all   complete
Voisins is all about! The         its citizens the same (good) living          transformation.
venue is housed in the            conditions and a (positive) future
                                  outlook, regardless of their
Hospital, which will soon be
                                  geographical, ethnic, religious, social,
transformed into an open
                                  cultural, educational or professional
and connected
neighborhood. Come and
                                  background and irrespective of
experience a new kind of          their purchasing power, social status,
city life for yourself.”          age or disabilities.
                                  Solidarity, participation, democracy,
                                  engagement, citizen identity, as well
                                  as cultural and economic emancipation
                                  are pillars of an inclusive city.
– The metropolitan emergency
                         To successfully deal with major economic shifts and,
                         in particular, competition between other regions at
                         both the national and international level,
                         the metropolitan mindset must be strengthened.
                         Despite the current “administrative divides,”
                         the Metropolis of Greater Paris must be supported
                         by an ambitious and altruistic vision in order to be      – The Arc de
      PARIS HAS          built through creative projects that stimulate            l’Innovation
   PRIORITIZED ITS       interregional cooperation. Through this approach,         Arc de l’Innovation is the name
  WORKING-CLASS          the metropolitan project is also about developing         given to a group of partner towns
  NEIGHBORHOODS          and drawing in talented individuals, whether they         located along an arc that
 WITH THE 2015-2020      are students, researchers, artists, designers or          stretches to the north
                         start-ups, in order to support an open innovation         (Porte Pouchet), east and south
                         ecosystem that connects citizens, companies and           (Porte de Vanves) of Paris,
                         local businesses.                                         from Saint-Ouen to Malakoff.
                                                                                   It developed from a desire
 EMPLOYMENT AND          – New negotiated urban                                    among the partner communities
TRAINING, AS WELL AS     development                                               to strengthen cooperation
       CITIZEN           Local and regional government authorities partner         between local towns and join
PARTICIPATION AT THE     with private stakeholders in a number of ways.            forces to build the Metropolis of
     FOREFRONT.          Government contracts are often an overly restrictive      Greater Paris.
                         framework for this type of dialogue. Partnership          The Arc de l’Innovation addresses
                         agreements have eased some of the constraints;            a threefold challenge: economic
                         however, they also limit the possibilities of             development, urban
                         involvement by other stakeholders. The City of Paris      transformation and job creation
                         wants to open up these frameworks by paving the           in working-class neighborhoods
                         way for new types of partnerships that allow for          located on both sides of the ring
                         greater consideration of users. It is this objective      road. The goal is to change how
                         that prevails in the “Reinventing Paris” international    these neighborhoods are
                         call for projects, a landmark concept in the history of   perceived and represented,
                         city planning which is ushering in a new way to           promoting what they have to
                         “make the city.” By encouraging real estate               offer as areas with strong
                         developers to submit joint bids with associations         potential for social, economic
                         and/or different types of final users and by making       and technological innovation
                         innovation central to the selection criteria, the call    so they can become polycentric
                         for projects fostered unique proposals (which will be     hubs within the Greater Paris
THE LOCAL CITY PLAN      formalized through contracts) with these                  region.
(PLU), REVISED IN JULY   stakeholders. This new type of public-private
  2016, ATTEMPTS TO      partnership, lauded for its originality at the
   BETTER ADDRESS        international level, commits private stakeholders to
                         implement their proposals, especially those that
                         combine users. It also gives the city an important
                         role in guaranteeing that these commitments are
                         kept. Several projects will hand over management
QUALITY, THE ROLE OF     of the venues (shared gardens, community
  NATURE IN THE CITY     nurseries, etc.) to resident associations, and most
    AND CREATING         will guarantee spaces open to the public and
     AFFORDABLE          accessible to all. They are thus reinventing new
  HOUSING FOR ALL.       forms of shared goods, whose operation is
                         protected by the public-private partnership

– Promoting shared
                                                                           “Shared resources,” i.e.,
                                                                           resources that are not governed
                                                                           by the public sector or market
                                                                           players, are set up by groups of
                                                                           people who define a collective
                                                                           set of guidelines in order to
                                                                           protect a resource.
                                                                           The concept of shared resources
                                                                           makes it possible to free
                    – Tactical urbanism                                    economic action from an
                    Tactical urbanism is about combining small-scale       approach vacillating between
                    urban transformation with an approach that uses        “more state” and “more private.”
IS BASED ON THREE   fewer resources while trying to identify areas that    This resource-focused practice
    PRINCIPLES:     can have a major impact when rolled out citywide.      creates an economy built on
   SMALL-SCALE,     This concept is based on three principles:             collective management and
 SHORT-TERM AND     small-scale, short-term and low-cost actions.          protecting resources rather than
LOW-COST ACTIONS.   Contrary to large-scale urban development projects,    on competition for their
                    these projects give neighborhood residents and         exploitation. Shared resources
                    users a voice, allowing them to be involved in         transfer power and autonomy
                    making decisions about where they live and taking      back to citizens and take into
                    ownership of urban public spaces. They speed up        account the interdependency of
                    the city’s transformation processes since many ideas   all stakeholders and the resource
                    can be tested and feedback can be gathered more        in question. No specific business
                    quickly, while still maintaining community support.    model is imposed on shared
                                                                           resources; instead, principles
                    Data-driven urbanism supports this practice by         guide their governance and the
                    using participatory data (from crowdsourcing) to       value created from resource use.
                    prioritize choices and clarify decisions.              Real estate projects and
                    The end goal is to promote greater flexibility,        development must become the
                    temporary installations and agile approaches.          opportunity to establish new
                    This approach has enormous potential by meeting        urban shared resources. The aim
                    the expectations of citizens who want to be more       is to create dialogue with
                    involved in urban programs and by improving the        residents and users and involve
DEVELOPMENT MUST    areas where they live through the use of powerful      them in the co-creation process
   BECOME THE       digital tools.                                         to give them a sense of
 OPPORTUNITY TO     Because tactical urbanism makes use of temporary       ownership through all project
 BUILD NEW URBAN    installations, it is a solution that is implemented    phases, from design to
SHARED RESOURCES.   between major urban projects. This practice gets       construction and throughout the
                    local residents involved during a period of urban      project’s lifetime. For this
                    transition, takes new uses into consideration and      approach to work, stakeholders
                    generates groundbreaking ideas. Rather than being      must cultivate trust and treat
                    a simple stopgap before a definitive project sees      each other with respect. It also
                    the light of day, these activities can become          relies on collaborative methods
                    advantageous mediums for action and reflection in      and user-friendly digital tools
                    order to experience new ways of making the city.       accessible to all.

– The 15-minute city: Putting the
                       “neighbor” back in neighborhood

  NEIGHBORHOOD                                                                    Various neighborhood caretaking
 SCALE IS ESSENTIAL                                                               concepts have emerged within
                                                                                  the framework of eco-districts as
                                                                                  well as in existing
                                                                                  neighborhoods. The goal is to
                                                                                  combine various traditional
    RESILIENT AND                                                                 caretaking services with new
   INCLUSIVE CITY.                                                                services such as repairs, package
                                                                                  delivery and neighborhood
                                                                                  management. While certain
                                                                                  models are completely profit
                                                                                  driven, others seek to encourage
                                                                                  solidarity and develop services
                                                                                  that are available to all.
                       Reconciling the demands of a sustainable city as
                       well as its new rhythms with other ways of living,
                       working and having fun begins by transforming the
                       urban environment, which remains highly
                       monofunctional, with its city center and different
                       specializations, towards a polycentric city, driven by
                       four major factors: proximity, social diversity, density
                       and ubiquity.
                       In short, it is the notion of a 15-minute city, where
                       everything is available to everyone at all times, and
   NEIGHBORHOOD        where, in less than 15 minutes, residents can access
     CARETAKING        all their basic needs. Hyper-proximity, where local
   CONCEPTS HAVE       life meets new uses and services provided by new
EMERGED WITHIN THE     and digital technologies, is key to revitalizing urban
   FRAMEWORK OF        centers. Working at the block and neighborhood
  ECO-DISTRICTS AS     scale is essential in order to meet the different
 WELL AS IN EXISTING   needs of a sustainable, resilient and inclusive city.
  NEIGHBORHOODS.       It reflects the desire of citizens/consumers to become
                       stakeholders in the local economy, which is built on
                       local supply chains, services shared between
                       neighbors, support for local businesses, activities
                       within every neighborhood and actions to protect
                       those who are most vulnerable from isolation.
                       It involves bringing citizens’ expectations in line with
                       proposed offers and ensuring functional diversity by
                       developing social, economic and cultural

– Encouraging innovative initiatives
                         To achieve the targets Paris has set for itself,
                         especially environmental and health goals, everyone
                         must do their part. The zero-waste objective cannot
                         be met if citizens do not adopt environmentally
                         friendly habits such as recycling and fighting waste.
                         Similarly, fighting climate change requires numerous
                         changes at home, at work, in terms of food and
THE CITY’S PRIORITY IS   mobility. Other policies, such as obesity prevention,
    TO SUPPORT           must also be based on encouraging positive
    AWARENESS            behaviors such as having an active lifestyle.
     CAMPAIGNS           The city’s priority is to support awareness campaigns
   REGARDING ITS         regarding its various environmental and health
      VARIOUS            policies by underpinning them with tools that
ENVIRONMENTAL AND        facilitate the adoption of better behaviors.

                                                                          © David Chipperfield Architects
                                                                          MORLAND, MIXITE CAPITALE

                         Possibilities include games and contests
                         (gamification) such as challenges between buildings
                         or neighborhoods and various types of awards that
                         are part of a virtuous environment.
                         Digital technologies make sharing these practices
                         easier and help in mobilizing the masses quickly
                         and effectively. These behavioral changes also
                         need to be part of a comprehensive and long-term
                         civic- and citizen-driven process.



Combining collective human intelligence with
     technology gives us the means to create a city of
    tomorrow and rise to the challenges that we face
    in 2020 and beyond. The year 2020 is an essential
  milestone that marks a turning point in the industrial
 and energy transition that is transforming the city and
surrounding area. Paris has all the resources it needs to
    support this transition. Therefore, our wish is that
  everyone – residents, families, students, employees,
      entrepreneurs, innovators, researchers, artisans,
          business owners and corporate groups –
 participates in a shared project with a collective vision
           into which we can pour all our energy.
 Our vision of Smart and Sustainable Paris is based on
  three major pillars: the open city, the connected city
and the sustainable city. Each one of these brings value
   and resources to the comprehensive approach that
        will help develop the new trajectory of this
   21st-century metropolis. Data use and governance
       will also influence these three dimensions for
                     the city of tomorrow.

One city, three pillars,
one goal
A new urban world has emerged at the crossroads of societal needs, urbanism
and ambient intelligence, with technological revolutions already in full swing.
A smart and sustainable Paris embodies social, ecological, cultural, economic
and technological convergences with the citizen at its center. It works and
is interconnected with projects in other cities in France, Europe and the world.

                                                               - Open innovation
                                                               - Open data
                                                               - Open governance
                                                               - Citizen participation
                                                               - Innovative ecosystem

                            Connected                                    Open

      - Digital services
        - User relations
     - Digital inclusion
       and new digital
        - Platforms and
            - Internet of
            Things (IoT)


                              - Town planning                 - Greening
                              - Energy and networks           - Climate Plan and
                              - Mobility and logistics           Climate Change
                              - Circular economy,               Adaptation Plan
                                 waste and recycling          - Resilience

– A method: The Open City                                            The Connected City relies on modernization and extends the
                                                                     reach of the municipal administration to accommodate new
                                                                     uses by both residents and visitors. New digital services and
                                                                     platforms will enable interoperability and information
                                                                     exchange. It draws its strength from adaptable infrastructures
                                                                     designed to meet current needs.

                                                                     – The goal: The Sustainable City

Paris’s intelligence comes first and foremost from Parisians’
intelligence, and it is the city’s method of open innovation
that sets it apart from other global metropolises. This
principle shapes the strategy and actions Paris adopted for
2020 and beyond that encourage citizen participation, open
data and project co-creation. Open innovation is based on
the belief that the solutions of tomorrow will emerge through
collective intelligence and the collaboration between public
stakeholders, businesses, researchers and citizens. It places
people at the core of the system by giving them the means            The Sustainable City is a place where technology serves
to understand and take ownership of the material and data            people, improving their inclusion in city life by allowing them
flows that traverse the city.                                        to be involved in creating public services and policy
                                                                     decision-making processes. It is a place where different
                                                                     networks work together towards one goal: making everyone’s
                                                                     lives better every day. The sustainable city meets economic,
                                                                     social, cultural and environmental imperatives: it is a
– Tools: The Connected City                                          post-carbon city, a value creator, and a benevolent and
                                                                     inclusive force.
                                                                     It rethinks how its networks, development and urban flows
                                                                     operate to optimize and save resources. It proposes
                                                                     innovative practices with regards to urban renewal and
                                                                     development, consumption (circular economy, energies,
                                                                     production flows, etc.), and network and mobility
                                                                     interconnectedness by using the methods of the Open City
                                                                     and the tools of the Connected City.

Digital technologies have become a source of inspiration for
many uses within a reality that will be changed by these
technologies. In the connected city, networks,
hyper-connectivity and the Internet of Things form a network
through which information becomes instantly accessible and
citizen initiatives are able to emerge, which alter their
relationships with the city and its governance.

These interdependent objectives are reflected in a number of major actions and
projects. A few key examples are described below and will be further developed
by 2020 and beyond.
The Open City
An approach that places people at the center of our process. It is founded on
collaborative methods and relies on the collective intelligence of its residents,
users, municipal officials and socioeconomic stakeholders. It ensures
information sharing and implements constant interaction in order to maintain
a collaborative process:

                              STIMULATING CITIZEN PARTICIPATION
                                 AND COLLABORATIVE PROJECTS
                                Promoting public innovation

——Stimulating citizen participation
                               and collaborative projects
                               Involving Parisians in designing and implementing public policies in urban projects is a
                               key priority. Smart and Sustainable Paris considers systematic and thorough cooperation
                               with residents on all projects to be one of its core values. It achieves this through
                               measures that encourage strong citizen participation and collaboration. In its approach
                               as an open, participative, vibrant and creative city, Paris strives to promote citizen
                               initiatives and the expression of city life in all its forms. The co-creation of urban projects
                               also depends on the development of dynamic ecosystems. By ensuring their long-term

                               success, we will be able to see the transformative potential of everyone’s contributions
                               so that the city and all urban spaces become an open-air platform for transformation.

   by 2020 in projects
   chosen by Parisians
through the Participatory
   Budgeting program

                                        CITIZEN PARTICIPATION

                               SSParticipatory budgeting: launched in 2015 (5% of the City of Paris’s investment
                                  budget). 158,000 participants in 2016. In 2016, participatory budgeting was also
                                  launched in schools.

                               SSDigital platforms for citizen participation in decision-making and city life:
                                 --Formulating ideas and developing proposals:
                           , an open platform for proposals and ideas.
ssCreation of the          
Citizen Card. This card,             Development of the e-petition system.
available for all residents      --Engaging and participating in citizen life:
7 years old and up,        , the platform for citizen volunteering.
is a tool to encourage               Participating on make suggestions, discuss different topics,
the inclusive development             act and follow the citizen’s agenda.
of citizen identity in our            Crowdfunding to create leveraging for structures supported by the city.
city. It offers a wide range     --Improving urban life: revamping the DansMaRue (“On my street”) application to report
of civic, cultural and              problems in public spaces (or provide suggestions: 3,000 reports per month).
community benefits.            SSStaying involved with the Paris City Council and its proceedings:
                                 --Watch Paris City Council proceedings live.
                                 --Improved archiving of proceedings.
                                 --Live computer graphics during the deliberations at Paris City Council proceedings.

                                          Completed during current term   Underway      Forthcoming (during current term)

SSPartners Committee: launched in 2015, this group brings together more than
   400 representatives from economic stakeholders (corporate groups, intermediate-sized
   enterprises, SMBs, startups, associations, architects, city planners, etc.) who
   participated in working groups on issues such as energy, mobility, waste management,
   recycling and innovative urbanism.

SSOrganization of collaborative and cooperative workshops open to economic
   stakeholders, associations and Paris residents (Hackathon and Meetup) on themes
   related to city-led projects: mobility, mobile services, press kiosks, touchscreen
   contests, the new local economy, circular economy mapping, employment, greening,
   participatory budgeting and the Vélib’ bike sharing program.

          Completed during current term   Underway   Forthcoming (during current term)

——Exchanging, sharing and co-creating
                            with French and international researchers,
                            scientists and academics
                            Paris’s academic renown, its research excellence, the city’s constant openness to the
                            national and international scientific community at every level, and its active presence in
                            high-level international networks are points of pride for our city.
                            Paris welcomes students, academics and scientists from around the world. It is simply
                            part of its DNA. Paris’s intelligence is also forged by looking beyond its borders to
                            attract the best and brightest, which is essential in order to continue to enhance
                            creativity, ingenuity and the ability of each of us to continually be better.

   of higher education,
 including 8 universities

(including 50,000 foreign

   via the municipal
  a grant budget of

 €2,648,000                          A CONSTANT DRIVE FOR SCIENCE,
                                     RESEARCH AND INNOVATION
  awarded to between
  10 and 15 recipients      SSThe City of Paris Scientific Advisory Board: This body issues opinions on dossiers and
       per year                questions it receives for consideration and submits proposals and recommendations
                               to City Hall.

                            SSCIFRE (Industrial Agreements for Training through Research) partnership grants.
                               Through this program, the City of Paris hires between 10 and 20 young doctoral
                               candidates every year to not only provide them with recognized professional
                               experience, but also benefit from their expertise and research.

                            SSExpertise from schools in Paris (EIVP engineering school, ESPCI Paris science and
                               engineering school, and École du Breuil horticulture school).

                                      Completed during current term   Underway     Forthcoming (during current term)

                                         PARTNERSHIPS BETWEEN THE CITY AND
                                         THE SCIENTIFIC AND ACADEMIC WORLD
                                SSCo-creator of a “Labor Chair” led by the Paris School of Economics, a multi-year
                                   academic research program on labor whose objective is to contribute to social debate
                                   and policy decisions.

                                SSPartner of the “Philosophy in Hospitals” Chair created in early 2016 at the Hôtel-Dieu
ssA circular economy              Hospital, dedicated to disseminating knowledge about public health and health care
commitment charter for            issues, led by the Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris (AP-HP), École Normale
student life and academic         Supérieure (ENS) and Paris Descartes University.
stakeholders, with efforts
that include research on        SSParis Institute for Advanced Studies (IAS): The IAS was founded by the Fondation
the quality of compost            Maison des Sciences de l’Homme (FMSH), École des Hautes Études en Sciences
from municipal and                Sociales (EHESS), and École Normale Supérieure (ENS) and is supported by the City of
neighborhood composters           Paris. This research center in the field of human and social sciences as well as related
and the commitment of             disciplines, offers world-renowned academics and scientists opportunities to live in
student associations to           Paris for five to nine months for their research.
move towards creating
zero-waste campuses and                  ENCOURAGING RESEARCH PROJECTS,
a sharing economy.                       INNOVATION AND DISSEMINATING SCIENTIFIC CULTURE
                                SSAs part of national and European co-funding programs (PIA, ERDF, H2020, URBACT,
                                   LIFE+, ANR and FUI, among others), development of partnerships with research
                                   laboratories, companies and other French and European cities.

                                SSA call for proposals to promote the dissemination and sharing of scientific culture to
                                   as many people as possible through projects around Paris. It is aimed at associations,
                                   cooperatives, foundations, public agencies, research organizations and universities.

                                SSSupport for citizen science initiatives.

ssThe City of Paris won
the bid for the ERDF
“Urban Innovative
Actions” call for proposals
to develop an innovative
approach to energy
governance in the Clichy
Batignolles eco-district. The
winning project, called
Co-Responsibility in District
Energy Efficiency &
Sustainability (CoRDEES), is
being managed by the city
and was designed in
cooperation with
                                                                                                                             © L’autre Image

companies, a research
laboratory and the local

neighborhood city planner.

                                           Completed during current term      Underway   Forthcoming (during current term)

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