Wellington Region Electric Vehicle Working Group - Greater Wellington Regional ...

Wellington Region Electric Vehicle Working Group - Greater Wellington Regional ...
Wellington Region Electric Vehicle Working
Building awareness, accelerating adoption and coordinating the development
of charging infrastructure throughout the Greater Wellington Region

Coordination Update 04: October 2018

    The Wellington Region Electric Vehicle Working Group (REVWG) is comprised of
    officers from councils across the region. The group operates as a coordinating
    mechanism for the promotion of electric vehicles (EV) generally, and in relation to
    the development of charging infrastructure.

Wellington Region Electric Vehicle Working Group - Greater Wellington Regional ...
REVWG Coordination Update 04: October 2018

The Wellington Region Electric Vehicle Working Group (REVWG) is comprised of officers from
councils across the region, along with representatives of other interested organisations, and is
convened by the Greater Wellington Regional Council.1
The group operates as a coordinating mechanism for the promotion of electric vehicles (EV)
generally, and in relation to the development of charging infrastructure.

REVWG produces a coordination update every six months which summarises the current state
of play and short-term outlook for EVs in the region enabling further planning to evolve from a
coordinated base.

The updates cover:

           Elements within the scope of REVWGs influence (e.g. charging infrastructure at council
           operated locations, transition of Council fleets, and public promotion)
and        activity relevant to electric vehicle adoption overall (e.g. the development of charging
           infrastructure by the private sector for private or public use, central gov. led promotion)
while acknowledging there are barriers and opportunities outside REVWGs scope (e.g.
      purchase cost and range of EVs available, development of a national charging network).

REVWG meets quarterly and meetings include a public forum which is open to sector
stakeholders and interested parties from throughout NZ.
To join the group please email sustainable@gw.govt.nz

                                     Image: Council boundaries within the Wellington region

  The group is convened by the Greater Wellington Regional Council and includes officers from Wellington, Hutt, Upper Hutt and Porirua
City Councils; Kapiti Coast, South Wairarapa, Carterton and Masterton District Councils. Councils north of the region also collaborate as
appropriate. REVG coordination updates do not constitute council policy or reflect the statutory plans of any council represented.

                      Wellington Region Electric Vehicle Working Group: Coordination Update #02                      pg. 1
Wellington Region Electric Vehicle Working Group - Greater Wellington Regional ...
REVWG Coordination Update 04: October 2018


1.      Current state of play                                                                                           Page 3

        Table 1              Charging Infrastructure and electric vehicles in the Wellington region
        1.1                  Key observations:
        1.2                  Local government policy and fleets
        1.3                  Recent promotional activity
        1.4                  Charging infrastructure development
        1.5                  Heavy electric vehicles
        1.6                  Central Government Electric Vehicle Programme
                       1.6.1 Electric vehicle charging safety guideline
                       1.6.2 Low Emission Vehicles Contestable Fund
                       1.6.3 National guidance for public charging infrastructure

2. Regional EV Working Group: Current objectives & actions                                                              Page 9

          Table 2               EV charging infrastructure: Achieving coverage and maintaining capacity
          Figure 1              Fast charging infrastructure (Sept 2017)
          Figure 2              Slow charging infrastructure (Sept 2017)

          Table 3 REVWG 2017/18 Objectives and relevant actions                                                         Page 11

3. City and District infrastructure plans                                                                               Page 15
         Wellington City
         Hutt City
         Upper Hutt City
         Porirua City
         Kapiti Coast District
         Wairarapa Districts
         Greater Wellington Regional Council

Appendix 1:                     Electric Vehicles – The broad context                                                   Page 23
Appendix 2:                     Notes re appropriately locating charging stations                                       Page 26

  Wellington Electricity serves Wellington City, north to Pukerua Bay and Upper Hutt; PowerCo serves the Wairarapa; and Electra serves
Paekakariki and north along Kapiti coast. These electricity lines companies participate in REVWG.
                        Wellington Region Electric Vehicle Working Group: Coordination Update #02                   pg. 2
Wellington Region Electric Vehicle Working Group - Greater Wellington Regional ...
1.            Current state of play

 Table 1: Charging Infrastructure and electric vehicles in the Wellington region
                                           New Zealand                               Wellington Region

 Charging Stations - Fast
 Start of 2016                             4                                         0
 Start of 2017                             33                                        4
 Now (October 2018)                        132                                       12

 Charging Stations - Slow
 Start of 2016                             ~ 10 (plus 200+ campgrounds)              2 (plus ~10 campgrounds)
 Now (October 2018)                        ~ 250 (plus 200+ campgrounds)             20 (plus ~10 campgrounds)

 Electric Vehicles
 Start of 2016                             1048                                      < 100
 Start of 2017                             2535                                      250
 Now (September 2018)                      10,248                                    1,438

 Target/s                                  64,000 electric vehicles on road          No target.
 Set by Minister of Transport              by 2021                                   Note that 6,400 vehicles by 2021 represents
                                                                                     a per-capita share of the NZ target.
                                                                                     International data demonstrates that areas
                                                                                     with higher per capita incomes experience
                                                                                     greater uptake (relevant as Wellington city
                                                                                     highest per capita income in NZ).

 Total light vehicles on road              3.8 million                               250,000

 CO2e offset annually4                     20,596tonnes                              2,876tonnes

     Number is for individual fast charging locations, some of which have more than one charger at them (e.g. Paraparaumu, The Dowse)
     Simple model of 2 tonnes CO2e per car per year using the most recent vehicle count from MoT.
                          Wellington Region Electric Vehicle Working Group: Coordination Update #02                    pg. 3
Wellington Region Electric Vehicle Working Group - Greater Wellington Regional ...
1.1         Key observations (October 2018):

       ●     Numbers of electric vehicles and charging stations have been roughly doubling year-on-year.

       ●    Visibility of charging infrastructure and electric vehicles is improving even though as a percentage of
            the fleet their numbers are very low. Additional interest in the purchase of electric cars is being
            reported in response to rising fuel costs..

       ●    Coverage is not yet complete. In some areas of the region it is still not practical to drive an electric
            vehicle (i.e. you would end up waiting hours to recharge along your journey). A noticeable gap
            between Otaki and Porirua has this month been plugged with the addition of a dual 50kW DC station
            at PAK’n’Save Kapiti (at Coastlands Mall). The Wairarapa presents an issue in that coasts lack coverage
            (e.g. Castle Point). There is an interregional gap between Masterton and Hawke’s Bay.

       ●    Capacity at charging sites is a growing issue, given the relatively few number of locations today, and
            that a fast-charge location can typically only charge one vehicle at once. Charging queues frequently
            noted at Vivian St (Wellington City) and at times, other locations.. Smaller 25kW charging units have
            been added alongside 50kW units at some locations to try and help alleviate this problem. Larger
            units would be better, but the electricity supply capapcity at sites constrains this. In central
            Wellington three additional fast chargers have been installed in the CBD, which is helpful, but
            ‘hunting’ around multiple locations to charge is an inconvenience to EV drivers that drivers of petrol
            and diesel cars would not experience under normal circumstances. Also in more remote areas, a fault
            at a of station could strand or severely inconvenience electric motorists. Improving redundancy and
            capacity now needs to be added to the agenda.

       ●    Knowledge about electric vehicles and installing infrastructure is limited to a few experts, and even
            then, a high pace of technological change means no one has all the answers.

       ●    Transport emissions contribute 39% of the region’s total greenhouse gas emissions, with petrol use
            for road transport contributing 29%.5

1. 2.       Local government policy and fleets

Currently, Greater Wellington has 10 electric vehicles; Wellington City have nine, and the remainder have
either two, one or none. The nine councils in the area operate between 500 and 600 vehicles. Ownership
arrangements are mixed across the councils, with some owning their entire fleet and others leasing. The two
District Health Boards have approximately the same number of vehicles as the councils combined.

Greater Wellington Regional Council adopted an ‘electric vehicle first’ policy in 2016, and Wellington City
Council has publicly stated goals to grow its number of electric vehicles. GWRC have produced an information
paper for vehicle fleet managers with practical information about fleet transition, charging infrastructure, the
changes to Council’s vehicle policy and electric vehicles in general. The paper also summarises the results of a
NZ wide council survey about electric vehicle uptake.

A key advantage of Council’s using EVs is that it boosts visibility of the vehicles in the community. Some vehicle
types (e.g. open tray 4WD utes) are not currently available.

    Regional Green House Gas Inventory
                       Wellington Region Electric Vehicle Working Group: Coordination Update #02   pg. 4
Wellington Region Electric Vehicle Working Group - Greater Wellington Regional ...
1.3        Recent promotional activity

           Leading the Charge Road Trip – Wellington City (Cuba St, CBD) and Lower Hutt (Dowse) were two
           stops for a successful promotional electric vehicle convoy travelling 2500 km from Bluff to Cape
           Reinga in March 2018. In each case the vehicles were on public display for several hours for locals to
           see, ride, and test drive. The spectrum of vehicles at the displays was extensive, covering low-end
           Nissan Leafs, through to mid-market options by BMW and Hyundai and VW, through to high
           performance luxury vehicles by Tesla. The Wellington event also featured a full-sized fully electric bus
           and a taste of the future with lower Cuba Street being electric only for day. Across the two events
           over 50 people took test drives, and over 100 people rode in an electric vehicle (including the bus).

1.4        Charging infrastructure development

      1.   Charge Net NZ (private company) is installing a nationwide network of over 100 fast chargers
           nationwide (50 kW DC). Their chargers are now operational in Wellington CBD (five chargers at four
           locations), Petone, Lower Hutt, Upper Hutt, Featherston, Masterton, Porirua, Kapiti, and Otaki. See
           https://charge.net.nz/charging-map/ for more info. Current sites mostly only have the capacity to
           charge just one vehicle at once; it is acknowledged that expansion will be necessary soon.

  2.       Nine fast chargers are planned for Kapiti-Horowhenua (5 and 4 in each respectively) as part of an
           EECA-funded project by the local councils and Electra. Two are now running at Kapiti PAK’n’Save;
           the remainder will be running by early 2019.

  3.       In addition, Foodstuffs are installing fast chargers at other New World and Pak n Save
           supermarkets – six are planned for Wellington suburbs, one for Paremata and one for Lower
           Hutt. All of these new fast chargers are expected to be installed during 2019.

      4.   Wellington City Council is working on providing residential on-street ‘slow’ (AC) chargers at 25
           locations to enable residents to charge electric cars (e.g. overnight) where their homes lack off-street
           parking. Each location will charge two cars simultaneously.

      5.   Wellington Electricity are actively supporting the development of a charging network across the
           region. WE were one of the first organisations in the region to bring EVs into their corporate fleet and
           now have 5 electric cars.

      6.   Staglands Wildlife Reserve and Zealandia have charging facilities supported by Wellington Electricity
           and Wellington City Council. Wellington Zoo is expected to gain charging stations during 2019.

      7.   Tesla Motors have opened a NZ operation and are deploying very fast (120kW+ DC) “SuperCharger”
           infrastructure for their vehicles in the country, and/or offer slower (22kW AC) Destination Charging
           for hospitality and other appropriate sites. Link to map - see Asia-Pacific.

      8.   Adoption of electric buses and trucks is not supported by these infrastructure plans; to date all
           stations are positioned in car parks to small to accommodate large vehicles.

      The above initiatives will largely offer ‘coverage’ for the region. This leaves remaining areas of interest
      where there are large volumes of drivers or pedestrians, which provide the dual benefit of promotion to
      public and electricity for cars. Sites such as malls and the airport fall into this category. Recreational /
      outdoor attractions also offer significant potential for awareness raising.

                    Wellington Region Electric Vehicle Working Group: Coordination Update #02     pg. 5
Wellington Region Electric Vehicle Working Group - Greater Wellington Regional ...
1.5 Heavy Electric Vehicles
The viability and availability of large electric vehicles in the form of buses and trucks over 3.5 tonnes has
improved during 2018. Electric buses are being rolled out in stages from mid 2018 (first two pictured below).
No significant plans are known for the adoption of electric trucks in the region at present; the primary example
of an electric truck in the region is used for rubbish collection in Kāpiti.

To date, no charging station for public heavy vehicle use exists in the Wellington region, and that presents a
partial barrier (in general, large vehicles are parked in fleet carparks, where dedicated charging facilities could
be installed by the vehicle owner).

1.6 Central Government Electric Vehicle Programme
In May 2016, the Government announced its Electric Vehicle Programme, with a package of measures to
stimulate the adoption of electric vehicles in New Zealand. Information on this can be accessed at
www.electricvehicles.govt.nz. The lead agencies and their roles in the electric vehicle programme are:

                  Wellington Region Electric Vehicle Working Group: Coordination Update #02       pg. 6
Wellington Region Electric Vehicle Working Group - Greater Wellington Regional ...
1.5.1 Electric vehicle charging safety guidelines:
Worksafe have released electric vehicle charging safety guidelines.

1.5.2 Low Emission Vehicles Contestable Fund:
The Government has established a contestable fund to encourage innovation and
investment that will accelerate uptake of electric and other low emission vehicles in New
Zealand that might not otherwise occur.
The fund will provide up to $6 million per year to co-fund, up to 50%, projects with private
and public sector partners in areas where commercial returns aren’t strong enough yet to
justify full private investment.

These projects will need to contribute to at least one of the following objectives:

    •   Increasing the variety and supply of electric vehicles (EVs) available
    •   Improving the availability of servicing or charging infrastructure in areas where
        demand is not fully developed
    •   Increasing demand for EVs
    •   Developing innovative products or systems to take advantage of growing EV usage

REVWG recognise the fund as a key mechanism for supporting the ongoing uptake of electric
vehicles and development of associated infrastructure in the region. Where appropriate
Councils will utilise the fund, ensuring optimal value for local projects is achieved.

WCC and HCC have successfully been awarded funding under the scheme. In addition, the
electrification of Wellington Trolley buses is partially supported by the scheme.
Details about the fund including dates for the next round are on the LEVCF fund website.

1.5.3 National guidance for public charging infrastructure: NZTA have published National
guidance for public electric vehicle charging infrastructure

        Wellington Region Electric Vehicle Working Group: Coordination Update #02   pg. 7
Wellington Region Electric Vehicle Working Group - Greater Wellington Regional ...
Figure 1: Fast charging infrastructure
            Current level of coverage across the Wellington region (October 2018)

    •   Fast Chargers typically take 25 minutes add 100km of driving. At present, most fast-charging
        sessions are of this duration or less. All fast chargers in the region are a user-pays service
        provided on a commercial basis by the company Charge.Net.
    •   Carterton and the Wairarapa coast are the main areas within the region that lack fast-charger
        ‘coverage’. For people travelling out of the region, the present lack of fast chargers around Mount
        Bruce and Bulls/Sanson are also problematic.
    •   Some sites (notably Wellington CBD and Ōtaki) get very busy. The adoption rate of electric vehicles
        supports adding more chargers, particularly in Wellington City and along the SH1 corridor.

(source https://www.journeys.nzta.govt.nz/ev-chargers/ accessed on 26-10-18.)

                 Wellington Region Electric Vehicle Working Group: Coordination Update #02   pg. 8
Wellington Region Electric Vehicle Working Group - Greater Wellington Regional ...
Figure 2: Slow charging infrastructure
           Current level of coverage across the Wellington region (October 2018)

   •   Slow Chargers (also known as AC or standard chargers) typically 4-12 hours to charge cars. This
       is a mixture of purpose-built charging equipment, 16A caravan sockets, and 8A wall sockets.
   •   These suit destinations where people are parked for several hours during the day (shopping
       centres or tourist destinations) or overnight (homes, hotels and campgrounds).
   •   Usage of such ‘public’ chargers are often restricted to only the patrons of the business where they
       are located.
   •   Because of their long charge times, public slow chargers are less useful than fast chargers. This
       also means they are mainly provided as a service for visitors (not unlike free wi-fi, free drinking
       water, or rest rooms) rather than a standalone profit-making activity in the way that fast
       chargers are.
   •   At present slow chargers help to fill some geographical gaps in the network, particularly the
   •   Well-positioned publicly-accessible slow chargers, where people are already parking for some
       length of time, help to reduce the stress placed on the fast charging network.
   •   The map below shows all public ‘slow’ chargers and camp-ground locations 8A wall sockets have
       been excluded. Chargers reserved for the exclusive use of their owners or staff are also not

(source www.plugshare.com accessed on 15-10-18.)

               Wellington Region Electric Vehicle Working Group: Coordination Update #02   pg. 9
2.        Regional EV Working Group: Current objectives & actions
The Regional EV Working group (REVWG) operates as a coordinating mechanism for the promotion
of electric vehicles (EV) generally, and in relation to the development of charging infrastructure.

Electric vehicles are considered a key platform for sustainable transport within the transport
hierarchy, which prioritises active and public transport modes and places emphasis on the
importance of air quality, reduced noise and urban form for enhancing quality of life.

REVWGs intention is to ensure that both electric vehicle charging capacity and coverage is
maintained at a sufficient scale to enable electric vehicle owners to travel freely throughout the
region, and that charging infrastructure is utilised as a promotional tool that encourages further
uptake of EVs.

Table 1 below summarises the strategic trajectory (achieving coverage then maintaining capacity)
underpinning REVWGs work, and figure 1 depicts the current level of coverage based on the range of
a Nissan Leaf.

Table 2 EV charging infrastructure: Achieving coverage and maintaining capacity

TIME                                                                                                Future (keeping
Now (2016-2017)                                                                                    pace with demand)

REVWG supports           This will inform those    And will give those       And give those who    But will soon create
multiple stakeholders    who don’t know            who know about EVs        have an EV the        bottlenecks of cars
to install 100           about EVs to learn        the confidence to         confidence to drive   queuing to recharge,
charging stations in a   about their               buy one.                  anywhere in the       and so REVWG will
coordinated fashion,     existence.                                          region.               need to support and
providing regional                                                                                 coordinate additional
coverage. REVWGs                                                                                   capacity.
role is to facilitate
optimal placement
and accelerate the
pace of installation.

                                    Coverage and Promotion                                         Add Capacity

NEW ACTION – Creation of an EV Support Strategy (October 2018).
The actions in the table that follow were agreed informally by the members of the Regional EV Working Group
in late 2016. The group has recognised that after two years, there is a need for our approach to be refreshed,
based on what we have learnt so far, the experience of others and by working to produce an estimate of the
future demand for EV charging, both ‘fast’ and ‘slow’, for all classes of road vehicles (heavy and light, private
and commercial). It is hoped that this new EV ‘support’ strategy will be adopted by all the councils and
electricity network companies in the region once it is complete, in order that they can effectively play a role in
the next phase of EV adoption.
The project commenced in late September 2018, and is being jointly funded by Wellington Electricity, Electra,
GWRC, WCC, HCC, PCC, KCDC, MDC and SWDC. For more details or to contribute please email the lead
consultant for the project Jake Roos at director@jakeroosconsulting.co.nz.

                   Wellington Region Electric Vehicle Working Group: Coordination Update #02           pg. 10
REVWG 2017/18 Objectives and relevant actions

Table 3 below sets out a broad range of objectives designed to accelerate the adoption of electric
vehicles in the region.

Options for initiatives that will progress the objectives are also identified, however it should be
noted that the capacity for implementation of the options differs from council to council. Electric
vehicles are a relatively new technology and incorporating the wide array of initiatives required to
facilitate their uptake into council planning, budgets and strategy is an iterative process that will
take time.

Table 3: REVWG 2016/17 Objectives and relevant actions                                              Indicative

Enable sufficient coverage                                                                          2017/18
Provide support and coordination as appropriate, enabling a sufficient coverage of charging
infrastructure to develop across the region as quickly as possible – so that electric vehicle
drivers can travel confidently around the region.

Note: Positioning of charging stations should consider both geographical coverage (the
distance between chargers) population density, and visibility (i.e. located in places where they
will act as promotional tools). See Appendix 2 for details.

Ensure capacity maintained                                                                          2018+
After achieving sufficient coverage, provide support and coordination as appropriate so that
the capacity of charging infrastructure is boosted, staying adequately ahead of demand to
stimulate further uptake.

Note: Capacity goals can simplistically be viewed using a historical rule of thumb ratio of 1
public charger to 10 cars. However in practice capacity growth will usually only be justified
where a specific site can be shown to be congested with cars regularly queuing up to recharge.

Promote the benefits of electric vehicles to the public in the region
Initiative options being considered by some individual councils (where planning, review and
budget cycles align appropriately) include:

 • Support / facilitate events that enable the public to test drive an EV

 • Demonstrate leadership (and gain knowledge) through electrification of council fleets
   (includes the adoption of a policy that prioritises the purchase of an electric vehicle; and
   formulation of a ‘percentage of fleet electric by x date’ target - e.g. match private sector
   fleet pledges of at least 30% vehicles to be EVs by 2019 NZ Ref)

 • Provide EV charging facilities at council operated facilities as appropriate (e.g. visitor
   carparks at libraries, swimming pools, major parks, council offices, iSites, etc)

 • Ensure major retailers (that currently provide car parking) and car parking
   facility/building operators are aware of the commercial advantages providing charging
   infrastructure can bring. Where retailers and/or parking facility operators are installing
   charging infrastructure encourage the wider promotion of EVs through locating chargers
   in areas of high visibility with consistent messaging.

                 Wellington Region Electric Vehicle Working Group: Coordination Update #02      pg. 11
• Where appropriate, work with recreation and tourism destination operators to offer
   charging facilities and adopt consistent messaging.

Encourage charging in homes and businesses                                                           2017
Provide support and coordination to ensure the development of private charging
infrastructure (primarily amongst businesses and households) develops sufficiently to sustain
electric vehicle demand.

Initiatives that have proven successful overseas and that are currently being investigated by
some individual councils for local relevance and feasibility (including where planning, review
and budget cycles align appropriately) include:

    •    A council provided loan for charger installation in homes. Ratepayers could repay the
         loan at x% via rates payments (a similar scheme Warm Up Wellington exists for home
         insulation, the rate is 7%).

    ●    A workplace charging challenge similar to the one run in the US (The US challenge
         currently has over 500 workplaces offering charging for employee vehicles, and has
         demonstrated that workplace charging for staff increases private ownership of
         electric vehicles by 20%).

    ●    Creation of zero and low-emission zones (streets where only electric vehicles can
         park and/or drive through, unless they pay an exemption charge), an idea based on
         their prevalence and effectiveness in many major European cities including Paris,
         London, and Oslo.

    ●    Amending building codes, consents and bylaws applicable to houses, apartments,
         retail premises and car parking buildings - requiring new builds and significant
         upgrades to provide recharging facilities. This is common in foreign locations (e.g.
         Vancouver scheme).

    ●    Investigate options for on street charging in areas where off street parking is rare
         (note the UK scheme for local authorities) and work with relevant stakeholders
         where appropriate.

    ●    Rates remission - to stimulate provision of charging infrastructure and dedicated EV
         parking space

Incorporate EVs in council planning and strategy
Incorporate the development and coordination of charging infrastructure, the adoption of EVs
within the council’s own operations and the promotion of electric vehicles into statutory and
non-statutory documents as appropriate.

Examples include:
    ● Local Government Annual Plans (July 2019 - June 2020, internal planning beginning
       late 2018)
    ● Regional Transport Plan (2018-2021, planning done 2016/2017).
    ● Sustainability, climate change, air quality or transport strategy documents (non

                 Wellington Region Electric Vehicle Working Group: Coordination Update #02       pg. 12
Provide charging facilities at public spaces                                                          Ongoing
Ensure upgrades to council property and facilities (e.g. council offices, swimming pools,
community centres, as well as significant public spaces like popular beaches, walking
trailheads, and major parks) consider the provision of charging facilities.

Encourage car share schemes                                                                           Ongoing
Car share schemes reduce road congestion and lower parking demand. Car share schemes
that utilise electric vehicles enable more people to experience EVs.

Encourage the adoption of low emission technologies across the transport sector – e.g.
marine and public transport (buses etc)

Central government collaboration                                                                      Ongoing
Work with central government agencies and the private sector to ensure adequate data is
available to accurately inform capacity growth
Work with relevant central government agencies around policy development and
implementation where appropriate

Data collection & provision                                                                           Ongoing
Ensure charging infrastructure is able to capture relevant usage statistics and that it is made
available to appropriate agencies

Compatibility standards                                                                               Ongoing
Ensure charging infrastructure meets consistent compatibility standards

Monitor and evaluate change                                                                           Ongoing
Monitor and evaluate changes in EV demand and technologies. Progress appropriate
responses via the Regional EV Working Group or relevant Central Govt. agencies.

                 Wellington Region Electric Vehicle Working Group: Coordination Update #02        pg. 13
4. City and District infrastructure plans
Information on the pages below are sourced from each Territorial Authority and is subject to change.

                 Wellington Region Electric Vehicle Working Group: Coordination Update #02   pg. 14
4.1 Wellington City
Policy      Council agreed to “Identify up to 100 locations for car chargers or car share” in Low Carbon Capital 2016/17 Plan, and
            broader intent via 2015 mayoral declaration6 to “support ... uptake of electric vehicles”
            The Low Carbon Plan is scheduled to be updated in 2019 and will set out new aspirations and activities.

Assets      Large population, high incomes. CBD is primary destination for work and non-work travel in region.
            Since mid 2016, now has chargers to satisfy a low number of EVs.

Issues      Low visibility of infrastructure and EVs
            Contention for car parking space in city and many residential streets
            High percentage of homes, apartments without off-street parking/charging.
            Lack of HOV and bus-lanes makes it harder to advantage EV travel
            Charging capacity expanded October 2018 and will need expansion again 2019+
            No charging station suits electric trucks ( > 6 tonne); all car parks with chargers suit smaller vehicles.

Tasks       WCC-funded charger at Z Featherston is outdated, off-standard; needs upgrading.This site has been sold for property
            development, unlikely to be upgraded. Nearby plan for fast charger. (Done in October 2018; Grey Street).
            Develop process and identify technology for chargers on residential streets (Underway)
            Decide time limits, and pricing structure for on-street parking (Done: P60)
            By-law for designation and enforcement (fines) Only needed for “in the process of charging” – can enforce on EVs as a
            vehicle class.
            Add EV charging to standard feature on property/urban area upgrades/builds
            Identify options for additional fast chargers

Goal        40 electric car charging locations (to serve population of 200,000; 40% of region; plus high commuter and visitor numbers).
            Supportive of the bus fleet being all-electric.

Fleet       9 (7 of 197 in core fleet;100 of which are traditional passenger vehicles that may be eligible for conversion; two EVs at
            Wellington Zoo). Council has stated an intention towards more EVs. Council is purchasing at least 2 EVs each year.

SLOW CHARGERS                                                                                  Installed     Running     Planned      Idea
WCC slow charger (Featherston St) - needs upgrade                                              2011          1
Sustainability Trust solar slow chargers (near Courtenay Pl)                                   2016          1
Zealandia solar-fed slow chargers (Karori)                                                     2016          3
CQ Hotel (6 electrified carparks for overnight guests)                                         2016          1
Greater Wellington office (for visitors and afterhours public access)                          2016          1
Wellington Airport (two DC chargers for taxis, plus chargers for customers)                    2018          1
SparkPlug installations at 20+ inner city and suburban locations – ON HOLD
Car Parking Buildings - two with 4+ slow bays, either end of city                                                                     2
Key destinations eg Te Papa, Zoo, Botanic Gardens, Stadium, Brooklyn Turbine,                                1                        10
On Street slow chargers, e.g. Bond Street.                                                                               1
EECA Funded residential slow charger project                                                                             50
Destination chargers at walking and cycling track heads, beaches, etc. (encouraging
healthy lifestyle)
FAST CHARGERS                                                                                  Installed     Running     Planned      Idea
Charge Net NZ fast charger (at Z Vivian St)                                                    2016          1

Fast Chargers On Street: Grey Street, Barnett Street, Inglewood Place                          2018          3           0            0
Fast Chargers at Supermarkets (Churton Park, Kilbirnie, Island Bay, Karori, Thorndon)                                                 5
TOTAL                                                                                                        12          51           17

                 To see a map of charging infrastructure currently installed, visit plugshare.com

                       Wellington Region Electric Vehicle Working Group: Coordination Update #02                             pg. 15
4.2 Hutt City
Policy    Environmental Sustainability Strategy 2015-2045 states “introduce and trial use of electric cars into council vehicle fleet” and
          “work with businesses to help build electric car charging points”, and broader intent via 2015 mayoral declaration[1] to
          “support ... uptake of electric vehicles”. A project is under way to advise Council on a carbon target, and associated sub-
          sector targets (including its own fleet) to achieve the carbon target.

Assets    Council recently facilitated the installation of a second DC unit (25kW) at the Dowse, use at that location has since doubled.
          Council owns/operates one public AC charging station in Stokes Valley, and two stations in restricted locations (only
          available to the public after hours).

Issues    No new stations (or direct council investment) are planned at this stage, until the regional EV support strategy has been
          completed, but open to facilitating the installation of stations by private investors

Tasks     Contribute to the development of the regional EV support strategy

Goal      20 electric car charging locations (to serve population of 100,000; 20% of region)

Fleet     Mayoral (owned) vehicle is electric (Plug-in Hybrid. First Mayor to do so in country).
          2 vehicles of fleet of 80+ are electric

SLOW CHARGERS                                                                              Installed   Running       Planned     Idea
HCC Fleet Carpark (public use out of business hours)                                       2016,2018 2
Lower Hutt Pak n Save                                                                      2017        1

Warehouse Petone                                                                           2016        1
Pak n Save Petone                                                                          2016        1

Community Hub, Stokes Valley                                                               2018        1 (2 plugs)
FAST CHARGERS                                                                              Installed   Running       Planned     Idea
Dowse Art Gallery                                                                          2018        2

Z Petone (currently out of service during site refurbishment)                              2016        1
TOTAL                                                                                                  9

               To see a map of charging infrastructure currently installed, visit plugshare.com

                      Wellington Region Electric Vehicle Working Group: Coordination Update #02                       pg. 16
4.3 Upper Hutt City
Policy      Electric vehicles acknowledged in 30 year plan - upperhuttcity.com/planning/urban-growth-strategy/ and and broader intent
            via 2015 mayoral declaration7 to “support ... uptake of electric vehicles”.

Assets      Moderate traffic corridor (SH2) and moderate population and moderate retail density.
            A fast charger installation has been given approval to proceed, and a slow charger is at a regional destination (Staglands)

Issues      No infrastructure in inner city, yet.
            No slow chargers planned for inner city (useful for longer stay visitors and needed for cars lacking fast-charge compatibility)
            No electric vehicles in fleet

Tasks       Progress ideas for slow chargers into plans
            Begin fleet transition, and add charger for use by fleet and visitors to council

Goal        10 electric car charging locations (to serve population of 40,000; 8% of region)

Fleet       None out of fleet of 24

SLOW CHARGERS                                                                                  Installed   Running    Planned      Idea
Staglands (regional wildlife reserve)                                                          2016        1

Akatarawa campground (for overnight users, but daytime visitors accepted)                                  1
H20 Extreme Swimming Complex                                                                                                       1

Harcourt Park, Maidstone Park, Trentham Park (popular outdoor destinations)                                                        3
SparkPlug installations (yet to be evaluated)                                                                                      2
Kaitoke Park (managed by GWRC)                                                                                                     1

FAST CHARGERS                                                                                  Installed   Running    Planned      Idea
City center (Charge Net NZ at Lion Court shopping precinct)                                                1
TOTAL                                                                                                      3                       8

                 To see a map of charging infrastructure currently installed, visit plugshare.com

                       Wellington Region Electric Vehicle Working Group: Coordination Update #02                         pg. 17
4.4 Porirua City
Policy    Internal Sustainability Strategy gives preference to fuel efficient and electric vehicles, and sets fuel use reduction and fuel
          efficiency targets.

Assets    High traffic corridor (SH1, for now) and high population and moderate retail density.

Issues    No slow chargers planned for inner city (useful for longer stay visitors and needed for cars lacking fast-charge compatibility)
          Transmission Gully motorway development will divert SH1 and its vehicle traffic away from this area

Tasks     Progress ideas for slow chargers into plans
          Develop fleet transition

Goal      10 electric car charging locations (to serve population of 50,000; 10% of region)

Fleet     1 electric out of fleet of 52

SLOW CHARGERS                                                                              Installed     Running      Planned      Idea
Campground (for overnight use, daytime permitted.)                                         2016          1
Pataka Art Gallery                                                                                                                 1
Identify Whitby and Pauatahanui opportunities (SparkPlug, or something else?)                                                      2

Battle Hill park (managed by GWRC)                                                                                                 1
Kenepuru Hospital (fleet and visitors)                                                                                             1
FAST CHARGERS                                                                              Installed     Running      Planned      Idea
City centre (Charge Net NZ at Ferry Place shopping precinct)                               2016          1
TOTAL                                                                                                    2

                      Wellington Region Electric Vehicle Working Group: Coordination Update #02                          pg. 18
4.5 Kāpiti Coast District
    Policy   Corporate emissions reduction target and plan (80% GHG emissions reduction in 2021-22 compared to 2009-10 baseline8) is
             consistent with the introduction of electric vehicles. First fully electric vehicle was purchased in 2013.

    Assets   High traffic corridor (SH1) and moderate population and regional destination.

    Issues   Otaki Charger now being highly utilised (from 70 to over 150 uses per month in 12 months to April 2018; sometimes peaking
             to 17 uses per day)

    Tasks    Complete deployment of EECA funded fast chargers
             Begin light vehicle fleet transition
             Work with partners on expanding charging facilities in the district

    Goal     10 electric car charging locations (to serve population of 50,000; 10% of region)

    Fleet    1 electric car and an electric rubbish truck out of fleet of 100.

SLOW CHARGERS                                                                              Installed   Running   Planned      Idea
Paekakariki Campground (for overnight use, daytime permitted)                              2016        1

Southwards Car Museum                                                                                                         1
SparkPlug installation Waikanae Park and Ride                                              2017        1
Nga Manu Wildlife Reserve                                                                                                     1

Queen Elizabeth park (managed by GWRC)                                                                                        1
FAST CHARGERS                                                                              Installed   Running   Planned      Idea
Otaki (Charge Net NZ at New World)                                                                     1
Raumati, Waikanae and Paekakariki                                                                                3
Paraparaumu Pak n Save/Coastlands Mall                                                                 2                      1

TOTAL                                                                                                  5         3            4

                 To see a map of charging infrastructure currently installed, visit plugshare.com

                       Wellington Region Electric Vehicle Working Group: Coordination Update #02                     pg. 19
4.6 Wairarapa Districts
Comprises Masterton District Council, Carterton District Council, South Wairarapa District Council.
Policy      Masterton District: broad intent via 2015 mayoral declaration9 to “support ... uptake of electric vehicles”

Assets      Traffic corridor (SH2) between Wellington and Hawke’s Bay
            Regional tourism destination (Martinborough)
            Fast charger at Featherston (installed) and Masterton (installed)

Issues      Large land area, long distances between locations, especially coastal towns.
            Low population density

Tasks       Initiate plan to expand network of Fast Chargers into towns that lack them (e.g. Carterton, Martinborough, Castle Point …)
            Invite retailers with off-street parking and long dwell times to offer destination charging (e.g. vineyards)
            Update tourism maps showing charging locations provided by council and businesses

Goal        15 electric car charging locations (to serve population of 45,000; 9% of region, plus lots of regional travellers)
            This ensure each town has a dedicated slow charger, two have a Fast charger, and two destinations in rural areas have

Fleet       South Wairarapa has 0 electric out of 12 vehicles; Carterton 0 out of ~15; Masterton 1 out of 19 (Mayoral car - Hyundai
            Ioniq). MDC are intending to purchase 2 further EVs in next 12 months.

SLOW CHARGERS                                                                               Installed    Running      Planned      Idea
Masterton, Greytown, Featherston campgrounds (overnight use, daytime permitted)             2015         3

Stonehenge (Carterton district)                                                                                                    1
Mt Bruce Pukaha (part managed by DOC) (Masterton District)                                                                         1
FAST CHARGERS                                                                               Installed    Running      Planned      Idea
Featherston (Charge Net NZ at Supervalue supermarket)                                       2016         1
Masterton (Charge Net NZ at Dixon Street, near Information Centre)                          2017         1
Carterton (location TBC)                                                                                                           1

Martinborough (new iSite or other location?)                                                                                       1
Castlepoint (council land near public toilets, or other location?)                                                                 1

TOTAL                                                                                                    3            0            5

                 To see a map of charging infrastructure currently installed, visit plugshare.com

                       Wellington Region Electric Vehicle Working Group: Coordination Update #02                          pg. 20
4.7 Greater Wellington Regional Council
Greater Wellington Regional Council (GWRC) has a different statutory function to that of Territorial
Authorities, and therefore it is not relevant to provide a table like those set out above. However it should be
noted that GWRC has adopted a Climate Change Strategy and is taking action to reduce GHG emissions across
all its areas of influence, including its own operations.

GWRC is electrifying its vehicle fleet and has adopted an electric vehicle first policy, which prioritises the
purchase of electric vehicles. The council currently owns 8 electric vehicles and it likely that several more will
be purchased this financial year. GWRC has a goal to be the first region in New Zealand with an all electric bus
fleet (with 10 electric double deckers entering service in July 2018 and a further 22 added by 2022), and when
achieved this will help to normalise electric vehicles with the public. NZBus are working on electrification of
the former Wellington trolley bus with EECA support, however these will not necessarily be deployed within
the region.

GWRC convenes the Regional Electric Vehicle Working Group and supports individual councils as appropriate.

GWRC has developed an internal EV charging infrastructure to support it functions across the region with
chargers installed at its main offices/depots in Wellington City, Kāpiti, Masterton and Upper Hutt. Where
possible, the chargers are made available to visitors.
Other initiatives currently being progressed include reviewing the facilities at Regional Parks with an aim to
provide charging infrastructure for public use and supporting relevant promotional opportunities for electric

                  Wellington Region Electric Vehicle Working Group: Coordination Update #02     pg. 21
Appendix 1: Electric Vehicles – The broad context
A1.1 Types of electric vehicles
Manufacturers are progressing from fuel-only to full-electric batteries as illustrated.

Battery electrics with a range of over 300km exist today, but are expensive. These vehicles will rapidly become
mainstream when the purchase prices of a long range electric vehicle purchase price is less than a petrol
vehicle, which is expected from around 2020. Unlike fueling a traditional vehicle, the act of recharging an
electric vehicles can be done quickly (expensive equipment) or slowly (cheaper) and may occur in a greater
range of situations:

A1.2 Global Context
In order to avoid the worst impacts of climate change, countries throughout the world need to reduce
greenhouse gas emissions by decarbonising their economies. Electric vehicles present an immediate and
significant solution for reducing emissions in the transport sector.

Electric vehicles are not so much the “future” of transport, but more the quickly proliferating reality. Tesla
Motors, the global upstart and thought-leader for electric vehicles, secured 400,000 pre-orders within one
week of announcing their Model 3, a vehicle with both a price and capability set for mass adoption. Up to now,
electric vehicles were either low cost (and capability, driving only 100km) or the purview of the rich (vehicles
with 400km range and supercar performance exist, but cost well over $100,000). As a result of Tesla’s mid
2016 sales rush, several global automakers have ended investment of fuel vehicle research and redirected it to
electric vehicles.

The environmental benefits, quiet, and better performance (faster acceleration, for example) of electric
vehicles are undisputed. However the high cost, heavy weight, and limited lifespan of batteries has been an
obstacle for over century. Indeed, up to 1914, there were more electric vehicles than fuel vehicles globally,
and it was the progression from hand-crank to starter motors that allowed fuel vehicles to prevail. Advances in
lithium ion batteries for laptops and smartphones improved the scale of economy (lowering cost) and refined
the chemistry (improving life), and it is more or less an accident that as a result, electric vehicles have become

                  Wellington Region Electric Vehicle Working Group: Coordination Update #02     pg. 22
Electric vehicles have been built in production volumes since 2011. There is no consensus on forward volume
projections other than that their adoption will rise exponentially. This is reflected through actual sales to date:


The growth of electric vehicles is underpinned by:
    1. Economics. It is now cheaper for luxury vehicles to be manufactured as electric rather than fuel
        powered. Over the next 5 years, the same will apply to mid-market then entry-level priced vehicles.
    2. Global policy. The Californian state, US, EU, and Chinese governments have legislation forcing
        automakers to build growing numbers of electric vehicles or face significant financial penalties.
    3. Consumer awareness. Tesla has won the hearts and minds of car buyers that electric cars are
        powerful, sexy and cool. The public is beginning to learn the environmental and financial gains of EVs.

Norway has a similar population and landmass to New Zealand, but now half of vehicle sales are electric. The
city government of Oslo installed 400 vehicle chargers from 2008 (population then: 600,000), which has since
risen to over 1000 . However, Norway taxes the purchase of fuel vehicles substantially ($20,000+) and uses
that revenue to lower EV purchase prices, a model adopted by France and several others in Europe. New
Zealand will take time before it would acclimatise to such policies.

Key barriers to the deployment of electric vehicles are constantly being overcome. For example price
continues to reduce while battery technology improves and both the range of models – and how far the can
travel on a single charge has increased. Multiple barriers do of course remain, primarily that of ‘range anxiety’
where people are concerned that they could run out of charge and be left stranded on the roadside, and
therefore do not purchase an EV. Range anxiety is expected to lessen as the prevalence and visibility of
charging infrastructure raises confidence and familiarity. It should also be noted that EECA are delivering a
nationwide information campaign.

  Detailed narrative of Oslo’s initial infrastructure rollout (2008-2011, 400 charging stations):
                  Wellington Region Electric Vehicle Working Group: Coordination Update #02      pg. 23
A1.3 New Zealand Context
New Zealand has ratified the Paris climate agreement and committed to reducing greenhouse gas emissions to
30 per cent below 2005 levels by 2030. Transport emissions are one of the fastest growing sources of
emissions and, having doubled since 1990, now account for 17% of the national footprint. Electric vehicles
offer a significant opportunity for reducing emissions associated with transport.

NZ GHG emissions 1990-present, and forecasts vs
future commitments under UNFCCC

Blue is gross emissions past and forecast; Green is net
Downward arrows show UNFCCC commitments.

To move New Zealand’s transport into the electric age, the government established an electric vehicle
programme mid 201612. This includes a target of year on year doubling of electric vehicles from 2000 in 2016
to 64,000 in 2021, expanding road user charge exemption on EVs, review of FBT and depreciation, and the
introduction of a multi-million dollar allocation to promote electric vehicles and invest in projects that
accelerate their adoption. Even so, reaching 64,000 vehicles is just 2% of our national vehicle count, so will
make very little impact on the overall transport CO2e profile. This milestone should be seen as an important
first step towards their mainstream adoption, which will in turn deliver meaningfully on our country’s
international climate change commitments.

✓Low cost imports from Japan have reduced the price of used EVs to $10,000.
✓Our electricity is some of the greenest on the planet; as a result driving an electric vehicle produces 80% less CO2 than
driving a fuel one.
✓Cleans our air quality. Vehicle exhaust emissions reduce local air quality and contribute to respiratory illness and
premature deaths. (The World Health Organisation now classifies exposure to diesel emissions in its highest category of
carcinogens. Electric vehicles improve health in our society.)
✓Aid our “100% pure” image and its tourism and immigration opportunity.
✓Economic sense. A transition to electric fleet helps 1. the country (billions of dollars of oil no longer need to be imported,
and we are not at risk of global oil price shocks) and 2. families (thousands spent on petrol replaced downsized to just a
few hundred dollars on home power bill)
✓Charging equipment was installed at frequent intervals along SH1 between 2016 and 2018. More chargers will be still be
needed to avoid queues.
✗New Zealand public is not yet well informed and confident about EVs. Most have never driven one.
✗ Vehicle-type diversity and affordable long-range vehicles will take a few years to arrive here.

Financial savings can be forecast regionally, for business, and at in homes. The higher vehicle purchase point is
typically offset by the $2000+ per annum ongoing savings per vehicle. This will become even more compelling
as the purchase prices continue to drop to be on par with fuel vehicles. Using New Zealand-based electricity
(or self sufficient solar) also offers better energy security and distances us from price shocks and the global
politics of fossil fuel production.

     See www.electricvehicles.govt.nz
                      Wellington Region Electric Vehicle Working Group: Coordination Update #02            pg. 24
A1.4 Wellington Regional Context
Transport is the largest source of GHG emissions in the Wellington region at 39%. 13This
places emphasis on electrifying vehicles (and continuing the existing push for public
transport, cycling, and walking, as they also lower the use of fuel vehicles).

The particulate matter emitted by petrol and especially diesel vehicles can impact air quality. Fully electric
vehicles have no air quality impact and reduce noise, improving the health of people and the enjoyment of
living in our region.

2016 Wellington Region CO2e Emissions. Transport emissions are burgundy

Regional scorecard:
✓Lowest vehicle ownership per capita (particularly inner suburbs of Wellington city)
✓Highest national per capita utilisation of public transport and active transport.
✓Highest national income level (and therefore most able to afford electric vehicles?)
✓Strategic importance of central government agency decision makers here

✗Inner city has lowest level of offstreet parking (an obstacle for recharging to take place at homes)
✗Most Wellingtonians have never seen or driven an electric vehicle
✗Only 1500 of the region’s 250,000 vehicles are electric. (Nationally 10,000 of 3.8 million) (Oct 2018)14
✗Public charging infrastructure in Wellington is in very early levels of coverage and capacity

                  Wellington Region Electric Vehicle Working Group: Coordination Update #02     pg. 25
Appendix 2: Notes re appropriately locating
charging stations

A2.1 Distribution
Home is where most recharging occurs, as overnight, cheap, very slow charging (5-10 hours) is convenient.

Residential street chargers are needed for home owners without garages (not available in NZ but is in UK)

Urban city street chargers build profile and gives cars a charge while their drivers park and do errands.

Carparking buildings and malls can offer slow to medium charging given long dwell time (1-3-8 hours)

Short stay retail (e.g. supermarkets) offer fantastic profile but demand quicker recharge given 30m-2hr stay.

Outdoor Destinations (Zoo, Parks) are offer good alignment with conservation values, healthy living.

Purpose-built fast charge stations are used rarely (given all the above alternatives) but are extremely
important for road trips or when desperate for a fast top-up. Petrol stations currently do not provide useful
activities for the 20-60 minute recharge wait times, so fast chargers are better suited to village centers,
supermarkets, etc, and should have playgrounds or toilets near. Consumers typically pay a premium for the
convenience of fast charging, partially due to high cost of the equipment ($40,000+).

Fleet carparks can contain both overnight slow chargers plus a few fast chargers to reduce charging downtime.

Hotels, Campgrounds: slow overnight, attract EV owners on holidays. Reduces demand on public fast chargers.

Currently, fast equipment operates at 50,000 to 135,000 watts and slow equipment at 1800 to 22,000 watts.

                 Wellington Region Electric Vehicle Working Group: Coordination Update #02     pg. 26
A2.2 Macro factors:
  1.   Regional coverage. “Leave your petrol car behind”. As well as main centres, chargers will go into
       some locations with low usage simply to enable passage of travel. This means charging stations every
       50-100km along main highways (namely SH1 and SH2).

  2.   Redundancy. Charging stations may get busy from multiple vehicles, or be offline due to a fault or
       power outage. Drivers will need the ability to detour to a nearby station to avoid being towed home.

  3.   Promotional value. Installing chargers in locations that already have high vehicle and/or pedestrian
       numbers (e.g. main streets, major retail or recreational destinations) allow people in the region to
       progress from ignorance to curiosity to owning an electric vehicle.

  4.   Decongestion. Reduce specific sites (such as fast chargers), taking into account travel habits. For
       example, with thoughtful consideration as to location, a car-parking building can be used instead of a
       fast charger for a visitor into Wellington city, given the driver is likely to be parked somewhere
       anyway, and would likely mean the driver isn’t “waiting” at all.

  5.   Destination auditing. Review most popular locations, as then people can top up while they visit their
       favourite spots (and advertise to prospective EV owners too) rather than straying from their plans.

  6.   Terrain. Climbing major hills (e.g. SH2 Rimutaka Summit at 555 meters) drains batteries and demands
       closer density than flat areas.

  7.   Resident Population and Traffic numbers and Journey habits. More charging stations are needed
       where there are more cars, supposing a given location makes sense as a stopover or destination.
       Some routes are used extensively for commuting, holidaying; local knowledge and traffic volume data
       will help.

  8.   Capacity for home charging. Other than Wellington city, most people in the region can take their car
       onto their property to charge overnight.

  9.   Assessment of major roading and property/city developments. Review major changes to highways
       and look to opportunistically incorporate vehicle charging into new retail or council building
       (libraries, iSites, town rejuvenation, etc) upgrades, as it is much cheaper to install during works before
       than after.

               Wellington Region Electric Vehicle Working Group: Coordination Update #02      pg. 27
A2.3 Local site factors:
  10. Electrical proximity. Significant cost savings arise from locating a charging station beside an electrical
      transformer, or, at the point of power supply to a building. Cabling and trenching can cost more than
      the charging equipment. It also keeps costs down, when future expansion is needed to charge cars
      quicker with more power, and/or add power to adjacent carparks, as demand grows in future years.

  11. Amenities. There must be toilets and something useful to do while charging a car, because a wait
      time might be 30 minutes or hours. Preferably, multiple activities (e.g. cafe, children’s playground,
      shops, bush walk) so that drivers and passengers can be spend their time productively and

  12. Economic potential. Many small towns and specific areas of a town or city are keen to have retail
      visitors. Positioning an electric car charger provides an opportunity for new customers.

  13. Green spaces, too. Owners of public land, parks, and reserves should aware that charging stations
      need not only beside retail. Many drivers will be happy to spend time enjoying nature while charging.

  14. Multi-orientation carparks. All other things being equal, a car park that can be parked forward or
      rearward, is better, as it allows the car’s charging inlet to be positioned close to charging station
      cable. There is no convention as to where the inlet is positioned on a car.

  15. Passive and active surveillance. Locations with a watchful eye from members of the public, retailers,
      or an active role of a park ranger or security firm will be vandalised less, will feel safer after dark, and
      will be used more.

  16. Parking convenience. Streets or stores where parking is very hard to get offer additional value. A
      charger near the entrance of a store or a busy street means electric vehicle owners save time and
      hassle going about their daily errands, which can enhance the positive experience of driving such a
      vehicle. (Note time limits must be set and enforced, and it must only for used while charging). These
      locations tend to offer better public promotional value also.

  17. Resilience. Avoid locations highly vulnerable to flooding, land slips, liquifation, etc, or help mitigate
      their effects, so that a charger can be used following natural disasters. Doing so also reduces the
      likelihood of a damaged charger which would present a dangerous electrical hazard.

  18. Physical car parking growth. Not every site will necessarily ever get the demand to grow, but, many
      will. Locations where there is additional car parking space for growth will take preference.

               Wellington Region Electric Vehicle Working Group: Coordination Update #02        pg. 28
You can also read
NEXT SLIDES ... Cancel