Cape Town International Airport Runway Re-alignment and Associated Infrastructure Environmental Impact Assessment Report

 
Cape Town International Airport Runway Re-alignment and Associated Infrastructure Environmental Impact Assessment Report
Cape Town International Airport
Runway Re-alignment and
Associated Infrastructure
Environmental Impact Assessment
Report
Report Prepared for

Airports Company South Africa

SRK Report Number 445354/04

NEAS Reference Number: DEA/EIA/0001606/2012
DEA Reference Number: 14/12/16/3/3/2/446
DEA&DP Reference Number: 16/3/1/6/6/A8/29/1142/12

Report Prepared by

March 2015
Cape Town International Airport Runway Re-alignment and Associated Infrastructure Environmental Impact Assessment Report
SRK Consulting: 445354 Cape Town International Airport Runway Re-alignment EIA Report                               Page i

          Cape Town International Airport Runway
          Re-alignment and Associated Infrastructure
          Environmental Impact Assessment Report
          Airports Company South Africa
          NEAS Reference Number: DEA/EIA/0001606/2012

          DEA Reference Number: 14/12/16/3/3/2/446

          DEA&DP Reference Number: 16/3/1/6/6/A8/29/1142/12

          SRK Consulting (South Africa) (Pty) Ltd
          The Administrative Building
          Albion Spring
          183 Main Rd
          Rondebosch 7700
          Cape Town
          South Africa
          website: www.srk.co.za

          Tel: +27 (0) 21 659 3060
          Fax:+27 (0) 21 685 7105

          SRK Project Number 445354

           Compiled by:                                                       Peer Reviewed by:

           Sharon Jones                                                       Chris Dalgliesh
           Principal Environmental Consultant                                 Partner and Principal Environmental
                                                                              Consultant
           Email: sjones@srk.co.za
           Authors:
           Sharon Jones, Scott Masson

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Cape Town International Airport Runway Re-alignment and Associated Infrastructure Environmental Impact Assessment Report
SRK Consulting: 445354 Cape Town International Airport Runway Re-alignment EIA Report                                    Page iii

          Profile and Expertise of EAPs
          SRK Consulting (South Africa) (Pty) Ltd (SRK) has been appointed by Airports Company South Africa as
          the independent consultants to undertake the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) process required
          in terms of the National Environmental Management Act 107 of 1998 (NEMA).

          SRK Consulting comprises over 1 600 professional staff worldwide, offering expertise in a wide range of
          environmental and engineering disciplines. SRK’s Cape Town environmental department has a
          distinguished track record of managing large environmental and engineering projects and has been
          practising in the Western Cape since 1979. SRK has rigorous quality assurance standards and is ISO
          9001 accredited.

          As required by NEMA, the qualifications and experience of the key individual practitioners responsible for
          this project are detailed below.

            Project Director and Reviewer: Christopher Dalgliesh, BBusSc (Hons); MPhil (EnvSci)
            Certified with the Interim Board for Environmental Assessment Practitioners South Africa (CEAPSA)
            Chris Dalgliesh is a Partner at SRK and the Head of the Environmental Department in Cape Town. He has over 19
            years of experience as an environmental consultant working on a broad range of EIA, auditing, environmental
            planning and management, stakeholder engagement and environmental management system projects. Chris’s
            experience includes managing and co-ordinating major EIAs throughout Southern Africa and South America in the
            mining, energy, land-use planning and development, water and waste management, and industrial sectors.

            Project Manager: Sharon Jones, BSc Hons (Env. Sci); MPhil (EnviroMan)
            Certified with the Interim Board for Environmental Assessment Practitioners South Africa (CEAPSA)
            Sharon Jones is a Principal Environmental Consultant with over 17 years of experience, primarily in South Africa,
            Southern Africa (Mozambique, Angola and Namibia) and South America (Suriname). Sharon has managed EIAs
            across a number of sectors, provided input into due diligence studies, compiled numerous construction and
            Operations Phase EMPs for a range of projects, and has audited compliance with EMPs on a number of sites. She is
            also involved with the development of Environmental Management Frameworks. Sharon is a registered Professional
            Natural Scientist (Environmental Science) with SACNASP and a Certified Environmental Practitioner of South Africa
            (CEAPSA).

          Statement of SRK Independence
          Neither SRK nor any of the authors of this Report have any material present or contingent interest in the
          outcome of this Report, nor do they have any pecuniary or other interest that could be reasonably
          regarded as being capable of affecting their independence or that of SRK.

          SRK has no beneficial interest in the outcome of the assessment which is capable of affecting its
          independence.

          Disclaimer
          The opinions expressed in this report have been based on the information supplied to SRK by Airports
          Company South Africa and specialists appointed by SRK. SRK has exercised all due care in reviewing the
          supplied information, but conclusions from the review are reliant on the accuracy and completeness of the
          supplied data. SRK does not accept responsibility for any errors or omissions in the supplied information
          and does not accept any consequential liability arising from commercial decisions or actions resulting from
          them. Opinions presented in this report apply to the site conditions and features as they existed at the
          time of SRK’s investigations, and those reasonably foreseeable. These opinions do not necessarily apply
          to conditions and features that may arise after the date of this Report, about which SRK had no prior
          knowledge nor had the opportunity to evaluate.

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Cape Town International Airport Runway Re-alignment and Associated Infrastructure Environmental Impact Assessment Report
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: DRAFT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT REPORT
      CAPE TOWN INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT RUNWAY RE-ALIGNMENT AND
                     ASSOCIATED INFRASTRUCTURE
                                            NEAS Reference Number: DEA/EIA/0001606/2012
                                               DEA Reference Number: 14/12/16/3/3/2/446

                                                                        SRK Consulting (South Africa) (Pty) Ltd (SRK) has been
1   INTRODUCTION                                                        appointed by Airports Company South Africa to undertake
                                                                        the Scoping and Environmental Impact Reporting (S&EIR,
Cape Town International Airport, one of three international             also referred to as Environmental Impact Assessment
airports in South Africa, currently comprises two active                [EIA]) process required in terms of the National
runways: the primary runway (Runway 01-19) and a                        Environmental Management Act 107 of 1998, as amended
secondary runway (Runway 16-34) bisecting it (Figure 1).                (NEMA). SRK has appointed a qualified team of
Airports Company South Africa proposes to re-align the                  Environmental Assessment Practitioners (EAPs) to manage
primary runway and construct parallel and rapid exit                    this process.
taxiways. The re-aligned primary runway (Runway 18-36)                  The Scope of Work assessed in the EIA process includes:
will be 3 500 m in length and will be built to international
                                                                        x Re-alignment of the primary runway;
specifications, allowing larger (Code F) aircraft to land at
Cape Town International Airport, enabling airport expansion             x Construction of associated airport infrastructure (e.g.
and increased airport capacity. Re-aligning the runway will               taxiways);
alleviate current development constraints, and will allow for           x Bulk earthworks proposed to the east of the airport;
more efficient future expansion of the airport.                         x Increased capacity potential provided for by the
                                                                          development in terms of number and/or frequency of
                                                                          flights and new flight paths facilitated by the
                                                                          development; and
                                                                        x Associated increase in (external) public road traffic to
                                                                          service increased passenger numbers.

                                                                            See page 8 for details on how you

                                                                            can participate in the process.

                                                                        2   GOVERNANCE AND PLANNING FRAMEWORK

                                                                        Sections 24 and 44 of NEMA make provision for the
                                                                        identification of activities which may not commence
                                                                        without an Environmental Authorisation (EA), and stipulate
                                                                        the requirements for the assessment of such activities. The
                                                                        EIA Regulations, 2010, are contained in four Government
                                                                        Notices      (GN)    issued     in    terms       of     NEMA.
                                                                        GN R543 sets out two alternative procedures for
                                                                        authorisation processes: depending on the type of activity
                                                                        that is proposed, either a Basic Assessment (BA) process or
                                                                        a S&EIR process is required to apply for EA from the
                                                                        competent authority – in this case the National
Figure 1: Locality Plan                                                 Department of Environmental Affairs (DEA). SRK has
                                                                        determined that the proposed runway re-alignment and
                                                                        associated infrastructure trigger activities listed in terms of
                                                                        Listing Notices 1-3 of the EIA Regulations, 2010 (Table 1).

                          ‘n Afrikaanse weergawe van hierdie dokument is beskikbaar – kontak asseblief vir SRK.
                                    Uhlelo lwesiNgesi lolu xwebhu luyafumaneka –qhagamshela i-SRK.
Cape Town International Airport Runway Re-alignment and Associated Infrastructure Environmental Impact Assessment Report
Table 1: Listed activities triggered by the Project                                    the revision, the feasibility of a number of layout and land
No Description                                                                         use planning options was analysed. The Airport Master
Listing Notice 1 (requiring BA)                                                        Plan makes provision for the optimised utilisation of the
9       The construction of infrastructure longer than 1 000 m for                     airport site, ultimately assuming two (re-aligned) primary
        the bulk transportation of stormwater.                                         runways. The proposed Project is considered the first key
11      The construction of channels, bulk stormwater outlet                           step to alleviate current development constraints, allowing
                             2
        structures or 50 m of infrastructure or structures within a
                                                                                       for optimal use of the airport as per the Airport Master
        watercourse or within 32 m of a watercourse.
                                                     3
18 The infilling or depositing of more than 5 m of any material                        Plan.
       into a watercourse.
                                                       2
24      Transformation of land bigger than 1 000 m to residential,                     3      ENVIRONMENTAL PROCESS
        retail, commercial, industrial or institutional use, where
        land was zoned open space, conservation or had an                              The EIA Regulations, 2010, define the detailed approach to
        equivalent zoning.
                                                                                       the S&EIR process, which consists of two phases: the
28      The expansion of or changes to existing facilities for any
                                                                                       Scoping Phase (completed in July 2014) and the Impact
        process or activity where such expansion or changes to will
        result in the need for a permit or license in terms of                         Assessment Phase (current phase) (see Figure 2).
        national or provincial legislation governing the release of
        emissions or pollution.
39      The expansion of channels or bulk stormwater outlet                                  Submit Application Form(s)
        structures, within a watercourse or within 32 metres of a
        watercourse.
50      The expansion of airports where the development
        footprint will be increased.                                                                      Authority
Listing Notice 2 (requiring S&EIR)                                                                       Acceptance
5        The construction of facilities or infrastructure for any
         process or activity which requires a permit or license in
         terms of national or provincial legislation governing the
                                                                                                      Scoping Report
         generation or release of emissions, pollution or effluent.
7      The construction of runways or aircraft landing strips longer                                                                   Public Comment
       than 1.4 km.                                                                                                                         Period
       The physical alternation of undeveloped, vacant or derelict
15 land where the total area to be transformed is 20 hectares                                     Final Scoping Report
       or more.
Listing Notice 3 (requiring BA in the sensitive areas)                                                                                nd
                                                                                                                                      2 Comment Period
        The clearance of an area of 1 ha or more of vegetation
13      where 75% or more constitutes indigenous vegetation                                               Authority
        within a Critical Biodiversity Area (CBA).                                                       Acceptance
                                                           2
       The construction of infrastructure covering 10 m or more,
16 where such construction occurs within a watercourse or
       within 32 m of a watercourse, within a CBA.                                                                        *
                                                                                                  EIA Report and EMP
Consequently, the proponent is obliged to apply for EA for                                                                             Public Comment
the Project. Since activities listed under Listing Notice 2                                                                                 Period
apply to the Project, an S&EIR process is required.                                            Final EIA Report and EMP

A Water Use Licence in terms of section 21 of the National                                                                             nd
                                                                                                                                      2 Comment Period
Water Act 36 of 1998 (NWA) is required from the
Department of Water and Sanitation. Water use activities                                                   Authority
applicable to the Project are listed in Table 2.                                                           Decision
Table 2: NWA water use activities for the Project
No      Description                                                                                                               Appeal lodged
c       Impeding or diverting the flow of water in a watercourse.                               Opportunity for Appeal
        Altering the bed, banks, course or characteristics of a
i                                                                                                                  No appeal lodged
        watercourse.

A number of regional plans and frameworks are applicable                                        Project may commence                    Appeal Process
to the project area and the Project is largely aligned with
the objectives of these plans.                                                         Figure 2: S&EIR Process
                                                                                       Note: EMP = Environmental Management Programme
The Airport Master Plan for Cape Town International
Airport was prepared in 2001 and revised in 2006. During

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Cape Town International Airport Runway Re-alignment and Associated Infrastructure Environmental Impact Assessment Report
The Scoping Phase was completed in July 2014 and the                              Communities adjacent to the airport are               highly
Final Scoping Report was accepted by DEA on 30                                    marginalised with relatively low levels of income.
September 2014.
The EIA has been undertaken in accordance with the Plan
of Study for EIA which was included in the Scoping Report
accepted by DEA. The key objectives of the EIA are to:
x Inform Interested and Affected Parties (IAPs) about the
  proposed Project and the EIA process followed;
x Obtain comments from IAPs (including the relevant
  authorities and the public) and ensure that all issues,
  concerns and queries raised are fully documented and
  addressed in the EIA Report;
x Identify and assess potential significant impacts
  associated with the proposed development;
x Formulate mitigation measures to avoid and/or                                   Figure 3: Wetland on land east of the airport
  minimise impacts and enhance benefits of the Project;
  and
                                                                                  5      EXISTING AIR TRAFFIC
x Produce a Final EIA Report which will provide all the
   necessary information for DEA to decide whether (and                           Passenger aircraft arrivals and departures at Cape Town
   under what conditions) to authorise the proposed                               International Airport currently occur between 05h45 and
   Project.                                                                       23h25 in winter and 05h45 and 00h15 in summer. Three
The EIA Regulations, 2014 do not govern the EIA process.                          cargo flights operate at 02h00, 03h15 and 04h00. All
                                                                                  aircraft approaching and departing the airport do so either
4     DESCRIPTION OF THE SITE AND ENVIRONMENT                                     by following designated instrument flight paths or by visual
                                                                                  approach, depending on weather conditions and visibility.
Cape Town International Airport is located in the sandy
                                                                                  The existing runway is able to accommodate up to 30
Cape Flats region, immediately north of the N2,
                                                                                  aircraft landing or departing (Air Traffic Movements [ATM])
approximately 20 km east of Cape Town’s Central Business
                                                                                  per hour, but processes around 25 ATM per hour.
District. The current airport property (see Figure 1) is
approximately 975 ha in extent, incorporating the existing
primary and secondary runways, passenger terminal                                 6      PROJECT DESCRIPTION
buildings to the west of the runways, cargo facilities to the
north and a small portion of undeveloped land to the east                         6.1 Project Infrastructure
of the runways.                                                                   Airports Company South Africa proposes to construct a
In the north-eastern portion of the existing airport                              new runway, rotated counter-clockwise by 11.5 degrees,
property, Airports Company South Africa is in the process                         to replace the existing primary runway (Runway 01-19).
of developing a commercial and industrial node (referred                          The northern end of the new runway (Runway 18-36) will
to as Precinct 3).                                                                be positioned 220 m to the east of the current Runway 01-
Further east of the airport property, adjacent to the                             19. It will comply with international specifications for Code
existing airport boundary, is a large (~400 ha) portion of                        F aircraft, increase runway capacity and enable future
derelict land, heavily infested with alien vegetation and                         airport expansion.
used for illegal activities such as dumping. Small sand                           In addition to the re-alignment of the primary runway, the
dunes with isolated patches of indigenous vegetation on                           current Project will also include:
the dune ridges and some small wetlands also occur in this                        x A taxiway system;
area. Although largely transformed, some wetlands and                             x Infrastructure such as an aircraft isolation pad (AIP), a
patches of indigenous vegetation are identified as CBAs or                          compass calibration pad and an aircraft run-up area;
associated support areas. This property is owned by the
                                                                                  x Security facilities including a perimeter fence;
State, Provincial Government and SANRAL. Airports
Company South Africa proposes to acquire this land to                             x Service roads;
accommodate the Project and future expansion of the                               x Buildings and service infrastructure;
airport.                                                                          x Upgrading of the stormwater management system; and
The area surrounding the airport consists of mixed land                           x Bulk earthworks for the sourcing and on site use of
use including residential, industrial and commercial use.                           cut/fill material.

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Cape Town International Airport Runway Re-alignment and Associated Infrastructure Environmental Impact Assessment Report
The proposed Project footprint is approximately 700 ha in
extent (Figure 1). Construction is expected to take 24 to 30
months to complete. Construction activities that disrupt                               No Go alternative: this entails no change to the
operation of the existing runway will take place at night                              existing runway, which will remain in its current
(for approximately 4 months).                                                          position. However, the No Go alternative is not
It is estimated that up to 200 direct temporary jobs will be                           synonymous with the baseline or status quo, since
created during construction and that between 900 and                                   a number of developments are permitted and/or
3 200 people will be newly and directly employed by                                    may occur whether the runway is re-aligned or
Airports Company South Africa in the long term.                                        not. The number of ATM on the existing runway
                                                                                       may also increase until the runway reaches
6.2 Airport Operations
                                                                                       maximum capacity.
Once the runway is re-aligned, flight paths for aircraft
approaching and departing the airport will change. Runway
18-36 will allow capacity at the airport to increase to 40-44                     8      STAKEHOLDER ENGAGEMENT
ATM per hour although aircraft arrival and departure times
                                                                                  Stakeholder engagement is a key component of the S&EIR
are not expected to be extended in the foreseeable future,
                                                                                  process and is being undertaken in accordance with the
due inter alia, to the absence of demand for slots during
                                                                                  requirements of the EIA Regulations, 2010. The key
other (less convenient, passenger-friendly) times.
                                                                                  stakeholder engagement activities during the Impact
Instrument flight paths for Runway 18-36 are illustrated in                       Assessment Phase are summarised in Table 3 below.
Figure 4.
                                                                                  Table 3: Stakeholder             Engagement     during    Impact
                                                                                  Assessment Phase
                                                                                  Activity                                       Date
                                                                                   Advertisements announcing availability         March 2015
                                                                                   of EIA Report for public comment
                                                                                   Public comment period                         31 March to 25
                                                                                                                                 May 2015
                                                                                   Focus Group Meetings and Public Open          April and May
                                                                                   Days                                          2015
                                                                                   Second public comment period (if              August 2015
                                                                                   required)
                                                                                   Finalise the EIA Report and submit to         September 2015
                                                                                   DEA

                                                                                       Key comments and concerns raised by stakeholders
Figure 4: Flight paths for arrival from the south (left) and                           predominantly related to:
from the north (right) on Runway 18-36
                                                                                       x      The changes in noise levels associated with
                                                                                              increased flight frequency and changes in flight
7     ALTERNATIVES                                                                            paths;

The EIA Regulations, 2010, require that all S&EIR processes                            x      Implications of changes in noise levels on
identify and describe feasible and reasonable alternatives.                                   suitable land use surrounding the airport,
Numerous alternatives were identified and considered                                          implications for property owners and long
during airport master planning, which informed the early                                      term spatial planning;
feasibility and design phases of the Project.                                          x      Loss of natural habitats, specifically wetlands;
Re-alignment of the existing runway through counter-                                   x      Identification of alternatives for assessment in
clockwise rotation is the only operationally feasible                                         the EIA;
alternative to the existing runway alignment and will allow
                                                                                       x      Impacts on current airport operations;
for the future development of a parallel second runway.
                                                                                       x      The need and desirability of the Project; and
It is not considered financially feasible nor within Airports
Company South Africa’s mandate to develop a new airport                                x      Potential impacts on the hydrological system
at an alternative when the current site has not been                                          around the airport.
optimised.
Considering the No Go alternative is a requirement of the
EIA Regulations, 2010.
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Cape Town International Airport Runway Re-alignment and Associated Infrastructure Environmental Impact Assessment Report
vegetation clearance, bulk earthworks and increased
Relevant local, provincial and national authorities,
                                                                                              sealed surfaces.
conservation bodies, local forums and surrounding
landowners and occupants have been directly notified of                                x      The predicted impacts on freshwater ecology are
the S&EIR process and the release of the EIA Report for                                       generally rated as low to insignificant, apart from the
comment.                                                                                      loss of endangered Western Strandveld wetland
                                                                                              habitat which is rated as medium and will require a
                                                                                              wetland offset.
9     ASSESSMENT OF POTENTIAL IMPACTS
                                                                                       x      The predicted impacts on terrestrial ecology are rated
Specialist studies undertaken to investigate key potential                                    as low to very low, largely due to the disturbed nature
direct, indirect and cumulative impacts are as follows:                                       of the site and limited fauna present in the area.
x     Air Quality Specialist Study;                                                    x      The predicted social impacts are largely linked to
x     Noise Specialist Study (and independent review);                                        increased noise levels in communities around the
                                                                                              airport, escalating as the re-aligned runway
x     Hydrogeology Specialist Study;
                                                                                              approaches maximum capacity. With predicted
x     Freshwater Ecology Specialist Study;                                                    exceedances of noise level guidelines in residential
x     Terrestrial Ecology Specialist Study;                                                   areas up to 15 km from the airport, a significant
x     Socio-economic Specialist Study (including analysis of                                  number of people may experience impacts on their
      the impacts on land use in areas affected by noise);                                    quality of life. Conversely, many others (though fewer)
      and                                                                                     will experience reduced noise levels, which may
                                                                                              improve quality of life. The resultant negative and
x     Transport Specialist Study.
                                                                                              positive impacts on different communities are both
For all potentially significant impacts, the significance of                                  rated as high, though the net adverse impact remains
the anticipated impact was rated without and with                                             rated as high. The impact on housing provision by the
recommended mitigation measures. These impacts are                                            City of Cape Town (CoCT) is rated as medium.
presented in Table 4.                                                                  x      The predicted direct economic benefits of the Project
                                                                                              are rated as low during construction and medium
The significance of potential impacts of the proposed
                                                                                              during operations, however the indirect benefits of
Project was determined in order to assist decision-makers.
Relevant observations with regard to the overall impact                                       investment in and stimulation of the regional
ratings, assuming mitigation measures are effectively                                         economy are more substantial, and are rated as high
implemented, are:                                                                             during operation.

x     The predicted heritage impacts are rated as                                      x      The predicted visual impacts are rated as low, as the
      insignificant, given significant previous disturbance to                                area is already dominated by existing infrastructure
      and the very low heritage sensitivity of the site,                                      and operations at the airport.
      although it is plausible that material of archaeological                         x      The predicted transport impacts are rated as very low,
      or palaeontological value may be uncovered during                                       since airport-related road traffic is considered
      earthworks.                                                                             negligible in terms of total traffic volumes. Although
x     The predicted air quality impact during construction is                                 many of the intersections adjacent to the airport are
      rated as insignificant. However, during operations, the                                 currently operating at poor Levels of Service, required
      predicted impact of increased emissions on air quality                                  upgrades to alleviate congestion have been identified
      is rated as medium. The predicted impact of the                                         for implementation by the relevant roads authorities,
      associated risk (incidence) of increased health effects                                 irrespective of the proposed Project.
      is rated as low.                                                                 Given its location in an urban setting, the airport is one of
x     The predicted noise and vibration impacts during                                 many contributors to cumulative impacts, and as such, the
      construction are rated as insignificant if construction                          contribution of the Project is expected to be relatively
      activities closest to surrounding communities are                                limited at a regional scale with respect to most cumulative
      mitigated. At maximum capacity, the predicted noise                              impacts. As one of the main contributors to noise in the
      impact during operations is rated as high due to the                             area, the project is however expected to affect cumulative
      extent of the area, and communities exposed to,                                  noise levels quite substantially as the runway approaches
      exceedances of ambient noise guideline levels.                                   full operational capacity.
x     The predicted hydrogeology impacts are rated as very
      low, with the primary concern being slightly elevated
      local groundwater levels as a consequence of alien

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Cape Town International Airport Runway Re-alignment and Associated Infrastructure Environmental Impact Assessment Report
Table 4 below summarises:                                                                      Impact Significance Ratings Legend:
                                                                                                          Rating           +ve    -ve
  x     The impacts assessed in the EIA;
                                                                                                   Insignificant            I      I
  x     Their significance before and following the
                                                                                                   Very Low                VL     VL
        implementation of essential mitigation measures; and
                                                                                                   Low                      L      L
  x     The key mitigation measures on which the significance
                                                                                                   Medium                  M       M
        rating is based (where applicable).
                                                                                                   High                    H       H
                                                                                                   Very High               VH     VH
  Table 4: Summary of Impacts
                Impact                     Before    After                                         Key mitigation/optimisation measures
                                             Mitigation
Construction Phase Impacts
                                                                      x      Adequately record and obtain a permit to destroy historic structures.
Destruction and Loss of Heritage
                                             I              I         x      Implement a chance finds procedure for heritage material uncovered
Resources
                                                                             during construction.
                                                                      x      Apply dust suppression methods on all disturbed /exposed areas.
Impact of Construction Activities on                                  x      Minimise material handling and travel distances on site.
                                            VL              I
Air Quality                                                           x      Implement a speed limit of 30km/hr on all unpaved roads on site.
                                                                      x      Avoid controlled burning during periods of strong wind.
                                                                      x      Maintain construction equipment in good working order.
Nuisance to Surrounding Receptors                                     x      Limit the night time construction activities to the essential.
                                            VL              I
caused by Noise during Construction                                   x      Limit construction activities to at least 100m from residential areas during
                                                                             the day and 350m at night. Alternatively install temporary noise barriers.
Nuisance to Surrounding Receptors
                                             I              I         x      No mitigation
caused by Vibration
Impact on Groundwater Levels due
                                             M             M          x      No mitigation
to construction
Impact on Groundwater Quality due                                     x      Prevent spills of hydrocarbons or other contaminants.
                                             I              I
to construction                                                       x      Take immediate corrective action should spills occur.
Loss of wetland Habitat and                                           x      Identify and implement a suitable wetland offset.
                                             H             M
Ecological Structure                                                  x      Obtain approval from DWS for any activities within wetland areas.
Loss of Ecosystem Services                   L              L         x      Implement general good housekeeping measures.
                                                                      x      Implement adequate erosion management.
Impacts on Hydrological Function and
                                             L              L         x      Curtail sheet runoff from cleared areas and access roads.
Sediment Balance
                                                                      x      Revegetate cleared areas as soon as possible.
Impacts on Freshwater Features                                        x      Implement adequate erosion management.
located outside of the Project               L             VL         x      Discharge runoff into freshwater systems beyond the site in such a way as
Footprint Area                                                               to prevent erosion.
                                                                      x      Revegetate disturbed areas with grass species indigenous to the region if
Loss of Terrestrial Habitat                  L              L
                                                                             possible.
Loss of Floral Diversity, Floral SCC and                              x      Rescue and relocate indigenous or protected species and floral SCC.
                                             L             VL
Protected Floral Species                                              x      Obtain a permit from CapeNature to remove any protected species.
                                                                      x      Rescue and relocate faunal species to a suitable habitat.
Loss of Faunal Diversity, Faunal RDL
                                             L             VL         x      Obtain a permit from CapeNature to remove any protected species.
Species and Protected Faunal Species
                                                                      x      Strictly prohibit hunting and trapping of fauna.
Impacts Associated with Bathyergus                                    x      Install mole proof fencing around the airport.
                                             L              L
Suillus (Cape Dune Mole Rat)                                          x      Rescue and relocate moles to surrounding open veld areas.
Loss of Access to Resources on Land                                   x      Offer communities the opportunity to remove combustible material
                                             L              L
East of Existing Airport                                                     (firewood), prior to earthworks
Nuisance Effects of Construction                                      x      Notify residents and schools close to the site of construction schedule.
                                            VL             VL
Related Noise                                                         x      Develop and implement a grievance mechanism.
Generation of Employment, Income                                      x      Include in tender documents the need for employment of local labour as
                                            VL             VL
and Skills Training                                                          far as possible and provision of job-specific training for construction staff.
Increased Revenue to Government              I              I         x      No mitigation required.
Increased Investment in and
                                                                      x      Maintain ongoing communication with appropriate business forums to
Stimulation of the Western Cape              M             M
                                                                             optimise opportunities for local.
Economy

  JONS/dalc                                      445354_CTIA Runway re-alignment_EIA Report_Executive Summary_March 2015                           March 2015
Cape Town International Airport Runway Re-alignment and Associated Infrastructure Environmental Impact Assessment Report
Impact                   Before        After                                     Key mitigation/optimisation measures
                                          Mitigation
Altered Sense of Place and visual                                  x      Limit removal of vegetation and rehabilitate disturbed areas incrementally.
Quality caused by Construction            L             VL         x      Minimise the footprint of the construction camp.
Activities                                                         x      Maintain the natural topography along the eastern boundary of the site.
Impact of Construction Traffic on the
                                         VL             VL         x      No mitigation required.
Existing Road Network
Operations Phase Impacts
Altered Air Quality from Increased                                 x      Initiate a program for the conversion of vehicles and equipment to
                                          M             M                 “cleaner” technology, and use of alternative, less polluting fuels.
Emissions due to Increased ATM
                                                                   x      Encourage policies to reduce high levels of car dependency by staff.
Risk of Health Effects from Air                                    x      Investigate and implement mitigation measures aimed at reducing aircraft
                                          L              L
Pollution                                                                 fuel consumption and related emissions.
                                                                   x      Maintain effective communication with affected public regarding noise.
                                                                   x      Integrate grievance mechanism with noise monitoring system to correlate
                                                                          complaints with noise events and report to authorities.
                                                                   x      Where possible design and implement noise preferential routes.
                                                                   x      Implement take-off, departure and approach procedures aimed at
Noise Impacts of the Re-aligned
                                                                          reducing noise (e.g. flying at higher altitudes, reduced engine thrust).
Runway and Increased Operational         VH              H
                                                                   x      Restrict the use of reverse thrust, intersection take-offs and engine ground
Capacity
                                                                          run-ups between 22h00 and 06h00 unless required for safety reasons.
                                                                   x      Formally engage with the City of Cape Town to encourage airport
                                                                          compatible land use planning.
                                                                   x      Establish a noise monitoring committee to monitor the effects of noise
                                                                          mitigation.
Nuisance to Surrounding Receptors
                                          I              I         x      No mitigation
caused by Vibration
Impact on Groundwater Levels due                                    x    Provide sub-surface drainage and stormwater systems at edges of
                                         VL             VL
to Operations                                                            impermeable surfaces.
Impact on Groundwater Quality due
                                         VL             VL          x    No mitigation required.
to Operations
Loss of Wetland Habitat and
                                          I              I
Ecological Structure                                               x      Implement general good housekeeping measures.
Loss of Ecosystem Services                I              I
                                                                   x      Drain stormwater from operational areas.
Impacts on Hydrological Function and
                                          I              I         x      Curtail sheet runoff from paved surfaces and access roads.
Sediment Balance
                                                                   x      Attenuate stormwater in order to prevent erosion.
Impacts on Freshwater Features                                     x      Minimise paved and sealed surfaces in order to reduce runoff.
located outside of the Project            M              L         x      Discharge runoff into freshwater systems off-site in such a way as to
Footprint Area                                                            prevent erosion.
                                                                   x      Rescue and relocate faunal species to a suitable habitat.
Loss of Faunal Diversity, Faunal RDL
                                          L             VL         x      Obtain a permit from CapeNature to remove any protected species.
Species and Protected Faunal Species
                                                                   x      Fence the airport to prevent the movement of fauna onto the site.
Impacts Associated with Bathyergus                                 x      Maintain mole proof fencing around the airport.
                                          L             VL
Suillus (Cape Dune Mole Rat)                                       x      Rescue and relocate moles to surrounding open veld areas.
Impacts of Changes in Aircraft Flight
                                          L              L         x      Implement the airport’s Wildlife Management Plan
Paths on Avifaunal Flight Paths
                                                                   x      Assess the risk of bat strikes and if necessary implement measures to avoid
Impacts Associated with Bat Strikes      VL             VL                the creation of habitats or conditions which attract bats or insects on
                                                                          which bats feed.
                                                                   x      Re-model the noise contours every 5 years to account for changed policies,
                                                                          improved technologies, altered flight paths and schedules, etc.
                                                                   x      Submit revised noise contours to the CoCT.
Impacts on Quality of Life in Areas                                x      Keep stakeholder informed of changes to predicted noise levels.
                                         VH              H
with Increased Noise Levels                                        x      Continually identify new noise abatement measures, considering
                                                                          international trends and best practice for managing noise impacts.
                                                                   x      Develop and implement a grievance mechanism, integrated with the noise
                                                                          monitoring system to correlate complaints and responses.
Improved Quality of Life in Areas
                                          H              H         x      No optimisation required.
with Decreased Noise Levels
                                                                   x      Re-model the noise contours every 5 years to account for changed policies,
Impacts on Future Housing                                                 improved technologies, altered flight paths and schedules, etc.
                                        HIGH          HIGH
Developments by CoCT                                               x      Submit revised noise contours and encourage the CoCT to consider the
                                                                          implications of predicted noise (contours) in future land use planning.

  JONS/dalc                                   445354_CTIA Runway re-alignment_EIA Report_Executive Summary_March 2015                         March 2015
Impact                    Before        After                                     Key mitigation/optimisation measures
                                           Mitigation
Generation of Employment, Income
                                           M             M          x      Prioritise the employment of local people with appropriate skills.
and Skills Training
Increased Revenue to Government            M             M          x      No optimisation required.
Increased Investment and
Stimulation of the Western Cape            H              H         x      No optimisation required.
Economy
Altered Sense of Place and Visual
                                           L              L         x      Limit lighting to essential activities and facilities and minimise light spillage.
Quality
Impact of Airport-related Road Traffic
                                          VL             VL         x      No mitigation required.
on the Existing Road Network
                                                                                        benefits. The EIA has also assisted in the identification of
                                                                                        mitigation measures that will mitigate the impacts
  10 CONCLUSION AND WAY FORWARD
                                                                                        associated with these components to within tolerable
                                                                                        limits (aside from noise). It is anticipated that noise
  This Draft EIA Report has identified and assessed the
                                                                                        mitigation measures can and will be explored prior to
  potential biophysical and socio-economic impacts
                                                                                        commissioning of the re-aligned runway (if authorised),
  associated with the proposed re-alignment of the primary
                                                                                        and implemented. However, in accordance with the
  runway and development of associated infrastructure at
                                                                                        precautionary principle, the implementation and efficacy
  Cape Town International Airport.
                                                                                        of these measures is not presumed in the Draft EIA Report.
  The runway re-alignment will generate a number of
                                                                                        Ultimately, DEA will need to consider whether the Project
  significant impacts, but most of these can be reduced to
                                                                                        benefits outweigh the potential impacts.
  compliant levels assuming that the recommended
  mitigation measures will be effectively implemented.
  Indirect economic benefits are also expected to be
  relatively significant.
                                                                                              HOW YOU CAN YOU PARTICIPATE IN THE EIA
                                                                                                            PROCESS
  High (net) noise impacts and associated implications for
  land use planning are very difficult to mitigate and current                          The Draft EIA Report is not a final report and can be
  practice suggests communities will continue to demand,                                amended based on comments received from stakeholders.
  and the CoCT continue to provide, housing in areas where                              Stakeholders’ comments on the EIA Report will assist DEA
  existing noise is and is predicted to exceed guidelines.                              in making a decision regarding the application. The public
  Airports Company South Africa is committed to ensuring                                is therefore urged to submit comment. If you require
  that the airport is operated to the highest standards,                                assistance in compiling and submitting comments, please
  achieved through implementation of the recommended                                    contact us and we will ensure that you receive appropriate
  mitigation measures and ongoing monitoring of                                         support. Once stakeholders have commented on the
  performance. A “Joint Statement of Intent” regarding the                              information presented in the EIA Report, the Final EIA
  mitigation of noise impacts in the short, medium and long                             Report will be prepared and released for a second public
  term was adopted by Airports Company South Africa,                                    comment period before being submitted to DEA for
  industry stakeholders and the City of Cape Town.                                      approval. Once a decision is taken by authorities, this
  With the exception of noise, the EAPs believe and the EIA                             decision will be communicated to registered IAPs.
  Report      demonstrates    that,    through     effective
  implementation of the stipulated mitigation measures, the
  adverse impacts can be reduced to levels compliant with
  guidelines.
  SRK believes that sufficient information is available for DEA
  to take a decision. The fundamental decision is whether to
  authorise the Project, which brings major economic
  benefits and is generally consistent with development and
  planning policies for the area, but which will generate
  noise which exceeds guideline levels in residential
  communities, especially once operating at maximum
  capacity.
  SRK believes that the specialist studies have shown that
  the development of the Project is generally acceptable, but
  that noise impacts and implications for land use planning
  will have to be weighed against the indirect economic
  JONS/dalc                                    445354_CTIA Runway re-alignment_EIA Report_Executive Summary_March 2015                               March 2015
REVIEW THE REPORT                                                                                 ATTEND A MEETING
      Copies of the complete report are available for                                       A number of Public Open Days will be held
      public review at the following locations:                                             where the Project will be discussed and
      x Cape Town Central Library;                                                          additional concerns or issues can be raised:
      x Plumstead Library;                                                                  Public Open Day 1:
      x Bellville Library;                                                                  Venue:         Ground Floor, Southern Office Block,
      x Somerset West Library;                                                                             Cape Town International Airport
      x Delft Library;                                                                      Date:          16 April 2015
      x Delft South Library;                                                                Public Open Day 2:
      x Belhar Library;                                                                     Venue:         Bishop Lavis Civic Centre, Adriaanse
      x Bishop Lavis Library;                                                                              Avenue, Bishop Lavis

      x Crossroads Library;                                                                 Date:          07 May 2015

      x Manenberg Library;                                                                  Public Open Day 3:
      x Nyanga Library;                                                                     Venue:         Solomon Tshuku Hall, Solomon Tshuku
                                                                                                           Ave, Site C
      x Philippi East Library;
                                                                                            Date:          11 May 2015
      x Elsies River Library;
      x Valhalla Park Library;                                                              Public Open Day 4:

      x Khayelitsha Library;                                                                Venue:         Bothasig Hall, Link Road, Bothasig

      x Edgemead Library;                                                                   Date:          13 May 2015
                                                                                            Public Open Day 5:
      x Cape Town International Airport Southern
        Office Block Reception;                                                             Venue:         Delft Civic Centre, corner Delft Main
                                                                                                           Road and Voorbrug Street
      x SRK’s Cape Town office; and
                                                                                            Date:          14 May 2014
      x SRK’s website: http://www.srk.co.za/en/za-
        cape-town-international-airport-runway-re-                                          The public is invited to attend the Public Open
        alignment-eia                                                                       Days at any time between 15h00 and 19h00.
                                                                                            The noise specialist will be available between
                                                                                            16h00 and 18h00.
            REGISTER OR PROVIDE YOUR OPINION                                                Please confirm your intention to attend a Public
            Register or send written comment to:                                            Open Day with the contact person.

                         Scott Masson
                         SRK Consulting
             Postnet Suite #206, Private Bag X18,
                      Rondebosch, 7701
                    Tel: + 27 21 659 3060
                    Fax: +27 21 685 7105
                  Email: smasson@srk.co.za

IAPs are invited to comment, and/or to register on the
project database. IAPs should refer to the DEA reference
number, and must provide their comments together with
their name, contact details (preferred method of
notification, e.g. email), and an indication of any direct
business, financial, personal or other interest which they
have in the application, to the contact person below, by
25 May 2015.

JONS/dalc                                   445354_CTIA Runway re-alignment_EIA Report_Executive Summary_March 2015                             March 2015
SRK Consulting: 445354 Cape Town International Airport Runway Re-alignment EIA Report                                                                     Page iv

Table of Contents

1 Background and Introduction ..................................................................................... 1
     1.1    Background ......................................................................................................................................... 1
     1.2    Introduction ......................................................................................................................................... 1
     1.3    Purpose of the Report ......................................................................................................................... 3
     1.4    Scope of Work..................................................................................................................................... 3
     1.5    Structure of this Report ....................................................................................................................... 4
     1.6    Content of Report ................................................................................................................................ 5
     1.7    Assumptions and Limitations .............................................................................................................. 6
2 Governance Framework and Environmental Process............................................... 7
     2.1    Legal Requirements ............................................................................................................................ 7
            2.1.1      Airports Company Act 44 of 1993 ........................................................................................... 7
            2.1.2      Civil Aviation Act 13 of 2009.................................................................................................... 8
            2.1.3      White Paper on National Policy on Airports and Airspace Management, 1998 ...................... 8
            2.1.4      National Policy on Aircraft Noise and Engine Emissions, 1999 .............................................. 8
            2.1.5      National Environmental Management Act 107 of 1998, as Amended .................................... 9
            2.1.6      EIA Regulations, 2010 ........................................................................................................... 10
            2.1.7      EIA Regulations, 2014 ........................................................................................................... 11
            2.1.8      National Water Act 36 of 1998 .............................................................................................. 12
            2.1.9      The National Heritage Resources Act 25 of 1999 ................................................................. 13
            2.1.10 National Environmental Management: Biodiversity Act 10 of 2004 ...................................... 14
            2.1.11 Conservation of Agricultural Resources Act 43 of 1983 ....................................................... 14
            2.1.12 Western Cape Nature Conservation Laws Amendment Act 3 of 2000 ................................. 14
            2.1.13 National Environmental Management: Air Quality Act 39 of 2004 and the South African
                   National Air Quality Standards .............................................................................................. 14
            2.1.14 Environmental Conservation Act 73 of 1989: Noise Control Regulations and SANS Codes
                   of Practice ............................................................................................................................. 15
            2.1.15 White Paper on National Civil Aviation Policy, 2014 ............................................................. 16
            2.1.16 Occupational Health and Safety Act 85 of 1993 ................................................................... 16
     2.2    Planning Policy Framework .............................................................................................................. 17
            2.2.1      National Development Plan: Vision for 2030......................................................................... 17
            2.2.2      Western Cape Spatial Development Framework .................................................................. 17
            2.2.3      Western Cape Provincial Land Transport Framework (2013)............................................... 18
            2.2.4      Cape Town Spatial Development Framework ...................................................................... 18
            2.2.5      Tygerberg District Plan: Spatial Development Plan and Environmental Management
                       Framework ............................................................................................................................ 20
            2.2.6      Khayelitsha Mitchells Plain District Plan: Spatial Development Plan and Environmental
                       Management Framework ...................................................................................................... 22
            2.2.7      Cape Town Integrated Development Plan ............................................................................ 23
            2.2.8      Cape Town Zoning Scheme .................................................................................................. 24

JONS/MASS/dalc                          445354_CTIA Runway Realignment EIA Report_for public comment March 2015.docx                                    March 2015
SRK Consulting: 445354 Cape Town International Airport Runway Re-alignment EIA Report                                                                      Page v

     2.3    Cape Town International Airport Master Plan ................................................................................... 24
     2.4    Environmental Assessment Process ................................................................................................ 26
            2.4.1     Submission of Applications ................................................................................................... 28
            2.4.2     S&EIR Process and Phasing................................................................................................. 28
            2.4.3     Appeals.................................................................................................................................. 30
3 Project Description..................................................................................................... 31
     3.1    Cape Town International Airport ....................................................................................................... 31
     3.2    Introduction to the Project ................................................................................................................. 32
     3.3    Description of the Project Area ......................................................................................................... 36
            3.3.1     Site Description ..................................................................................................................... 36
            3.3.2     Surrounding Land Use .......................................................................................................... 39
     3.4    Proponent’s Project Motivation ......................................................................................................... 41
     3.5    Project Alternatives ........................................................................................................................... 41
            3.5.1     Location Alternatives ............................................................................................................. 42
            3.5.2     Airport Master Plan Options .................................................................................................. 43
            3.5.3     The No Go Alternative ........................................................................................................... 48
     3.6    Project Construction and Infrastructure ............................................................................................ 48
            3.6.1     Runway.................................................................................................................................. 49
            3.6.2     Taxiways................................................................................................................................ 51
            3.6.3     Aircraft Isolation Pad ............................................................................................................. 51
            3.6.4     Compass Calibration Pad...................................................................................................... 51
            3.6.5     Aircraft Run-up Area.............................................................................................................. 52
            3.6.6     Perimeter Fence and Security ............................................................................................... 52
            3.6.7     Service Roads ....................................................................................................................... 52
            3.6.8     Buildings and Service Infrastructure ..................................................................................... 52
            3.6.9     Stormwater Management System ......................................................................................... 52
            3.6.10 Bulk Earthworks .................................................................................................................... 55
            3.6.11 Construction Traffic ............................................................................................................... 57
            3.6.12 Water Supply ......................................................................................................................... 57
            3.6.13 Waste Management .............................................................................................................. 58
            3.6.14 Air Quality Management ........................................................................................................ 58
            3.6.15 Noise and Vibration Management ......................................................................................... 58
            3.6.16 Workforce .............................................................................................................................. 58
            3.6.17 Investment ............................................................................................................................. 58
            3.6.18 Construction Schedule .......................................................................................................... 58
            3.6.19 Construction Hours ................................................................................................................ 63
     3.7    Project Operations ............................................................................................................................ 63
            3.7.1     Air Traffic ............................................................................................................................... 63
            3.7.2     Workforce .............................................................................................................................. 65
            3.7.3     Operational Lifecycle ............................................................................................................. 65
            3.7.4     Utilities and Services ............................................................................................................. 65

JONS/MASS/dalc                         445354_CTIA Runway Realignment EIA Report_for public comment March 2015.docx                                     March 2015
SRK Consulting: 445354 Cape Town International Airport Runway Re-alignment EIA Report                                                                     Page vi

            3.7.5     Operational Procedures for Pollution Management .............................................................. 65
            3.7.6     Waste Management .............................................................................................................. 66
            3.7.7     Air Quality Management ........................................................................................................ 66
            3.7.8     Noise Management ............................................................................................................... 66
            3.7.9     Wildlife Management ............................................................................................................. 67
            3.7.10 Emergency Response ........................................................................................................... 67
     3.8    Environmental Factors Influencing Project Design ........................................................................... 67
     3.9    Analysis of Need and Desirability of the Project ............................................................................... 68
4 Description of the Affected Environment ................................................................. 72
     4.1    Biophysical Environment ................................................................................................................... 72
            4.1.1     Topography ........................................................................................................................... 72
            4.1.2     Geology ................................................................................................................................. 72
            4.1.3     Climate .................................................................................................................................. 73
            4.1.4     Air Quality .............................................................................................................................. 76
            4.1.5     Noise ..................................................................................................................................... 80
            4.1.6     Hydrology .............................................................................................................................. 88
            4.1.7     Hydrogeology ........................................................................................................................ 90
            4.1.8     Freshwater Ecosystems ........................................................................................................ 92
            4.1.9     Terrestrial Vegetation ............................................................................................................ 99
            4.1.10 Avifauna............................................................................................................................... 103
            4.1.11 Fauna .................................................................................................................................. 105
     4.2    Socio-Economic Environment ......................................................................................................... 109
            4.2.1     Potentially Indirectly Affected Areas: Western Cape and CoCT ......................................... 110
            4.2.2     Potentially Directly Affected Areas ...................................................................................... 115
            4.2.3     Land Claims ........................................................................................................................ 129
     4.3    Heritage Resources and Visual Environment ................................................................................. 130
            4.3.1     Heritage Resources ............................................................................................................. 130
            4.3.2     Visual and Aesthetic Environment ...................................................................................... 131
     4.4    Transport Network........................................................................................................................... 133
            4.4.1     External Road Network ....................................................................................................... 133
            4.4.2     Long Term Transport Requirements ................................................................................... 136
            4.4.3     Traffic Levels around the Airport ......................................................................................... 137
5 Stakeholder Engagement ........................................................................................ 141
     5.1    Objectives and Approach to Stakeholder Engagement .................................................................. 141
     5.2    Stakeholder Engagement during the Scoping Phase ..................................................................... 141
            5.2.1     Identification of Key Stakeholders ....................................................................................... 142
            5.2.2     Notification of Start of EIA Process ..................................................................................... 143
            5.2.3     Release of Scoping Report for Public Comment ................................................................ 144
            5.2.4     Focus Group Meetings and Public Open Days ................................................................... 145
            5.2.5     Notification and Acceptance of Final Scoping Report ......................................................... 148
            5.2.6     Issues and Concerns Raised by IAPs during Scoping ........................................................ 148

JONS/MASS/dalc                         445354_CTIA Runway Realignment EIA Report_for public comment March 2015.docx                                     March 2015
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