CODA DIGEST 2017 - Eurocontrol

 
CODA DIGEST 2017 - Eurocontrol
CODA DIGEST 2017
   All-Causes Delay and Cancellations to Air Transport in Europe - 2017

Edition Number          : CDA_2017_004
Edition Validity Date   : 31/05/2018
CODA DIGEST 2017 - Eurocontrol
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                                                    Author(s)
                                                 Charles Walker
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                         C. Walker                          +32 2 729 3391                    NMD/PFR/FNI

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          ©2018 The European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation (EUROCONTROL). This document is
          published by EUROCONTROL for information purposes. It may be copied in whole or in part, provided
          that EUROCONTROL is mentioned as the source and the extent justified by the non-commercial use
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          from EUROCONTROL.

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                                                           CODA Digest 2017

                                    DOCUMENT APPROVAL

                                              Edition History
          The following table records the complete history of the successive editions of the present document.

          Edition History

                                Edition
     Edition No.                                  Author                           Reason
                              Validity Date
  CDA_2017_004                  29/05/2018    C. Walker

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                                                                                          CODA Digest 2017

                                                             Table of Contents

  DOCUMENT CHARACTERISTICS ................................................................................................................................... I
  DOCUMENT APPROVAL ................................................................................................................................................ II
  EDITION HISTORY .......................................................................................................................................................... II
  TABLE OF CONTENTS .................................................................................................................................................. III
  1                   EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ........................................................................................................................... 1
  2                   TRAFFIC AND AVERAGE DELAY PER FLIGHT OVERVIEW ................................................................. 2
  3                    2017 MONTHLY SUMMARY .................................................................................................................... 4
  4                   AVERAGE DELAY PER DELAYED FLIGHT (DEPARTURE) .................................................................. 6
  5                   AVERAGE DELAY PER DELAYED FLIGHT (ARRIVAL) ......................................................................... 7
  6                   NM VERSUS AIRCRAFT OPERATOR EXPERIENCE OF DELAY .......................................................... 8
  7                   DISTRIBUTION OF ALL FLIGHTS BY LENGTH OF DELAY (PUNCTUALITY) ...................................... 9
  8                   CODA OPERATIONAL FLIGHT CANCELLATION ANALYSIS ............................................................. 11
  9                   CODA SCHEDULING INDICATORS....................................................................................................... 13
  10                  CODA REACTIONARY DELAY ANALYSIS ........................................................................................... 14
  11                  AVERAGE DEPARTURE DELAY PER FLIGHT BY HOUR ................................................................... 15
  12                  AVERAGE DELAY PER DELAYED FLIGHT VS PERCENTAGE OF DELAYED FLIGHTS .................. 16
  13                  TOP 20 DELAY AFFECTED DEPARTURE AIRPORTS ......................................................................... 17
  14                  TOP 20 DELAY AFFECTED ARRIVAL AIRPORTS ............................................................................... 18
  15                  TOP 20 DELAY AFFECTED CITY PAIRS .............................................................................................. 19
  16                  YEAR ON YEAR TRENDS IN ALL-CAUSES INDICATORS .................................................................. 20
  17                  CODA DELAY GROUPINGS................................................................................................................... 22
  18                  CORRELATION BETWEEN IATA DELAY CODES AND THE NM REGULATION CODES .................. 23
  19                  STANDARD IATA DELAY CODES (AHM 730) ...................................................................................... 24
  20                  STANDARD IATA DELAY CODE SUB-CODES (AHM 731) .................................................................. 26
  21                  GLOSSARY OF TERMS AND ABBREVIATIONS .................................................................................. 28
  22                  CODA COVERAGE OF IFR FLIGHTS IN ECAC REGION 2017 ........................................................... 29

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                                                             CODA Digest 2017

2017 Departure Delay                                                                             Top Delay Causes 2017
                                    Arrival Punctuality             Flights arriving > 15
  (from all causes)
                                                                 minutes ahead of schedule
                                                                                                 Reactionary        5.5
  12.4 mins/flight                        80%                                                    Airline           3.3
                                      -1%pt vs. 2016                 Early Arrivals 10%
     +1.1 vs. 2016                                                                               ATFM En-Route     0.9

1         Executive Summary
          Operational data received directly from airlines describing all-causes for 2017 illustrated a
          story of increased delays translating to a yearly average all-causes departure delay of 12.4
          minutes per flight, an increase of 1.1 minutes per flight on 2016.

          2017 saw slightly poorer punctuality to that of 2016 with 80% of flights arriving on time
          compared to 81% in 2016. The difference between the percentage of delayed departures vs.
          the percentage of delayed arrivals increased highlighting increased schedule buffering by
          airlines.

          A strong increase in daily flights of 4.3% in ECAC for the year is a common underlying
          factor in the main reported causes.

              Reactionary (knock-on) delay increased by 6% and contributed 5.5 minutes to the 12.4
               minutes average delay per flight.

              Delays due to airline operations remained the main cause of primary delay, contributing
               3.3 minutes to the average delay per flight, a 0.2 minute increase compared to 2016.

              Airlines reported that en-route ATFM delays increased by 0.1 minutes per flight to 0.9
               minutes per flight, following ATC capacity, staffing and en-route weather issues affecting
               Karlsruhe and Maastricht UACs during the year. Although fewer than 2016, ATC
               industrial actions in France also occurred.

              Airport operations delay including ATFM (Figure 4) increased to 1.4 minutes per flight
               and was the second highest cause in the share of primary delay behind airline causes. In
               contrast to 2016, both Istanbul Sabiha Gökçen and Istanbul Ataturk airports saw
               fewer delays, however, London Gatwick and Amsterdam Schiphol experienced
               weather and airport capacity delays.

          Operational cancellations decreased to 1.5% of planned flights, compared to 1.6% in
          2016 with less industrial action in France during the year contributing part of this decrease.

          Figure 1 . Breakdown of the Average Delay per Delay 2016 vs. 2017

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2         Traffic and Average Delay per Flight Overview
             Figure 2. Total Departures per Day in ECAC

          European flights (ECAC) in average daily terms increased by 4.3% in 2017 compared with 2016.
          This was at the top end of the 7-year forecast published in February 2017. Total flights reached
          10.6 million in 2017, a new record high, finally surpassing the 2008 record of 10.2 million flights.
          The months of July, August and September hit the record number of more than one million flights
          in Europe. Further information regarding traffic and forecasts can be found on the STATFOR
          website and via the STATFOR Interactive Dashboard (SID).
          Figure 3. Breakdown of the Average Delay per Delay Flight 2016 vs. 2017

          2017 saw an average departure delay per flight of 12.4 minutes for all-causes delay, an increase
          of 9.6% in comparison to 2016. Analysis of the delay reasons shows that reactionary delays
          contributed the most to the average delay with 5.5 minutes per flight. Airline-related delays
          increased slightly by 0.2 minutes per flight. Following ATC capacity and staffing delays in
          Karlsruhe and Maastricht UAC’s and French ATC strikes, ATFM en-route delay increased to 0.9
          minutes per flight. ATFM airport delay had the third highest contribution with 0.9 minutes per flight
          increasing by 0.1 minutes per flight.

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          Figure 4. Primary Delay Causes 2016 vs. 2017

          Total ATFM delay reported by airlines delay increased to 2.0 minutes per flight with en-route and
          weather restrictions mainly driving this increase to the average delay per flight.
          Figure 5. Long Departure Delays >60 Minutes

          In 2017, longer delays (those greater than 60 mins in orange) decreased when compared to 2016
          with 4% of flights experiencing long delays compared to 3.8% in 2016. December however saw a
          peak in delays following a month where winter weather conditions impacted airlines.

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3         2017 Monthly Summary
          Section 3 provides a month-by-month view for 2017, highlighting the particular locations, causes of
          delay or disruption in further detail.

          January 2017. Seasonal weather impacted several airports throughout January, especially
          Amsterdam Schiphol, Istanbul Ataturk, London Gatwick and London Heathrow. Istanbul Sabiha
          Gökçen and Istanbul Ataturk airports continue to generate delays due to airport capacity.

          February 2017. Weather (mainly snow and high winds) impacted several airports throughout
          February, especially Amsterdam Schiphol, Istanbul Ataturk, London Gatwick and London
          Heathrow. On 23 February Storm Doris affected the network and generated delays at all major
          London airports, as well as Amsterdam Schiphol and Frankfurt Main.

          Airport capacity delays continued to affect Istanbul Sabiha Gökçen, Amsterdam Schiphol and
          Istanbul Ataturk, although to a lesser extent than observed in February 2016 following a decline in
          flights at the airport. En-route delays were lower in February however increased demand in the
          south west axis generated delay in Lisbon and Canarias ACCs mainly at weekends.

          March 2017. The industrial action by ground handling on 13 and 14 March at Berlin Tegel and
          Berlin Schönefeld caused the cancellation of approximately 920 and 500 flights respectively.

          A French ATC industrial action from 6 March to 10 March generated en-route ATFM delay, largely
          in France; NM estimates there were 2250 fewer flights during the action. The Italian ATC industrial
          action on 20 March generated en-route ATFM delay and airport ATFM delay in Italy. NM estimates
          there were 420 fewer flights during the action.

          Weather impacted several airports, especially London Heathrow and to a lesser extent Amsterdam
          Schiphol, Istanbul Atatürk and Barcelona.

          April 2017. The ERATO ATM system implementation throughout the month generated ATFM
          delays in Bordeaux ACC. Istanbul Sabiha Gökçen and Istanbul Ataturk airports suffered from
          aerodrome capacity issues as well as Amsterdam Schiphol (in part due to runway works in
          progress).

          Surveillance issues at Paris Charles de Gaulle airport (11 April), Palma de Mallorca and Ibiza
          airports (12 April) and a bomb alert on 26 April at Nantes airport generated ATFM delay.

          Seasonal weather impacted several airports, especially Oslo Gardermoen and London Gatwick,
          and to a lesser extent Amsterdam Schiphol, Istanbul Atatürk, Zurich and London Heathrow
          airports.

          May 2017. Airport ATC capacity delays and works in progress affected Amsterdam Schiphol and
          Istanbul Sabiha Gökçen airport. En-route delay reported by airlines fell in comparison to May 2016
          a month where French ATC industrial action occurred. There was industrial action in Romania on
          the 12 and 30 May, however the main effect of this was aircraft re-routing. On 10, 11 and 18 May
          Lisbon and Amsterdam Schiphol respectively suffered from fuel supply issues.

          Seasonal weather mainly thunderstorms and winds impacted Frankfurt Main and to a lesser extent
          Zurich, London Heathrow and Munich airports during the month.

          June 2017. Data received from airlines describing all-causes delay illustrated an improvement in
          the delay situation, alongside an increase in the number of flights per day in ECAC of 5%
          compared to June 2016.

          ATC capacity delays affected Istanbul Sabiha Gökçen, Amsterdam Schiphol and London Gatwick
          airports. A power supply issue at Brussels airport on 15 June generated delay. Tenerife South
          airport suffered from delays due to a disabled aircraft blocking the runway on 27 June.

          Seasonal weather impacted Frankfurt Main, Zurich, London Heathrow, London Gatwick and
          Amsterdam Schiphol during the month.

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          July 2017. The evacuation of terminal 3 at Manchester airport due to a suspicious bag on 5 July
          and an incident with a disabled aircraft on the runway at Düsseldorf airport on 6 July caused ATFM
          delay. Seasonal weather also impacted Istanbul and Madrid/Barajas airports during the month.

          August 2017. Karlsruhe and Maastricht UAC’s suffered from ATC capacity and weather delays.
          Marseille ACC was also affected by from ATC capacity delays.

          Istanbul Ataturk and Istanbul Sabiha Gökçen airports continued to experience airport capacity
          delays. London Gatwick and Amsterdam Schiphol airports were affected by a mixture of weather
          and airport capacity delays, with Amsterdam Schiphol particularly suffering on 16 and 30 August
          where low visibility weather impacted the airport. London Heathrow also generated delays following
          high winds on 03 August.

          September 2017. En-route delay reported by airlines more than doubled during September 2017
          increasing from 0.7 minutes to 1.5 minutes per flight, following a month where French ATC
          industrial actions occurred in Marseille, Brest and Reims ACC’s on the 11, 12, 13 September as
          well as 21 September. There were also en-route capacity delays in Karlsruhe UAC, Marseille ACC
          and Maastricht UAC.

          Istanbul Ataturk and Istanbul Sabiha Gökçen airports continued to experience airport capacity
          delays. London Gatwick and Amsterdam Schiphol airports were affected by a mixture of weather
          and airport capacity delays, with London Gatwick suffering particularly on 9 and 21 September.
          Seasonal weather such as strong winds and thunderstorms affected London Heathrow, Frankfurt
          Main, Istanbul Ataturk, Barcelona, Palma and Nice airports.

          October 2017. En-route delay reported by airlines increased during October 2017 from 0.5
          minutes to 1.0 minute per flight, following a month where French ATC industrial action occurred in
          Marseille, Brest, Bordeaux and Reims ACC’s on the 09, 10 and 11 October, with airlines suffering
          from the most delay on 10 October. There were also en-route capacity delays during the month in
          Marseille ACC, Maastricht UAC and Karlsruhe UAC the latter also experiencing ATC staffing delay.

          Elsewhere in the network, Istanbul Ataturk and Istanbul Sabiha Gökçen airports continue to
          experience airport capacity delays. London Heathrow was affected by weather mainly low visibility.
          Amsterdam Schiphol also experienced delay from winds notably on the 5 October as well as airport
          capacity delay. Taxiway works in progress saw Paris Orly generate delay in conjunction with airport
          capacity delay.

          November 2017. French ATC industrial action from 15 November to 17 November generated en-
          route ATFM delay in France. Seasonal weather mainly strong winds and low visibility impacted
          operations at London Heathrow, Amsterdam Schiphol, London Gatwick, Istanbul Atatürk, Oslo
          Gardermoen, Vienna and Lisbon airports. An ATM system failure occurred at Amsterdam Schiphol
          on 21 November. Tower and taxiway maintenance in conjunction with airport capacity delays
          impacted Paris Orly airport.

          December 2017. Winter conditions on 10-11 December affected the majority of north-west Europe
          with significant delays at London Heathrow, Stansted and Luton, Amsterdam Schiphol, Frankfurt,
          Brussels and Geneva airports.

          On 20-21 December, visibility issues impacted airport operations with significant delays at London
          Heathrow, Gatwick, Stansted and City, Amsterdam Schiphol, Manchester and Oslo Gardermoen
          airports.

          The Italian ATC industrial action on Friday 15 December generated airport ATFM delay in Italy with
          Bergamo being the most affected airport. NM estimates there were 285 fewer flights during the
          action.

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4         Average Delay per Delayed Flight (Departure)
          The average delay per delayed departure (ADD) increased by 0.9 minutes to 28.0 minutes per
          flight in 2017 with the higher delays of the summer season and December driving this increase,
          although delays remain within a 2 minute range. The percentage of flights (PDF) delayed on
          departure (>=5 minutes) also increased, these up to 44.4% in 2017 from 42.5% in 2016 and was
          the highest yearly PDF in the last 5 years.
          Figure 6. Average Delay per Flight (All-Causes) for Departures

          Figure 7. Average Delay per Delayed Flight (All-Causes) for Departures

          Figure 8. Percentage of Delayed Flights (All-Causes) for Departures

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5         Average Delay per Delayed Flight (Arrival)
          The average delay per delayed flight on arrival shows a similar trend to that of departure delay with
          29.9 minutes per flight, an increase of 0.8 minutes per flight when compared to 2016. The
          percentage of delayed arrivals also increased, this by 1 percentage point to 38.7% The use of
          schedule buffering can be observed when comparing Figures 11 and 8, with the difference
          between the percentage of delayed arrivals and delayed departures of 5.7 percentage points, this
          increasing year on year from 2.5% in 2013 to 5.7% in 2017.
          Figure 9. Average Delay per Flight (All-Causes) for Arrivals

          Figure 10. Average Delay per delayed Flight (All-Causes) for Arrivals

          Figure 11. Percentage of Delayed Flight (All-Causes) for Arrivals

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6       NM Versus Aircraft Operator Experience of Delay
          Figure 12. Breakdown of Average Delay per Flight 2017 vs. 2016 (Network Manager vs. Aircraft Operator)

          This section presents the air transport delay situation as seen from the airline and passenger
          viewpoint (the difference between the scheduled time of departure and the actual time of departure
          from the gate). Data coverage is 69% of commercial flights in the ECAC region for 2017.

          ATFM delays calculated by NM are the (flight) planned “delays” based on restrictions applied; the
          airlines report the “actual” experienced ATFCM delay on departure. For instance, a flight with an
          ATFM restriction may also have a handling delay absorbed within the ATFM restriction. For the
          airline, a part of this delay is the ATFM delay and the rest is the handling delay.

          In the event of a longer duration delay an example being during ATC industrial action, a flight may
          keep its original schedule however when its flight plan is submitted for example a day later any
          ATFM delay allocated may be lower or zero, in this case airline reported delay will exceed NM
          reported ATFM delay.

          Further analysis of airline data shows that the average en-route ATFM delay from all-
          causes was 0.91 minutes per flight, this was stable when compared to the NM recorded average
          en-route ATFM delay per flight for the year of 0.88 minutes per flight.
          As reported by the airlines, primary delays (e.g. passenger and ramp handling delays) counted for
          56% (6.92 min/flt) of which (0.91 min/flt) was attributed to en-route ATFM restrictions, with
          reactionary delays representing the remaining share of 44% of (5.46 min/flt). This resulted in an
          average departure delay per flight of 12.38 minutes per flight as reported in previous sections.

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7         Distribution of All Flights by Length of Delay (Punctuality)
          In 2017 overall departure punctuality levels deteriorated with 39.9% of flights departing within the 5
          minute threshold before or after the scheduled departure time (STD). Flights delayed >30 minutes
          from all-causes increased by 1 percentage point during the quarter to 10.8%.
          Airline arrival punctuality also fell, with 79.7% of flights arriving within 15 minutes or earlier than
          their scheduled arrival time (STA), compared to 80.6% in 2018.

          Figure 13. All-Causes Departure and Arrival Punctuality 2016 vs. 2017

          Flights arriving >15 minutes ahead of schedule increased to 9.7%. This high share may affect
          airport stand availability and air traffic flow management operations (demand shifts) in the event of
          aircraft frequently arriving excessively ahead of their schedule.

          Figure 14. Top 50* Airlines by Arrival On-Time Performance 2017
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          *The top 50 airlines reporting to CODA by number of flights. Arrival punctuality is calculated as the share of flights arriving within 15 minutes of the
          scheduled time (time of arrival at gate)

          Figure 15. Top 50* Airlines by Arrival On-Time Performance 2016

          During the quarter fewer airlines were able to maintain 15 minute arrival punctuality above 85%. A
          total of 9 airlines saw more than 85% of their flights arrive within 15 minutes of the scheduled time
          of arrival vs. 13 airlines in 2016.

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8         Operational Flight Cancellation Analysis
          These results are based on operational cancellation data supplied by 30 European coordinated
          airports reporting to CODA under EC Regulation N° 390/2013. Albeit based on data supplied by
          a restricted list (see the conditions below) of major European airports, these results already give a
          good indication of trends and effects of Network events like industrial actions or
          extreme weather. The IFR flight coverage at the individual airports included in this analysis is
          100%. Those airports currently unable to report operational cancellations in the required data
          format or those not meeting all of the criteria for operational cancellations were excluded from the
          analysis.
          According to Annex IV of EC Regulation N°390/2013 an ‘Operational Cancellation’ means an
          arrival or departure scheduled flight to which the following conditions apply:
                      The flight received an airport slot, and
                    The flight was confirmed by the air carrier the day before operations and/or it was
          contained in the daily list of flight schedules produced by the airport operator the day before of
          operations, but
                      The actual landing or take-off never occurred.
          Therefore this section of the CODA Digest reports on monthly and daily shares of operational
          cancellations of the total planned flights at day -1. Like delays, operational cancellations provide
          an insight into the impact of network events and associated disruption; e.g. industrial action or
          extreme weather events.

          Figure 16. Monthly Rate of Operational Cancellations 2016 – 2017

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          Figure 17. Average Daily Cancellation 2016 – 2017

          Figure 16 on the previous page shows the monthly rate of operational cancellations and Figure 17
          provides the detail of cancellations by day from January 2016 to the end of December 2017. It
          should be noted that initial cancellations count as ‘operational cancellations’ under the terms of the
          regulation.

          In 2017 the operational cancellation rate was 1.5% compared to 1.6% in 2016.

          23 January saw disruption at Amsterdam Schiphol, London Heathrow and London Gatwick as a
          result of fog, further weather related disruption also occurred at Istanbul Ataturk on the 10 January.

          Seasonal weather (mainly snow and high winds) impacted several airports throughout February,
          especially Amsterdam Schiphol, Istanbul Ataturk, London Gatwick and London Heathrow. On 23
          February Storm Doris affected the network and generated delays at all major London airports, as
          well as Amsterdam Schiphol and Frankfurt Main.

          A French ATC industrial action from 6 March to 10 March generated en-route ATFM delay in
          France; NM estimates there were 2250 fewer flights during the action. The Italian ATC industrial
          action on 20 March generated en-route ATFM delay and airport ATFM delay in Italy. NM estimates
          there were 420 fewer flights during the action.

          The industrial action by ground handling on 13 and 14 March at Berlin Tegel and Berlin Schönefeld
          caused the cancellation of approximately 920 and 500 flights respectively.

          Oslo experienced weather issues on the 24 April, London Gatwick was affected by weather as well
          on the 28 May. 22 June also saw London airports, Amsterdam Schiphol and Frankfurt’s operations
          impacted by weather.

          There was one ATC industrial actionin May affecting in Romania where industrial action at
          Bucharest ACC caused disruption, however the main effect of this was in airlines rerouting rather
          than cancelling flights.

          In September a peak in cancellations occurred following French ATC industrial actions in
          Marseille, Brest and Reims ACC’s on the 11, 12, 13 September as well as 21 September.

          French ATC industrial action occurred in Marseille, Brest, Bordeaux and Reims ACC’s on the 09,
          10 and 11 October, with airlines suffering from the most delay on 10 October.

          French ATC industrial action from 15 November to 17 November generated en-route ATFM delay
          in France.

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          Winter conditions on 10-11 December affected the majority of north-west Europe with significant
          delays at London Heathrow, Stansted and Luton, Amsterdam Schiphol, Frankfurt, Brussels and
          Geneva airports. Italian ATC industrial action on Friday 15 December generated airport ATFM
          delay in Italy with Bergamo being the most affected airport. NM estimates there were 285 fewer
          flights during the action.

9         Scheduling Indicators
          Scheduling correctly is a difficult art: if too long a time is blocked for a flight, the airline will not be
          able to make best use of resources - staff, airframes, infrastructure. But too short a time can
          arguably be worse as late flights generate rotational delay with late incoming aircraft and
          passengers from previous flights having to be accommodated. When flights leave on time but
          arrive after the scheduled time of arrival they cause reactionary delays. Schedule padding is
          essential for air carriers in order to find schedules which work with the typical patterns of delay, so
          that they can deliver passengers on time, and get maximum use out of their aircraft. Consequently
          when delays decrease it takes one or two (IATA) seasons for the airline to adapt its schedule
          accordingly.

          Two CODA scheduling indicators help airline schedulers determine the optimal schedule based on
          historical flight data:

          The Delay Difference Indicator - Flight (DDI-F) or the difference between departure and arrival
          punctuality expressed in minutes. This can be indicated as a positive or negative figure, for
          example a flight departing with 20 minutes delay and arriving with 30 minutes arrival delay will
          have a DDI-F of +10 minutes. The European DDI-F in 2017 was -4.2 minutes, this was an increase
          of 0.3 minutes of schedule buffering per flight when compared to 2016.

          The Block Time Overshoot (BTO) is the percentage of flights with an actual block time which
          exceeds the scheduled block time. The European BTO in 2017 was 27%, this was an
          improvement compared to 2016 where the BTO was 28%, indicating that on average a fewer
          number of flights had an actual block time exceeding their scheduled block time during the year.

          Figure 18. Block Time Overshoot (BTO) and Delay Difference Indicator - Flight (DDI-F) 2017

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10        Reactionary Delay Analysis
          In 2017 the share of reactionary delay (IATA delay codes 91-96) was 44% of delay minutes
          contributing 5.5 minutes per flight. Reactionary delays are generated as a result of an aircraft’s late
          arrival from a previous flight which in turn affects the punctuality of its next flight with the same
          aircraft, as well as potentially delaying connecting passengers. See IATA Standard Delay Codes
          section for an overview of the IATA reactionary delay codes. Subsequently there are two types of
          reactionary delays: firstly as a result of the same aircraft being delayed on its next flight (rotational
          delay) and secondly when another aircraft is delayed as a result of another aircraft typically
          through passengers, crew and load connection (non-rotational delays).

          This section concentrates on IATA delay code 93 rotational delays, as these have a significant
          share of overall reactionary delays (approximately 90%) and the largest effect on network
          performance and passenger experience.

          In Figure 19 analysis shows that the median number of scheduled flights per sequence for an
          aircraft in 2017 was 4. The changes to the IATA seasons can be observed in the graph where the
          median falls to 3 in December 2016 and continues through to April 2017 when the IATA summer
          season commences.

          Figure 19. Median Scheduled Flight Sequence Depth and Share of Reactionary Departure Delay on Intra
          European Flights: 2016 –2017.

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11        Average Departure Delay per Flight by Hour
          Figure 20. Breakdown of the Average Departure Delay per Flight by Hour of the Day 2017 (top) vs. 2016
                 (bottom)

          During the first rotation hours (between 0300 and 0900 UTC) Figure 20 shows a higher share of
          en- route ATFM related delay when compared to 2016 with its share at or just below 20% during
          the first rotation phase at 0600 UTC. Airline related delay share fell slightly below 40% during the
          first rotation and remained relatively stable during the day. One area of note is the increase in
          weather delay share during the morning compared to 2016, this in turn drove an increase in the
          share of reactionary delay by the end of the operational day.

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                                                      CODA Digest 2017

12        Average Delay per Delayed Flight vs Percentage of Delayed Flights
          Figure 21. ADD vs. PDF on Departure

                                                                        In 2017, the percentage of flights delayed
                                                                        on departure (>=5 minutes) increased to
                                                                        44.4%. The average delay per delayed
                                                                        (ADD) flight was 28.0 minutes, an
                                                                        increase of 0.9 minutes.

          Figure 22. ADD vs. PDF on Arrival

                                                                        The average delay per delayed flight
                                                                        on arrival from all-causes was 29.9
                                                                        minutes per flight 2017 an increase
                                                                        of 0.8 minutes per flight. The
                                                                        percentage of delayed arrivals also
                                                                        increased, this by 1 percentage point
                                                                        to 44.4% in comparison 2016.

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                                                            CODA Digest 2017

13        Top 20 Delay Affected Departure Airports
          Figure 23. All-Causes Delay. Top 20 Affected Departure Airports 2017

          Rank    Departure Airport                        ICAO Code      Average        Average      Average     Percentage
                                                                         delay per       Delay per   Delay per    of Delayed
                                                                         departure         Flight     Delayed     Departures
                                                                           (mins)       Percentage   Departure
                                                                                          Change

          1       LISBON                                   LPPT                  17.3         31%         28.8         60.0%
          2       LONDON/LUTON                             EGGW                  17.2         -7%         29.7         58.0%
          3       PALMA DE MALLORCA                        LEPA                  16.8         10%         34.0         49.5%
          4       BERLIN TEGEL                             EDDT                  16.2         53%         28.2         57.4%
          5       MANCHESTER                               EGCC                  16.1         18%         30.2         53.4%
          6       TEL AVIV/BEN GURION                      LLBG                  15.9          9%         30.2         52.6%
          7       LONDON/GATWICK                           EGKK                  15.9        -17%         29.2         54.4%
          8       BIRMINGHAM                               EGBB                  15.2         22%         30.6         49.7%
          9       HAMBURG                                  EDDH                  14.9         27%         27.0         55.2%
          10      SCHIPHOL AMSTERDAM                       EHAM                  14.9         27%         25.8         57.6%
          11      COLOGNE-BONN                             EDDK                  14.7         10%         29.9         49.2%
          12      LONDON/STANSTED                          EGSS                  14.6         15%         27.4         53.2%
          13      PARIS CH DE GAULLE                       LFPG                  14.5          7%         26.2         55.2%
          14      MILAN MALPENSA                           LIMC                  14.3         10%         32.7         43.7%
          15      DUSSELDORF                               EDDL                  14.3         16%         27.8         51.4%
          16      BRUSSELS NATIONAL                        EBBR                  14.2          7%         26.2         54.1%
          17      NICE                                     LFMN                  14.2         14%         30.6         46.4%
          18      VENICE TESSERA                           LIPZ                  14.0          6%         30.2         46.2%
          19      FRANKFURT MAIN                           EDDF                  13.9         30%         22.5         61.7%
          20      ALICANTE                                 LEAL                  13.8         -9%         29.5         46.9%

          Lisbon ranked first in the top 20 affected airports with flights departing from the airport suffering
          from airline delay, reactionary as well as airport related delays. Luton airport ranked 2nd with an
          average delay per flight of 17.2 mins, with airlines suffering from en-route delays notably during
          summer as well as weather in December. Airlines with flights departing from Palma de Mallorca
          suffered from en-route delays in France as well as reactionary delays on high frequency Spanish
          domestic routes. Flights departing Berlin Tegel were affected by weather and en-route delays.
          Following an improvement in the delay situation both Istanbul Ataturk and Istanbul Sabiha Gökçen
          airports dropped out of the top 20 delay affected airports.
          Figure 24. Main Delay Causes at the Top 10 Affected Departure Airports

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                                                             CODA Digest 2017

14        Top 20 Delay Affected Arrival Airports
          Figure 25. All-Causes Delay. Top 20 Affected Arrival Airports 2017

          Rank    Arrival Airport                         ICAO Code            Average     Average     Average    Percentage
                                                                                 delay     Delay per    Delay     of Delayed
                                                                                  per        Flight      per        Arrivals
                                                                                 Flight   Percentage   Delayed
                                                                                (mins)      Change      Arrival

          1       LONDON/GATWICK                          EGKK                    21.6           7%        46.0        46.9%
          2       MANCHESTER                              EGCC                    16.1          24%        35.1        45.8%
          3       LISBON                                  LPPT                    15.9          26%        32.8        48.5%
          4       LONDON/LUTON                            EGGW                    15.0          -8%        34.6        43.4%
          5       LONDON/STANSTED                         EGSS                    14.6          16%        34.2        42.7%
          6       TEL AVIV/BEN GURION                     LLBG                    14.5         -26%        29.7        48.8%
          7       BIRMINGHAM                              EGBB                    13.9          27%        31.7        43.9%
          8       COLOGNE-BONN                            EDDK                    13.9          17%        33.9        41.0%
          9       MILAN MALPENSA                          LIMC                    13.8          12%        35.7        38.6%
          10      ANKARA-ESENBOGA                         LTAC                    13.5          24%        27.6        48.8%
          11      DUSSELDORF                              EDDL                    13.4          22%        29.6        45.4%
          12      PALMA DE MALLORCA                       LEPA                    13.1           8%        33.5        39.2%
          13      BERLIN - SCHOENEFELD                    EDDB                    12.9          15%        33.1        38.9%
          14      BARCELONA                               LEBL                    12.7         -25%        33.1        38.5%
          15      PORTO                                   LPPR                    12.6          -6%        30.5        41.2%
          16      EDINBURGH                               EGPH                    12.6           2%        29.2        43.0%
          17      BERLIN - TEGEL                          EDDT                    12.5          33%        28.4        43.9%
          18      BUDAPEST                                LHBP                    12.4          19%        28.1        44.1%
          19      PRAGUE                                  LKPR                    12.4           6%        30.2        40.9%
          20      BUCHAREST OTOPENI                       LROP                    12.3           9%        27.1        45.6%

          London Gatwick ranked first for arrival delays in 2017, with an average delay per flight on arrival of
          21.6 minutes, with reactionary delays, ATC capacity and weather contributing to this figure. Flights
          to Manchester flights recorded high shares of reactionary and weather delays. The high en-route
          delays in France following the ATC industrial action can also be observed in Figure 26, with
          notably high shares at UK airports.

          Figure 26. Main Delay Causes at the Top 10 Affected Arrival Airports

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                                                              CODA Digest 2017

15        Top 20 Delay Affected City Pairs
          Figure 27. All-Causes Delay Situation for the 20 Most Delayed Airport Pairs 2017
          Rank    Departure Airport       Arrival Airport              Average     Change      Average Delay      Percentage Delayed
                                                                      Delay Per     since       Per Delayed           Departures
                                                                      Departure    Previous      Departure
                                                                                    Period

                  PALMA DE                COLOGNE-BONN                      23.0      14%                 39.5                  58.1%
          1
                  MALLORCA
          2       GENEVA                  LONDON/GATWICK                    20.5      -11%                33.3                  61.6%
          3       LONDON/GATWICK          GENEVA                            19.5       -4%                31.5                  61.7%
                  SCHIPHOL                LONDON/GATWICK                    19.4      -14%                33.9                  57.2%
          4
                  AMSTERDAM
                  SCHIPHOL                BARCELONA                         19.2        3%                30.1                  63.8%
          5
                  AMSTERDAM
          6       LONDON/GATWICK          BARCELONA                         19.2      -20%                32.9                  58.5%
          7       LISBON                  BRUSSELS NATIONAL                 19.1      11%                 28.0                  68.1%
          8       FRANKFURT MAIN          ISTANBUL-ATATURK                  18.8      33%                 26.3                  71.4%
          9       BRUSSELS NATIONAL       LISBON                            18.4      11%                 26.4                  69.8%
          10      PARIS ORLY              LISBON                            18.3      24%                 29.9                  61.2%
          11      LISBON                  LONDON/HEATHROW                   18.0      11%                 27.7                  64.9%
          12      BARCELONA               LISBON                            17.7      28%                 31.0                  57.1%
          13      PARIS CH DE GAULLE      BARCELONA                         17.5      -10%                28.1                  62.4%
          14      ROME FIUMICINO          BARCELONA                         17.5      -12%                27.7                  63.0%
          15      TEGEL-BERLIN            ZURICH                            17.2      46%                 24.5                  70.1%
          16      EDINBURGH               SCHIPHOL AMSTERDAM                17.2      61%                 28.1                  61.3%
          17      BARCELONA               SCHIPHOL AMSTERDAM                16.9        0%                29.7                  56.8%
          18      LISBON                  BARCELONA                         16.9      13%                 27.9                  60.5%
          19      BARCELONA               BRUSSELS NATIONAL                 16.8       -6%                29.7                  56.5%
          20      BIRMINGHAM              SCHIPHOL AMSTERDAM                16.8      54%                 29.2                  57.4%

          Flights operating from Palma de Mallorca to Cologne ranked in top in the most delayed airport
          pairs for 2017, with many evening flights operating on this city pair suffering from reactionary
          delays from delay built up earlier in the day, notably during the busy summer season. Flights to
          London Gatwick suffered from a mix of weather, ATC capacity and reactionary delay. Lisbon also
          features in the top delayed city pairs following a year where high airline, airport and reactionary
          related delays.

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                                                               CODA Digest 2017

16        Year on Year Trends in All-Causes Indicators
          This section summarises the year-on-year trends in the main indicators of delay from all-causes. A
          flight is considered delayed from 5 minutes. This is based on CODA data covering 69% of
          commercial flights in the ECAC region in 2017.
          Figure 28 Average all-causes delay/delayed flight (departures top, arrivals bottom)

          Figure 29. Percentage of flights delayed for all-causes delay (departures top, arrivals bottom)

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                                                              CODA Digest 2017

          Figure 30. Percentage of flights delayed >15mins for all-causes (departures top, arrivals bottom)

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                                                            CODA Digest 2017

17                     CODA Delay Groupings

                                                                                                                IATA
                           CODA CAUSE         Description
                                                                                                                Code

                                              Passenger and Baggage                                             11-19

                                              Cargo and Mail                                                    21-29

                                              Aircraft and Ramp Handling                                        31-39

                                              Technical and Aircraft Equipment                                  41-48
                           Airline
                                              Damage to Aircraft & EDP/Automated Equipment
                                              Failure                                                           51-58

                                              Flight Operations and Crewing                                     61-69
Primary Delay Causes

                                              Other Airline Related Causes                                      Others

                                              ATFM due to Restriction at Destination Airport                    83

                                              Airport Facilities                                                87
                           Airport
                                              Restrictions at Airport of Destination                            88

                                              Restrictions at Airport of Departure                              89

                                              ATFM due to ATC En-Route Demand / Capacity                        81
                           En-Route
                                              ATFM due to ATC Staff / Equipment En-Route                        82

                           Governmental       Security and Immigration                                          85-86

                                              Weather (other than ATFM)                                         71-77
                           Weather
                                              ATFM due to Weather at Destination                                84

                           Miscellaneous      Miscellaneous                                                     98-99

                           Reactionary        Late Arrival of Aircraft, Crew, Passengers or Load                91-96

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                                                                CODA Digest 2017

  18      Correlation between IATA Delay Codes and the NM Regulation Codes
                  Note: updated version published in the ATFCM Users Manual 20.1.11

          1
           http://www.eurocontrol.int/sites/default/files/content/documents/nm/network-operations/HANDBOOK/atfcm-users-
          manual-current.pdf

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                                                                 CODA Digest 2017

19                Standard IATA Delay Codes (AHM 730)
                    Others
          00-05           AIRLINE INTERNAL CODES
          06 (OA)         NO GATE/STAND AVAILABILITY DUE TO OWN AIRLINE ACTIVITY Including Early Arrivals
          09 (SG)         SCHEDULED GROUND TIME LESS THAN DECLARED MINIMUM GROUND TIME

                    Passenger and Baggage
          11   (PD)       LATE CHECK-IN, acceptance after deadline
          12   (PL)       LATE CHECK-IN, congestions in check-in area
          13   (PE)       CHECK-IN ERROR, passenger and baggage
          14   (PO)       OVERSALES, booking errors
          15   (PH)       BOARDING, discrepancies and paging, missing checked-in passenger
          16   (PS)       COMMERCIAL PUBLICITY/PASSENGER CONVENIENCE, VIP, press, ground meals and missing
                          personal items
          17 (PC)         CATERING ORDER, late or incorrect order given to supplier
          18 (PB)         BAGGAGE PROCESSING, sorting etc.
          19 (PW)         REDUCED MOBILITY, boarding / deboarding of passengers with reduced mobility.

                    Cargo and Mail
          21   (CD)       DOCUMENTATION, errors etc.
          22   (CP)       LATE POSITIONING
          23   (CC)       LATE ACCEPTANCE
          24   (CI)       INADEQUATE PACKING
          25   (CO)       OVERSALES, booking errors
          26   (CU)       LATE PREPARATION IN WAREHOUSE
          27   (CE)       DOCUMENTATION, PACKING etc (Mail Only)
          28   (CL)       LATE POSITIONING (Mail Only)
          29   (CA)       LATE ACCEPTANCE (Mail Only)

                    Aircraft and Ramp Handling
          31 (GD)         AIRCRAFT DOCUMENTATION LATE/INACCURATE, weight and balance, general declaration, pax
                          manifest, etc.
          32   (GL)       LOADING/UNLOADING, bulky, special load, cabin load, lack of loading staff
          33   (GE)       LOADING EQUIPMENT, lack of or breakdown, e.g. container pallet loader, lack of staff
          34   (GS)       SERVICING EQUIPMENT, lack of or breakdown, lack of staff, e.g. steps
          35   (GC)       AIRCRAFT CLEANING
          36   (GF)       FUELLING/DEFUELLING, fuel supplier
          37   (GB)       CATERING, late delivery or loading
          38   (GU)       ULD, lack of or serviceability
          39   (GT)       TECHNICAL EQUIPMENT, lack of or breakdown, lack of staff, e.g. pushback

                    Technical and Aircraft Equipment
          41 (TD)         AIRCRAFT DEFECTS.
          42 (TM)         SCHEDULED MAINTENANCE, late release.
          43 (TN)         NON-SCHEDULED MAINTENANCE, special checks and/or additional works beyond normal
                          maintenance schedule.
          44   (TS)       SPARES AND MAINTENANCE EQUIPMENT, lack of or breakdown.
          45   (TA)       AOG SPARES, to be carried to another station.
          46   (TC)       AIRCRAFT CHANGE, for technical reasons.
          47   (TL)       STAND-BY AIRCRAFT, lack of planned stand-by aircraft for technical reasons.
          48   (TV)       SCHEDULED CABIN CONFIGURATION/VERSION ADJUSTMENTS.

                    Damage to Aircraft & EDP/Automated Equipment Failure
          51 (DF)         DAMAGE DURING FLIGHT OPERATIONS, bird or lightning strike, turbulence, heavy or overweight
                          landing, collision during taxiing
          52 (DG)         DAMAGE DURING GROUND OPERATIONS, collisions (other than during taxiing), loading/off-
                          loading damage, contamination, towing, extreme weather conditions
          55   (ED)       DEPARTURE CONTROL
          56   (EC)       CARGO PREPARATION/DOCUMENTATION
          57   (EF)       FLIGHT PLANS
          58   (EO)        OTHER AUTOMATED SYSTEM

                    Flight Operations and Crewing
          61 (FP)         FLIGHT PLAN, late completion or change of, flight documentation
          62 (FF)         OPERATIONAL REQUIREMENTS, fuel, load alteration

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                                                                   CODA Digest 2017
          63 (FT)         LATE CREW BOARDING OR DEPARTURE PROCEDURES, other than connection and standby
                          (flight deck or entire crew)
          64 (FS)         FLIGHT DECK CREW SHORTAGE, sickness, awaiting standby, flight time limitations, crew meals,
                          valid visa, health documents, etc.
          65 (FR)         FLIGHT DECK CREW SPECIAL REQUEST, not within operational requirements
          66 (FL)         LATE CABIN CREW BOARDING OR DEPARTURE PROCEDURES, other than connection and
                          standby
          67 (FC)         CABIN CREW SHORTAGE, sickness, awaiting standby, flight time limitations, crew meals, valid visa,
                          health documents, etc.
          68 (FA)         CABIN CREW ERROR OR SPECIAL REQUEST, not within operational requirements
          69 (FB)         CAPTAIN REQUEST FOR SECURITY CHECK, extraordinary

                    Weather
          71   (WO)       DEPARTURE STATION
          72   (WT)       DESTINATION STATION
          73   (WR)       EN ROUTE OR ALTERNATE
          75   (WI)       DE-ICING OF AIRCRAFT, removal of ice and/or snow, frost prevention excluding unserviceability of
                          equipment
          76 (WS)         REMOVAL OF SNOW, ICE, WATER AND SAND FROM AIRPORT
          77 (WG)         GROUND HANDLING IMPAIRED BY ADVERSE WEATHER CONDITIONS

                    Air Traffic Flow Management Restrictions
          81 (AT)         ATFM due to ATC EN-ROUTE DEMAND/CAPACITY, standard demand/capacity problems
          82 (AX)         ATFM due to ATC STAFF/EQUIPMENT EN-ROUTE, reduced capacity caused by industrial action or
                          staff shortage, equipment failure, military exercise or extraordinary demand due to capacity reduction
                          in neighbouring area
          83 (AE)         ATFM due to RESTRICTION AT DESTINATION AIRPORT, airport and/or runway closed due to
                          obstruction, industrial action, staff shortage, political unrest, noise abatement, night curfew, special
                          flights
          84 (AW)         ATFM due to WEATHER AT DESTINATION

                    Airport and Government Authorities
          85 (AS)         MANDATORY SECURITY
          86 (AG)         IMMIGRATION, CUSTOMS, HEALTH
          87 (AF)         AIRPORT FACILITIES, parking stands, ramp congestion, lighting, buildings, gate limitations, etc.
          88 (AD)         RESTRICTIONS AT AIRPORT OF DESTINATION, airport and/or runway closed due to obstruction,
                          industrial action, staff shortage, political unrest, noise abatement, night curfew, special flights

          89 (AM)         RESTRICTIONS AT AIRPORT OF DEPARTURE WITH OR WITHOUT ATFM RESTRICTIONS,
                          including Air Traffic Services, start-up and pushback, airport and/or runway closed due to obstruction
                                     2
                          or weather , industrial action, staff shortage, political unrest, noise abatement, night curfew, special
                          flights

                    Reactionary
          91   (RL)       LOAD CONNECTION, awaiting load from another flight
          92   (RT)       THROUGH CHECK-IN ERROR, passenger and baggage
          93   (RA)       AIRCRAFT ROTATION, late arrival of aircraft from another flight or previous sector
          94   (RS)       CABIN CREW ROTATION, awaiting cabin crew from another flight
          95   (RC)       CREW ROTATION, awaiting crew from another flight (flight deck or entire crew)
          96   (RO)       OPERATIONS CONTROL, re-routing, diversion, consolidation, aircraft change for reasons other than
                          technical

                    Miscellaneous
          97 (MI)         INDUSTRIAL ACTION WITH OWN AIRLINE
          98 (MO)         INDUSTRIAL ACTION OUTSIDE OWN AIRLINE, excluding ATS
          99 (MX)         OTHER REASON, not matching any code above
          SOURCE: IATA – Airport Handling Manual (730 & 731)

          2
              Restriction due to weather in case of ATFM regulation only, else refer to code 71 (WO)

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                                                               CODA Digest 2017

20               Standard IATA Delay Code Sub-Codes (AHM 731)
          73 (WR)         WEATHER: EN ROUTE OR ALTERNATE
                          Z   OUTSIDE AIRCRAFT LIMITS
                          Y   OUTSIDE CREW LIMITS
                          X   ETOPS

          81 (AT)         ATFM DUE TO ATC EN-ROUTE DEMAND/CAPACITY, standard demand/capacity problems
                          Z   ATC ROUTEING
                          Y   HIGH DEMAND OR CAPACITY
                          X   ENVIRONMENTAL
                          W   WEATHER
                          G   OTHER

          82 (AX)         ATFM DUE TO ATC STAFF/EQUIPMENT EN-ROUTE, reduced capacity caused by industrial
                          action or shortage or equipment failure, extraordinary demand due to capacity reduction in
                          neighbouring area
                          Z   INDUSTRIAL ACTION
                          Y   EQUIPMENT FAILURE
                          X   STAFF SHORTAGE
                          W   MILITARY ACTIVITY
                          V   SPECIAL EVENT

          83 (AE)         ATFM DUE TO RESTRICTION AT DESTINATION AIRPORT, airport and/or runway closed due
                          to obstruction, industrial action, staff shortage, political unrest, noise abatement, night
                          curfew, special flights
                          Z   HIGH DEMAND / ATC CAPACITY
                          Y   INDUSTRIAL ACTION
                          X   EQUIPMENT FAILURE
                          W   STAFF SHORTAGE
                          V   ACCIDENT / INCIDENT
                          U   MILITARY ACTIVITY
                          T   SPECIAL EVENT
                          S   NOISE ABATEMENT/NIGHT CURFEW
                          P   HIGH DEMAND/AIRPORT FACILTIES

          85 (AS)         MANDATORY SECURITY
                          Z MANDATORY SECURITY CHECK
                          Y SECURITY CONTROL CHECKPOINTS
                          X   BAGGAGE/AVI SECURITY
                          W   BAGGAGE IDENTIFICATION/UNLOADING/INTENDED
                          V   AIRPORT/TERMINAL SECURITY
                          U   AIRLINE/AIRCRAFT SECURITY CHECK
                          T   EXTRAORDINARY SECURITY EVENTS
                          G   OTHER

          86 (AG)         IMMIGRATION, CUSTOMS, HEALTH
                          Z IMMIGRATION/EMMIGRATION
                          Y CUSTOMS
                          X HEALTH
                          G   OTHER

          87 (AF)         AIRPORT FACILITIES, parking stands, ramp congestion, lighting, buildings, gate limitations,
                          etc.
                          Z   PARKING STANDS LIMITATION/NO PARKING STANDS AVAILABLE, EXCLUDING EARLY ARRIVALS
                          Y   RAMP CONGESTION, ABNORMAL STAND ACCESS LIMITATION (NON-ATC)
                          X   BUILDINGS
                          W   GATE LIMITATION / NO GATE AVAILABLE EXCLUDING EARLY ARRIVALS
                          V   BAGGAGE SORTING SYSTEM DOWN / SLOW
                          U   NO PUSH BACK CLEARANCE DUE TO INFRASTRUCTURE (NON-ATC)
                          T   JET BRIDGE INOPERATIVE
                          S   LACK OF CHECK IN COUNTERS
                          R   AIRFIELD ELECTRICAL SYSTEM FAILURE
                          P   PASSENGER TRANSPORT SYSTEM FAILURE
                          N   PUBLIC ADDRESS/FLIGHT INFORMATION DISPLAY SYSTEM FAILURE
                          M   INSUFFICIENT FIRE COVER
                          J   LATE POSITIONING OF AIRCRAFT (WHEN RESPONSIBILITY OF AIRPORT)
                          I   SERVICE ROAD RESTRICTION
                          H   LATE ARRIVAL OR LACK OF FOLLOW ME VEHICLE
                          G   ANY OF THE ABOVE AT THE DESTINATION AIRPORT

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                                                                CODA Digest 2017
          89 (AM)         RESTRICTIONS AT AIRPORT OF DEPARTURE WITH OR WITHOUT ATFM RESTRICTIONS,
                          including Air Traffic Services, start-up and pushback, airport and/or runway closed due to
                          obstruction or weather.
                          Z   ATC CAPACITY
                          Y   ATC INDUSTRIAL ACTION
                          X   ATC STAFFING
                          W   ATC EQUIPMENT
                          V   ATC ACCIDENT/INCIDENT
                          U   MILITARY ACTIVITY/SPECIAL FLIGHTS/VIP
                          T   ATC SPECIAL EVENT
                          S   ATC WEATHER
                          O   ENVIRONMENTAL BENEFIT, DELAYED START-UP/PUSHBACK DUE TO USE OF REDUCED STANDARD
                              TAXI TIMES
                          R   ATC RESTRICTIONS DUE TO CURFEW
                          P   ATC POLITICAL UNREST
                          N   ATC ENVIRONMENTAL
                          M   AIRPORT CLOSURE
                          L   RUNWAY CLOSURE
                          K   MISCELLANEOUS START-UP DELAY (LOCAL ATC)
                          J   LOST FLIGHT PLAN BY ATC
                          I   LATE PUSHBACK GIVEN DUE TO OTHER REASONS THAN INFRASTRUCTURE
                          H   CONSTRUCTION WORK/MAINTENENCE
                          G   OTHER

          93 (RA)             AIRCRAFT ROTATION, late arrival of aircraft from another flight
                         Z    LATE ARRIVAL DUE DEPARTURE DELAY AT PREVIOUS STATION
                         Y    LATE ARRIVAL DUE ENROUTE DELAY
                         X    LATE ARRIVAL DUE DELAY AFTER LANDING
                         W    LATE ARRIVAL DUE TO HIGH DEMAND FOR DESTINATION STATION
                         V    LATE ARRIVAL DUE TO WEATHER AT DESTINATION
                         U    LATE ARRIVAL DUE TO TECHNICAL REASONS

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                                                           CODA Digest 2017

21        Glossary of Terms and Abbreviations
          ACC                       Area Control Centre

          ADMD                      Average Delay per Flight on Departure

          ADMA                      Average Delay per Flight on Arrival

          ADDD                      Average Delay per Delayed Flight on Departure

          ADDA                      Average Delay per Delayed Flight on Arrival

          AHM                       Airport Handling Manual

          AIBT                      Actual In Block Time

          AOBT                      Actual Off Block Time

          ATFCM                     Air Traffic Flow and Capacity Management

          ATFM                      Air Traffic Flow Management (used by IATA in the Standard IATA
                                    Delay Codes)

          ATS                       Air Traffic Services

          BTO                       Block Time Overshoot

          CODA                      Central Office for Delay Analysis

          DDI-F                     Delay Difference Indicator – Flight

          ECAC                      European Civil Aviation Conference

          FIR                       Flight Information Region

          IATA                      International Air Transport Association

          ICAO                      International Civil Aviation Organization

          IFR                       Instrument Flight Rules

          NM                        Network Manager

          NMD                       Network Manager Directorate

          NMOC                      Network Manager Operations Centre

          PDF                       Percentage of Delayed Flights

          STA                       Scheduled Time of Arrival

          STD                       Scheduled Time of Departure

          TDF                       Total Delayed Flights

          TDM                       Total Delay in Minutes

          TTF                       Total Flights

Edition Validity Date: 31/05/2018                   Edition: CDA_2017_004           Status: Released Issue   28
Network Manager
                                              CODA Digest 2017

22               CODA Coverage of IFR Flights in ECAC Region 2017

                                                    Canary Islands

Edition Validity Date: 31/05/2018       Edition: CDA_2017_004        Status: Released Issue   29
Network Manager
                                                   CODA Digest 2017

                                    DOCUMENT FINAL PAGE

Edition Validity Date: 31/05/2018        Edition: CDA_2017_004   Status: Released Issue   30
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