Oracle Maximum Availability Best Practices: Oracle Database 18c

 
Oracle Maximum Availability Best Practices: Oracle Database 18c
Oracle Maximum Availability Best
Practices: Oracle Database 18c
Best Practices and Techniques

Michael Smith
Consulting Member of Technical Staff
Oracle Database MAA

October 25, 2018

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Oracle Maximum Availability Best Practices: Oracle Database 18c
Safe Harbor Statement
The following is intended to outline our general product direction. It is intended for
information purposes only, and may not be incorporated into any contract. It is not a
commitment to deliver any material, code, or functionality, and should not be relied upon
in making purchasing decisions. The development, release, and timing of any features or
functionality described for Oracle’s products remains at the sole discretion of Oracle.

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Oracle Maximum Availability Best Practices: Oracle Database 18c
Agenda
         • MAA validated reference architectures and blueprints
         • MAA best practices and tips
          – Active Data Guard
          – Application Continuity
          – Multitenant
          – GoldenGate
          – Sharding
          – Oracle Cloud

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Oracle Maximum Availability Best Practices: Oracle Database 18c
Oracle Maximum Availability Architecture (MAA)
High Availability, Disaster Recovery and Data Protection

• Applying 25+ years of lessons learned in solving                                                   Production                     Copy
  toughest HA problems around the world
                                                                                                                       Database
• Solutions to reduce downtime for planned &                                                                          Replication

  unplanned outages for Enterprise customers with most
  demanding workloads and requirements
• Service level oriented architectures
• Books, white papers, blueprints
• MAA integrated Engineered Systems
                                                          R
• Continuous feedback into products
               https://oracle.com/goto/maa
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Oracle Maximum Availability Best Practices: Oracle Database 18c
MAA Reference Architectures
Meet Downtime (RTO) and Data Loss (RPO) SLAs
   MAA Reference
    Architectures                          Topology                                                                   Suitable Databases

     BRONZE                        Single Instance + Backup                                                            Dev, Test, Prod

                                                                                                                                           Downtime & Data Loss
      SILVER                       HA Clustering + Backup                                                            Prod/Departmental

      GOLD                HA Clustering + Disaster Recovery + Backup                                                  Mission Critical

    PLATINUM                   Zero Data Loss & Zero Downtime                                                         Extreme Critical

           Addresses SLAs for Data Loss and Downtime during Planned & Unplanned Outages

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Oracle Maximum Availability Best Practices: Oracle Database 18c
Oracle MAA
Designed to Address the Complete Range of Business Requirements

                                     Oracle
                                    Database

     On Premises                                                                                               On Cloud

             Common Platform – On Premises, Cloud, and Hybrid Cloud
                               Big Differentiator
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Oracle Maximum Availability Best Practices: Oracle Database 18c
MAA Best Practices
Active Data Guard

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Oracle Maximum Availability Best Practices: Oracle Database 18c
Active Data Guard
Best Disaster Protection, Real-time Failover, High ROI

      Primary Database                                                                                 Active Standby Database
      Open Read-Write                                                                                      Open Read-Only

 Primary                     Oracle-aware Replication                                                                   Standby
  Oracle                  Continuous Oracle Data Validation                                                              Oracle
 Instance                                                                                                               Instance

Database                                                                                                                Database
  Files                                                                                                                   Files

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Oracle Maximum Availability Best Practices: Oracle Database 18c
Data Guard Creation Best Practices

• Fastest and easiest Data Guard deployment for your environment
• New master MOS note that directs you to the best way to deploy a Data
  Guard standby
• My Oracle Support Note 2275154.1
 – If you are 11.2 use the standard RMAN DUPLICATE method
 – If you are 12.1.0.2 or higher then use RMAN restore from service method
 – If you 12.2.0.1 or higher and single instance use DBCA method (RAC in 18c)

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Data Guard Transport Best Practices

• Learn to push ASYNC performance to provide near zero data loss
• How to accurately determine transport lag
• Diagnosing and tuning ASYNC transport
 – Network performance
 – Identify bottlenecks
• Diagnosing reasons for ASYNC transport lag
 – Using AWR to assess peak redo rate can be misleading due to averages bring down
   the rate over longer period of time
 – Examine the time spent in each log to determine the peak redo rate on a finer level

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Data Guard Transport Best Practices

• Achieve zero data loss with minimal performance impact
• Deep dive on SYNC performance tuning
 – Test results that illustrate performance gains when using best practices
 – For example, proper online log file sizes with a large banking customer improved
   performance by 30%
 – Frequent log switches force a checkpoint on the standby which results in increased
   I/O thereby affecting performance
 – Single member standby redo log placed on fast storage

                                       Copyright © 2018, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. |   11
Data Guard Transport Best Practices

• Benefit: AchieveTIP    zero data loss with minimal performance impact
• Deep dive on SYNC    • performance
                           The vast majority   tuningof Data Guard
                           Transport
  – Test results that illustrate         performance
                                 performance      gains whenissues
                                                              using can
                                                                    best be
                                                                         practices
  – For example, proper attributed
                            online log filetosizes
                                               frequent    log switches
                                                   with a large banking customer improved
    performance by 30%
                     •   Log  switches  should   occur
  – Frequent log switches force a checkpoint on the standby which results in increased
    I/O thereby affectingapproximately
                          performance     every 15 minutes
  – Single member standby redo log placed on fast storage

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Data Guard Redo Apply Best Practices

• Updated MAA Whitepaper
• How to tune with examples for various scenarios
 – Tuning using top five wait events
 – Test results that illustrate performance gains when using best practices
• New installation and usage instructions for using AWR with standby
• New update that includes multi instance redo apply

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Multi-Instance Redo Apply Performance
• Scale redo apply and keep RTO low
• Parallel, multi-instance recovery : standby will keep up
 – Standby recovery - utilizes CPU and IO across all nodes of RAC standby
 – OLTP workload tests on Exadata show great scalability

                1400
        Standby 1200                                                                                                   OLTP Workload
         Apply 1000
          Rate   800
        MB/sec   600
                 400
                 200
                   0
                       1 Instance   2 Instances        4 Instances                    8 Instances

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Multi-Instance Redo Apply Performance
• Benefit: Scale redo
                    TIPapply and keep RTO low
• Parallel, multi-instance
                    • The recovery : standby
                           vast majority     will Guard
                                         of Data  keep up
                                                        Redo
 – Standby recovery - utilizes
                       ApplyCPU   and IO acrossissues
                               performance      all nodes
                                                       canofbe
                                                             RAC standby
 – Some of our OLTP workload   tests to
                       attributed    on frequent
                                        Exadata show
                                                   loggreat scalability
                                                       switches
               1400
       Standby 1200 •   Increasing the number of          OLTP Workload
        Apply 1000
         Rate
                        db_writer_processes can reduce high
                800
       MB/sec   600     checkpoint wait events
                400
                200
                  0
                        1 Instance   2 Instances        4 Instances                    8 Instances

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Multi-Instance Redo Apply Enhancements
• Multi-Instance Redo Apply allows all standby nodes to participate in
  recovery
• In-memory DB (IMC) on Active Data Guard allows: *
 – Creation of IMC tables and columns for analytics on Active Data Guard
 – Population with different data than production database              Month                                                   Year
 – Offloading even more to your standby!                              In-Memory                                              In-Memory

• Multi-Instance Redo apply also works with BCT

 * Available only on Exadata and Oracle Cloud Offerings

                                                                                                                   Primary        Standby
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Data Guard Role Transition Best Practices

• Updated MAA Whitepaper
• Benefit: Reduced downtime for both unplanned and planned
• Expected performance and tuning advice
• How to assess your role transition timings and where the time is being
  spent

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Preserve Buffer Cache During Role Change

    Read/Write        Read
                                          • The database buffer cache state will be
                                            maintained on an ADG standby during
                                            a role change
                                          • Automatic, nothing to set up.
   Primary          Active Data Guard
                    Standby                      – Except for init parameter on the standby
                    Read/Write                   – STANDBY_DB_PRESERVE_STATES

   Failed Primary   Primary

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Data Guard and No Force Logging*
*Available on Engineered Systems and Oracle Cloud only

• Extended to provide better support in an Active Data Guard environment
  without significantly increasing the amount of redo generated.
• Two new modes are added as alternatives to the existing nologging mode
  – Standby Nologging for Load Performance
    • Ensures that standbys will receive the nonlogged data changes with the minimum impact to the
      speed of loading at the primary
      – The standby can transiently have nonlogged blocks. These nonlogged blocks will be automatically resolved by
        managed standby recovery.
  – Standby Nologging for Data availability
    • Ensures all standbys have the data when the primary load commits but at the cost of throttling the
      speed of loading data at the primary
      – The standbys will never have any nonlogged blocks.
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MAA Best Practices
Application Continuity

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Applications see no errors during outages
Standardize on Transparent Application Continuity

                                                                    Hides errors, timeouts, and
         Request                                                    maintenance
                                                                    No application knowledge or
                                                                    changes to use
                                                                    Rebuilds session state & in-flight
                                                                    transactions

                         Errors/Timeouts hidden
                                                                    Adapts as applications change:
                                                                    protected for the future
                   TAC

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TAC Explained
     Normal Operation                  Failover Phase 1:                                                     Failover Phase 2: Replay
                                           Reconnect
• Client marks requests:                                                                                • Restores and verifies the
  explicit and discovered.        • Checks replay is enabled                                              session state
• Server tracks session           • Verifies timeliness                                                 • Replays held calls,
  state, decides which calls                                                                              restores mutables
                                  • Creates a new connection                                              automatically
  to replay, disables side
  effects.                        • Checks target database is                                           • Ensures results, states,
• Directed, client holds            legal for replay                                                      messages match original.
  original calls, their inputs,   • Uses Transaction Guard to                                           • On success, returns
  and validation data.              guarantee commit                                                      control to the application
                                    outcome
     New with TAC

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Configuration at Database
Service Attributes

• FAILOVER_TYPE = AUTO
• FAILOVER_RESTORE = AUTO
• COMMIT_OUTCOME = TRUE
• AQ_HA_NOTIFICATIONS=True for FAN OCI
• REPLAY_INITIATION_TIMEOUT = 300 - seconds before replay is canceled

                                 Copyright © 2018, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. |   23
Connections Appear Continuous                                                                           Configure in One
Standard for All Drivers from 12.2                                                                           Place
          Single description

alias =(DESCRIPTION =                       Automatic Retries
   (CONNECT_TIMEOUT=90) (RETRY_COUNT=20)(RETRY_DELAY=3)
         (TRANSPORT_CONNECT_TIMEOUT=3)
    (ADDRESS_LIST =
        (LOAD_BALANCE=on)
        ( ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL = TCP)(HOST=primary-scan)(PORT=1521)))
     (ADDRESS_LIST =              No reliance on DNS
         (LOAD_BALANCE=on)
        ( ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL = TCP)(HOST=secondary-scan)(PORT=1521)))
    (CONNECT_DATA=(SERVICE_NAME = gold-cloud)))

                                                     ALWAYS use a SERVICE that is NOT DB/PDB name
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FAN for INSTANT Interrupt
The dead thing cannot tell you it is dead

          All Oracle uses FAN                                               Auto-Configured in 12c
 JDBC Universal Connection Pool                        DESCRIPTION =
                                                                 (CONNECT_TIMEOUT=90)
 OCI/OCCI driver                                                 (RETRY_COUNT=20)(RETRY_DELAY=3)
                                                                 (TRANSPORT_CONNECT_TIMEOUT=3)
 ODP.NET Unmanaged Provider (OCI)
                                                                 (ADDRESS_LIST =
 ODP.NET Managed Provider (C#)                                             (LOAD_BALANCE=on)                 ONS Node Set 1
 OCI Session Pool                                                          ( ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL = TCP)
                                                                           (HOST=primary-scan) (PORT=1521)))
 WebLogic Active GridLink                                         (ADDRESS_LIST =

 Tuxedo
                                                                              (LOAD_BALANCE=on)              ONS Node Set 2
                                                                             ( ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL = TCP)
 JDBC Thin Driver (new 12.2)                                                 (HOST=second-
                                                                             scan)(PORT=1521)))

 CMAN and Listeners                                    (CONNECT_DATA=(SERVICE_NAME=gold)))
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Draining and Failover Locally – Switchover between sites
                                                 Fast Application Notification
Production Site                               – Notify draining, failover, load balancing
                                             Transparent Application Continuity
                                TIP                       – Application HA                                                         Active Data Guard
 RAC                                                  Global Data Services                                                         – Scheduled switchover
 – Online Rolling Maintenance                                                                                                      – Data Protection, DR
 – Scalability
 – Server HA
                                • Use AWR statistics
                                                – Cross Site Placement
                                                                to determine your                                                  – Query Offload

 RAC One
                                  level of protection                                                                              Data Guard
                                                                                                                                   – Scheduled switchover
 – Online Rolling Maintenance                                                                                                      – Data Protection, DR
 – Server HA
                                • Drain
                                    Use    ExaChk/OraChk to view
                                        within RAC             Drain within RAC                                                    GoldenGate
                                                                                                                                   – Scheduled switchover
                                    unprotected calls
                                                    Switchover
                                                                                                                                   – Active-active replication
                                                                                                                                   – Heterogeneous
                                                              ADG or GG
                                                                                                                                   Sharding
                                                                                                                                   –   Massive OLTP
                                                                                                                                   –   Scheduled switchover
                                                                                                                                   –   Active-active replication
                                                                                                                                   –   Heterogeneous

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Always Know Your Protection Level

• AWR, system, session, service stats
  –Requests completed per second
  –User calls in request
  –Protected user calls      Statistic                                                                     Total    per Second per Trans
                              --------------------------------                                   ------------------ -------------- -------------
                              cumulative requests                                                         177,406        49.2            5.0
                              cumulative user calls in request                                            493,329       136.8          13.8
                              cumulative user calls protected                                             493,329        136.8         13.8

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Detailed Protection Report when needed

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MAA Best Practices
Multitenant

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Oracle Multitenant
 Architecture for consolidating databases and simplifying operations
                                                            AP                        Self-contained PDB for each application
                                                                                      •   Portability (via pluggability)
                     GL           OE                                                  •   Rapid provisioning (via clones)
                                                                                      •   Applications run unchanged
                                                                                      •   PDB upgrades via plug/unplug

       PDBs                                                                          Common operations performed at CDB level
                                                                                     • Manage many as one (upgrade, backups, HA)
CDB                                                                                  • Granular control when appropriate
                                                                                     • Simple DR
       Root                                                                          Shared memory and background processes
                                                                                     • More applications per server
                                                                                     MAA and Multitenant
                                                                                     • Solutions for planned / unplanned outages

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PDB Relocate
  • Provides the ability to move a PDB from one CDB to another
    with minimal downtime
  • Relocate is done in 2 phases
     • Phase 1: Copy datafiles from source to destination - No
       application downtime
     • Phase 2: Apply any redo that has occurred at source since
       phase 1 completion, quiesce the PDBs (downtime), open the
       new PDB
     • Downtime is a function of redo generated at source CDB -
       must be shipped & applied

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PDB Relocate
  • With AVAILABILITY MAX clause allows deferral of changing
    connect strings
     • Apps connect via previous connect string to "tombstone"
       PDB left in previous CDB
     • Listener connection forwarding redirects connection to new
       location
     • When connect strings have been changed, drop the
       tombstone

                                Copyright © 2018, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. |   33
PDB Relocate
  • With AVAILABILITY MAX clause allows deferral of changing
                 TIP
    connect strings
                 • Monitor
     • Apps connect           MOS connect
                      via previous note 2049127.1
                                           string tofor
                                                     "tombstone"
       PDB left in previous CDB to PDB relocate which
                    improvements
                    will reduces
     • Listener connection       downtime
                             forwarding redirects connection to new
       location
                 • Remove source PDB to avoid extra
     • When connect    stringshop
                    network    have been changed, drop the
       tombstone

                                 Copyright © 2018, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. |   34
Multitenant and Data Guard Enhancements
  • When performing a remote clone on a primary database the
    standby automates copying of the datafiles for the new PDB
  • On the standby CDB set
    the STANDBY_PDB_SOURCE_FILE_DBLINK initialization
    parameter.
  • This parameter specifies the name of the database link used
    in CREATE PLUGGABLE DATABASE ... FROM dblink.
  • The standby CDB attempts to copy the data files from the
    source PDB referenced in the database link

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MAA Best Practices
GoldenGate

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Oracle GoldenGate
Flexible Logical Replication

                                                LAN / WAN / Internet
                                                   Over TCP/IP
Source & Target                                                                                                                              Target & Source
Oracle & Non-Oracle Database(s)                   Bi-directional                                                             Oracle & Non-Oracle Database(s)

                           • Zero-downtime maintenance and migrations
                           • Active-Active high availability
                           • Heterogeneous replication, data distribution and integration

                                                                 Note: MAA for GoldenGate Microservices Architecture is currently WIP
                                                                                                                                                         37
                                                    Copyright © 2018, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. |
MicroServices Architecture
                                          HTTPS RESTFul
            GGSCI         Manager         Service Interfaces
                                                                                                                      GGSCI         Manager
                    Admin                                                                                                     Admin
                    Server                                                                                                    Server
   Source                                                                                                                               Target
  Database                    Metrics                                                                Metrics
                                                                                                     Server                           Database
                              Server

                       Pumps                                                                                Collectors
                           Distribution                                                            Receiver
                             Service                                                                Service

  Extract             Trail
                      Files                                                                                           Trail           Replicat
                                                                                                                      Files
                                Service
                                Manager                                                       Service
                Source                                                                        Manager                     Target

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Microservices Architecture: Benefits
• Cloud-ready Administration
 – Industry-standard communications protocol: HTTPS (Hypertext Transport Protocol
   Secure)
 – HTTPS: widely supported and permitted by firewalls
 – Industry-standard JSON (JavaScript Object Notation) wire-level data representation
• Ease of maintenance
 – Can remotely issue commands to OGG; no need to logon to host servers
 – Role based authentication
 – Easier patching across multiple deployments and better security model
 – Multi-threaded version of Pump and Collector replacing multiple processes

                                      Copyright © 2018, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. |   39
Oracle GoldenGate with RAC
MAA Best Practices

• GoldenGate Microservices Architecture Configuration
   • Oracle Grid Infrastructure Bundled Agent (XAG)
   • DBFS or ACFS for shared GoldenGate files (trails & checkpoint files)
   • Application VIP for target GoldenGate environments
   • Updated MAA white paper
     • https://www.oracle.com/technetwork/database/features/availability/maa-
       gg-microservices-on-rac-5073545.pdf

                                      Copyright © 2018, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. |   40
Oracle GoldenGate
MAA Performance Best Practices

• Configure database STREAMS_POOL_SIZE
 – (# of integrated GG processes * 1GB) + 25% head room
• Use the automatic heartbeat table to monitor end-to-end latency
• For integrated Extract/Replicat install and run Streams Performance
  Advisor (SPADV)
 – Shows process percentage split between idle, busy and waiting (flow control)
• Use GoldenGate Integrated Extract and Replicat Performance
  Diagnostic Collector (MOS note 2262988.1)
 – Gathers required data for diagnosing performance issues by a single script.

                                        Copyright © 2018, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. |   41
Oracle GoldenGate
MAA Performance Best Practices
                    TIP
• Configure database STREAMS_POOL_SIZE
                      • Make sure you benchmark GG
  – (# of integrated GG processes * 1GB) + 25% head room
                         performance before going live with
• Use the automatic heartbeat table to monitor end-to-end latency
                         REAL data volumes and workload type
• For integrated Extract/Replicat install and run Streams Performance
  Advisor (SPADV) • When implementing GG in an HA
  – Shows process percentage   split between
                         configuration,      idle, busy
                                          dedicate      andto
                                                     time   waiting
                                                              test (flow control)
• Use GoldenGate Integrated        Extract
                         ALL failure       and Replicat Performance
                                       scenarios
  Diagnostic Collector (MOS note 2262988.1)
  – Gathers required data for diagnosing performance issues by a single script.

                                         Copyright © 2018, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. |   42
MAA Best Practices
Sharding

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Oracle Database Sharding – Benefits

      Linear Scalability                  Fault Tolerant                                                      Geographic Distribution

                        …                                                 …

    Add shards online to scale       No shared hardware or software                                             User defined data placement for
transactions and concurrent users.   to isolate faults. Shards may run                                         performance, availability, DR or to
        Online rebalance.                different Oracle releases.                                             meet regulatory requirements.

                                               Copyright © 2018, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. |                            44
Deployment of a System-Managed SDB with Data Guard
                                                                                                                              Shardgroup
                                    Shard Director             Shard Catalog                                                    shgrp1
Region
                                       shdir1,2                  shardcat
Availabilty_Domain1
                                                                                                                                               Primaries
     Clients           Connection                                                                                                              …
                         Pools

                                                                                                                                               HA Standbys
                       Connection
                         Pools                                                                                                                 …
Region
Availability_Domain2
                                    Shard Director             Shard Catalog                                                  Shardgroup
                                      shdir3,4                 shardcat_stdby                                                   shgrp2

                                                                                                                            Data Guard
                                                                                                                         Fast-Start Failover

                                                     Copyright © 2018, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. |                           45
Oracle Sharding – MAA Outage Testing

                                                                 • Outage of Shard Catalog has no
                                                                   effect on application
                                                                   performance
                                                                 • Shard Keys are cached within the
                                                                   shard directors
                                                                 • MAA Best Practice is to protect
                                                                   catalog with Data Guard
                                                                   Maximum Availability

                         Copyright © 2018, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. |      46
Oracle Sharding – MAA Outage Testing

                                                                 • Outage of shard directors does
                                                                   not affect a running connection
                                                                   pool
                                                                 • Connection pool caches range of
                                                                   shard keys / shards
                                                                 • MAA best practice to have 3
                                                                   shard directors per region

                         Copyright © 2018, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. |      47
Oracle Sharding – MAA Outage Testing
                                                                                                                Failover Performance
                           4500
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   • Failover of an individual shard
                           4000                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      does not affect application
                           3500                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      performance for remaining
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     shards
 Transactions Per Second

                           3000

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   • Fast failover for both read / write
                           2500

                           2000                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Read/Write
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Read Only                    and read only connections
                           1500

                           1000                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Generic MAA best practices apply
                           500                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       for sharded environments
                              0
                                  18:12:50
                                             18:12:53
                                                        18:12:56
                                                                   18:12:59
                                                                              18:13:02
                                                                                         18:13:05
                                                                                                    18:13:08
                                                                                                               18:13:11
                                                                                                                          18:13:14
                                                                                                                                     18:13:17
                                                                                                                                                18:13:20
                                                                                                                                                           18:13:23
                                                                                                                                                                      18:13:26
                                                                                                                                                                                 18:13:29
                                                                                                                                                                                            18:13:32
                                                                                                                                                                                                       18:13:35
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  18:13:38
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             18:13:41
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        18:13:44
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   18:13:47
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              18:13:50
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         18:13:53

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Copyright © 2018, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. |      48
Oracle Sharding – MAA Outage Testing
                                                                                                                Failover Performance
                           4500
                                                                                                                                                               • Failover of an individual shard
                           4000
                                                                                                                                     TIP                         does not affect application
                           3500                                                                                                                                  performance for remaining
                                                                                                                                     • Shard catalog database must
                                                                                                                                                                 shards
 Transactions Per Second

                           3000
                                                                                                                                                                    be
                                                                                                                                                                                       • Fast
                           2500

                           2000
                                                                                                                                                             protected against data loss using    DG for both read / write
                                                                                                                                                                                              failover                                                                                  Read/Write
                                                                                                                                                                                         and read only connections
                                                                                                                                                             with SYNC transport (Max Availability)                                                                                     Read Only
                           1500

                           1000                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Generic MAA best practices apply
                           500                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       for sharded environments
                              0
                                  18:12:50
                                             18:12:53
                                                        18:12:56
                                                                   18:12:59
                                                                              18:13:02
                                                                                         18:13:05
                                                                                                    18:13:08
                                                                                                               18:13:11
                                                                                                                          18:13:14
                                                                                                                                     18:13:17
                                                                                                                                                18:13:20
                                                                                                                                                           18:13:23
                                                                                                                                                                      18:13:26
                                                                                                                                                                                 18:13:29
                                                                                                                                                                                            18:13:32
                                                                                                                                                                                                       18:13:35
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  18:13:38
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             18:13:41
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        18:13:44
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   18:13:47
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              18:13:50
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         18:13:53

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Copyright © 2018, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. |   49
User-defined Sharding
 Explicit mapping of data to shards for better control, compliance & performance
• Partition data across shards by RANGE or LIST
                                                                                                                Sharded Database
  – Ranges or lists of sharding key values are assigned to                                     User-defined shards on hybrid cloud
    shards by the user
• User-controlled data distribution provides:
  + Regulatory compliance
     • Data remains in country of origin
  + Hybrid cloud and cloud bursting
     • Some shards on premises; other shards in the cloud
  + Control of data availability for planned maintenance
  + Ability to customize hardware resources and HA
    configuration for subsets of data
  + More efficient range queries
  - User needs to maintain balanced data distribution

                                                            Copyright © 2018, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. |   50
PDB Sharding
Multitenant Support

• In 12c, a shard must be a non-CDB
• In 18c, a shard can also be a PDB
  – Only a single PDB-shard per CDB
  – CDB can contain other non-shard PDBs.
  – Support for multiple PDB-shards within a CDB is
    planned for future release
• PDB sharding provides all manageability                                                                                …
  benefits of Multitenant
  – database consolidation, manage many as one,
    database upgrades, relocation, etc.

                                                Copyright © 2018, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. |       51
RAC Sharding
High performance for shard-aware RAC applications
• Affinitizes table partitions to RAC instances                                                                                             Instance 3
                                                                                      Instance 1                               Instance 2
  – Affinity gives better cache utilization and reduced block
    pings across instances                                                                                P1                           P2           P3
• Takes advantage of data-dependent routing for sharding
  – Requests that specify sharding key are routed to the
    instance that logically holds the corresponding partition
  – Requests that don’t specify sharding key still work
    transparently
• Gives RAC the performance and scalability of a Sharded
  Database with minimal application changes
  – Just add sharding key to the most performance critical
    operations; no changes to the database schema
  – alter system enable affinity ;
                                                                                                                          RAC Database

                                                      Copyright © 2018, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. |                             52
MAA Best Practices
Oracle Cloud

                     Copyright © 2018, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. |   53
MAA Evolution from On-Premises to Autonomous
Customer                                                                                                                             •   Choosing the SLA policy
                                                                  •      Architecture
Oracle                                                                                                                               •   Application performance
                                                                  •      Database Management (Tooling)
                             •   Infrastructure                   •      Configuration, Tuning
                                 Management                       •      Lifecycle Operations (Tooling)
                             •   Architecture                     •      Application Performance
                             •   Database Management                                                                                      Autonomous
                                                                                                                                          Database
                             •   Configuration, Tuning                                                       Exadata
                             •   Lifecycle operations                                                        Cloud
   •   Infrastructure        •   Application Performance
       Management                                    On-Premises
   •   Architecture                                                                                 •      Oracle owns and           •   Oracle owns and
                                                     Exadata                                               manages the best
   •   Configuration, Tuning                                                                                                             manages Infrastructure
   •   Database Management                            •    Blueprints                                      integrated MAA            •   Policy driven
   •   Lifecycle Operations                           •    Exadata is the best                             DB platform                   deployments
   •   Application Performance                             integrated MAA DB                        •      Cloud automation          •   MAA Integrated cloud
                                 On-Premises               platform                                        for provisioning          •   Fully automated Self-
                                                                                                           and life cycle                Driving, Self-Securing,
                                 •   Blueprints                                                            operations                    Self-Repairing Database
                                 •   Feedback to
                                     products & features

                                                            Copyright © 2018, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. |                          54
MAA Automation in the Cloud
Database Deployment Made Easy
• MAA made easy
• Simple UI / CLI / REST interfaces
• Databases are provisioned with optimal parameter configurations

                                                                                                                                          Region #1
                                                                                                     AD #1
                                 SILVER (HA)

                                                                                       SILVER (HA)

                                                                                                                              GOLD (DR)
 BRONZE

                                                                                                               Primary                                Primary
                     DB Backup
           Single     Service
          Instance                             RAC

                                                                                                                                          Region #2
                                                                                                     AD #2
                                                                                                              Standby                                 Standby

                                                     Copyright © 2018, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. |                                     55
Zero Data Loss with Minimal Performance Impact
ExaCS Primary / Standby in different regions
                                  SYNC Performance Impact
                           2500
                                                                                                                                 ASYNC       FAST SYNC   SYNC
                           2000                                        Redo Rate (MB/sec)                                            14.93     14.48     14.39
 Transactions Per Second

                           1500
                                                                       Block Changes/sec
                                                            async                                                                    96.92     94.3      93.86
                                                            fastsync   (KB/sec)
                           1000                             sync

                                                                       Txn Rate                                                      2082      2025      2018
                            500

                                                                       % Difference from
                                                                                                                                     N/A       97%       97%
                              0                                        ASYNC
                                    1
                                   14
                                   27
                                   40
                                   53
                                   66
                                   79
                                   92
                                  105
                                  118
                                  131
                                  144
                                  157
                                  170
                                  183
                                  196
                                  209
                                  222
                                  235
                                  248
                                  261
                                  274
                                  287
                                  300

                                                            Copyright © 2018, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. |                          56
Database Failover with Minimal Downtime
ExaCS Primary / Standby in different regions

                                                                                                                    Failover Performance
                               4500
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             • Swingbench OLTP application
                               4000
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               performing mixture of inserts,
                               3500
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               updates, and deletes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             • Application redo rate of

                                                                                                                                                                                            Database Failover - 8 Seconds
     Transactions Per Second

                                                                                                                                         FSFO Threshold - 6 Seconds
                               3000

                               2500                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            15MB/sec
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             • Fast Start failover in Maximum
                               2000                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Read/Write
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Read Only
                               1500
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Availability mode, FSFO threshold
                               1000
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               configured for 6 seconds
                                500

                                  0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             • Database failover time of 8
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               seconds
                                      18:12:50
                                                 18:12:53
                                                            18:12:56
                                                                       18:12:59
                                                                                  18:13:02
                                                                                             18:13:05
                                                                                                        18:13:08
                                                                                                                   18:13:11
                                                                                                                              18:13:14
                                                                                                                                            18:13:17
                                                                                                                                                                      18:13:20
                                                                                                                                                                                 18:13:23
                                                                                                                                                                                                  18:13:26
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            18:13:29
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       18:13:32
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  18:13:35
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             18:13:38
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        18:13:41
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   18:13:44
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              18:13:47
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         18:13:50
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    18:13:53

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Copyright © 2018, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. |     57
Database Failover
• All Practices of Silver
                    TIP Plus
• Decision:          • Setup Data Guard Fast-start Failover
  – Data Guard FSFO across ADs ADs
                        across    versus Data you
                                       when   Guardrequire
                                                     FSFO across Regions (Site Failover)
                                                            existing
• Key Customer Actions  Application Tiers to failover
                        transparently
  – Follow Application Checklist for Continuous Service for Data Guard Fast-Start Failover
  – Data Guard Fast-Start setup and tuning failover times is manual (refer to updated
    Oracle Cloud MAA• paper)
                        Note: DNS + Complete Site Failover is
                        required
  – Database Rolling Upgrade       when
                              with Data   failing
                                        Guard       over
                                                is also   to a Refer to generic MAA doc
                                                        manual.
                     different region
• Operational Practices
  – Test complete application + Data Guard role transitions

                                         Copyright © 2018, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. |   58
Planned Maintenance with Minimal Downtime
ExaCS Primary / Standby in different regions

                                                                                                                                            Switchover Performance
                             4500                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Swingbench OLTP application
                             4000                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    performing mixture of inserts,
                             3500                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    updates, and deletes
   Transactions Per Second

                             3000
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   • Application redo rate of
                             2500

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Read Write
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     15MB/sec
                             2000

                             1500
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Read Only
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   • Application outage of 12 seconds
                             1000                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    during the switchover process
                              500

                                0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   • Total switchover time of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     approximately 40 seconds
                                    18:45:50
                                               18:45:53
                                                          18:45:56
                                                                     18:45:59
                                                                                18:46:02
                                                                                           18:46:05
                                                                                                      18:46:08
                                                                                                                 18:46:11
                                                                                                                            18:46:14
                                                                                                                                       18:46:17
                                                                                                                                                  18:46:20
                                                                                                                                                             18:46:23
                                                                                                                                                                        18:46:26
                                                                                                                                                                                   18:46:29
                                                                                                                                                                                              18:46:32
                                                                                                                                                                                                         18:46:35
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    18:46:38
                                                                                                                                                                                                                               18:46:41
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          18:46:44
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     18:46:47
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                18:46:50
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            18:46:53

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Copyright © 2018, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. |     59
MAA Evolution from On-Premises to Autonomous
Customer                                                                                                                             •   Choosing the SLA policy
                                                                  •      Architecture
Oracle                                                                                                                               •   Application performance
                                                                  •      Database Management (Tooling)
                             •   Infrastructure                   •      Configuration, Tuning
                                 Management                       •      Lifecycle Operations (Tooling)
                             •   Architecture                     •      Application Performance
                             •   Database Management                                                                                      Autonomous
                                                                                                                                          Database
                             •   Configuration, Tuning                                                       Exadata
                             •   Lifecycle operations                                                        Cloud
   •   Infrastructure        •   Application Performance
       Management                                    On-Premises
   •   Architecture                                                                                 •      Oracle owns and           •   Oracle owns and
                                                     Exadata                                               manages the best
   •   Configuration, Tuning                                                                                                             manages Infrastructure
   •   Database Management                            •    Blueprints                                      integrated MAA            •   Policy driven
   •   Lifecycle Operations                           •    Exadata is the best                             DB platform                   deployments
   •   Application Performance                             integrated MAA DB                        •      Cloud automation          •   MAA Integrated cloud
                                 On-Premises               platform                                        for provisioning          •   Fully automated Self-
                                                                                                           and life cycle                Driving, Self-Securing,
                                 •   Blueprints                                                            operations                    Self-Repairing Database
                                 •   Feedback to
                                     products & features

                                                            Copyright © 2018, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. |                          60
Additional Resources

www.oracle.com/goto/maa                    www.oracle.com/goto/ha

                          Copyright © 2018, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. |   61
Q&A

      Copyright © 2018, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. |
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