Prince Edward Island Dalvay-by-the-Sea

Prince Edward Island Dalvay-by-the-Sea
Prince Edward Island
        n a t i o n a l pa r k o f c a n a d a

                        and


 Dalvay-by-the-Sea
  nat i o na l h i s t o r i c s i t e o f c a na da


            Management Plan
Prince Edward Island Dalvay-by-the-Sea
Prince Edward Island Dalvay-by-the-Sea
f e b r ua r y 2 0 0 7




Prince Edward Island
     national park of canada

                  and



 Dalvay-by-the-Sea
 nat i o nal historic site of canada



        Management Plan
ii




     © Her Majesty the Queen in right of                       Library and Archives Canada
     Canada, represented by the Chief                          Cataloguing in Publication
     Executive Officer of Parks Canada,
     2007.                                                     Parks Canada
                                                               Prince Edward Island National Park of
     Cette publication est aussi disponible                    Canada and Dalvay-by-the-Sea
     en français.                                              National Historic Site of Canada:
                                                               Management Plan / Parks Canada
     For more information about the
     management plan or about Prince                           Issued also in French under the title:
     Edward Island National Park                               Parc national du Canada de l’Île-du-
     of Canada and/or Dalvay-by-the-Sea                        Prince-Édouard et lieu historique
     National Historic Site of Canada:                         national du Canada Dalvay-by-the-Sea :
                                                               Plan directeur / Parcs Canada
     Prince Edward Island
     National Park of Canada                                   Includes bibliographical references.
     Dalvay-by-the-Sea
     National Historic Site of Canada                          isbn   0-662-44315-2
     2 Palmers Lane                                            cat. no.  R64-105/49-2006E
     Charlottetown, PE C1A 5V6
     Canada                                                    1. Historic sites – Canada
                                                               – Management.
     tel:  902-566-7050                                        2. Historic sites – Prince Edward
     fax:  902-566-7063                                        Island – Management.
     e-mail: pnipe.peinp@pc.gc.ca                              3. National parks and reserves
     www.pc.gc.ca                                              – Canada – Management.
                                                               4. National parks and reserves – Prince
                                                               Edward Island – Management.
                                                               I. Parks Canada. Atlantic Service
                                                               Centre.

                                                               FC2614.P74PP36 2006
                                                               971.6’21
                                                               C2006-980237-8




     Front Cover Image Credits
     Background Image: Barrett   and MacKay Insets Top (left to right): Parks Canada; J. Butterill; Jacques Pleau
     Insets Bottom (left to right): John
                                       Sylvester; John Sylvester; Todd Keith
Prince Edward Island National Park of Canada    iii
                                  Dalvay-by-the-Sea National Historic Site of Canada
                                                                  Management Plan




Foreword




Canada’s national historic sites, national parks and national marine
conservation areas offer Canadians from coast-to-coast-to-coast
unique opportunities to experience and understand our wonder-
ful country. They are places of learning, recreation and fun where
Canadians can connect with our past and appreciate the natural,
cultural and social forces that shaped Canada.
    From our smallest national park to our most visited national
historic site to our largest national marine conservation area, each of
these places offers Canadians and visitors unique opportunities to
experience Canada. These places of beauty, wonder and learning are
valued by Canadians – they are part of our past, our present and
our future.
    Our Government’s goal is to ensure that each of these special
places is conserved.
    We see a future in which these special places will further
Canadians’ appreciation, understanding and enjoyment of Canada,
the economic well-being of communities, and the vitality of our
society.
    Our Government’s vision is to build a culture of heritage conser-
vation in Canada by offering Canadians exceptional opportunities to
experience our natural and cultural heritage.
    These values form the foundation of the new management plan
for Prince Edward Island National Park of Canada and Dalvay-by-
the-Sea National Historic Site of Canada. I offer my appreciation to
the many thoughtful Canadians who helped to develop this plan,
particularly to our dedicated team from Parks Canada, and to all
those local organizations and individuals who have demonstrated
their good will, hard work, spirit of co-operation and extraordinary
sense of stewardship.
    In this same spirit of partnership and responsibility, I am pleased
to approve the Prince Edward Island National Park of Canada and
Dalvay-by-the-Sea National Historic Site of Canada Management Plan.




John Baird
Minister of the Environment
iv
Prince Edward Island National Park of Canada    
                                  Dalvay-by-the-Sea National Historic Site of Canada
                                                                  Management Plan




Recommendations




Recommended by:




Alan Latourelle
Chief Executive Officer
Parks Canada




David Lipton
Field Unit Superintendent
Prince Edward Island Field Unit
Parks Canada
vi
Prince Edward Island National Park of Canada    vii
                                                                            Dalvay-by-the-Sea National Historic Site of Canada
                                                                                                            Management Plan




Executive Summary




This new management plan for Prince                             Cultural Resource Management
Edward Island National Park of Canada and                       Cultural resources found within the park
Dalvay-by-the-Sea National Historic Site of                     include historical buildings such as Green
Canada provides strategic direction for the                     Gables and the Simpson House, archaeologi-
protection of ecological and commemora-                         cal sites, and cultural landscapes found at
tive integrity, the provision of meaningful                     Greenwich and Stanhope. Key actions in this
visitor experiences, and the delivery of public                 plan include:
education and awareness programs. The plan
includes a 15 year vision for the park and site.                •	Examine feasibility of establishing more
It also incorporates performance measures to                       flexible off-season hours at Green Gables;
allow Parks Canada to gauge progress over                       •	Develop, with partners, a commemora-
time. The plan was developed with the input                        tive integrity statement and management
of First Nations, stakeholders, visitors and the                   plan for the new L. M. Montgomery’s
general public. This plan will be the primary                      Cavendish National Historic Site; and
accountability document for the park and site                   •	Conduct research with others to increase
over the next five years.                                          knowledge of cultural resources.

Some of the key actions that will be taken during the life of   Dalvay-by-the-Sea National Historic Site
this management plan include:                                   A separate management plan for this site is
                                                                included as Chapter 8 in this document. The
Ecological Integrity                                            plan is based on the commemorative integrity
Parks Canada is responsible for maintain-                       statement for the site and includes the follow-
ing and restoring the ecological integrity                      ing key actions:
of Prince Edward Island National Park.
Key actions that will contribute to this goal                   •	Prepare a conservation maintenance plan
include:                                                           for the site;
                                                                •	Develop landscape standards for the
•	Complete the development of a compre-                           grounds;
   hensive ecological monitoring program;                       •	Conduct regular inspections to ensure
•	Complete a vegetation inventory and                             the commemorative integrity of the site is
   vegetation management plan;                                     being maintained;
•	Complete a restoration plan for disturbed                    •	Evaluate the impact on the building’s her-
   sites and implement priority restoration                        itage character of any proposed adjacent
   projects;                                                       developments;
•	Conduct an ecological evaluation of                          •	Enhance the existing interpretive materi-
   federal Crown lands and incorporate                             als for the site; and
   strategic parcels into the national park;                    •	Conduct additional visitor surveys to
•	Complete an aquatic restoration plan;                           gauge the effectiveness of interpretation.
   and,
•	Declare a wilderness area under Section
   14 of the Canada National Parks Act (2000).
viii




       Public Education                                  Working With the Mi’kmaq
       Promoting public awareness and understand-        Parks Canada worked closely with the
       ing of the natural and cultural heritage of the   Mi’kmaq Confederacy of Prince Edward
       park is a critical part of Parks Canada’s man-    Island during the preparation of this manage-
       date. The park provides a range of interpreta-    ment plan. Parks Canada wishes to main-
       tion programs that contribute to meaningful       tain a strong working relationship with the
       visitor experiences, and outreach learning        Island’s Mi’kmaq and plans to implement the
       opportunities that deliver key messages           following actions:
       beyond park boundaries. Key actions include:
                                                         •	Enhance presentation of Aboriginal herit-
       •	Increase the number of visitors participat-       age in the park and surrounding area;
          ing in personalized interpretive programs;     •	Pursue research of mutual interest;
       •	Enhance the interpretation of Aboriginal       •	Develop skills training and information to
          heritage in the park;                             prepare Mi’kmaq people for careers with
       •	Develop opportunities to deliver resource         Parks Canada;
          protection messages at high-use recrea-        •	Improve communication regarding
          tional areas in the park;                         employment competitions;
       •	Review the interpretation programs at          •	Explore opportunities to establish a
          Green Gables to ensure they reflect the           Mi’kmaq/Aboriginal cultural centre;
          national significance of the new L.M.          •	Develop an agreement on the use of the
          Montgomery’s Cavendish National                   park for traditional spiritual and
          Historic Site; and,                               ceremonial purposes.
       •	Develop strategies to deliver key mes-
          sages more effectively to residents of         Collaboration and Public Engagement
          Prince Edward Island.                          Collaboration and community involvement
                                                         are critical to achieving the shared vision out-
       Visitor Experience                                lined in the plan. Some key actions to support
       Parks Canada strives to facilitate meaningful     this involvement include:
       visitor experiences that connect Canadians
       and other park visitors to the natural and        •	Review and update the established
       cultural heritage of the park. Key actions that      Advisory Board process to ensure it is
       will contribute to this goal include:                effective;
                                                         •	Enhance communication opportunities
       •	Prepare a park trail plan to maximize trail       with park user groups and other stake-
          opportunities, including a multi-use trail        holders;
          along the Gulf Shore Parkway corridor,         •	Prepare annual management plan imple-
          and a new trail and boardwalk to provide          mentation reports with the involvement
          continued access to Cavendish Sandspit            of the public;
          beach;                                         •	Continue to participate in the PEI Model
       •	Collaborate with others to develop public         Forest; and,
          transit options where feasible;                •	Establish a Greater Ecosystem Working
       •	Continue the upgrade of Cavendish                 Group.
          Campground;
       •	Engage stakeholders in a discussion of the
          future of Robinsons Island Campground;
       •	Upgrade the Green Gables Golf Course.
Prince Edward Island National Park of Canada    ix
                                                        Dalvay-by-the-Sea National Historic Site of Canada
                                                                                        Management Plan




Administration and Operations                  An environmental assessment of this man-
Parks Canada will continue to operate Prince   agement plan was conducted to ensure that
Edward Island National Park in an environ-     no significant environmental impacts will
mentally and fiscally sustainable manner in    result from its implementation. Strategic and
support of the Parks Canada mandate. Key       project-specific environmental assessments
actions include:                               will be required for a number of proposed
                                               plans and projects identified in this manage-
•	Correct deficiencies in the water           ment plan. Implementation of the manage-
   distribution system;                        ment plan should result in an improvement
•	Prepare a potable water management          in the ecological integrity of Prince Edward
   plan;                                       Island National Park.
•	Prepare a mowing plan that reduces,
   where feasible, the area mowed along
   park roadways and around facilities;
•	Incorporate environmental technologies
   into new or upgraded facilities to maxi-
   mize energy efficiency and water
   conservation.

Prince Edward Island National Park of Canada                       xi
                                                                   Dalvay-by-the-Sea National Historic Site of Canada
                                                                                                   Management Plan




Table of Contents




Foreword ........................................................................................................................... iii
Recommendations................................................................................................................ v
Executive Summary.............................................................................................................vii

1.0        Introduction
1.1        Purpose of the Management Plan.............................................................................1

2.0	Role of Prince Edward Island National Park in the Canadian
	National Park System.............................................................................................3

3.0	Planning Context
3.1  Park Setting and Regional Land Use..........................................................................5
3.2  Visitation Trends.......................................................................................................7
3.3  Public Involvement During the Management Plan Review.........................................8

4.0        Vision
4.1        Vision for Prince Edward Island National Park in 2020...............................................9

5.0	Maintaining and Restoring Ecological Integrity
5.1 Overview of Park Ecological Integrity......................................................................11
5.2 Ecosystem Research, Monitoring and Performance Indicators.................................13
5.3 Forest Ecosystems..................................................................................................15
5.4 Wetlands and Aquatic Ecosystems..........................................................................17
5.5 Coastal Ecosystems................................................................................................18
5.6 Public Safety and Law Enforcement........................................................................21

6.0 	Park Zoning and Wilderness Area Declaration
6.1  Zone I - Special Preservation Area..........................................................................23
6.2  Zone II - Wilderness Area........................................................................................23
6.3  Zone III - Natural Environment Area.........................................................................27
6.4  Zone IV - Outdoor Recreation..................................................................................27
6.5  Environmentally Sensitive Site Designations...........................................................27
6.6  Declared Wilderness Areas......................................................................................27

7.0	Managing Cultural Resources
7.1 Level 1 Cultural Resources.....................................................................................31
7.2 Level 2 Cultural Resource Inventory........................................................................32
7.3 Cultural Resource Management Direction...............................................................32

8.0	Dalvay-by-the-Sea National Historic Site Of Canada Management Plan
8.1 Introduction............................................................................................................35
8.2 Role of Dalvay-by-the-Sea National Historic Site in the National System.................36
8.3 Commemorative Integrity........................................................................................36
8.4 Current Situation Analysis.......................................................................................37
xii




      8.5       Vision Statement for Dalvay-by-the-Sea National Historic Site................................40
      8.6       Managing for Commemorative Integrity..................................................................40
      8.7       Plan Implementation...............................................................................................42

      9.0	Public Education
      9.1  Heritage Presentation.............................................................................................43
      9.2  Outreach Education and External Communications.................................................44
      9.3  Performance Indicators for Public Education...........................................................45

      10.0      Visitor Experience
      10.1      Experience Relevance.............................................................................................47
      10.2      The Park Trail System.............................................................................................48
      10.3      The Gulf Shore Parkway, Vehicle Circulation and Public Transit................................52
      10.4      Beaches.................................................................................................................53
      10.5      Camping.................................................................................................................54
      10.6      Winter Recreational Activities..................................................................................55
      10.7      Recreational Activities Assessment.........................................................................55
      10.8      Green Gables Golf Course.......................................................................................56
      10.9      Visitor Experience Performance Indicators..............................................................56

      11.0      Working with the Mi’kmaq of Prince Edward Island
      11.1      Background............................................................................................................57
      11.2      Management Plan Consultations and Collaborative Projects....................................57

      12.0      Collaboration and Public Engagement
      12.1      Community Involvement.........................................................................................59
      12.2      Collaboration with Adjacent Land Owners and Managers........................................59

      13.0	Administration and Operations
      13.1 Park Administration Offices.....................................................................................61
      13.2 Maintenance Compounds.......................................................................................61
      13.3 Water Quality..........................................................................................................61
      13.4 Environmental Stewardship....................................................................................61

      14.0 	Environmental Assessment Summary.................................................................63

      15.0      Implementation Strategy......................................................................................65

      16.0 	References............................................................................................................69

      Appendix
      Heritage Presentation Visitor Goals.................................................................................... 71

      Reference Maps
      MAP 1 Regional Setting...................................................................................................... 6
      MAP 2A Park Zoning – Western Sector.................................................................................24
      MAP 2B Park Zoning – Central Sector..................................................................................25
      MAP 2C Park Zoning – Eastern Sector..................................................................................26
      MAP 3 Wilderness Areas....................................................................................................29
      MAP 4 Dalvay-by-the-Sea Site Plan...................................................................................38
      MAP 5A Park Facilities – Western Sector..............................................................................49
      MAP 5B Park Facilities – Central Sector...............................................................................50
      MAP 5C Park Facilities – Eastern Sector..............................................................................51
Prince Edward Island National Park of Canada    
                                                          Dalvay-by-the-Sea National Historic Site of Canada
                                                                                          Management Plan




1.0 Introduction




1.1 Purpose of the Management Plan
                                                was initiated to ensure that the management
On behalf of the people of Canada, Parks
                                                plan continues to provide sound direction
Canada protects nationally significant
                                                for the protection of park resources and the
examples of Canada’s natural and cultural
                                                provision of meaningful visitor experiences
heritage and fosters public understanding,
                                                and effective learning programs.
appreciation and enjoyment in ways that
                                                    This plan review also addressed the need
ensure the ecological and commemorative
                                                for a management plan for Dalvay-by-the-
integrity of these places for present and
                                                Sea National Historic Site, which is contained
future generations.
                                                within the boundaries of the national park.
    The Canada National Parks Act (2000) and
                                                For ease of reference, the management plan
the Parks Canada Agency Act (1998) require
                                                for this historic site is included in its entirety
each national park and national historic site
                                                as Chapter 8.
administered by Parks Canada to develop
                                                    The revised management plan provides
management plans. These plans reflect
                                                Parks Canada staff with a framework for
the legislation and policies of the Agency,
                                                decision-making. It will guide the develop-
and are developed with public consulta-
                                                ment of the Prince Edward Island Field Unit
tion. Management plans are approved by
                                                Business Plan, and the park work planning
the Minister, and are tabled in Parliament.
                                                processes. The plan includes a vision of the
Management plans are reviewed every five
                                                park and site, and clear management objec-
years, to ensure that they remain relevant
                                                tives and actions for resource conservation,
and responsive.
                                                visitor experience, public awareness and
    The last management plan for Prince
                                                understanding, and cultural resource man-
Edward Island National Park was tabled
                                                agement.
in Parliament in 1998. Many of the priori-
                                                    All of the commitments outlined in this
ties in that plan have been addressed, and
                                                plan are achievable within the existing finan-
many changes have occurred that affect the
                                                cial capacity of the field unit. This plan will
management and operation of the park. In
                                                remain valid until the completion of the next
the fall of 2001, a management plan review
                                                management plan review.

Prince Edward Island National Park of Canada    
                                                            Dalvay-by-the-Sea National Historic Site of Canada
                                                                                            Management Plan




2.0 	Role of Prince Edward Island National Park in the
      Canadian National Park System




Cavendish Beach. Todd Keith


The National Parks System Plan is based           uplands and slopes, to black spruce bogs on
on a landscape framework that includes 39         low, poorly drained flats, and white spruce
distinct natural regions as defined by their      stands in exposed coastal locations. Prince
unique combination of physical and biologi-       Edward Island National Park provides excel-
cal characteristics. One of the goals of Parks    lent representation of the geology and coastal
Canada is to establish at least one national      features of this natural region, and also pro-
park in each of these 39 natural regions.         tects a variety of upland forested vegetation
    Prince Edward Island National Park            communities.
represents the Maritime Plain Natural Region           The Canada National Parks Act states that
within the National Parks System. This region     the maintenance and restoration of ecologi-
is characterised by an undulating, landscape      cal integrity is the first priority of national
of low elevation, underlain by relatively soft    park management. At Prince Edward Island
sandstone, conglomerate, and shale. Sandy         National Park this means protecting the
beaches, sandspits, barrier islands, and shift-   biological and physical features, biodiversity,
ing sand dunes are common along the coastal       and ecological processes that are character-
margins. River estuaries are often bordered       istic of the Maritime Plain Natural Region
by salt marshes. Native forest types found        on the north shore of the island. Landscapes
in this region are part of the Acadian Forest     protected in the park include coastal beaches
biome, and range from hardwood forests of         and dunes, sandstone headlands, salt-
sugar maple, yellow birch, and beech on rich      marshes, freshwater and brackish ponds,





                                                     the federal Species at Risk Act (2003). Prince
                                                     Edward Island National Park provides a key
                                                     protected area for these species. The park also
                                                     plays an important role as a benchmark for
                                                     scientific research and monitoring of natural
                                                     ecosystems and processes such as coastal
                                                     dynamics.
                                                         Protecting and presenting Canada’s cul-
                                                     tural heritage are also important priorities for
                                                     Prince Edward Island National Park. In addi-
                                                     tion to Dalvay-by-the-Sea National Historic
                                                     Site, the park protects a variety of cultural
                                                     resources reflecting a long history of human
                                                     use by First Nations, and by Acadian, French
                                                     and British settlers.
                                                         The public is encouraged to appreciate,
    MacNeills Pond. Todd Keith                       understand, and enjoy the natural and cul-
                                                     tural heritage of the park, in ways that leave
    small streams, and upland till habitats that     it unimpaired for this and future generations.
    support a range of vegetation types, includ-     Park visitors have opportunities to experience
    ing old agricultural fields in various stages    dynamic coastal landscapes, terrestrial and
    of ecological succession. The ecosystems         aquatic ecosystems, and cultural resources
    of the park support a variety of plant and       through a variety of recreational opportuni-
    animal species, including six species at risk.   ties, and guided and self-guided learning
    These include the piping plover and the          opportunities.
    Gulf of St. Lawrence aster, both listed under
Prince Edward Island National Park of Canada    
                                                           Dalvay-by-the-Sea National Historic Site of Canada
                                                                                           Management Plan




3.0 Planning Context




Blooming Point. Barrett and MacKay


3.1 Park Setting and Regional Land Use           pies a transition zone between land and sea.
Prince Edward Island National Park was           Throughout its length the park protects some
established in 1937. The original park area      of the most outstanding coastal landscapes
extended for approximately 40 kilometres         along the north shore of Prince Edward
along the north shore of Prince Edward Island    Island, including long barrier beaches, bara-
from the Cavendish Sandspit in New London        chois ponds, coastal headlands, and rare par-
Bay to Blooming Point in Tracadie Bay. In        abolic dunes. Five large coastal bays and their
1998, the national park was expanded with        surrounding upland watersheds border the
the addition of a portion of the Greenwich       park on the south. The dominant land uses
Peninsula on St. Peters Bay (map 1).             in the surrounding region are agriculture,
   The park is one of the smallest in Canada,    tourism and forestry. Commercial fishing is
encompassing an area of approximately            still an important activity for many coastal
24.7 km2. Parks Canada also manages an           communities, and aquaculture is a significant
additional 12.5 km2 of federal Crown land        industry in the large coastal bays.
adjacent to the park that has been acquired          The park is bordered by a number of small
since 1974. The most recent acquisition was      communities. Cavendish, in the western
a 16 hectare property near Cavendish that        sector, is a traditional farming community
was purchased in 2005. Some of these Crown       that has also become the main tourist centre
lands will eventually be incorporated into the   for the central north shore. North Rustico is
national park.                                   a fishing and farming community with an
   Prince Edward Island National Park is         increasing emphasis on tourism. Brackley
adjacent to the Gulf of St. Lawrence and occu-   Beach, Stanhope, and Dalvay are small tour-




                                                                                                                                           MAP 1

     North                                                                                                                                                                                   National Historic Sites Of Canada
                                                                                                                                           PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND NATIONAL PARK
                                                                                                                                           AND NATIONAL HISTORIC SITE OF CANADA              Administered By Parks Canada - PEI

                                                                                                                                           Regional Setting                                   1   Dalvay-by-the-Sea
                                                                                                                                                                                              2   Ardgowan
                                                                                                                                                                                              3   Province House
                                                                                                                                           0    5     10    15 km
                                   Tignish                                                                                                                                                    4   Port-la-Joye-Fort Amherst




                                                                                                         Gulf           of     St. Lawrence

                                             7
             Egmont
              Bay




                                                                                                                          PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND
                                                                                                                         NATIONAL PARK OF CANADA
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 ds
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 an
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                                                                                                                                            1
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                                                                                              PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              to




                                                                                                                                      2
                                                                                Borden                                           3
                                                                                                                                          CHARLOTTETOWN
                                                                          ion
                                                                        at
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                                                                nf idg                                        1                   4
                                                              Co Br                                                                                                      Montague
                                                                                                                                                                                          Cardigan
                                                                                                                                                                                            Bay
                                                                                                                                                               1
      NEW
                                                 16
   BRUNSWICK
                      Port Elgin                                                         No
                                       Baie Verte                                             rth
                                                                                                    um
                                                                                                                                                                          Wood Islands
                                                                                                         b e rla
                                                                                                                   nd
     2                                                                                                                       Strait
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                                                                                                                                                                             va
                                                                                                                                                                               Y




                 Amherst               NOVA SCOTIA                                                                                                                                       Pictou
                                                                                                                                                                                         Island
                                                                                                                                                                           FERR Scotia
Prince Edward Island National Park of Canada    
                                                                Dalvay-by-the-Sea National Historic Site of Canada
                                                                                                Management Plan




ism communities adjacent to the beaches                 Europeans began to settle the island in
in the central part of the national park.            the early 1700s. First the French, Acadians,
Covehead is a small fishing community. At            and subsequently the British and other
the eastern end of the park, St. Peters is a fish-   Europeans rapidly occupied the island and
ing and farming community that has recently          began exploiting its resources. Throughout
begun to develop its tourism potential.              the 1800s and early 1900s, much of the land
   The beaches of Prince Edward Island               was cleared for agriculture. In the mid-1900s,
National Park have been valued as a recrea-          land abandonment led to an increase in forest
tional area for over 100 years. The creation         cover. White spruce and shade-intolerant
of the park in 1937 played a significant role        hardwoods quickly invaded old fields and
in developing the province’s recreation and          now dominate many new forest stands. The
tourism industry. Today, it remains the pre-         existing land cover is a mosaic of old agri-
mier tourist attraction on the Island.               cultural fields interspersed with remnant
   Dalvay-by-the-Sea National Historic Site          woodlands, hedgerows, streams, wetlands,
of Canada is contained within the borders of         dunes and coastal landscapes.
the national park. This site was constructed in
1896 as a seaside summer home, and is now
operated as an historic inn. Green Gables is         3.2 Visitation Trends
also a major heritage attraction within the          The beaches and other heritage resources
park, and is part of the recently designated         of the park attract large numbers of visitors
L.M. Montgomery’s Cavendish National                 during the summer months. Visitation in
Historic Site of Canada.                             2004-05 was estimated at more than 887,000,
   Archaeological evidence found at                  up 2% from the previous year. Green Gables
Greenwich indicates that Aboriginal people           recorded a total of 140,000 visits, down 6%
may have used the area as long ago as 10,000         from the previous year. In 2003, visitation to
years before the present. Shell middens found        the Greenwich Interpretation Centre, hiking
at Robinsons Island demonstrate that aborigi-        trails, and beach facility was estimated at
nal people were harvesting marine resources          46,000 person visits (May-October), a 1.5%
from Rustico Bay around 1500 years ago. The          increase over the previous year. In 2005, 82%
existing evidence suggests that Aboriginal           of park visitors were from Canada, 14% were
use at this site was based on hunting, fishing       from the United States, and 4% were from
and gathering. Local archaeological research         other countries.
has not located Aboriginal habitation sites.




St. Peters. Todd Keith





        Most of the visitation occurs during the       First Nations during the winter and spring
    two month summer season. According to              of 2004. The results of these discussions were
    research conducted in 2005, approximately          incorporated into planning proposals, and a
    89% of visitors are day users, while 11% stay      newsletter was distributed to park employ-
    one or more nights in the park or adjacent         ees, stakeholders and the public in the winter
    communities. Beach use is the most popular         of 2005. Seven public open houses were held
    visitor activity, with 86% of survey respond-      between February and July 2005 to provide
    ents indicating they participated in this activ-   an opportunity for members of the public and
    ity. Sight-seeing, walking, hiking and cycling     seasonal residents to meet with Parks Canada
    are also important activities for many visitors.   staff and discuss the management of the park
                                                       and site.
                                                           The response was generally positive. There
    3.3 Public Involvement During the                  is a wide level of agreement on the park
    Management Plan Review                             vision. The actions contained in this manage-
    This park management plan review com-              ment plan are supported by the majority of
    menced in September 2001. The involvement          those who participated in the consultations.
    of park employees, stakeholders and the            The issues most often raised during the
    public has contributed greatly throughout the      consultation period were: maintaining visitor
    course of the review. Community advisory           access to park beaches; improving the trans-
    boards and tourism groups were engaged in          portation infrastructure in the park; strength-
    discussions during 2002 and 2003. An open          ening the protection of park ecosystems; and
    house was held in August 2003 for seasonal         ensuring the availability of a range of high
    residents living adjacent to the park. Park        quality recreational opportunities. Beach use,
    visitors were surveyed during the summers          walking, hiking, cycling, and windsurfing
    of 2003, 2004 and 2005. Discussions were           were popular topics of discussion.
    held with a range of park interest groups and
Prince Edward Island National Park of Canada    
                                                              Dalvay-by-the-Sea National Historic Site of Canada
                                                                                              Management Plan




4.0 Vision




4.1 Vision for Prince Edward Island National Park   Recognition of the Cultural Significance
Prince Edward Island National Park and              of the Area: Park visitors will recognise and
Dalvay-by-the-Sea National Historic Site will       understand the need to ensure the com-
be treasured parts of a national system of          memorative integrity of Dalvay-by-the-Sea as
protected heritage areas, where Canadians           a national historic site. They will understand
are welcome to experience, enjoy, and learn         the significance of other cultural resources
about the natural and cultural heritage of the      that provide a link to our past and offer
island’s dynamic north shore coastal environ-       evidence of the changing human use of the
ment. The public will recognise and support         land and water. These include Aboriginal/
the park as an integral part of the environ-        Mi’kmaq, Acadian, French and British archae-
mental, social, and economic fabric of the          ological sites and Green Gables. The knowl-
region. It will be known as a park that con-        edge of cultural resources will be enhanced
veys a genuine sense of place and provides          through collaborative research efforts with
meaningful visitor experiences. Continued           Mi’kmaq, Acadian, and other community
public engagement and support will ensure           partners.
the natural and cultural resources of the park
are sustained for the use and enjoyment of          Meaningful Visitor Experiences: Visitors will
this and future generations.                        experience the diversity of natural and cul-
                                                    tural heritage resources in the park by taking
In 15 years, park management efforts will           advantage of a variety of recreational oppor-
achieve the following objectives and results:       tunities that meet their needs and expecta-
                                                    tions. Beach use and camping, supported by
Native Species and Ecological Processes:            environmentally sustainable park facilities,
The park will be a valued protected area of         will remain the focal point of the visitor exper­
dynamic, naturally evolving coastal ecosys-         ience, while hiking and cycling will play a
tems, freshwater pond and stream ecosys-            greater complementary role. The park hiking
tems, wetland ecosystems, and upland forest         trail system will offer visitors a diversity
ecosystems. Park populations of species at          of forest and coastal habitats, and cultural
risk, including the piping plover, the Gulf         sites to explore. Improved infrastructure will
of St. Lawrence aster, and other provincially       ensure that active transportation becomes a
or regionally rare species, will be stable or       viable means of experiencing the park.
increasing and their habitat will be securely
protected. Visitors will understand and sup-        Engaging Learning Opportunities: Through
port the need to strongly protect the park’s        participation in heritage presentation oppor-
most sensitive habitats. Active ecological res-     tunities, park visitors will be engaged in
toration efforts will continue to re-establish      learning about and understanding this spe-
elements of native Acadian forest biodiver-         cial place and the challenge of protecting it
sity, and restore disturbed areas associated        for future generations. Telling the park stories
with former park facilities.                        will foster a sense of environmental steward-
                                                    ship among Canadians. External communi-
                                                    cations by Parks Canada and partners will
                                                    build awareness and understanding beyond
                                                    the park boundary.
10
Prince Edward Island National Park of Canada    11
                                                                 Dalvay-by-the-Sea National Historic Site of Canada
                                                                                                 Management Plan




5.0 Maintaining and Restoring Ecological Integrity




                                                          The coastal terrestrial environment is
                                                       dominated by fine sand beaches and dune
                                                       complexes. Sand is derived from the rela-
                                                       tively soft sandstone cliffs, and from offshore
                                                       sandbars. Littoral drift and aeolian proc-
                                                       esses transport the sand along the coast and
                                                       deposit it on long sandy beaches and in a
                                                       series of shifting dunes. Primary dunes are
                                                       vegetated mainly with marram grass and
                                                       continue to shift over time. Secondary and
                                                       tertiary dunes represent progressively older,
Acadian hardwood forest. Parks Canada
                                                       more vegetated and stable dune forms.
                                                       Baymouth bars extend from the mainland
The Canada National Parks Act states that the
                                                       across most of Tracadie Bay and New
“maintenance or restoration of ecological integrity,
                                                       London Bay.
through the protection of natural resources and
                                                          The coastal environment provides special-
natural processes, shall be the first priority …” in
                                                       ized habitat for a number of wildlife species.
all aspects of park management. This responsi-
                                                       The park beaches provide important nest-
bility is shared among all staff of Parks Canada,
                                                       ing and foraging habitat for several species
with the Resource Conservation section taking
                                                       of shorebird, including the endangered
the lead role in ecosystem protection, research
                                                       piping plover. Black guillemots, cormorants,
and monitoring.
                                                       and gulls nest on the sandstone cliffs in the
                                                       Cavendish area. The dunes provide excellent
                                                       denning sites for red fox, and also serve as
5.1 Overview of Park Ecological Integrity
                                                       foraging habitat for short-eared owls, a spe-
                                                       cies of special concern.
5.1.1 Biophysical Context
                                                          The till uplands were cleared for agri-
The park is found within the Prince Edward
                                                       culture, and are in various stages of forest
Island Ecoregion of the Atlantic Maritime
                                                       succession. It is predicted that the typical late
Ecozone. This area is underlain by gently
                                                       successional ecosystems would consist pre-
dipping strata of late Palaeozoic sandstones,
                                                       dominantly of tolerant hardwood and mixed
conglomerates, and shales. The sedimen-
                                                       wood Acadian forest, with black spruce and
tary rocks are mantled with loamy glacial
                                                       larch in wet areas, and white spruce in coastal
till. Marine beach deposits and aeolian
                                                       locations. Most of this ecosystem type within
sand dunes occur in most low-lying coastal
                                                       the park is still in various stages of old field
locations. The park contains four principal
                                                       regeneration and is dominated by white
ecosystem types: coastal systems consist-
                                                       spruce or a mixture of shrubs, white spruce
ing of beaches, dunes, sandstone headlands,
                                                       and other pioneer species such as white
saltmarshes and bays; wetlands consisting of
                                                       birch, pin cherry, and red maple. Some mixed
freshwater marshes, bogs and fens; aquatic
                                                       wood forest consisting of red maple, yellow
ecosystems consisting of ponds and streams;
                                                       and white birch, balsam fir and white spruce
and forest ecosystems.
                                                       exists at Greenwich, and a few other locations
                                                       in the park. Some small remnants of mixed
12




                                                                       of land clearing on the Island. It is suspected
                                                                       that fire did not play a significant role in
                                                                       shaping forest ecosystems, however the fire
                                                                       disturbance regime will be determined in the
                                                                       near future. Forest ecosystem succession was
                                                                       probably initiated by wind disturbance, and
                                                                       periodic population eruptions of defoliating
                                                                       and wood boring insects.

                                                                       5.1.2 Species at Risk
                                                                       There are six species at risk that occur within
                                                                       the park (table 1). The piping plover, a small
                                                                       shorebird that nests on the beaches of the
                                                                       park, is internationally endangered, and is
                                                                       listed on Schedule 1 of the federal Species at
     Crown lands, Cavendish. Todd Keith                                Risk Act. The Gulf of St. Lawrence aster is a
                                                                       small annual plant that grows in wet sandy
     tolerant hardwood stands with sugar maple,                        habitat found in dune slacks and along sandy
     American beech, yellow birch, and ironwood                        streams. It has been identified at several loca-
     (only one known location) survive in isolated                     tions in the park, but because it is an annual
     pockets. The best example of this native                          and not a perennial, its distribution and
     forest type is found on Crown lands in the                        abundance vary from year to year.
     Cavendish area. There are also several planta-                        The other four species at risk are not
     tions of native and non-native conifers that                      known to breed in the park, although they
     were established on old fields in the park.                       may use specific habitats for feeding or stag-
        Wetlands and freshwater ecosystems                             ing at different times of the year.
     provide habitat for several fish species, and
     aquatic invertebrates. Brook trout occur                          5.1.3 Managing for Ecological Integrity
     in several park streams and waterbodies,                          The Canada National Parks Act defines ecologi-
     and gaspereau are found seasonally within                         cal integrity as “... a condition that is determined
     Schooner Pond.                                                    to be characteristic of its natural region and likely
        The most important natural processes in                        to persist, including abiotic components and
     the coastal zone are erosion and sedimenta-                       the composition and abundance of native spe-
     tion. In addition to reworking the coastal geo-                   cies, biological communities, rates of change and
     morphology, these processes also affect many                      supporting processes.” In other words, all of
     of the park aquatic habitats, by altering fresh                   the ecological parts are present and healthy,
     and saline water inputs, and infilling basins                     natural processes are operating properly and
     and dune slacks. Within forested ecosystems,                      the trends suggest that this situation will
     the natural disturbance processes are not                         continue.
     well understood, owing to the long history


           Table 1: Species at Risk Occurring in Prince Edward Island National Park.

           Common Name                              Scientific Name                            Status

           Piping plover                            Charadrius melodus melodus                 Endangered

           Gulf of St. Lawrence aster               Symphyotrichum laurentianum                Threatened
           Short-eared owl                          Asio flammeus                              Special Concern
           Barrow’s goldeneye (eastern pop.)        Bucephala islandica                        Special Concern
           Monarch butterfly                        Danaus plexippus                           Special Concern
           Striped bass (Southern Gulf pop.)        Morone saxatilis                           Threatened
Prince Edward Island National Park of Canada        13
                                                                                            Dalvay-by-the-Sea National Historic Site of Canada
                                                                                                                            Management Plan




                                                                             be required. An ecosystem working group
                                                                             will be established to support these research
                                                                             needs. Strong partnerships will be developed
                                                                             with the Parks Canada Bioregional Network,
                                                                             partners in the greater ecosystem, and the
                                                                             proposed Parks Canada Atlantic Cooperative
                                                                             Study Unit. The remainder of this chapter
                                                                             provides details on the priorities for the park
                                                                             ecological integrity program.


                                                                             5.2 Ecosystem Research, Monitoring and
                                                                             Performance Indicators
                                                                             Prince Edward Island National Park plays an
Freshwater pond. John Sylvester
                                                                             important role as a site for ecological research
                                                                             and monitoring. Partners in these activities
    The Ecological Integrity Statement con-
                                                                             include several universities and colleges from
tained in the 1998 Ecosystem Conservation
                                                                             the region and across Canada, independent
Plan for Prince Edward Island National
                                                                             researchers, and other government agen-
Park describes the state of health of the key
                                                                             cies such as the Department of Fisheries and
park ecosystems. Preliminary results of park
                                                                             Oceans, the Geological Survey of Canada,
research and monitoring has further refined
                                                                             and the Canadian Wildlife Service.
the understanding of the park’s ecosystem
health. table 2 presents a preliminary evalua-
                                                                             5.2.1 Ecological Research
tion of the state of health of the park ecosys-
                                                                             Research plays a vital role in helping Parks
tems and the trend in their condition.
                                                                             Canada understand how ecosystems func-
    In order to manage for ecological integ-
                                                                             tion, what role different habitats play in
rity, additional research and monitoring will
                                                                             the life history of species, and how human

 Table 2: Preliminary Ecosystem Assessment, Prince Edward Island National Park.

  Indicator           Ecosystem         Percentage       Rationale for Rating
  Ecosystems          Condition         of Park
                      and Trend *       Area * *

  Forests               Poor             45               Forests are regenerating following land clearing and agriculture, although
  (includes                                               representation of native Acadian forest species is poor. There is increasing
  regenerating                                            fragmentation outside of the park boundaries related to agriculture, tourism,
  old fields)                                             residential and recreational development. Some forest restoration work has
                                                          been initiated and partnerships have been created with others in the greater
                                                          ecosystem.

  Wetlands              Fair             5                Wetlands are in fair health. Purple loosestrife, an invasive non-native plant, is
                                                          a stressor in some wetland areas. Rising sea levels related in part to global
                                                          climate change may inundate coastal wetlands.

  Freshwater            Fair             4                Increased fragmentation and land use activities such as agriculture and
                                                          residential development outside of the park boundary can affect freshwater
                                                          ecosystems through nutrient loading, siltation, increased water temperature,
                                                          decrease in buffer protection, and aquatic fragmentation. Within the park
                                                          boundary stressors include land use practises such as road salt application,
                                                          mowing and turf management adjacent to watercourses, park infrastructure
                                                          and lack of adequate riparian buffer zones in some areas.

  Coastal               Fair             30               Trampling has affected some dune areas. Some areas have been restored.
                                                          Strong recovery effort for piping plover. Rising sea levels related in part to
                                                          global climate change may increase coastal erosion and inundate low-lying
                                                          areas in the park.
 * Arrows indicate whether the condition of an ecosystem is thought to be improving, declining, or remaining stable. These assessments are based
   on limited data, and therefore take a precautionary approach.
 * * The remaining 16% of the park is classified as park facilities and roads.
14




     influences affect ecosystems and ecologi-                          parks are being integrated into a bioregional
     cal processes. Parks Canada will continue                          approach that will strengthen Parks Canada’s
     to encourage and participate in research                           ability to identify and report on regional
     initiatives that will support better ecosystem                     trends. This approach focuses on a suite of
     management within the park and surround-                           composite ecosystem indicators. The results
     ing region.                                                        of monitoring programs will be used to report
        Some important research topics that will be                     on the condition of ecological integrity in
     investigated over the next five years include:                     State of the Park Reports that will be prepared
     the natural dynamics of sand dune ecosys-                          on a five-year cycle. Monitoring results will
     tems; the potential impact of climate change                       also be used in the preparation of national
     on the physical and biological components of                       State of Protected Heritage Area Reports.
     the four indicator ecosystems; the effective-                         The Atlantic-Quebec Bioregion has identi-
     ness of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystem res-                     fied six ecosystem indicators that will be the
     toration; the diversity, abundance and habitat                     focus of monitoring and reporting. Four of
     requirements of amphibians in the park and                         these indicator ecosystems are represented
     greater ecosystem; and, the ecological role of                     in Prince Edward Island National Park and
     corridors, connectivity and forest patch size in                   a number of measures have been identified
     the park and the greater ecosystem.                                for each indicator (see table 3). Over the next
                                                                        several years specific targets and thresholds
     5.2.2 Ecological Monitoring and 		                                 will be developed for each of the measures in
     Performance Indicators                                             collaboration with bioregional partners and
     Ecological monitoring aims to detect and                           the ecosystem working group. The measures
     understand changes in the health of park                           will be refined and targets developed by 2008.
     ecosystems. The efforts of individual national                     Implementation of this monitoring program


      Table 3: Ecological Integrity Indicators and Measures for Prince Edward Island National Park

      Ecological Integrity     Measures
      Indicators
                               Biodiversity                   Ecosystem Processes                 Ecosystem Structure and
                                                                                                  Function
      Forest Ecosystems        • Songbirds                    • Regeneration plots                • Forest plots
                               • Birds of Prey                  (white pine, red oak, ironwood)   • Park landscape composition
                               • Lichens                      • Decomposition                     • Landscape fragmentation
                               • Bryophytes                   • Nutrient cycling (dead wood)      • Trampling
                               • Vascular plants              • Climate
                               • Garlic mustard
                               • Salamanders
                               • Gypsy moth
      Wetland Ecosystems       • Amphibians                   • Climate                           • Water quality
                               • Waterfowl                    • Ice watch
                               • Purple loosestrife
                               • Birds of prey
      Freshwater Ecosystems    • Fish populations             • Brook trout spawning              • Water quality
                               • Benthos                      • Chlorophyll a (eutrophication)    • Riparian cover
                                                              • Hydrology                         • Turbidity
                                                              • Climate                           • Aquatic fragmentation
                                                              • Stream temperature
      Coastal Ecosystems       • Bank nesting birds           • Dune migration                    • Vegetation plots
                               • Cliff nesting birds                                              • Unauthorized trails
                               • Shore birds
                               • Coastal songbirds
                               • Saltmarsh birds
                               • Piping plover
                               • Terns
                               • Gulf of St. Lawrence aster
                               • Birds of prey
                               • Red fox
Prince Edward Island National Park of Canada    15
                                                             Dalvay-by-the-Sea National Historic Site of Canada
                                                                                             Management Plan




will provide data to support a more com-           successional white spruce, balsam fir and
prehensive evaluation of the health of park        shade-intolerant hardwoods. Some old fields
ecosystems. These results will be described        are covered primarily in shrubs and herba-
in a State of the Park Report prior to the next    ceous plants. Several conifer tree plantations
management plan review.                            have also been established in the park. These
                                                   vegetation types do not adequately represent
Management Actions:                                native biodiversity, nor do they support the
•	Continue to refine measures and develop         native ecological processes characteristic of
   targets and thresholds by 2008-2009.            the Acadian forest.
•	Prepare a State of the Park Report in 2011         Parks Canada has begun to conduct res-
   based on the results of the monitoring          toration activities on several old fields. This
   program.                                        program aims to enhance the representation
                                                   of Acadian forest species in the park. Forest
                                                   restoration has been initiated on 16.6 hectares
5.3 Forest Ecosystems                              of former agricultural land, with the planting
                                                   of over 54,000 seedlings during the summers
5.3.1 Inventory and Planning                       of 2002 and 2003. An additional 21 hectares of
Forest ecosystem management and con-               former agricultural land is slated for restora-
servation planning is constrained by a lack        tion. There are many additional areas of the
of recent data on vegetation cover for the         park that provide opportunities for active res-
park and federal Crown lands. The existing         toration, including the old fields and conifer
vegetation inventory for the park dates from       plantations.
1978. Crown land vegetation was mapped in             The Greenwich sector includes old fields
1988. A vascular plant survey was conducted        and an area of mixedwood forest. A portion
by the Island Nature Trust on Crown lands in       of the old fields has been identified for re-for-
Cavendish in 2001 and 2002. As a first step to     estation, primarily through natural regenera-
improving ecological integrity Parks Canada        tion. Active restoration may be considered
will obtain an updated vegetation inventory        if warranted in order to achieve the desired
for the entire park and Crown lands.               ecosystem succession. The remainder of the
   The new inventory will be used to develop       old fields at Greenwich will be maintained in
a Vegetation Management Plan for the park          a non-forested condition as part of a cultural
and Crown lands. This plan will identify           landscape (see section 7.3.3 for details).
targets for improving the distribution of
native Acadian forest vegetation through           5.3.3 Fire Management
the use of various silvicultural techniques,       Parks Canada’s national Fire Management
such as thinning, planting, and creation of        Directive requires national parks to develop
gaps in areas of single-species (i.e. white        10-year Fire Management Plans in consulta-
spruce) forest cover to allow regeneration of a    tion with stakeholders in local communities,
diversity of native tree species. The Vegetation   surrounding jurisdictions and fire manage-
Management Plan will also address the fire         ment specialists. The plan must include a
history of park forests and outline forest fuel    5-year schedule for forest fuel management,
modification strategies consistent with the        and it must be approved by the Field Unit
Fire Management Plan.                              Superintendent before any fuel reduction
                                                   actions are undertaken.
5.3.2 Acadian Forest Restoration                      The regeneration of dense white spruce
Prince Edward Island National Park lies            stands on abandoned agricultural fields
within the Acadian forest region. Native           within the park has led to an accumulation
forest types that were found in this region        of dry, dead wood on the forest floor. This
included late successional shade-tolerant          has led to concerns about the forest fire risk
hardwoods and mixed wood forests that              among local residents and Parks Canada
dominated the upland areas. The extant for-        managers. In response to these concerns
ests within the park consist primarily of early    Parks Canada has completed a fuel mapping
16




     Federal Crown Lands. Todd Keith


     program that will help to assess the fire risk      5.3.5 Restoration of Disturbed Sites
     in key areas of the park. These data will be        The development footprint within the park
     used to develop a Fire Management Plan for          will be reduced through the restoration of
     the park in accordance with the national Fire       disturbed sites that are no longer required
     Management Directive. Over the next several         for park purposes. Visitor facilities that have
     years Parks Canada will implement fuel              reached the end of their serviceable life, or no
     reduction efforts in the high priority areas        longer meet the needs of park visitors include
     identified through this program. A commu-           the kitchen shelter overlooking North Rustico
     nity consultation on this project was held in       Beach, the western portion of the Brackley
     February 2005.                                      day use area including the tennis court
                                                         and washroom building, the abandoned
     5.3.4 Ecological Integrity Theme Project            Robinsons Island day use area, and a paved
     Prince Edward Island National Park is               driveway loop west of the Cape Turner picnic
     undertaking one of eleven ecological integrity      area. These facilities will be removed and the
     theme projects that were funded through a           areas restored to natural conditions. A reduc-
     national Parks Canada competitive process.          tion in the size of parking areas is anticipated
     Referred to as the visitor experience renewal       as a result of the visitor experience renewal
     initiative, the focus of the initiative is to       initiative, and this will yield additional areas
     promote healthy ecosystems, healthy com-            for restoration. An updated Restoration Plan
     munities and active living by investing in          will be developed. Restoration actions will be
     environmentally sound, economically viable          initiated over the next five years on priority
     visitor experience opportunities that enhance       sites such as the abandoned Robinsons Island
     protection of natural areas while contributing      day use area.
     to public education and healthy lifestyles.
     Active transportation and public transit            5.3.6 Federal Crown Lands Administered by
     options may be developed in the park and            Parks Canada
     linked to adjacent communities. Successful          The federal government has acquired
     implementation of this project will result          more than 12.5 km2 of lands adjacent to the
     in a decrease in motor vehicles and park-           national park since 1974. These lands are
     ing spaces in the park, an improvement in           intended to serve as a buffer between the
     the park’s ecological integrity and increased       park and adjacent development, and as a
     participation in active living. Consultations       means to compensate for erosion losses along
     with industry and community interests were          the shoreline. Some of these lands are pres-
     initiated in 2006 to assist in the prioritiza-      ently leased to local farmers for agricultural
     tion of activities to be undertaken within this     production. Other parcels of Crown land
     specific initiative. More details on this project   contain significant natural areas that con-
     are provided in Chapter 10.                         tribute to the ecological integrity of the park.
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