Results 2018 - CCPI Climate Change Performance Index

 
Results 2018 - CCPI Climate Change Performance Index
Climate Change
    CCPI                       Performance
                               Index

Results 2018
 Jan Burck, Franziska Marten, Christoph Bals, Niklas Höhne

                                                             Foto: Fotolia, Nightman 1965
Results 2018 - CCPI Climate Change Performance Index
CCPI • Results 2018                                                          Germanwatch, NewClimate Institute & Climate Action Network

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Authors:
Jan Burck, Franziska Marten,

                                                        Contents
Christoph Bals, Niklas Höhne,
Carolin Frisch, Niklas Clement,
Kao Szu-Chi
With support of:
Pieter van Breenvoort, Mia Moisio
                                                        Foreword3

Editing:                                                1. Key Country Results                                                      4
Daniela Baum, Gerold Kier, Lindsay Munro
                                                        2. Key Developments                                                         8
Maps:
Carolin Frisch
                                                        3. About the CCPI                                                           8
Design:
Dietmar Putscher                                        4. Overall Results CCPI 2018                                              10
November 2017                                              4.1 Partial Results – GHG Emissions                                    12
                                                           4.2 Partial Results – Renewable Energy                                 14
Purchase Order Number: 18-2-03e
                                                           4.3 Partial Results – Energy Use                                       16
ISBN 978-3-943704-59-4
                                                           4.4 Partial Results – Climate Policy                                   18
You can find this publication as well
as interactive maps and tables at                       5. Country Example: Germany                                               20
www.climate-change-performance-index.org
                                                        6. Sources and Further Reading Recommendations                            22
A printout of this publication can be ordered at:
www.germanwatch.org/en/14639

With financial support from
the Barthel Foundation

                                                    2
Results 2018 - CCPI Climate Change Performance Index
CCPI • Results 2018                                                                           Germanwatch, NewClimate Institute & Climate Action Network

Foreword
Dear Reader,

Recognizing the urgency to take immediate action in protect-             house gas emissions of the 56 countries and the EU that are
ing the global climate, the 21st Conference of the Parties, held         assessed in the CCPI. In addition to that, the index now is
in December 2015 in Paris, made a groundbreaking achieve-                suited even better to measure how well countries are on track
ment in adopting the goal to limit global warming to “well               to the global goals of the Paris Agreement. It does so by not
below” 2°C and to pursue efforts to limit warming to 1.5°C.              only comparing countries by their development and recent
Under the Paris Agreement, for the first time climate action             trends in the three categories “GHG Emissions”, “Renewable
was anchored in the context of international law. This requires          Energy” and “Energy Use”, but also the 2°C-compatibility of
countries to make their own unique contribution to the pre-              their current status and future targets in each of these catego-
vention of dangerous climate change. The next crucial step               ries. The index also continues to evaluate countries’ ambition
to follow this agreement is the rapid implementation by the              and progress in the field of climate policy.
signing parties of concrete measures to make their individual
contributions to the global goal. For the past 13 years, the             The following publication is issued by Germanwatch, the
Climate Change Performance Index (CCPI) has been keeping                 NewClimate Institute and the Climate Action Network.
track of countries’ efforts in combating climate change. The             However, only with the help of around 300 energy and climate
varying initial positions, interests and strategies of the numer-        experts from all over the world we are able to include a re-
ous countries make it difficult to distinguish their strengths           view of each country’s national and international policies. The
and weaknesses and the CCPI has been an important tool in                review charts the efforts that have been made to avoid dan-
contributing to a clearer understanding of national and inter-           gerous climate change, and also evaluates the various coun-
national climate policy.                                                 tries’ current efforts regarding the implementation of the Paris
                                                                         Agreement. We greatly appreciate these experts for their time,
To demonstrate existing measures more accurately and to                  efforts and knowledge in contributing to this publication. The
encourage steps toward effective climate policy, we evaluated            experts are mainly representatives of NGOs who work within
the design of the CCPI this year with several achievements:              their respective countries, fighting for the implementation of
For the first time, it is monitoring the development of all green-       the climate policy that we all so desperately need.

                                                                         Best regards,

              Wael Hmaidan              Niklas Hoehne                     Franziska Marten                  Jan Burck
              (Climate Action           (NewClimate Institute)            (Germanwatch)                     (Germanwatch)
              Network International)

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Results 2018 - CCPI Climate Change Performance Index
CCPI • Results 2018                                                                               Germanwatch, NewClimate Institute & Climate Action Network

1. Key Country Results
After a historic success in agreeing on a new international cli-            current level of per capita energy use and its corresponding
mate treaty in 2015 in Paris, the success of the Paris Agreement            well-below-2°C compatibility, result in a high rating in this cat-
must now be measured by the implementation of mitigation                    egory.
targets on a national level. As in all past editions of the CCPI, the
places 1 to 3 remain unoccupied because even after the Paris                Norway                                                                     7
Agreement came into force, no country has yet done enough to
prevent the dangerous impacts of climate change. The following              Slightly behind Morocco, Norway occupies seventh rank. While
overview highlights the performance of 27 selected countries                Norway ranks high in every indicator of the emissions category,
and the EU. The results of all 56 countries and the EU can be               experts criticize that, as a result of high government subsidies,
found in chapter 4.                                                         the country exports a lot of fossil fuels leading to higher emis-
                                                                            sions in other countries. This is reflected in the assessment of
Sweden                                                           4          national policy, yet due to its role in international negotiations
                                                                            the country still ranks high in the policy section. Rating also high
Driven in particular by a comparably high performance in the in-            in the renewables category of the index, Norway’s overall perfor-
dex’ emissions category, Sweden ranks fourth in this year’s CCPI.           mance is dampened by a low rating in energy use.
Per capita emissions have showed a relatively positive develop-
ment from 2010 - 2015 with and without LULUCF*. However, GHG                United Kingdom                                                             8
emissions without LULUCF are decreasing at a much slower
pace. Main drivers for the drop within Sweden‘s LULUCF emis-                The UK ranks number eight in this year’s CCPI. A strongly de-
sions are net forest growth but also natural fluctuations in emis-          creasing emissions trend over the last years, mainly driven by a
sions from the agricultural sector. Another cause of concern is             shift from a production-based to a service-oriented economy,
that whilst having a very high scoring in terms of the current              has resulted in a high performance in the index‘ emissions cat-
share of renewable energies, the country’s renewable energy                 egory. After weakened climate policy in the past years and cut-
target for 2030 is still not sufficient for the well-below-2°C limit.       backs especially on the promotion of renewables, the newly
National experts criticize the restricting extent of the renewable          passed clean growth strategy includes a commitment to off-
energy target that only focuses on the electricity sector. They             shore wind, and to coal phase-out. If consistently implemented,
further argue for a near-term phase out of nuclear energy and               national experts see the country’s power sector on the way to
fossil fuels, especially emphasizing natural gas, and demand                getting back on track. The plan also includes policy on clean
action on Sweden’s transport sector and consumption-based                   vehicles which could be effective in further driving decarbonisa-
emissions that are twice the size of territorial emissions, and             tion, experts claim. Within the UK the level of ambition varies:
not decreasing.                                                             While Scotland, for example, has gone for a 2032 petrol and
                                                                            diesel car ban, the UK aims for 2040. Yet, the country’s long-term
Lithuania                                                        5          2030 targets for emissions and renewable energy are not ambi-
                                                                            tious enough for a well-below-2°C pathway.
Lithuania secured fifth rank in the CCPI 2018. It is to be noted
that the country, while receiving a very high rating for being on           Finland                                                                    9
track regarding a well-below-2°C trajectory in terms of emis-
sions, the emissions trend over the past five years has increased           As the third Nordic country to make it into the top 10, Finland
and therefore is rated low. The same can be observed in the                 reached ninth rank. This is especially due to it being the second
energy use section, where a weak trend is offset by a very high             best performing country in the emissions category, profiting
rated target as well as very good compliance with a well-below-             from a very high rated trend as well as from complying with
2°C pathway. For renewables the reverse is true: the country’s              its well-below-2°C trajectory. Yet, concerning energy use, the
2030 target is rather unambitious and therefore rated low, while            country ranks very low due to very high energy use levels as
the recent trend points into a positive direction.                          well as an insufficient target for 2030. Experts acknowledge
                                                                            the introduction of plans to phase out coal but criticize their
Morocco                                                          6          government for at the same time still subsidizing other fossil
                                                                            fuels such as peat, which is why the country ranks only medium
Driven by a high rating in the policy and energy use categories,            in the policy section.
Morocco is rated in the group of high performers within the
overall tableau of this year’s CCPI. The country profits from a             India                                                                     14
low emissions level and an ambitious GHG emissions reduction
target by 2030. Morocco was able to install many new renewable              With a high rating in the emissions and energy use categories,
energy capacities within the last five years, which most likely             India secured 14th place in the ranking. With its still low per cap-
will lead to a better rating regarding renewables next year. The            ita emissions, the country’s emissions level is showing compat-
country shows a high performance in the energy use category,                ibility with a well-below-2°C pathway. Yet emissions over the last
targeting an ambitious level for 2030. Furthermore, Morocco’s               years have increased relatively strong. India ranks medium in the

* Land Use, Land-Use Change and Forestry

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Results 2018 - CCPI Climate Change Performance Index
CCPI • Results 2018                                                                                 Germanwatch, NewClimate Institute & Climate Action Network

climate policy category with its plans for further promoting re-              medium when comparing its 2030 reduction target to a well-
newables. Despite India‘s significant deployment of renewables,               below-2°C pathway.
the country should further improve the targets for this category.
                                                                              Ukraine                                                                   20
France                                                            15
                                                                              The Ukraine is ranked 20th in this year’s edition of the CCPI. It is
Driven by a high performance in the policy category, France se-               the highest ranking country in the energy use category, where
cured 15th position in this year’s CCPI ranking. National experts             it performs comparably high to very high in all four indicators.
especially lauded the country’s conduct in international climate              Despite having a good emissions reduction trend, the country
diplomacy. Yet it is noteworthy that this leading role has not                is only rated medium in the emissions section as its 2030 target
meant sufficient implementation at national level so far. Experts             lacks ambition. The same counts for the category renewable
criticize their country, because it will very likely miss its 2020 tar-       energy, where a comparably very high rated trend is not able to
get for renewable energy. Its performance in the GHG emissions                counterbalance the very low current level and the weak target.
category is only medium, as France is not currently on track for
well-below-2°C, nor has it set sufficient targets for 2030. In the            EU                                                                        21
energy use section, France is rated low.
                                                                              Being evaluated in the CCPI for the first time, the European
Italy                                                             16          Union–the only supranational entity in the index–lands at place
                                                                              21 in the ranking. As the union consists of 28 nations, there
Not having set an ambitious enough mitigation target to be                    are wide differences in the performance of individual member
aligned with a well-below-2°C pathway yet, Italy–ranking 16th                 states. The EU as a whole accounts for about 8% of global GHG
in this year’s CCPI–is rated medium in the emissions category                 emissions. The EU Emissions Trading Scheme is the largest car-
of the index. Despite playing a constructive role in the context              bon market in operation but carbon prices are significantly
of the G7 process, Italian experts criticize their country for not            insufficient. In the CCPI, the EU rates medium in emissions, re-
being proactive enough. They also maintain that Italy lacks clear             newables and energy use. EU experts emphasize the union‘s
measures for implementing its long-term strategies domesti-                   constructive role in international climate diplomacy but criticize
cally. The same goes for instruments to reduce energy use. In                 the slow progress in putting in place new and more ambitious
terms of renewable energy, the country has made progress and                  policies and targets. Disagreements about the future of the
achieved high ratings in three of the four indicators defining this           European project would lead to weak agreements based on
category.                                                                     lowest common denominators, with the failure to substantially
                                                                              reform the Emissions Trading System being the most symp-
Denmark                                                           17          tomatic example. They see current discussions on new clean
                                                                              energy policies and how to ensure the EU budget supports
While Denmark ranks 17th in the CCPI 2018, experts criticize that             such policies as ideal opportunities to increase the ambition of
the current government cancelled plans for a coal phase-out as                climate action.
well as the existing reduction targets after taking office, which
results in a relatively low performance in terms of climate policy.           Germany                                                                   22
The country still ranks high in terms of renewables as well as
regarding energy use due to positive trends in both categories.               Germany ranks number 22 in this year’s CCPI edition. As the
Nonetheless, the low rating for Denmark’s 2030 emissions target               world’s biggest user of lignite, Germany still has relatively high
and the country’s compliance with a well-below-2°C pathway, it                GHG emissions with nearly no improvements regarding GHG
receives a medium rating in that category.                                    trends within the last years and is rated low in this category.
                                                                              Its dependence on coal remains a major decelerator to achiev-
Brazil                                                            19          ing alignment with the well-below-2°C emissions pathway. The
                                                                              energy use per capita (low) is higher than the EU average but
Ranking 19th, Brazil is leading the group of medium-performing                has shown little improvement over the last years. Germany’s
countries. Domestic experts criticize climate policy under the                renewable growth rates are rated as high but regarding the
current government, saying it lacks substance, especially with                2030 renewable energy target, national experts see room for
regard to the implementation of already existing measures. Due                improvement. Germany has taken on an increasingly vocal
to its large share of hydropower and therefore its high current               role within the international climate negotiations and during
level of renewables in the energy mix, Brazil is rated relatively             the G20 summit, for which the country receives a high rating.
high in the renewables category of the index. In the GHG emis-                Domestically, experts criticize their last (and still acting) gov-
sions category, the country managed to barely reach the upper                 ernment for insufficient action on implementing the promises
third under the influence of its weak tendencies over the past                it made in Paris into national law (low rating).
years. Promising signals of a reduction in emissions from for-
estry were relativized recently when the government cut back                  The CCPI 2018 takes a closer look on Germany’s performance in
on important policies targeting that sector. The same holds for               this year’s country special in chapter 5.
energy use, where, compared to the other countries, Brazil rates
very low in its developments within the last five years but still

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Results 2018 - CCPI Climate Change Performance Index
CCPI • Results 2018                                                                            Germanwatch, NewClimate Institute & Climate Action Network

Mexico                                                       27          China develops renewable energy at a very high speed, but its
                                                                         share of renewables within the energy mix in 2015 was still rela-
Coming in at place 27, Mexico is performing relatively well in           tively low. And with a still insufficiently ambitious 2030 renewable
the policy category. This is due to national experts appreciat-          energy target, the country has a medium rating for this category.
ing recent actions taken by the government, like a significant
reduction in fossil fuel subsidies for example which, combined           Argentina                                                                 46
with a strong appearance on the international stage, leads to a
high rating. A very low-rated 2030 target for renewable energy           Argentina holds position 46 in this year’s CCPI ranking. The
and a lack of compliance with a well-below-2°C compatible                country is performing very low on emissions and is currently
pathway make Mexico one of the worst performing countries                far removed from meeting a well-below-2°C compatible trajec-
in the renewables section, while ranking slightly above average          tory. Argentina further ranks low in both the energy use and
concerning energy use as well as GHG emissions.                          renewable energy categories. While there is progress in the use
                                                                         of renewables, which is already reflected in the trend indicator,
Indonesia                                                    37          national experts criticize Argentina for its vast investments in
                                                                         unconventional fossil fuels, such as shale gas and shale oil.
Indonesia is classified as a low-performing country in this year’s       While acknowledging their country would have shown its inten-
ranking. Although the rating of its GHG emissions reduction tar-         tion of going ahead with mitigation plans and recognizing the
get for 2030 is relatively high, Indonesia’s past trends and cur-        challenges of also moving forward with their implementation,
rent status of GHG emissions per capita are rated comparably             experts also demand for more ambition.
very low and low. Its relatively high emissions due to deforesta-
tion and forest degradation in particular have a large impact            Turkey                                                                    47
on Indonesia’s ranking. With its large amounts of hydropower,
Indonesia rates high in share of renewables compared to other            Turkey ranks 47th in the CCPI 2018. This partly results from
countries, yet lacks ambition in aligning its 2030 targets for re-       Turkey being rated very low concerning climate policy with ex-
newable energy and energy use to a well-below-2°C compatible             perts criticizing unambitious targets, weak implementation and
pathway. The lack of bold action to phase out fossil fuels and a         counterproductive policy measures domestically as well as a
new policy, which according to national experts prevents invest-         weak performance in international climate diplomacy. Turkey
ments in renewables, might be reasons for not moving forward,            also ranks low in emissions and energy use due to negative
the experts claim.                                                       developments in both categories. One upside is the renewables
                                                                         section, where positive developments over the course of the last
Poland                                                       40          years resulted in a high rating.

Poland ranks 40th in this year’s edition of the Climate Change           South Africa                                                              48
Performance Index. National experts specifically point out that
the country hasn’t played a constructive role in international           South Africa ranks 48th in the CCPI this year. The country faces a
negotiations especially within the EU, where it continues to fight       very low rating concerning GHG emissions, due to an insufficient
sufficient climate legislation targeting higher carbon prices in         2030 target and its current level of emissions, both being incom-
the EU Emissions Trading Scheme for example. Domestically,               patible with a well-below-2°C trajectory. Experts emphasize
the country is heavily reliant on coal, and climate protection           that, even though the country is performing well in international
policies are mainly driven by the implementation of EU legis-            negotiations, it lacks ambition and stringent implementation of
lation, experts criticize. Poland rates low in every indicator of        policies at home, which results in a medium rating in the CCPI’s
the emissions category besides the trend, where it was able to           policy section. An only medium-rated development of renewa-
achieve a medium rating. The country also rates medium in the            bles and a very low-rated 2030 target for renewables are reasons
renewable energy section of the index, since it shows a positive         for a low performance with regard to this category.
development over the past years, while at the same time is still
lacking a sufficient 2030 target.                                        Ireland                                                                   49

China                                                        41          Being the worst performing European country in the CCPI,
                                                                         Ireland ranks 49th. According to national experts, Ireland is one
China is the world’s largest emitter of GHG emissions. In the            of the few EU countries to miss its 2020 emission reduction tar-
emissions category of the index, the country is to be found in           gets under the EU effort-sharing decision, which is one reason
the group of very low performers, even though per capita GHG             why the country rates very low in climate policy. Its performance
emissions have hardly increased since 2013. The 2030 reduction           in the field of GHG emissions is also very low as the country is
target and past emissions trends are rated very low compared to          nowhere close to being on track concerning its well-below-2°C
the other countries and not in line with a well-below-2°C com-           compatible pathway with both its current level as well as its
patible pathway. However, the country is ambitious concern-              2030 target. We observe a very positive trend in the develop-
ing assuming a leading role in international climate diplomacy.          ment of renewable energy, but as the current share of renew-
Domestically, China has developed a series of policies to pro-           able energy in energy supply–as well as the 2030 target–are in-
mote renewables and phase out coal capacity, experts claim.              sufficient, Ireland rates only medium in the renewables category.

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Results 2018 - CCPI Climate Change Performance Index
CCPI • Results 2018                                                                            Germanwatch, NewClimate Institute & Climate Action Network

Japan                                                        50          will be taken by cities and states on the subnational level as well
                                                                         as by the economic sector to counterbalance the disastrous
Japan ranks 50 th in this year’s CCPI and shows a very low to            developments in federal policy. And ambitious action would be
low performance in all categories except energy use, where the           crucially needed with the USA being the second largest emitter
country scored medium. National experts see the continued                in the world and emission levels therefore being considerably
increase in the number of coal-fired power plants as becoming a          too high to be in line with a well-below-2°C pathway. A high-
major threat to achieving Japan’s already weak 2030 mitigation           rated growth rate of renewables over the course of the past
target. One bright spot can be seen in developments in renew-            years led to a slightly more positive rating in the renewables
able energy throughout the last five years, where the country            category compared to the other index categories. There are
received a high rating.                                                  positive signs showing this development could be secured even
                                                                         against current policy developments.
Canada                                                       51
                                                                         Australia                                                                 57
As one of the largest producers of absolute greenhouse gases as
well as per capita emissions, Canada is ranked 51st in this year’s       Australia ranks among the very low-performing countries in
CCPI edition. Additionally, having a very low-rated 2030 GHG             three of the CCPI’s categories–GHG emissions, energy use and
reduction target, the country will need higher ambitions to be           climate policy–and among the low performers regarding renew-
on track with a well-below-2°C compatible pathway. Regarding             able energy, which results in position 57 in the overall tableau.
the category energy use, Canada’s performance is very low in             Experts emphasize the need to strengthen the country’s 2030
terms of the current level as well as the 2030 target. Having            targets especially in terms of emissions reduction and renew-
large hydropower capacities and a very positive trend from               able energy and demand that their government sufficiently im-
other renewable capacities as wind or solar, Canada receives a           plement credible policies for meeting these targets.
medium rating in the renewables category. Canada gets com-
parably very high grades for its performance in international
climate diplomacy. Domestically, experts praise the leadership           Republic of Korea                                                         58
of several provinces having ambitious 2030 targets for their per
capita emissions and energy supply from renewable sources.               South Korea ranks in the bottom 3 of this year’s CCPI with a
Nonetheless, experts also criticize the lack of a joined climate         comparably very low and severely misaligned performance with
responsibility on the national level and demand more specific            regard to a well-below-2°C pathway in the GHG emissions and
strategies in order to progress on decarbonizing the country’s           energy use categories. Coming from a very low level of renewa-
economy.                                                                 bles in the energy supply, the country’s very high rating in the
                                                                         development of renewable energy adds a bright spot to its over-
Russia                                                       53          all performance. Nonetheless, national experts worry about the
                                                                         increasing installation of coal capacity and coal consumption
The Russian Federation ranks 53rd in the CCPI 2018. With its high        and criticize their government for its unambitious 2030 emis-
level of GHG emissions and a mitigation target that drastically          sions reduction target
overshoots the benchmark for a well-below-2°C compatible
pathway, the country is rated very low in emissions and low
in energy use in comparison to the other countries. Not ac-              Saudi Arabia                                                              60
counting for large hydropower in its own official assessment of
renewable energy, the country is rated very low in all of the four       Saudi Arabia as this year’s worst performing country ranks 60th.
indicators defining this category. National experts report about         The kingdom is rated very low in every single category and in
useful policies for the support of renewables being in place             all indicators for emissions, energy use and renewable energy.
but too small in scale. Generally, experts criticize Russia’s low        Policy is lacking as well with experts criticizing the country’s
ambition in domestic climate policy and a lack of implementing           very poor appearance in international negotiations.
concrete measures.

USA                                                          56

Already in the first months of the Trump Administration, the
USA started to take several steps backwards on climate action,
especially by declaring its withdrawal from the Paris Agreement
and dismantling the Clean Power Plan. As such, policy evalua-
tions dropped dramatically, especially regarding international
climate diplomacy, where national experts rated its country’s
performance very low. National policy grades are still slightly
more positive, as (1) the new government has not yet erased
all the efforts of the previous administration and (2) there are
positive signs that more ambitious action on climate protection

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Results 2018 - CCPI Climate Change Performance Index
CCPI • Results 2018                                                                                  Germanwatch, NewClimate Institute & Climate Action Network

2. Key Developments
Two years after agreeing to limit global warming to well below               threshold of global warming. Prices for oil, gas and coal are drop-
2°C, and to pursue efforts to even aim for a 1.5°C limit, we still see       ping, which sets an incentive to use them also in the longer term.
a huge ambition gap1 in the countries‘ greenhouse gas reduction              To maintain the positive developments in renewables, the need
targets and their progress regarding a sufficient implementation             to set more ambitious renewable energy targets and appropriate
of the Paris agreement in national legislation.                              carbon regulation including prices is increasing every day.

Nonetheless, there are encouraging signs that a global energy                The global reaction to Donald Trump’s withdrawal of the
transition is underway. Numbers show that, in 2014, 2015 and                 USA from the Paris Agreement has so far made the other
2016, global energy-related carbon dioxide emissions did not                 countries present a united front in holding on to the goals
grow further - the first time since industrial revolution in years           of the Agreement. It still remains to be shown whether this
without a big economic crisis. Also, according to the recent UNEP            will hold true when it comes to the real implementation of nec-
“Emission Gap Report” all global greenhouse gas emissions de-                essary policies. Positive signs have also come from US towns,
clined in 2016 for the first time since the early 1980s.2 However,           states and companies, as well as actors in the financial market.
preliminary data published by the Global Carbon Project indi-                Many of them implement their own strategies and at the same
cates that the emission in 2017 increased again by 2%.3                      time demand more ambitious climate action internationally and
                                                                             nationally. They ask for a reliable and stringent policy framework
The decarbonisation of energy systems plays a key role in limiting           and investment-relevant CO2 price signals.
emissions and in reducing them in the future. In addition, it is an
encouraging sign for ongoing decarbonisation that global energy-             One of the key tasks of ongoing climate negotiations is to
related emissions have not grown, while primary energy demand                establish an “ambition mechanism”, thus continuously rais-
has grown by an annual average of around 1.8% since 2011.4                   ing ambition in order to close the remaining gap between
                                                                             the countries‘ emissions reduction targets and the global
Investments in renewable energies continue to dominate                       limit for temperature rise. This is not only a request to raise
the new investments in the energy system worldwide. At the                   the mitigation target, but also the level of climate financing and
same time coal use is declining. Last year the world consump-                innovative ways of cooperation, regarding technologies as well
tion of coal was 1.7% less than in 2015. Even though coal prices             as beyond technology. To find new ways of cooperation, it is
have fallen, coal production already peaked in 2013 globally5                equally important for countries to deliver on their promises and
and among the world‘s largest emitters, China, the USA, as well              adopt sufficient legislation domestically. As Paris has requested
as in the EU. In 2015, almost all countries included in the index            and G19 has promised, countries should put forward their plans
maintained double-digit growth rates in renewable energy and                 for moving towards greenhouse gas neutrality until 2050.
we see solar and wind technologies being more competitive
from year to year. While growth rates of renewables have been                The design of the Climate Change Performance Index (CCPI)
particularly strong in industrialised countries in the past, emerg-          has now been changed, taking into account the new reality after
ing economies are playing an increasingly crucial role in the                adopting the Paris Agreement. It is now suited to measure the
global energy transition. China is leading the upsurge in renew-             progress of countries towards contributing to the temperature
able energy, but Middle Eastern, North African and Central and               limit the global community agreed to in Paris.
South American countries are also expected to increase their
installed capacity drastically by 2018. 51% of global capacity               It is also important to note that data show none of the 56 coun-
in wind energy and 53% in solar6 energy is already installed in              tries or the EU on a well-below-2°C pathway in their overall per-
emerging economies, indicating the potential of leapfrogging a               formance, while there are some initial indications that this might
fossil-fuel-based industrialisation.                                         change for a few countries during the next years. Countries have
                                                                             to prove consistency in implementing necessary policies
Shrinking costs for renewable energies (wind and solar) is also              to reach national mitigation targets and raise ambition in
an opportunity to more rapidly phasing out fossil fuels in the               adapting their targets to what would be well-below-2°C or
order of magnitude that is necessary to meet the well-below-2°C              1.5°C compatible.

3. About the CCPI
The Climate Change Performance Index (CCPI) is an instrument                 On the basis of standardised criteria, the index evaluates and
designed to enhance transparency in international climate poli-              compares the climate protection performance of 56 countries
tics. Its aim is to put political and social pressure on those coun-         and the EU, which are together responsible for more than 90
tries which have, up until now, failed to take ambitious action on           percent of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions.
climate protection. It also aims to highlight those countries with
best practice climate policies.                                              1 UNEP (2017)                                4 REN21 (2017)
                                                                             2 UNEP (2017)                                5 BP (2017)
                                                                             3 http://www.globalcarbonproject.org/        6 Financial Times (2017)

                                                                         8
Results 2018 - CCPI Climate Change Performance Index
CCPI • Results 2018                                                                                         Germanwatch, NewClimate Institute & Climate Action Network

In 2017 the design of the CCPI was revised, due to recent global                       egories GHG Emissions, Renewable Energy and Energy Use are
climate policy developments in the last years. One of the major                        defined by four indicators each (recent developments, current
events that marked a milestone in the international climate                            levels and 2°C compatibility of the current performance as well
negotiations was the entry into force of the Paris Agreement.                          as an evaluation of the countries’ 2030 targets in the respective
For the first time, it is possible to measure the performance of                       categories). With these complements, the CCPI covers the evalu-
states based on the promises they themselves formulated in                             ation of the countries promises as well as their current progress
their Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs). So far 169 7                         in terms of climate protection.
Parties have ratified the Paris Agreement and promised to com-
bat dangerous climate change in limiting global temperature                            For the pathways, we set three ambitious targets that are es-
rise to well-below-2°C or even 1.5° C.                                                 sential to stay well below 2°C, which have to be reached until
                                                                                       2050: nearly zero GHG emissions (taking into account country-
The CCPI aims to capture the fulfillment of those promises                             specific pathways, which give developing countries a bit more
and evaluates the countries’ 2030 targets within the impor-                            time to reach this goal), a share of 100% energy from renewable
tant categories greenhouse gas emissions, renewable energy                             sources, and remaining at today’s global energy use per capita
and energy use to determine, how well they are on track to a                           levels. The CCPI compares where countries actually are and
well-below-2°C pathway. The CCPI now also reflects countries’                          where they need to be, to meet these ambitious and necessary
current performances towards this pathway in absolute terms,                           benchmarks. Following a similar logic, the CCPI evaluates the
in addition to the remaining relative indicators measuring the                         countries’ own 2030 targets in comparing them to the same
current level and past trends in all three categories. 40% of the                      benchmarks.
evaluation is based on indicators of emissions, 20% on renew-
able energies and 20% on energy use. The remaining 20% of                              Still, more than half of the CCPI ranking indicators are qualified
the CCPI evaluation is based on climate policy assessments                             in relative terms (better–worse) rather than absolute. Therefore,
by experts from the respective countries. Besides changes in                           even those countries with high rankings have no reason to sit
the weighting and smaller modifications within the calculation                         back and relax. On the contrary, the results illustrate that even
method, the addition of indicators, which measure the progress                         if all countries were as involved as the current front runners,
of countries on their way not to overshoot the well-below-2°C                          efforts would not yet be sufficient to prevent dangerous climate
limit, are the major changes in the new design. The three cat-                         change.

    Components of the CCPI

                           International Climate Policy                                                         Current Levels of GHG Emissions
                                                                           10%               10%                per Capita

                       National Climate Policy                                                                            Past Emission Trends of
                                                              10%                                         10%             GHG Emissions per Capita
                                                                             20%
                                                                           Climate
           TPES/Capita 2030 Target                                          Policy
       compared to a well-below-2°C                                                          40%
                                                        5%                                   GHG
                                                                                                                               Current Levels of GHG
               compatible pathway                                                                                              Emissions compared to a
                                                                         20%               Emissions            10%            well-below-2°C compatible
     Current Levels of TPES/Capita                      5%              Energy                                                 pathway
     compared to a well-below-2°C                                        Use
              compatible pathway                                                    20%
                                                              5%                 Renewable
           Past Trends of TPES/Capita                                              Energy                 10%               GHG Emissions Reduction
                                                                                                                            2030 Target compared
               Current Levels of Energy Use
                                                                   5%                                                       to a well-below-2°C
                             (TPES/Capita)                                                                                  compatible pathway
                                                                         5%                      5%
                                                                                 5%      5%
                           Renewable Energy 2030Target                                                        Current Share of Renewables
                           compared to a well-below-2°C                                                       per TPES
                                   compatible pathway

                      Current Share of Renewables per TPES compared                                Development of Energy Supply from
                               to a well-below-2°C compatible pathway                              Renewable Energy Sources

GHG = Greenhouse Gases | TPES = Total Primary Energy Supply                                                                                          © Germanwatch 2017

7 11.11.2017

                                                                                   9
Results 2018 - CCPI Climate Change Performance Index
CCPI • Results 2018                                                                                           Germanwatch, NewClimate Institute & Climate Action Network

4. Overall Results CCPI 2018

                                                                                                                                                                           © Germanwatch 2017
This section shows the overall results of this year’s
Climate Change Performance Index 2018. The ranking
results of this category are defined by a country’s ag-
gregated performance regarding 14 indicators within
the four categories GHG Emissions, Renewable Energy,
Energy Use and Climate Policy.

The CCPI 2018 results illustrate the main regional differ-
ences in climate protection and perfor-mance within the
56 evaluated countries and the EU. Despite decreasing
                                                                © Germanwatch 2017

growth rates in CO2 emissions, still no country performed
well enough to reach the rating “very good” in this year’s
index.

The world map shows the aggregated results and overall
performance of countries. The table on the right indicates
how the countries perform in the different categories.
                                                                Rating
In this year’s index, Sweden is leading the list, followed by                             Very High
Lithuania and Morocco. The group of medium-perform-                                       High
ing countries consists of countries like Brazil, Germany,
                                                                                          Medium
Mexico and Ukraine while New Zealand, the Netherlands
and Austria are classified as low performers in the over­                                 Low
all rating.                                                                               Very Low
                                                                                          Not included in assessment
Saudi Arabia, Islamic Republic of Iran, Republic of Korea,
Australia and the United States form the bottom five of
this classification, scoring low or very low across almost
all categories.

                                                                                     10
CCPI • Results 2018                                                                                                           Germanwatch, NewClimate Institute & Climate Action Network

  Rank          Country                                Score**­

    1.*           –                                         –
    2.            –                                         –
    3.            –                                         –
    4.            Sweden                                 74.32
    5.            Lithuania                              69.20
    6.            Morocco                                68.22
    7.            Norway                                 67.99
    8.            United Kingdom                         66.79
    9.            Finland                                66.55
    10.           Latvia                                 63.02
    11.           Malta                                  61.87
    12.           Switzerland                            61.20
    13.           Croatia                                61.19
    14.           India                                  60.02
    15.           France                                 59.80
    16.           Italy                                  59.65
    17.           Denmark                                59.49
    18.           Portugal                               59.16
    19.           Brazil                                 57.86
    20.           Ukraine                                57.49
    21.           European Union (28)                    56.89
    22.           Germany                                56.58
    23.           Belarus                                56.38
    24.           Slovak Republic                        56.04
    25.           Luxembourg                             55.54
    26.           Romania                                55.32
    27.           Mexico                                 54.77
    28.           Egypt                                  54.02
    29.           Cyprus                                 52.29
    30.           Estonia                                52.02
    31.           Slovenia                               50.54
    32.           Belgium                                49.60
    33.           New Zealand                            49.57
    34.           Netherlands                            49.49
    35.           Austria                                49.49
    36.           Thailand                               49.07
    37.           Indonesia                              48.94
    38.           Spain                                  48.19
    39.           Greece                                 47.86
    40.           Poland                                 46.53
    41.           China                                  45.84
    42.           Bulgaria                               45.35
    43.           Czech Republic                         45.13
    44.           Hungary                                44.00
    45.           Algeria                                43.61
    46.           Argentina                              41.21
    47.           Turkey                                 41.02
    48.           South Africa                           40.61
    49.           Ireland                                38.74                                                                             Index Categories
    50.           Japan                                  35.76                                                                                         GHG Emissions
    51.           Canada                                 33.98                                                                                         (40% weighting)
    52.           Malaysia                               32.61                                                                                         Renewable Energy
    53.           Russian Federation                     29.85                                                                                         (20% weighting)
    54.           Chinese Taipei                         29.43                                                                                         Energy Use
    55.           Kazakhstan                             28.17                                                                                         (20% weighting)
    56.           United States                          25.86
                                                                                                                                                       Climate Policy
    57.           Australia                              25.03                                                                                         (20% weighting)
    58.           Republic of Korea                      25.01
    59.           Islamic Republic of Iran               23.05
    60.           Saudi Arabia                           11.20
* None of the countries achieved positions one to three. No country is doing enough to prevent dangerous climate change. ** rounded                                 © Germanwatch 2017

                                                                                            11
CCPI • Results 2018                                                                                                                           Germanwatch, NewClimate Institute & Climate Action Network

4.1 Partial Results – GHG* Emissions

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            © Germanwatch 2017
   Rating
                Very High
                High
                Medium
                Low
                Very Low
                Not included
                in assessment

The sub-ranking results of the index category “GHG
Emissions” are defined by a country’s aggregated per-
formance regarding four indicators, each reflecting a
                                                            © Germanwatch 2017

different dimension and aspect of how well the coun-
try is doing in terms of GHG emissions.

The evaluation looks at (1) the current levels of per
capita GHG emissions; (2) the developments in GHG
emissions in the last five years in absolute terms,
(3) the current level of per capita GHG emissions com-
pared to a country specific well-below-2°C pathway          Emissions per capita (tCO2-eq/capita, incl. LULUCF**), historic
and (4) the country’s own 2030 emissions reduction          values and 2°C compatibility of current level and 2030 target
target compared to its well-below-2°C pathway.              30

The world map shows the aggregated results and
overall performance of countries in the category “GHG       25
Emissions”. The table provides more detailed informa-
tion on the top CO2-emitting countries‘ performance         20
with regard to the different indicators defining the cat-
egory. The graph on the bottom indicates how emis-
sions developed from 1990 until 2015 and visualises         15

the 2°C compatibility of both a country’s recent trend
and its 2030 target.                                        10

Considering emissions from LULUCF** in the new in-
dex design, Sweden is the best performing country                 5
regarding GHG emissions, followed by Finland, Egypt
and Croatia, while the Islamic Republic of the Islamic            0
Republic of Iran, Republic of Korea and Saudi Arabia
                                                                                  2030 target & 2°C pathway

                                                                                                              2030 target & 2°C pathway

                                                                                                                                          2030 target & 2°C pathway

                                                                                                                                                                      2030 target & 2°C pathway

                                                                                                                                                                                                  2030 target & 2°C pathway

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2030 target & 2°C pathway

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2030 target & 2°C pathway
                                                                                                       1990
                                                                                                       2015

                                                                                                                                   1990
                                                                                                                                   2015

                                                                                                                                                               1990
                                                                                                                                                               2015

                                                                                                                                                                                           1990
                                                                                                                                                                                           2015

                                                                                                                                                                                                                       1990
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       2015

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   1990
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   2015

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               1990
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               2015

perform very low in every indicator of this category
and build the bottom three. Generally, mitigation tar-
gets for 2030 are too low and not on track for a path-
way towards well below 2°C or even 1.5°C warming.

* Greenhouse Gas Emissions
** Land Use, Land-Use Change and Forestry                                        Argentina                    Australia                       Brazil                   Canada                         China                     France                    Germany

                                                                                 12
CCPI • Results 2018                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Germanwatch, NewClimate Institute & Climate Action Network

                            Greenhouse Gas Emissions – Rating Table for the 20 Largest CO2 Emitters*

                            Rank                    Country                                                           Total                           Current Status                                             Recent Emission                                            Current Levels                                             GHG Emissions
                                                                                                                      Rating                          of GHG Emissions                                           Trends of GHG                                              of GHG Emissions                                           Reduction Target
                                                                                                                                                      per Capita                                                 Emissions per                                              compared to a                                              compared to a
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Capita                                                     well-below-2°C                                             well-below-2°C
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            compatible                                                 compatible
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            pathway                                                    pathway

                            9.                      United Kingdom                                                    High                                                 Medium                                                         High                                                   Medium                                                       Medium

                            14.                     India                                                             High                                                Very High                                                  Very low                                                   Very High                                                         High

                            21.                     Brazil                                                            Medium                                               Medium                                                    Very low                                                         High                                                    Medium

                            26.                     Mexico                                                            Medium                                                   High                                                       Low                                                    Medium                                                           Low

                            27.                     France                                                            Medium                                               Medium                                                         High                                                        Low                                                         Low

                            29.                     European Union (28)                                               Medium                                               Medium                                                         High                                                        Low                                                         Low

                            39.                     Indonesia                                                         Low                                                      Low                                                   Very low                                                    Medium                                                           High

                            40.                     Germany                                                           Low                                                      Low                                                    Medium                                                          Low                                                         Low

                            45.                     Turkey                                                            Low                                                      High                                                  Very low                                                         High                                                    Very low

                            46.                     Argentina                                                         Very low                                                 Low                                                        Low                                                    Very low                                                     Very low

                            48.                     Japan                                                             Very low                                                 Low                                                        Low                                                    Very low                                                     Very low

                            49.                     South Africa                                                      Very low                                                 Low                                                        Low                                                    Very low                                                     Very low

                            50.                     Russian Federation                                                Very low                                             Very low                                                       Low                                                    Medium                                                       Very low

                            52.                     China                                                             Very low                                             Medium                                                    Very low                                                         Low                                                     Very low

                            53.                     United States                                                     Very low                                             Very low                                                   Medium                                                     Very low                                                     Very low

                            55.                     Canada                                                            Very low                                             Very low                                                       Low                                                    Very low                                                     Very low

                            57.                     Australia                                                         Very low                                             Very low                                                   Medium                                                     Very low                                                     Very low

                            58.                     Islamic Republic of Iran                                          Very low                                                 Low                                                   Very low                                                    Very low                                                     Very low

                            59.                     Republic of Korea                                                 Very low                                             Very low                                                  Very low                                                    Very low                                                     Very low

                            60.                     Saudi Arabia                                                      Very low                                             Very low                                                  Very low                                                    Very low                                                     Very low

                    * The ratings for all 56 countries and the EU can be found here: www.climate-change-performance-index.org                                                                                                                                                                                                                          © Germanwatch 2017

                                  Historic emissions per capita
                                  Well-below-2°C pathway
                                  2030 target below
                                  well-below-2°C pathway
                                  2030 target above
                                  well-below-2°C pathway
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      no target
2030 target & 2°C pathway

                                 2030 target & 2°C pathway

                                                              2030 target & 2°C pathway

                                                                                          2030 target & 2°C pathway

                                                                                                                       2030 target & 2°C pathway
                     1990
                     2015

                                                      1990
                                                      2015

                                                                                   1990
                                                                                   2015

                                                                                                               1990
                                                                                                               2015

                                                                                                                                            1990
                                                                                                                                            2015

                                                                                                                                                                        1990
                                                                                                                                                              Emissions 2015
                                                                                                                                                   2030 target & 2°C pathway

                                                                                                                                                                                                       1990
                                                                                                                                                                                             Emissions 2015
                                                                                                                                                                                  2030 target & 2°C pathway

                                                                                                                                                                                                              2030 target & 2°C pathway

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             2030 target & 2°C pathway

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2030 target & 2°C pathway

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         2030 target & 2°C pathway

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     2030 target & 2°C pathway

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     2030 target & 2°C pathway
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   1990
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   2015

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1990
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2015

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               1990
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               2015

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1990
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2015

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1990
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2015

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1990
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2015

     India                       Indonesia                     Islamic                       Japan                     Republic                      Mexico                      Russian                         Saudi                           South                       Turkey                       United                       United                       European
                                                             Rep. of Iran                                              of Korea                                                 Federation                       Arabia                          Africa                                                  Kingdom                       States                       Union (28)

                                                                                                                                                                                                       13
CCPI • Results 2018                                                                                                                                 Germanwatch, NewClimate Institute & Climate Action Network

4.2 Partial Results – Renewable Energy

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       © Germanwatch 2017
   Rating
                Very High
                High
                Medium
                Low
                Very Low
                Not included
                in assessment

The sub-ranking results of the index category “Renew­
able Energy” are defined by a country’s aggregated per-
formance regarding four indicators, each reflecting a dif-
                                                                © Germanwatch 2017

ferent dimension and aspect of how well the country is
doing in terms of renewable energy.

The evaluation looks at (1) current levels of the share
of renewable energy in total primary energy supply;
(2) developments of renewable energy in the last five
years in absolute terms; (3) current levels of the share of
renewable energy in total primary energy supply com-           Renewable Energy target (% of TPES*), historic values and
pared to a country-specific pathway that is in line with       2°C compatibility benchmarks
the well-below-2°C temperature limit; (4) the countries’
                                                               100%
own 2030 renewable energy targets compared its well-
below-2°C pathway.                                             90%

                                                               80%
The world map shows the aggregated results and overall
performance of countries in the category “Renewable            70%
Energy”. The table provides more detailed information
                                                               60%
on the top CO2-emitting countries’ performance with
regard to the different indicators defining the category.      50%
The graph on the bottom indicates how renewable en-
                                                               40%
ergy developed from 2010 until 2015 and visualises the
2°C compatibility of both a country´s current level and        30%
2030 target.                                                   20%

Since the energy sector contributes greatly to the CO2         10%
emissions of a country, renewable energies are a key                0%
driver for mitigating emissions. Traditionally, relatively
                                                                                      2030 target & 2°C pathway

                                                                                                                   2030 target & 2°C pathway

                                                                                                                                                2030 target & 2°C pathway

                                                                                                                                                                             2030 target & 2°C pathway

                                                                                                                                                                                                          2030 target & 2°C pathway

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       2030 target & 2°C pathway

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2030 target & 2°C pathway
                                                                                                            2010
                                                                                                           2015

                                                                                                                                         2010
                                                                                                                                        2015

                                                                                                                                                                      2010
                                                                                                                                                                     2015

                                                                                                                                                                                                   2010
                                                                                                                                                                                                  2015

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2010
                                                                                                                                                                                                                               2015

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             2010
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2015

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2010
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         2015

well performing countries in this category are the ones
with a high share of renewables, such as Denmark,
Norway, Sweden, Austria, New Zealand, Latvia, and
Germany, for instance. This year, Latvia is top of the list,
followed by New Zealand. The group of very poorly per-
forming countries includes Mexico, Malaysia, Egypt, the
Russian Federation, Saudi Arabia, Algeria, and the Islamic                           Argentina                     Australia                        Brazil                    Canada                          China                       France                    Germany
Republic of Iran.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       * Total Primary Energy Supply
                                                                                     14
CCPI • Results 2018                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Germanwatch, NewClimate Institute & Climate Action Network

                             Renewable Energy – Rating Table for the 20 Largest CO2 Emitters*

                             Rank                      Country                                                             Total                            Current Share                                               Development of                                                Current Share of                                           Renewable
                                                                                                                           Rating                           of Renewables                                               Energy Supply                                                 Renewables per                                             Energy 2030
                                                                                                                                                            per TPES                                                    from Renewable                                                TPES compared to                                           Target compared
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Energy Sources                                                a well-below-2°C                                           to a well-below-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      compatible                                                 2°C compatible
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      pathway                                                    pathway

                             12.                       United Kingdom                                                      High                                                  Medium                                                     Very High                                                      Medium                                                      Medium

                             13.                       Brazil                                                              High                                                 Very High                                                     Medium                                                       Medium                                                      Medium

                             14.                       Turkey                                                              High                                                  Medium                                                     Very High                                                      Medium                                                           Low

                             15.                       Germany                                                             High                                                      High                                                         High                                                     Medium                                                      Medium

                             22.                       European Union (28)                                                 Medium                                                    High                                                         High                                                     Medium                                                           Low

                             24.                       China                                                               Medium                                                    Low                                                    Very High                                                           Low                                                    Very Low

                             30.                       Republic of Korea                                                   Medium                                               Very Low                                                    Very High                                                      Very Low                                                    Very Low

                             34.                       France                                                              Medium                                                    Low                                                          High                                                          Low                                                    Medium

                             36.                       Indonesia                                                           Medium                                                    High                                                     Medium                                                            Low                                                         Low

                             39.                       Canada                                                              Medium                                                    High                                                         High                                                          Low                                                    Very Low

                             42.                       India                                                               Low                                                   Medium                                                           High                                                     Very Low                                                    Very Low

                             44.                       United States                                                       Low                                                       Low                                                          High                                                          Low                                                    Very Low

                             45.                       Japan                                                               Low                                                       Low                                                          High                                                          Low                                                    Very Low

                             47.                       Argentina                                                           Low                                                   Medium                                                           High                                                     Very Low                                                    Very Low

                             49.                       Australia                                                           Low                                                       Low                                                          High                                                          Low                                                    Very Low

                             51.                       South Africa                                                        Low                                                       Low                                                      Medium                                                            Low                                                    Very Low

                             54.                       Mexico                                                              Very Low                                                  Low                                                      Medium                                                       Very Low                                                    Very Low

                             57.                       Russian Federation                                                  Very Low                                             Very Low                                                     Very Low                                                      Very Low                                                    Very Low

                             58.                       Saudi Arabia                                                        Very Low                                             Very Low                                                     Very Low                                                      Very Low                                                    Very Low

                             60.                       Islamic Republic of Iran                                            Very Low                                             Very Low                                                     Very Low                                                      Very Low                                                    Very Low

                    * The ratings for all 56 countries and the EU can be found here: www.climate-change-performance-index.org                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     © Germanwatch 2017

                                   Historic share of Renewable
                                   Energy in TPES
                                   Well-below-2°C pathway
                                   2030 target of share of Renewable
                                   Energy per TPES
                                   Gap from 2030 target to
                                   well-below-2°C pathway
2030 target & 2°C pathway

                                   2030 target & 2°C pathway

                                                                 2030 target & 2°C pathway

                                                                                              2030 target & 2°C pathway

                                                                                                                            2030 target & 2°C pathway
                      2010
                     2015

                                                         2010
                                                        2015

                                                                                       2010
                                                                                      2015

                                                                                                                    2010
                                                                                                                   2015

                                                                                                                                                  2010
                                                                                                                                                 2015

                                                                                                                                                                              1990
                                                                                                                                                                    Emissions 2015
                                                                                                                                                         2030 target & 2°C pathway

                                                                                                                                                                                        2030 target & 2°C pathway

                                                                                                                                                                                                                     2030 target & 2°C pathway

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     2030 target & 2°C pathway

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   2030 target & 2°C pathway

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2030 target & 2°C pathway

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               2030 target & 2°C pathway

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2030 target & 2°C pathway
                                                                                                                                                                                                              2010
                                                                                                                                                                                                             2015

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           2010
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2015

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           2010
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2015

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         2010
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2015

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2010
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       2015

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     2010
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2015

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    2010
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   2015

     India                     Indonesia                          Islamic                        Japan                      Republic                       Mexico                      Russian                          Saudi                            South                        Turkey                       United                         United                     European
                                                                Rep. of Iran                                                of Korea                                                  Federation                        Arabia                           Africa                                                   Kingdom                         States                     Union (28)

                                                                                                                                                                                                              15
CCPI • Results 2018                                                                                                                              Germanwatch, NewClimate Institute & Climate Action Network

4.3 Partial Results – Energy Use

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               © Germanwatch 2017
   Rating
                Very High
                High
                Medium
                Low
                Very Low
                Not included
                in assessment

The sub-ranking results of the index category “Energy
Use” are defined by a country’s aggregated performance
regarding four indicators, each reflecting a different di-
                                                               © Germanwatch 2017

mension and aspect of how well the country is doing in
terms of energy use.

The evaluation looks at (1) current levels of per capita
energy use; (2) developments of per-capita energy use
in the last five years in absolute terms; (3) current levels
of per capita energy use compared to a country-specific
pathway that is in line with the well-below-2°C tempera-       Total Primary Energy Supply per capita (GJ/capita), historic
ture limit; (4) the countries’ own 2030 energy use targets     values, targets and 2°C compatible benchmarks
compared its well-below-2°C pathway.
                                                               450
The world map shows the aggregated results and overall
                                                               400
performance of countries in the category “Energy Use”.
The table provides more detailed information on the top        350
CO2-emitting countries‘ performance with regard to the
                                                               300
different indicators defining the category. The graph on
the bottom indicates how energy use per capita devel-          250
oped from 1990 until 2015 and visualises the 2°C compat-
ibility of both a country’s current level and 2030 target.     200

                                                               150
Ukraine, Malta, Morocco as well as Romania are the front-
runners in the Energy Use section, mostly due to low           100
current levels of energy use and relatively good ratings
regarding a 2°C compatible pathway in this category.               50
New Zealand, Islamic Republic of Iran, Canada, Republic
                                                                            0
of Korea and Saudi Arabia are this year’s worst-perform-
                                                                                     2030 target & 2°C pathway

                                                                                                                 2030 target & 2°C pathway

                                                                                                                                             2030 target & 2°C pathway

                                                                                                                                                                         2030 target & 2°C pathway

                                                                                                                                                                                                     2030 target & 2°C pathway

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 2030 target & 2°C pathway

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             2030 target & 2°C pathway
                                                                                                          1990
                                                                                                          2015

                                                                                                                                      1990
                                                                                                                                      2015

                                                                                                                                                                  1990
                                                                                                                                                                  2015

                                                                                                                                                                                              1990
                                                                                                                                                                                              2015

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          1990
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1990
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2015

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1990
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2015

ing countries, scoring low or very low across nearly all
indicators. While emerging economies tend to perform
decently in this category, Algeria, Turkey, India and China
have been rapidly increasing their energy use in the last
few years.

                                                                                    Argentina                    Australia                       Brazil                   Canada                         China                     France                    Germany

                                                                                    16
CCPI • Results 2018                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Germanwatch, NewClimate Institute & Climate Action Network

                            Energy Use – Rating Table for the 20 Largest CO2 Emitters*

                            Rank                 Country                                                           Total                           Current Status                                             Recent Trends                                               Current Levels                                            TPES/Capita 2030
                                                                                                                   Rating                          of Energy Use                                              of TPES/Capita                                              of TPES/Capita                                            Target compared
                                                                                                                                                   (TPES**/Capita)                                                                                                        compared to a                                             to a well-below-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          well-below-2°C                                            2°C compatible
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          compatible                                                pathway
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          pathway

                            11.                  India                                                             High                                                Very High                                                  Very Low                                                    Very High                                                       High

                            18.                  United Kingdom                                                    Medium                                               Medium                                                         High                                                    Medium                                                         Low

                            19.                  Indonesia                                                         Medium                                              Very High                                                       Low                                                    Very High                                                       Low

                            25.                  Brazil                                                            Medium                                              Very High                                                  Very Low                                                          Low                                                       High

                            27.                  Mexico                                                            Medium                                                   High                                                       Low                                                     Medium                                                    Very Low

                            29.                  South Africa                                                      Medium                                               Medium                                                     Medium                                                      Very Low                                                       Low

                            30.                  Japan                                                             Medium                                                   Low                                                        High                                                    Very Low                                                  Very Low

                            31.                  European Union (28)                                               Medium                                                   Low                                                    Medium                                                           Low                                                       Low

                            35.                  Germany                                                           Low                                                      Low                                                    Medium                                                           Low                                                  Medium

                            36.                  France                                                            Low                                                      Low                                                    Medium                                                      Very Low                                                  Medium

                            39.                  Argentina                                                         Low                                                      High                                                       Low                                                     Very Low                                                       Low

                            42.                  Turkey                                                            Low                                                      High                                                  Very Low                                                     Very Low                                                       High

                            46.                  Russian Federation                                                Low                                                 Very Low                                                        Low                                                          Low                                                  Medium

                            51.                  Australia                                                         Very Low                                            Very Low                                                    Medium                                                      Very Low                                                  Very Low

                            52.                  China                                                             Very Low                                                 High                                                  Very Low                                                     Very Low                                                  Very Low

                            54.                  United States                                                     Very Low                                            Very Low                                                    Medium                                                      Very Low                                                  Very Low

                            57.                  Islamic Republic of Iran                                          Very Low                                             Medium                                                    Very Low                                                     Very Low                                                  Very Low

                            58.                  Canada                                                            Very Low                                            Very Low                                                        Low                                                     Very Low                                                  Very Low

                            59.                  Republic of Korea                                                 Very Low                                            Very Low                                                        Low                                                     Very Low                                                  Very Low

                            60.                  Saudi Arabia                                                      Very Low                                            Very Low                                                   Very Low                                                     Very Low                                                  Very Low

                    * The ratings for all 56 countries and the EU can be found here: www.climate-change-performance-index.org                                                                                                                                         ** Total Primary Energy Supply                                                © Germanwatch 2017

                                  Historic Energy Use per capita
                                  Well-below-2°C pathway
                                  2030 target below
                                  well-below-2°C pathway
                                  2030 target above
                                  well-below-2°C pathway
2030 target & 2°C pathway

                              2030 target & 2°C pathway

                                                           2030 target & 2°C pathway

                                                                                       2030 target & 2°C pathway

                                                                                                                    2030 target & 2°C pathway

                                                                                                                                                2030 target & 2°C pathway

                                                                                                                                                                               2030 target & 2°C pathway

                                                                                                                                                                                                           2030 target & 2°C pathway

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2030 target & 2°C pathway

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2030 target & 2°C pathway

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2030 target & 2°C pathway

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2030 target & 2°C pathway

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 2030 target & 2°C pathway
                     1990
                     2015

                                                   1990
                                                   2015

                                                                                1990
                                                                                2015

                                                                                                            1990
                                                                                                            2015

                                                                                                                                         1990
                                                                                                                                         2015

                                                                                                                                                                     1990
                                                                                                                                                                     2015

                                                                                                                                                                                                    1990
                                                                                                                                                                                                    2015

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1990
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2015

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               1990
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               2015

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             1990
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             2015

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           1990
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           2015

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       1990
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       2015

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1990
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2015

     India                    Indonesia                     Islamic                       Japan                     Republic                      Mexico                      Russian                         Saudi                           South                        Turkey                      United                       United                      European
                                                          Rep. of Iran                                              of Korea                                                 Federation                       Arabia                          Africa                                                  Kingdom                       States                      Union (28)

                                                                                                                                                                                                    17
CCPI • Results 2018                                                                                        Germanwatch, NewClimate Institute & Climate Action Network

4.4 Partial Results – Climate Policy

                                                                                                                                                                        © Germanwatch 2017
With the index category “Climate Policy”, we consider
the fact that measures taken by governments to reduce
GHG often take several years to show their effect on the
emissions, renewable energy and energy use indicators.
On top of this, the most current GHG emissions data
provided by PRIMAP and the IEA is about two years old.
However, the assessment of climate policy includes very
recent developments. The effect that current govern-
ments benefit or suffer from the consequences of the
preceding administration’s climate actions is thereby
                                                             © Germanwatch 2017

reduced.

The qualitative data of the indicators in the field of
“Climate Policy” is assessed annually in a comprehen-
sive research study. Its basis is the performance rating
by about 300 climate change experts from civil society
within the countries that are evaluated. By means of a
questionnaire, they give a judgement and rating on the       Rating
most important policies and concrete measures of their                                 Very High
governments as well as its implementation status and
effects on the country’s decarbonisation progress.                                     High
                                                                                       Medium
The policy category of the CCPI is led by Morocco, China,
                                                                                       Low
France and Portugal who all score high regarding na-
tional and international climate policy, while Hungary,                                Very Low
Bulgaria, the United States and Turkey form the group                                  Not included in assessment
of the worst-performing countries not only lacking cli-
mate-friendly legislation at home, but also often hinder-
ing progress in international negotiations. It is notewor-
thy that many countries, including Canada, Germany,
Argentina and South Africa, for example, are performing
relatively well on the international stage, yet seem to
be failing to deliver on sufficiently implementing policy
measures at the national level.

                                                                                  18
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